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HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description Issue 1.0 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description

Issue

1.0

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description Issue 1.0 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.
HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description Issue 1.0 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2013. All rights reserved.

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Notice

The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the commercial contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or partial products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchased scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise agreed by the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided “AS IS” without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied.

The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

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HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description
HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description

HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description

Contents

1

2

Introduction

4

1.1 Positioning

4

1.2 Introduction to the USN9810

15

Architecture

19

2.1 Overview

19

2.2 Hardware Architecture

19

2.3 Software Architecture

24

3 Configurations

28

3.1 Overview

28

3.2 Typical Configurations

28

4 Operation and Maintenance

44

4.1 Overview

44

4.2 Benefits

44

5 Technical Specification

46

5.1 Performance Specifications

46

5.2 Physical Interfaces

47

5.3 Clock Indexes

48

5.4 Engineering Parameters

50

5.5 EMC Specifications

51

5.6 Reliability Parameters

59

6 Acronyms and

Abbreviations

60

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1

Introduction

1.1 Positioning

This document describes HUAWEI USN9810 V900R011.

The Huawei-proprietary USN9810 is a unified service node that can be deployed in 2.5G general packet radio service (GPRS) systems, 3G universal mobile telecommunications systems (UMTSs), or evolved packet core (EPC) systems.

The USN9810 is deployed at the EPC and can provide the functionalities of the serving GPRS support node (SGSN), mobility management entity (MME), or any combination of them. It is maintained as a single piece of equipment.

1.1.1 3GPP System Evolution

This section describes the evolution of the EPC system.

1. Introduction to existing networks

With the evolution of the radio technologies, existing networks have evolved from the 2G global system for mobile communications (GSM) to the 2.5G GPRS and lastly the 3G UMTS.

This evolution has allowed mobile communications to achieve wide area coverage, high-speed radio data transmission, and integration with the Internet. The result is that the consumer can enjoy diversified services like voice, data, and video applications and "any time, any place" communication delivered in a personalized fashion.

Currently, with the robust development of services and diversification of requirements, the 3G UMTS architecture is hindered by inherent limitations:

Insufficient support for packet switched (PS) domain network services. Generally, the 3G UMTS system is capable of supporting only non-real time services and depends on the circuit switched (CS) domain to bear voice services. This results in separate network operations for PS and CS, which hinders centralized network maintenance and management and increases OM expenditures.

Low efficiency in routing and forwarding data due to excessive network layers. Therefore, network performance needs to be improved.

Incapable of supporting multiple radio access systems. The development of service terminals in processing capabilities and radio access capabilities provides an impetus for the integration of multiple radio access technologies.

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2. Introduction to EPC networks

To maintain a competitive edge in future networks, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) began to research the implications and long-term evolution of 3G technology-E3G technology. E3G refers to the enhanced 3G system, which has the following features:

The technology for the air interface in E3G is LTE.

The core network evolution program of the LTE project is SAE, also known as the EPC.

The 3GPP EPC project is working on a long-term program to explore key technologies in the next 10 years. According to the 3GPP evolution design, the EPC system provides the following features:

Overall packetization of the network architecture: The all-IP network contains only the PS. Voice services are jointly provided by the PS and the IP multimedia subsystem (IMS), enhancing the network efficiency and performance.

Delayered network architecture: The network architecture becomes simpler so that networks can be deployed more easily and data transmission delay is greatly reduced. The S-GW and P-GW may be implemented in one physical node, delayering the network.

Support for multiple access technologies: The EPC system supports interworking with the existing 3GPP system. In addition, it supports access of users in non-3GPP networks and provides roaming and handover between the 3GPP and non-3GPP networks for users.

High data transmission rate: The peak rate of the downlink traffic reaches 100 Mbit/s and the peak rate of the uplink traffic reaches 50 Mbit/s.

Fast deployment: Thanks to the simplified architecture, networks can be deployed rapidly to adapt to the requirements of the changing services.

Enhanced real-time services: The EPC system supports real-time services and reduces the setup time for service connections.

Figure 1-1 shows the evolution of the network architecture in the 3GPP standard.

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Figure 1-1 Evolution of the network architecture in the 3GPP standard

Evolution of the network architecture in the 3GPP standard BTS: base transceiver station NodeB: 3G base

BTS: base transceiver station NodeB: 3G base station SGSN: serving GPRS support node eNodeB: evolved NodeB Serving Gateway: serving gateway

BSC: base station controller RNC: radio network controller GGSN: gateway GPRS support node MME: mobility management entity PDN Gateway: packet data network gateway

The EPC network is designed for high-speed mobile packet data services. The network architecture is greatly simplified. Compared with the earlier versions, the architecture is optimized in the following ways:

The LTE base stations are directly connected to the EPS core network. The previously independent base station controller (BSC) functions are integrated into the eNodeB.

The PS domain is restructured as follows:

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The signaling plane and forwarding plane of the SGSN are separated from each other. The signaling function of the SGSN is implemented by the MME, and the forwarding function of the SGSN is implemented by the S-GW.

forwarding function of the SGSN is implemented by the S-GW. In a version earlier than USN9810

In a version earlier than USN9810 V900R011C00, an SGSN is called a Gn/Gp SGSN. In a version later than USN9810 V900R011C00, an SGSN is called an S4 SGSN.

