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PROJECT REPORT

OF
MONITORING AND EVALUATION

SUBMITTED BY
JABRAN KHAN (MPM 153011)
MATEEN U ZAMAN (MPM153009)
AYESHA JANNAT (MPM153007)

SUBMITTED TO
SIR NASIR RASOOL

Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................ 4
PROBLEM ANALYSES................................................................................................... 5
Lack of infrastructure to maintain the purity of water.............................................5
Wastewater dumping directly into the river............................................................6
Solid waste dumping into the river..........................................................................6
Problem tree............................................................................................................... 8
OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS................................................................................................... 9
4.1.

Increased infrastructure for maintaining water purity...................................9

Objective tree........................................................................................................... 11
LOGFRAME MATRIX................................................................................................... 12
Overall Objective...................................................................................................... 12
Log farm analysis.................................................................................................. 15
Monitoring and Evaluation plan................................................................................18

Introduction
Water is an essential element for our survival. Unfortunately, while Pakistan is blessed with
adequate surface and groundwater resources, rapid population growth, urbanization and
unsustainable water consumption practices have placed immense stress on the quality as well as
the quantity of water resources in the country. Deterioration in water quality and contamination
of lakes, rivers and groundwater aquifers has resulted in increased waterborne diseases and other
health impacts. Pakistan is already one of the most water-stressed countries in the world, a
situation which is going to degrade into outright water scarcity (WB).
In this study we target Karachi which is the largest and most populous metropolitan city in
Pakistan, the 7th in the world, and is the capital of Sindh province of Pakistan. The rivers in
Karachi are Malir River and Lyari River. In Pakistan, only 1% of wastewater is treated by
industries before being discharged directly into rivers and drains. A national water quality study
was carried out by the Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) in 2001, the
study indicated how the uncontrolled discharge of industrial effluent has affected surface and
groundwater, identifying the presence of lead, chromium and cyanide in groundwater samples
from industrial areas of Karachi, and finding the same metals in the Malir and Lyari rivers
flowing through Karachi and discharging into the sea. Water borne diseases stemming from
inadequate water quality of deteriorating rivers rank among the most urgent challenges in
Karachi. This particular problem of the largest city is also related to the Millennium
Development Goals (MDG) that deal with reducing child mortality rates , improving maternal
health , combating with diseases and ensuring environmental sustainability. With its roughly 30
million populations it is the most crowded city as well. Due to low service quality problems
water supply, sanitation and pollution in the river, serious amount of the households who live
around the river and face with the threats of the water borne diseases every day. Deterioration in
the river ecosystem is posing another threat to the families that are dependent on the fishing
activities because of the decline in the fish stock in the river
As MIDE (masters in international & development economies) Consulting Group, we aim to
increase the quality of the River in Karachi, Pakistan and consequently to reduce mortality rates
by decreasing number of water borne diseases. In order to meet sufficient water quality criteria in
the selected river within project area, several attempts to include community members to be

more sensitive about the threats of solid waste and wastewater dumping are required besides
stringent pollution control of the governmental institutions.
This project proposal includes details of the main approach of MIDE Consulting Group to
increase the level of education and awareness about the threats of solid waste Dumping and its
direct effects on water borne diseases in Karachi, with the cooperation of the local and
international stakeholders. The Duration of the project is estimated to be 12 months. For this
purpose problem analysis, objective tree, log frame analysis, Monitoring and evaluation plane.
Appraisal of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impacts and sustainability analysis has been
developed and explained in the following sections of this project proposal.

PROBLEM ANALYSES
There is a strong tie between the river quality deterioration and water borne diseases in the
selected region. High incidence of the water borne diseases means having higher Mortality rates
which is a very dangerous problem.
The second important problem stems from the deterioration in the quality River and therefore the
deterioration of the river ecosystem. This problem is a direct reason of the decline in the fish
stock, meaning a decrease in the income of fishermen in the region.
MIDE Consulting Groups Project in Karachi aims to solve the problem of the water.
Deterioration in the Malir and Lyari rivers and therefore we identify this Problem as the core
problem. From this point on, our main focus will be to improve river water quality. River will be
on the particular focus of the project proposal. MIDE Group defines the reasons of deterioration
in the river water quality respectively under the following three major causes such as solid waste
and wastewater dumped into river and lack of infrastructure to maintain water purity.