The Gn/Gp SGSN inherits the SGSN functions of the 2G/3G network. The GGSN can be connected to the GERAN or UTRAN through the Gn/Gp SGSN. The S4 SGSN is the upgraded version of Gn/Gp SGSN. The EPC can be connected to the GERAN or UTRAN through the S4 SGSN, which supports the users' switchover between the GERAN/UTRAN and E-UTRAN.

The functions of the GGSN are provided by the P-GW.

The S-GW and P-GW may be implemented in one physical node, delayering the network.

The network converges with the non-3GPP networks such as CDMA2000 high rate packet data (HRPD) network, providing the interworking for various radio access technologies as shown in Figure 1-2.

Figure 1-2 Various types of radio accesses technologies implemented by the LTE/EPC system

accesses technologies implemented by the LTE/EPC system 1.1.2 LTE/EPC Solution In response to the latest evolution

1.1.2 LTE/EPC Solution

In response to the latest evolution of the network architecture, Huawei provides the corresponding LTE/EPC solution that supports different network elements (NEs) such as the MME, S-GW, and P-GW to keep up with the development trends of multi-service convergence and multi-access convergence.

The USN9810 is deployed at the EPC and can provide the functionalities of the SGSN, MME, or any combination of them. It is maintained as a single piece of equipment.

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Application of the USN9810 in Huawei EPC Solution

Figure 1-3 Network environment in the Huawei LTE/EPC solution

1-3 Network environment in the Huawei LTE/EPC solution BTS: base transceiver station NodeB: 3G base station

BTS: base transceiver station

NodeB: 3G base station

SGSN: serving GPRS support node

eNodeB: evolved NodeB

Serving GW: service gateway, provided for implementing the service forwarding between the gateways

HSGW: HRPD serving gateway

PCRF: policy control and charging rules function

gateway PCRF: policy control and charging rules function BSC: base station controller RNC: radio network controller

BSC: base station controller

RNC: radio network controller

HSS: home subscriber server

MME: mobility management entity

PDN GW: PDN gateway

PDSN: packet data service node

The serving GW is hereinafter referred to as the S-GW.

The PDN GW is hereinafter referred to as the P-GW.

The Huawei LTE/EPC solution provides the following functions:

Supporting the convergence of various 3GPP wireless networks (GERAN, UTRAN, and E-UTRAN)

Supporting EPC and compatibility with 2G/3G protocols and service functions

Supporting the access of non-3GPP networks (CDMA2000 HRPD network) through the Mobile IP technology

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The Huawei LTE/EPC solution supports various network architectures described in 3GPP23.401 and 3GPP23.402. Figure 1-4, Figure 1-5, Figure 1-6, and Figure 1-7 show four typical types of network architectures. The supported interfaces and functions are subject to this document.

interfaces and functions are subject to this document. 3GPP23.401: GPRS enhancements for evolved universal

3GPP23.401: GPRS enhancements for evolved universal terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN) access

3GPP23.402: architecture enhancements for non-3GPP access

Figure 1-4 EPC network architecture: access of non-roaming users to the 3GPP network

UTRAN SGSN HSS S3 CG PCRF S6a Gxc S1-MME MME S12 S4 Gx Rx S11
UTRAN
SGSN
HSS
S3
CG
PCRF
S6a
Gxc
S1-MME
MME
S12
S4
Gx
Rx
S11
Ga
S10
Ga
LTE-Uu
S1-U
S5
SGi
UE
E-UTRAN
S-GW
P-GW
Operator's IP Services
(e.g. IMS, PSS etc.)
DNS
DNS
AAA Server
UE: user equipment
E-UTRAN: evolved UMTS terrestrial radio
access network

MME: mobility management entity

UTRAN: UMTS terrestrial radio access network

CG: charging gateway

AAA: authentication, authorization, and accounting

HSS: home subscriber server

GERAN: GSM/EDGE radio access network

DNS: domain name server

PCRF: policy and charging rules function

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Figure 1-5 EPC network architecture: access of non-roaming users to the non-3GPP network

access of non-roaming users to the non-3GPP network PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA:

PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA: authentication, authorization, and accounting

HSS: home subscriber server

Figure 1-6 EPC network architecture (roaming architecture for 3GPP access): home routed traffic

(roaming architecture for 3GPP access): home routed traffic PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA:
(roaming architecture for 3GPP access): home routed traffic PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA:
(roaming architecture for 3GPP access): home routed traffic PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA:
(roaming architecture for 3GPP access): home routed traffic PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA:
(roaming architecture for 3GPP access): home routed traffic PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA:
(roaming architecture for 3GPP access): home routed traffic PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA:
(roaming architecture for 3GPP access): home routed traffic PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA:

PCRF: policy and charging rules function AAA: authentication, authorization, and accounting

HSS: home subscriber server

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HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description The home routed roaming mode means that a UE

The home routed roaming mode means that a UE accesses the PDN from a home place.