Lack of infrastructure to maintain the purity of water


It is a common problem for those cases in that there are businesses and households without
access to the sewage network due to the low rate of investment and lack of political interest.
Political interest and infrastructure shows a dependence on local administration influence.
There have been serious attempts to increase the sewage network in the Honduras, especially in
Karachi in the last years, however current infrastructure is still not sufficient to maintain water
purity.

2.1.1 Low investments in infrastructure are basically the core problems underneath the lack of
infrastructure to maintain water purity in the rural areas of Sind.
2.1.2 Limited number of households and businesses are connected to sewage network is a direct
result of having lack of investments in infrastructure. This problem is obviously visible in the
populated area near the rivers.

Wastewater dumping directly into the river


This problem comes from the low interest in politics to the environmental problems, which
consequently lead to the wrong values of law. Inadequate legal regulations that is how we
called the cause of wastewater dumping.
2.2.1 Low political interest effect both administration as well as the environmental law. The
second linkage comes to the reason why households living around the river line are allowed to
dump wastewater and pollute the river water. It simply means that there is not sufficient
legislations against polluters and, thus, no real dissuasive force to them to become
environmentally friendly. At this point it must be mentioned that this problem is interacting with
the problem that is stated as low investments in infrastructure. This link can be observed on the
problem analysis table.

Solid waste dumping into the river


This problem could be defined as a final placement of refuse that is not salvaged or recycled. The
first cause level starts with such problem as Lack of education and information. It comes further
to either Corruption or Lack of Public Awareness. The last problem is a direct line towards the
lack of knowledge that makes society feel itself unreceptive to the environment. However, the
corruption, known as the abuse of public power, leads to insufficient control on polluters
2.3.1 Lack of education and information comes to the point that households together with
businesses are not familiar with the consequences of solid waste dumping directly to the river.
They refuse to change their behavior because of lack technical & practical information of the
long term threats and negative externalities of their activities. This problem has been observed in
many cases around the river line of the Choluteca River in the rural areas of Tegucigalpa
especially among the poor households.

2.3.2 Lack of public awareness is a direct result of lack of education and information that is
identified and discussed above. Insufficient educational background of how to use water in a
proper way of water consumers. The effective way of water usage in daily life activities of
households and businesses is needed to be maintained by not only infrastructure of water
canalization, but also by teaching how not to pollute before this sanitation problem turns to a
disaster.
2.3.3 Corruption is an important local figure that directly effects the seriousness and deterrence
of the control on polluters that are dumping solid waste directly to the river. It has also an
interaction with lack of education and hence education level. The higher education level is the
smaller is the size of the corruption on the controlling activities.
2.3.4 Insufficient control on polluters is a direct result of corruption which is identified and
discussed in detail above. Problem Tree that is developed with regard to the particular problems
in Karachi is as follows:

Problem tree

OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS
Objective analysis has the problem tree as a basis and tries to solve every identified Problem step
by step. Since we already identified the deterioration of water quality in the river as the core
problem behind the decline in fish stock in the river and water Borne diseases among people who
are living in the river line, our main objectives will be determined by taking these facts into
account.
Our main objective as Improving quality of water in the river in Karachi, and therefore decrease
the incidence of water borne diseases and reduce the mortality rates. On the other hand
achievement of the core objective will lead us to an improvement in the river ecosystem and
have an increase in the fish stock and hence an increase in the income of fishermen.
Three sub-objectives must be achieved to improve the river quality. Those are respectively
showed on the objective analysis respectively as reducing solid waste dumping into river,
reducing wastewater dumping directly into the river and increasing Infrastructure for maintaining
water purity.
4.1.

Increased infrastructure for maintaining water purity :

Increase in infrastructure for maintaining water purity is accomplished by two main


achievements. Those achievements are respectively explained below:
4.1.1 Higher investment in infrastructure. Governmental and private investments in the
wastewater treatment infrastructures are increases. Rise in the political interest and revision of
the business plans of the businesses had direct effects in the achievement.
4.1.2 Increased number of households and businesses connected to sewage network is a direct
result of the achievement that is higher investment in infrastructure.
4.2 Reduced wastewater dumping directly into the river:
A decline in the volume of wastewater directly dumped into the river could be achieved by two
efforts. Those efforts are respectively explained below:
4.2.1 Increased political interest in pollution

4.2.2 Establishment of new legal regulations is the direct result of the increased political
Interest in pollution.
4.3 Reduced solid waste dumping into river
A decline in the volume of wastewater directly dumped into the river could be achieved by two
efforts. Those efforts are respectively explained below:
4.3.1. Educational & informational programs are established, MIDE Consulting Group has
implemented two different programs. First one is a public awareness campaign among the
households. Second program is assisting municipalities in establishing new education
departments that are directly involved in giving education to the society about the environmental
and health issues that are also related with the threats of solid waste dumping. Details of these
programs will be explained in the upcoming parts of the project proposal.
4.3.2. Public awareness is increased the direct result of the successful establishment of the
educational and informational programs. Problem Analysis that is developed with regard to the
Problem tree in the second part of the project proposal is as follows:

Objective tree

LOGFRAME MATRIX
The Log Frame method is an instrument employed by analysts, planners and managers for
Problem analysis, objective formulation, planning, implementation, monitoring and
Evaluation of selected, objective-oriented interventions that aim at a change of reality from a
situation which is perceived as negative towards a positive situation (Metz, 2005). MIDE
Group is following a similar line with a 4 by 4 Log frame Matrix in specifying the overall
And specific objectives, planned outputs/results, key activities, assumptions/risks of the
Social awareness campaign regarding the threats of solid waste dumping in Honduras.
Detailed information regarding the elements of the Log frame Matrix is presented below.

Overall Objective
Water borne diseases stemming from inadequate water quality of deteriorating rivers rank among
the most urgent challenges in Karachi. This particular Problem of the largest pacific city is also
touching to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that deal with reducing child mortality
rates, improving maternal health, Combatting with diseases and ensuring environmental
sustainability.
As stated in the problem analysis section, there are several reasons behind the Deterioration of
the water quality in River at Karachi, Deterioration in the river water quality causes water borne
diseases. Regarding the main problem in the region and Millennium Development Goals, MIDE
Group objects Reduced number of water borne diseases and illnesses around Karachi as the
overall objective of this project proposal.
Main objectives outputs can be measured with major indicators during and after the
implementation of the project: Improved health indicators indicating water borne diseases and
illnesses among target group, reduced mortality rate and improved human development
indicators. MIDE Group aims to obtain the results of the mentioned indicators from government
statistics, specific surveys of ministry of health of Honduras in on water borne diseases,
UNDP Human Development Index and WHO Reports. MIDE group assumes that there will be
no epidemic outbreaks and no lack of political interest during the implementation period of the
project.

5.2 Specific Objective


To achieve the overall objective stated as Reduced number of water borne diseases and
Illnesses MIDE identifies Improved river quality by reducing the volume of dumped
Solid waste as the specific objective of the project proposal. MIDE Group aims to reduce the
volume of dumped solid waste into the Choluteca River. Indicators to measure the river quality
are classified under two main groups.
First Group is physical and chemical indicators. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, and
Alkalinity tests will aim to measure and evaluate ongoing projects effects in the river. Second
group of indicators is biological indicators which includes tests regarding the level of microbes,
algae and fish in the river. MIDE Group aims to obtain the results of above mentioned surveys
from government Statistics.MIDE Group assumes that institutions will cooperate and there will
be no major natural or industrial disaster during the implementation period of the project.
5.3 Planned Outputs / Results
MIDE Groups Project aims to achieve two major results to reach to the specific and overall
objectives. First result is Raised public awareness of the threat of water borne diseases posed by
solid waste dumping and the second result is: Increased public education and information
programs. These results are expected to reduce the volume of solid waste dumped into the river
and hence improve the river water quality. The final result of this chain will be reduced number
of water borne diseases.
Planned results can be measured by several indicators. Those indicators are respectively: Number
of people reached, attendance of target households to the workshop, No. /% of households using
municipal solid waste collection services, Viewership members of the campaign advertisements
on TV, numbers of education departments established within municipalities, number of
permanent staff educated.
MIDE Group is going to measure above mentioned planned results by project monitoring,
government and municipality and health surveys.
5.4 Key Activities
Key activities are the key steps towards the achievement of the planned results stated
Above. MIDE Group divides its project activities in two main parts. First part is to create
And implement a Public Awareness Campaign. The second part is assist municipalities