Figure 1-7 EPC network architecture (roaming architecture for local breakout)

architecture (roaming architecture for local breakout) The local breakout roaming mode means that a UE accesses
architecture (roaming architecture for local breakout) The local breakout roaming mode means that a UE accesses
architecture (roaming architecture for local breakout) The local breakout roaming mode means that a UE accesses
architecture (roaming architecture for local breakout) The local breakout roaming mode means that a UE accesses

The local breakout roaming mode means that a UE accesses the PDN from a visitor place.

The LTE/EPC network consists of the following items:

UE: It is a mobile user device, initiating and receiving calls through the air interface.

E-UTRAN: It implements all functions related to the radio access.

EPC: It is the core network, consisting of the MME, S-GW, P-GW, and HSS and connecting the external PDNs such as the Internet.

1.1.3 NE Introduction

As specified in 3GPP 23.401, the functions of the NEs in the LTE/EPC solution are described as follows:

E-UTRAN

The E-UTRAN implements all functions related to the radio access to the LTE/EPC network, including:

Management and establishment of radio resources

Header compression and user plane ciphering

MME selection when no route to an MME can be determined from the information provided by the UE

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UL bearer level rate enforcement based on UE-AMBR by means of uplink scheduling and MBR

DL bearer level rate enforcement based on UE-AMBR

UL and DL bearer level admission control

Transport level packet marking in the uplink, for example, setting the DiffServ Code Point, based on the QoS Class Identifier (QCI) of the associated EPS bearer

MME

 

The MME is responsible for mobility management in the control plane, including management of the user contexts and mobile status, and assignment of temporary identifiers. The functions of the MME include:

NAS signaling

NAS signaling security

Inter CN node signaling for mobility between 3GPP access networks (terminating S3)

UE reachability in ECM-IDLE state (including control and execution of paging retransmission)

Tracking Area list management

P-GW and S-GW selection

MME selection for handovers with MME change

Roaming (S6a towards home HSS)

Authentication

Bearer management functions including dedicated bearer establishment

S-GW

The S-GW is the anchor point in the user plane between different access networks. It can shield interfaces within the 3GPP network towards different access networks. The S-GW is the gateway that terminates the interface towards E-UTRAN.

The functions of the S-GW include:

The local mobility anchor point for inter-eNodeB handover

Assist the eNodeB reordering function during inter-eNodeB handover by sending one or more "end marker" packets to the source eNodeB immediately after switching the path

Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP mobility (terminating S4 and relaying the traffic between 2G/3G system and P-GW)

ECM-IDLE mode downlink packet buffering and initiation of network triggered service request procedure

Lawful interception

Packet routing and forwarding

Transport level packet marking in the uplink and the downlink (DSCP)

Accounting on user and QCI granularity for inter-operator charging

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P-GW

 

The P-GW is the anchor point in the user plane between the 3GPP access networks and non-3GPP access networks. The P-GW is the gateway that terminates the SGi interface towards the PDN.

The functions of the P-GW include:

Per-user based packet filtering (for example, deep packet inspection)

Lawful interception

UE IP address allocation

Transport level packet marking in the uplink and downlink

UL and DL service level charging (for example, based on SDFs defined by the PCRF, or based on deep packet inspection defined by local policy)

UL and DL service level gating control

UL and DL service level rate enforcement (for example, by rate policing/shaping per SDF)

UL and DL rate enforcement based on APN-AMBR (for example, by rate policing/shaping per aggregate of traffic of all SDFs of the same UE-APN that are associated with Non-GBR (Guaranteed Bit Rate) QCIs.

DL rate enforcement based on the accumulated MBRs of the aggregate of SDFs with the same GBR QCI for example, by rate policing/shaping)

DHCPv4 (server and client) and DHCPv6 (server) functions

UL and DL bearer binding

UL bearer binding verification

SGSN

The LTE/EPC architecture supports the Gn/Gp SGSN and S4 SGSN.

The Gn/Gp SGSN inherits the SGSN functions of the 2G/3G network. The GGSN can be connected to the GERAN or UTRAN through the Gn/Gp SGSN. The S4 SGSN is the upgraded version of Gn/Gp SGSN. The EPC can be connected to the GERAN or UTRAN through the S4 SGSN, which supports the users' switchover between the GERAN/UTRAN and E-UTRAN.

The SGSN is an NE used to provide the packet data services. The main function of the SGSN is to forward the IP packets from/to the UEs in its own SGSN service area. The functions of the SGSN include:

Routing and forwarding data packets from/to all mobile users in its own SGSN area

Encryption and authentication

Session management

Mobility management

Logical link management

Bill generation and export for collecting usage information of radio resources

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HSS

 

The home subscriber server (HSS) stores all subscriber data related to services provided by LTE/EPC networks.

CG

 

As a device on the LTE/EPC network, the CG collects, and pre-processes the charging history records (CDRs) generated by the GGSN, S-GW and P-GW. The CG also provides an interface to the billing center. When an LTE/EPC user accesses the Internet, several NEs generate CDRs. Each NE may generate several CDRs. The CG pre-processes the CDRs, and then sends them to the billing center. Thus, the work load of the billing center is reduced. If the CG is applied in the network, the GGSN, S-GW and P-GW do not need to provide interfaces to the billing center.