With creation of education departments. MIDE Group aims to raise the social awareness of the
threats of solid waste dumping into the river line with a Public awareness campaign and
therefore reduce the volume of solid waste dumped and reduce the number of water borne
diseases. On the other hand establishing new education departments within local municipalities
aims to have the sustainability and raise the effectiveness of the social awareness in the threats of
solid waste dumping. MIDE Group identifies its key activities in the project as in the following
order:
5.4.1 Public Awareness Campaign
Conduct a survey among households and form the target areas and target groups. This activity is
important to define the cause- effect relationships.
1. Develop training materials for educators.
2. Training the volunteer educators in line with the threats of the solid waste dumping and its
direct relation with the water borne diseases in the region is an important activity in MIDE
Consulting Groups Project.
3. Printing and distributing leaflets to the target households is another activity that are going to
be implemented at the same time with other educational activities during the project in the
region.
4. MIDE Consulting Group is going the organize workshops in the selected areas with the
cooperation of government, the local NGO APP and municipalities in order to raise the
awareness of the threats of the solid waste dumping to the river line.
5. In order to reach more people and sustain the long term stability, MIDE
Consulting Group is going to organize TV broadcasting campaign by an advertisements. MIDE
will be in charge for the development and management of the campaign. The local TV Channel
PTV will be used in order to accomplish this Aim.
4.4.2 Assist municipalities with creation of education departments
In order to establish new education departments within local municipalities that will be in charge
for giving education and information to the community Members it is very important to develop
and publish article of associations. MIDE Group will assist the municipalities in defining
institutional goals and ethics

1. In line with long term goals of the project and the administrative sensitivenesss in Honduran
local administration, MIDE Group will assist municipalities to constitute the organizational
charts of the new departments.
2. Education of the new personnel has a great importance for the success of the
Project. Therefore MIDE Group will be in charge in developing and printing
Training materials for permanently hired local personnel.
3. MIDE Group is going to give recruitment assistance to local municipalities in
Hiring Permanent Personnel.
4. MIDE Groups last task will be to manage the training of the hired personnel.
5.5 Assumptions / Risks
Before and during the project implementation that is based on the above mentioned
Objectives, results and activities, MIDE Consulting groups assumes that there wont be an
interruption because of some external factors. Main factors, that have significant
Importance is stated on the Log frame Matrix. MIDE Consulting Group assumptions are as in the
following: No epidemic outbreaks, no lack of political interest, cooperation of institutions, a
major industrial or natural disasters, cooperation of community members, no corruption, and
enough funding, suitable and adequate personnel.

Log frame analysis


Strategy
Overall Goal
Reduced number of water borne
diseases & illnesses

Indicators
Health Indicators indicate that
water borne diseases & illnesses
among target group have reduced
Mortality rate has decreased.
. Human Development indicators
have improved

Means of Verification

Assumptions / Risks

. Government Statistics
. Water borne diseases &
health statistics / surveys
. UNDP Human
Development Index