PCRF

 

PCRF is the policy and charging control element.

In a non-roaming scenario, there is only a single PCRF in the Home Public Land Mobile Network (HPLMN) associated with one UE's IP-CAN session. The PCRF terminates the Rx interface and the Gx interface.

In a roaming scenario with local breakout of traffic there may be two PCRFs associated with one UE's IP-CAN session:

H-PCRF that resides within the H-PLMN

V-PCRF that resides within the V-PLMN

The functions of the H-PCRF include:

Terminating the Rx interface for home network services

Terminating the S9 interface for roaming with local breakout

Associating the sessions established over the multiple interfaces (S9, Rx), for the same UE's IP-CAN session

Terminating the Gx interface for home network services in the roaming scenario

The functions of the V-PCRF include:

Terminating the Gx and S9 interfaces for roaming with local breakout

Terminating Rx for roaming with local breakout and visited operator's application function

AAA Server

The AAA server is used for authentication, authorization, and accounting. It complies with the Remote Authentication Dial in User Service (RADIUS) protocol. The AAA server can also be deployed on other networks in addition to LTE/EPC networks.

3GPP AAA Server

The 3GPP AAA server is used for mobility related authentication for the switchover to non-3GPP networks and is used to provide static QoS information for users that access the UGW9811 through non-3GPP access networks.

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DNS

There are two types of DNS on the LTE/EPC network:

DNS located between the P-GW and the PDN

It is used to resolve the domain name of the PDN, equivalent to a common DNS on the Internet.

DNS located on the LTE/EPC core network

When the UE requests to access an external network for packet services, the MME requests the DNS to resolve the domain name according to the access point name (APN). After the IP address of the corresponding P-GW is obtained, a transmission channel can be set up between the UE and P-GW.

In mobility management procedures, such as attach and tracking area update (TAU), a DNS is used for selecting the peer MME/SGSN.

The DNS can also be deployed on other networks in addition to GPRS/UMTS networks.

1.2 Introduction to the USN9810

The USN9810 is an MME device developed by Huawei. The USN9810 features multiple access standards and multiple logical product types. It supports access to the GPRS, UMTS or LTE and exists in the form of the SGSN, MME or their combined logical type.

Large Capacity and High Integration

The USN9810 supports a maximum of 12 million 4G subscribers attached at the same time. In the case of full configuration, only two cabinets and six subracks are required.

The USN9810 supports a maximum of 12 million 2.5G or 3G subscribers attached and 2.2 million Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context activated at the same time. In the case of full configuration, only three cabinets and eight subracks are required.

The USN9810 uses a high-speed forwarding processor to forward the data on the user plane, which improves the processing efficiency and integration of the system. The USN9810 configured for 2.5G subscribers supports data forwarding at a maximum of 3.6 Gbit/s. The USN9810 configured for 3G subscribers supports data forwarding at a maximum of 20 Gbit/s.

Advanced ATCA Platform

Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) is a hardware standard. It is the name of the architecture standard for the hardware platform rather than the name of a specific product.

Developed on the basis of the CPCI standard, ATCA meets new requirements of the telecom industry. Compared with CPCI, ATCA possesses the following features:

Providing powerful processing capability, that is, providing sufficient bandwidth, faster calling rate and loading rate of the processor, and improved running efficiency to meet the current and future requirements.

Enhancing the reliability of the system by separating the management platform, the control plane, and the service plane, all with a point-to-point structure.

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Providing large space in boards. The hot-swappable advanced mezzanine card (AMC) will be supported in the future. Thus, the embedded application, server application, and digital signal processing (DSP) array can be flexibly combined to meet the application requirements for different capacities.

1. Hardware Platform

The USN9810 V900R001 uses the internal open standards telecom architecture (OSTA 2.0) platform of Huawei. Based on the ATCA technology, OSTA 2.0 provides high rate, high reliability, and high scalability.

The OSTA 2.0 hardware platform stipulates a series of specifications related to boards and software for the next generation telecom devices. Based on the ATCA standard architecture and conforming to the network equipment building system (NEBS) and European telecommunications standards institute (ETSI) standards, the platform has the following features:

High rate

The high-speed serial data link and switched structure are used. Thus, the data exchange bandwidth intra-subrack can reach 2.5 Tbit/s.

High reliability

All boards and subboards are hot swappable. In addition, redundancy is implemented on all key components, such as power supply, fan, management module, and board of each type. Thus, the reliability of the system reaches 99.999%.

High scalability

The USN9810 supports the addition of the interfaces on the ATCA board and cascading between subracks through the interface board within a subrack.

Efficient management

The standard management bus is used, which can manage any part in the system.

2. Software Platform

The USN9810 V900R001 uses the embedded software platform, namely, carrier grade platform (CGP), which is universally used by the core network products of Huawei. The CGP has the features such as cross-hardware platform, cross-operating system, and easy maintenance.

Cross-hardware platform

A uniform interface of the hardware platform is provided, which implements the operation of upper-layer applications on different hardware platforms. Thus, the hardware management is independent of the hardware platform.

Cross-operating system

Different interfaces of the operating system at the lower layer are shielded. Instead, a uniform virtual operating system application programming interface (VOS API) is provided for upper-layer applications.

Easy maintenance

The implementation mechanisms of the functions such as operation and maintenance, alarm management, performance measurement, call and signaling tracing, data backup, board switchover, and online loading are provided for upper-layer applications.

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Easy Operation and Maintenance

The operation and maintenance (OM) system of the USN9810 has the following features:

Flexible OM methods

The OM system can be flexibly built according to the network structure and customer requirements. Multiple maintenance interfaces are supported, including the interfaces to the local maintenance terminal (LMT) and the Huawei centralized network management system iManager M2000. Through the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) interface provided by the iManager M2000, flexible network management can be implemented.

Maintenance interface combining MML and GUI

The interface is characteristic of easy and quick operations provided by man-machine language (MML) in addition to vivid display and easy memory provided by graphic user interface (GUI).

Powerful signaling trace

The USN9810 provides the S1-AP, S11 and Gn/Gp interfaces for signaling trace. In addition, it supports hierarchical signaling trace according to the protocol. The USN9810 can also interpret and filter tracing messages.

Online software patching

Software problems can be solved online without impacting services. In addition, you can perform remote and rollback operations.

High Reliability

The USN9810 is highly reliable because of the following features:

Backup of important data

The USN9810 automatically backs up important data, such as the configuration data, performance data, and operation logs.

Operation security management

Different management privileges are assigned to different users. During the user login, the USN9810 checks the user identity. After the user login, the USN9810 maintains the complete operation to ensure system security.

Hardware redundancy design

All critical boards are configured in the 1+1 backup to ensure the high reliability of the system.

Fault prevention

The USN9810 provides protection mechanisms to avoid the following system faults:

System power off

Maloperation on the system power switch

Lightning surge on the system power

High voltage and low voltage

Short circuit of power supply

Current surge and high voltage on the power supply and interfaces

System overload control

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In the case of center processing unit (CPU) overload or resource congestion, the USN9810 adjusts the traffic smoothly to avoid system down.

Board lock and unlock, process lock and unlock

The board and process lock function stops access to new services as required and gradually removes the existing services within a certain period. The board and process unlock function, however, provides access to new services.

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2

Architecture

2.1 Overview

The system structure of the USN9810 includes hardware structure and software structure.

2.2 Hardware Architecture

The USN9810 uses the Huawei OSTA 2.0 hardware platform, which is based on ATCA. The physical structure of the platform consists of cabinets, subracks, and boards.

Introduction to the Cabinet

As a cabinet-type device, the USN9810 uses the Huawei N68E-22 cabinet. The available space of the cabinet is 46 U (1 U = 44.45 mm = 1.75 inch). The cabinet, composed of the power distribution frame (PDF), OSTA 2.0 subrack, cabling frame, filler panel, rack, and slide rail, enables the internal modules to be flexibly configured.

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Figure 2-1 Appearance of the cabinet

Product Description Figure 2-1 Appearance of the cabinet The N68E-22 cabinet is a 19-inch cabinet of

The N68E-22 cabinet is a 19-inch cabinet of the standard industrial structure. It conforms to the following international standards:

IEC60297-1, Dimensions of mechanical structures of the 482.6 mm (19 in) series Part 1:Panels and racks

IEC60297-2, Dimensions of mechanical structures of the 482.6 mm (19 in) series Part 2:Cabinets and pitches of rack structures

IEC60297-3, Dimensions of mechanical structures of the 482.6 mm (19 in) series Part 3:Subracks and associated plug-in units

Introduction to Subracks

The USN9810 subracks are classified into the basic subrack and the service subrack.

The OMU board is configured in the basic subrack. In the basic subrack, the back board of the SWU board is the TMI board. In the service subrack, the back board of the SWU board is the TSI board.

The board area of a subrack has 14 slots at the front and rear sides respectively. Boards can be inserted from both the front side and the rear side of the subrack. The front boards, switching

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unit (SWU) boards and the corresponding back boards, time master interface (TMI)/time slave interface (TSI) boards occupy slots 6 and 7. Other slots, namely, slots 0 to 5 and slots 8 to 13 are the slots for universal services.

Two subrack management unit (SMU) boards and two subrack data manage (SDM) boards exist at the bottom of the subrack. The SMU board and the SDM board are mutually inserted from the front side and the rear side. The SMU board is located at the front side of the subrack and the SDM board is located at the rear side of the subrack.

Figure 2-2 shows the front view of the OSTA 2.0 subrack. Figure 2-3 shows the rear view of the OSTA 2.0 subrack.

Figure 2-2 Front view of the OSTA 2.0 subrack

2.0 subrack. Figure 2-2 Front view of the OSTA 2.0 subrack 1 Board slot 2 Fan

1

Board slot

2 Fan frame (with an air intake vent)

3

SMU board slot

 

Figure 2-3 Rear view of the OSTA 2.0 subrack

slot   Figure 2-3 Rear view of the OSTA 2.0 subrack 1. Air exhaust vent 2.

1.

Air exhaust vent

2.

Interface board slot

3.

Cable trough

4.

Power distribution module

5.