No lack of political interest

Objective/outcome
Improved river quality by

.Dissolved Oxygen

reducing the volume of dumped

.Temperature

solid waste

.Microbes

Water quality tests by


institutions

.Cooperation of institution
. No major industrial / natural
disaster

.Fish

Outputs/results:
1.1Raised public awareness of

. Number of people reached

.Project monitoring

the threat of water borne

. Attendance of target households

. Government statistics
& surveys

. Cooperation of Community members


No corruption
.No cultural conflicts & resistances

diseases posed by solid waste

to the workshops

dumping

No./% of households using


municipal solid waste
collections services
.Viewership ratings of
the
campaign
advertisements on TV
. Number of education
departments
established within
municipalities
. Number of permanent
staff educated at the
local municipalities

1. 2 Increased public
education and
information programs

. Municipality statistics
& surveys

. Rating surveys
Project monitoring
&
Government
statistics

Key activities:
Output 1
Public awareness campaign
1.1Conduct a survey among

Number of people effected


by water borne diseases.

Project monitoring

households and form the target


areas and target groups

Enough funding

1.2 Develop and print training


materials for educators.

Suitable & adequate personnel


2

Training materials

Municipalities, Govt.

Number of educators

3
4

Municipalities, Govt.
Municipalities, Govt.

Printed leaflets
5

Project monitoring

GOV, CH6

1.3 Train volunteer educators


1.4 Print leaflets and distribute
to target households
1.5 Workshops in the target
areas.
1.6 Organize an awareness
campaign by broadcasting TV
advertisements

Workshop materials,
Workshop attendances.
Viewership ratings of TV
advertisements

Key activities:
Output 2:
Assist municipalities with
creation of education
departments
2.1 Define institutional goals &

2.1 Article of associations of the


education departments

2.1 Municipalities

2.2 Article of associations of the


education departments

2.2Municipalities

ethics.
2.2 Constitute the
organizational chart.
2.3 Develop and print training

2.3 Printed training materials

materials
2.4 Number of permanent

2.3 Municipalities

2.4 Assist to hire local


personnel
2.5 Train hired local personnel

personnel hired

2.4 GOVT, Municipalities

2.5 Number of permanent


personal trained

2.5 GOVT, Municipalities

Monitoring and Evaluation plan


The principal reason for monitoring water quality has been, traditionally, the need to verify
whether the observed water quality is suitable for intended uses. However, monitoring has also
evolved to determine trends in the quality of the aquatic environment and how the environment
is affected by the release of contaminants, by other human activities, and/or by waste treatment
operations.

Project/program Name M&E Plan


Indicator
Definition
(& unit of
measurement)

Data Collection
Methods/Sources

Frequency &
Schedule

Responsibilities

Govt statistic /
questionnaire survey in
particular area

After 6 month
of project
completion

Expert
judgment /project
team

1.aDissolved Oxygen

1.Water quality tests


conducted by NAUH

After 1 year of
project
completion

1.b fish

2.Water quality tests


conducted by SANAA

After 1 year of
project
completion

1. By checking the records


kept by the workshop
institute.

During the
project & end
of the project
completion.

Indicator

In
Use

GOAL:

Indicator
Health Indicators indicate
that water borne
diseases & illnesses among
target group have
reduced

Indicator find
the percentage
of reduce the
disease & illness
in water

Assumption G.a
OUTCOME 1:

Assumption
1.a No major
industrial / natural
disaster
1.b Cooperation of
Institution
OUTPUT 1.1:
1.1.a Attendance of target
households to the workshops
1.1.b No./% of households
using municipal solid waste
collections services

------

1.No. of people
attend the
workshop
2.% of people
using the
municipal
services

2. Municipality statistics
& surveys

After 1 year of
project
completion

Govt/ Pub

Project/program Name M&E Plan


Assumption 1.1a
1.No corruption
2.No cultural conflicts &
resistances

OUTPUT 1.2:
I 1.2.a Number of education
departments established
within municipalities
2. Viewership ratings of the
campaign advertisements on
TV

1. Project monitoring
& Government
statistics

2. Rating surveys

Annually
reports
generated by
the
Government
institutes.
Annual
surveys
generated
reports

Assumption:
Source of information is
reliable.
Activities:

1.1 Develop training materials


for educators.

Assumption : suitable and


adequate personnel

Training
materials

During the
planning
phase of the
project

Project manager

MIDE,
Munici