SDM board slot

 

Figure 2-4 and Figure 2-5show the typical configurations of the basic subrack and the service subrack.

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Figure 2-4 Typical configuration of the basic subrack.

Figure 2-4 Typical configuration of the basic subrack. Issue 1.0 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Page 22
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Figure 2-5 Typical configuration of the service subrack

Figure 2-5 Typical configuration of the service subrack Back boards are in the upper part and
Figure 2-5 Typical configuration of the service subrack Back boards are in the upper part and
Figure 2-5 Typical configuration of the service subrack Back boards are in the upper part and

Back boards are in the upper part and front boards are in the lower part.

Introduction to Boards

Table 2-1 lists the boards of different types.

Table 2-1 Boards of different types

Physical Board

Position

Function

Operation and

Front board

Responsible for operation and maintenance

Maintenance Unit

(OMU)

Enhanced Control Plane Unit (ECU)

Front board

Responsible for processing the service on the control plane and charging

Enhanced Packet Forward Unit (EPU)

Front board

Responsible for processing the service on the user plane

Switch Unit (SWU)

Front board

Providing the basic function such as layer 2 switching for the GE interfaces of the Base plane and Fabric plane inside a subrack and between subracks

Time Master Interface (TMI)

Back board

Back board of the SWU board, which is used for cascading between subracks and distributing clocks

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Physical Board

Position

Function

Time Slave Interface (TSI)

Back board

Back board of the SWU board, which is used for cascading between subracks and receiving clocks

Subrack Management Unit(SMU)

Front board

Used to manage and maintain the devices inside the subrack

Subrack Data Management (SDM)

Back board

Back board of the SUM board, which is used to store device archives

Universal Service

Back board

Back board of the OMU board, which provides precise time and maintenance for the GE interface

Interface (USI)

Packet Forward

Back board

Implementing the access of the broadband interfaces such as ATM, POS, and GE together with the interface processing subboard. A broadband interface back board supports two interface processing subboards. The processing subboards can be the ATM/POS interface processing subboard, FE/GE electrical interface processing subboard, or GE optical interface processing subboard.

Interface (PFI)

Ethernet Electric Interface PMC Card (EEC)

Subboard

Subboard of the PFI board, which provides 100M/1000M adaptive Ethernet electric interfaces

Ethernet Fiber Interface PMC Card (EFC)

Subboard

Subboard of the PFI board, which provides 1000M adaptive Ethernet optical interfaces

2.3 Software Architecture

The USN9810 uses a distributed software structure. The functional modules of the software are distributed in different types of boards and can be flexibly configured to meet the requirements of network application. Based on the software location, the USN9810 software consists of the host software and the background administration module (BAM) software. Figure 2-6 shows the software structure of the USN9810.

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Host Software

Figure 2-6 Software structure of the USN9810

Host software Configuration management Performance management Service processing Database CDR management Alarm
Host software
Configuration management
Performance management
Service processing
Database
CDR management
Alarm management
Protocol processing
Maintenance management
Signal interface
Device
Communication
and bearer
management
Middleware
Operating system

BAM software

Configuration management Performance management Alarm management GUI Maintenance management MML Communication
Configuration management
Performance management
Alarm management
GUI
Maintenance management
MML
Communication
Middleware
Operating system

The host software runs on different boards. It implements functions such as signaling access and processing, service control, resource management, and charging information generation. In response to specific commands, the host software also performs the following operations such as data management, device management, alarm management, performance statistics, and signaling trace on the host in cooperation with the BAM software.

The host software adopts a hierarchical and modular design. From bottom to top, its components are the operating system, middleware, and various applications.

1. Operating System

The operating system of the host software is Linux, which is a real-time operating system.

2. Middleware

The middleware technology (DOPRA) is applied to the operating system and applications of the USN9810. Thus, the upper-layer service software is irrelevant to the lower-layer operating system.

The middleware facilitates the migration of software functions between different platforms. Thus, new and stable product versions are released quickly as the service software is rarely changed.

3. Applications

The application is the functional part of the USN9810 software. Loaded with different applications, boards can provide different functions. The USN9810 applications can be classified into the following types:

Signaling bearer software: Implements the access of broadband and narrowband signaling and processing of the lower-layer protocols

Service processing software: Performs signaling processing, session management, mobility management, and resource management

Database software: Manages device data and dynamic subscriber data

System support software: Implements system management and device interconnection

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BAM Software

OM software: Receives the operation commands from the OMU and reports the command results to the OMU

The BAM software runs on the OMU, LMT, and Web UI. Along with the host software, it provides the man-machine interface, which enables the maintenance personnel to implement the following functions: data management, device management, alarm management, performance statistics, signaling trace, and CDR management.

The BAM software adopts the client/server model. It consists of the OMU server software, LMT software, and Web UI software. The OMU server software is installed on the OMU. The LMT software and Web UI software is installed on the client, namely, a PC.

1. OMU server software

The OMU server software runs on the OMU board. As a combination of the communication server and the database server, the OMU server software forwards OM commands from different workstations to the host and sends responses or command results to the corresponding workstations. The OMU server software serves as the essential unit of the OAM software.

The OMU server software runs on the Linux operating system and uses the Oracle as the database platform. It provides functions of the terminal OAM software through multiple parallel service processes, such as maintenance process, data management process, alarm process, and performance statistical process. Figure 2-7 shows the relation between the OMU server software, operating system, and database platform.

Figure 2-7 Relations between the OMU server software, operating system, and database platform

OMU server software Application layer Operating system layer Oracle Linux
OMU server software
Application layer
Operating system layer
Oracle
Linux

2. LMT software

The LMT software runs on a workstation. Serving as a client, the LMT software is connected to the OMU, serving as a server, in client/server mode. The LMT software provides MML-based graphical terminals. A workstation can be located locally or remotely. For example, a remote workstation can be connected to the OMU server through a wide area network (WAN) in dial-up mode.

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In addition, you can perform the following maintenance functions on a workstation: data maintenance, device management, alarm management, performance statistics, call trace, and signaling trace.

3. Web UI software

The Web UI software is namely the Web client. You can use the Web browser, such as IE browser, to perform performance management and traffic statistics. In addition, the Web browser can also be used during upgrade.

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3

Configurations

This section describes three typical configurations of the USN9810 V900R001. It also describes the technical specifications of each configuration.

3.1 Overview

The USN9810 V900R001 has the following typical configurations:

Minimum typical configuration

Single subrack typical configuration

Single-cabinet typical configuration

Maximum typical configuration

3.2 Typical Configurations

Minimum Configuration (4G)

Figure 3-1 shows the minimum configuration of the USN9810.

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Figure 3-1 Minimum configuration

Node Product Description Figure 3-1 Minimum configuration Back boards are in the upper part and front

Back boards are in the upper part and front boards are in the lower part.

Table 3-1 lists the board name and quantity for the minimum configuration.

Table 3-1 Board name and quantity for the minimum configuration

Board Name

Board Quantity

SMU

2

SDM (Not show in the figure)

2

OMU

2

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Board Name

Board Quantity

ECU

2

EPU

2

SWU

2

USI

2

PFI

2

TMI

2

Table 3-2 lists the technical specifications of the USN9810 when the USN9810 is in the minimum configuration.

Table 3-2 Specifications of the minimum configuration

User attach in the same time

MME Bearer in the same time

0.5 million

1 million

Minimum Configuration (2G/3G)

Figure 3-2 shows the minimum configuration of the USN9810.

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HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description Back boards are in the upper part and front

Back boards are in the upper part and front boards are in the lower part.

Figure 3-2 Minimum configuration

are in the lower part. Figure 3-2 Minimum configuration Table 3-3 lists the board name and

Table 3-3 lists the board name and quantity for the minimum configuration.

Table 3-3 Board name and quantity for the minimum configuration

Board Name

Board Quantity

SMM

2

SDM(Not show in the figure)

2

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Board Name

Board Quantity

OMU

2

ECU

2

EPU

2

SWU

2

USI

2

ETI

2

PFI

2

TMI

2

Table 3-4 lists the technical specifications of the USN9810 when the minimum configuration is used.

Table 3-4 Specifications of the USN9810 when the minimum configuration is used

User Attach at the Same Time

PDP Active at the Same Time

UMTS

GPRS

Throughput

Throughput

0.5 million

1 million

2 Gbit/s

150 Mbit/s

Single-Subrack Full Configuration (4G)

Figure 3-3 shows the single-subrack configuration of the USN9810.

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Figure 3-3 Single-subrack configuration

Product Description Figure 3-3 Single-subrack configuration Back boards are in the upper part and front boards

Back boards are in the upper part and front boards are in the lower part.

Table 3-5 lists the board name and quantity for the single-subrack configuration.

Table 3-5 Board name and quantity for the single-subrack configuration

Board Name

Board Quantity

SUM

2

SDM (Not show in the figure)

2

OMU

2

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Board Name

Board Quantity

ECU

8

EPU

2

SWU

2

USI

2

PFI

2

TMI

2

Table 3-6 lists the technical specifications of the USN9810 when the single-subrack configuration is used.

Table 3-6 Specifications of the USN9810 when the single-subrack configuration is used

User Attach at the Same Time

MME Bearer at the Same Time

2 million

4 million

Single-Subrack Full Configuration (2G/3G)

Figure 3-4 shows the single-subrack full configuration of the USN9810.

shows the single-subrack full configuration of the USN9810. Back boards are in the upper part and

Back boards are in the upper part and front boards are in the lower part.

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Figure 3-4 Single-subrack full configuration

Description Figure 3-4 Single-subrack full configuration Table 3-7 lists the board name and quantity for the

Table 3-7 lists the board name and quantity for the single-subrack full configuration.

Table 3-7 Board name and quantity for the single-subrack full configuration

Board Name

Board Quantity

SMM

2

SDM(Not show in the figure)

2

OMU

2

ECU

8

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Board Name

Board Quantity

EPU

2

SWU

2

USI

2

ETI

8

PFI

2

TMI

2

Table 3-8 lists the technical specifications of the USN9810 when the single-subrack full configuration is used.

Table 3-8 Specifications of the USN9810 when the single-subrack full configuration is used

User Attach at the Same Time

PDP Active at the Same Time

UMTS

GPRS

Throughput

Throughput

2 millions

1 millions

2 Gbit/s

640 Mbit/s

Single-cabinet Full Configuration (4G)

Figure 3-5 shows the single-cabinet configuration of the USN9810.

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Figure 3-5 Single-cabinet configuration

Product Description Figure 3-5 Single-cabinet configuration Back boards are in the upper part and front boards

Back boards are in the upper part and front boards are in the lower part.

Table 3-9 lists the board name and quantity for the single-cabinet configuration.

Table 3-9 Board name and quantity for the single-cabinet configuration

Board Name

Board Quantity

SMU

6

SDM (Not show in the figure)

6

OMU

2

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Board Name

Board Quantity

ECU

24

EPU

6

SWU

6

USI

2

PFI

6

TMI

2

TSI

4

Table 3-10 lists the technical specifications of the USN9810 when the single-cabinet configuration is used.

Table 3-10 Specifications of the USN9810 when the single-cabinet configuration is used

User Attach at the Same Time

MME Bearer at the Same Time

6 million

12 million

Single-cabinet Full Configuration (2G/3G)

Figure 3-6 shows the single-cabinet full configuration of the USN9810.

shows the single-cabinet full configuration of the USN9810. Back boards are in the upper part and

Back boards are in the upper part and front boards are in the lower part.

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Figure 3-6 Single-cabinet full configuration

Description Figure 3-6 Single-cabinet full configuration Table 3-9 lists the board name and quantity for the

Table 3-9 lists the board name and quantity for the single-cabinet full configuration.

Table 3-11 Board name and quantity for the single-cabinet full configuration

Board Name

Board Quantity

SMM

6

SDM(Not show in the figure)

6

OMU

2

ECU

24

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Board Name

Board Quantity

EPU

10

SWU

6

USI

2

ETI

24

PFI

10

TMI

2

TSI

4

Table 3-12 lists the technical specifications of the USN9810 when the single-cabinet full configuration is used.

Table 3-12 Specifications of the USN9810 when the single-cabinet full configuration is used

User Attach at the Same Time

PDP Active at the Same Time

UMTS

GPRS

Throughput

Throughput

6 millions

10 millions

10 Gbit/s

1.92 Gbit/s

Maximum Configuration (4G)

Figure 3-7 shows the maximum configuration of the USN9810.

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Figure 3-7 Maximum configuration

Node Product Description Figure 3-7 Maximum configuration Back boards are in the upper part and front

Back boards are in the upper part and front boards are in the lower part.

Table 3-13 lists the board name and quantity for the maximum configuration.

Table 3-13 Board name and quantity for the maximum configuration

Board Name

Board Quantity

SMU

12

SDM (Not show in the figure)

12

OMU

2

ECU

48

EPU

12

SWU

12

USI

2

PFI

12

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Board Name

Board Quantity

TMI

2

TSI

10

Table 3-14 lists the technical specifications of the USN9810 when the maximum configuration is used.

Table 3-14 Specifications of the USN9810 when the maximum configuration is used

User Attach at the Same Time

MME Bearer at the Same Time

12 million

24 million

Maximum Configuration (2G/3G)

Figure 3-8 shows the maximum three-cabinet full configuration of the USN9810.

the maximum three-cabinet full configuration of the USN9810. Back boards are in the upper part and

Back boards are in the upper part and front boards are in the lower part.

Figure 3-8 Maximum three-cabinet full configuration

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Table 3-13 lists the board name and quantity for the maximum three-cabinet full configuration.

Table 3-15 Board name and quantity for the maximum three-cabinet full configuration

Board Name

Board Quantity

SMM

16

SDM (Not show in the figure)

16

OMU

2

ECU

48

EPU

44

SWU

16

USI

2

ETI

48

PFI

44

TMI

2

TSI

14

Table 3-14 lists the technical specifications of the USN9810 when the maximum three-cabinet full configuration is used.

Table 3-16 Specifications of the USN9810 when the maximum three-cabinet full configuration is used

User Attach at the Same Time

PDP Active at the Same Time

UMTS

GPRS

Throughput

Throughput

12 millions

22 millions

20 Gbit/s

3.84 Gbit/s

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4 Operation and Maintenance

The USN9810 offers abundant services and functions, and meets the requirements of multiple networks and operations.

4.1 Overview

This part briefs the operation and maintenance system in the network, interfaces, and functions.

4.2 Benefits

The operation and maintenance (O&M) system of the USN9810 has the following features:

Flexible O&M methods

The O&M system can be flexibly built according to the network structure and customer requirements. Multiple maintenance interfaces are supported, including the interfaces to the local maintenance terminal (LMT), the Huawei centralized network management system iManager M2000. Through the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) interface provided by the iManager M2000, more network management requirements can be fulfilled.

Friendly user interfaces

The USN9810 provides O&M interfaces that combines the merits of both man-machine language (MML) and graphic user interface (GUI).

Web UI-based maintenance operation and performance browse

The Web UI-based maintenance operation and performance browse are added. That is, certain maintenance operations and performance browse are implemented on the Web.

Powerful signaling tracing

The USN9810 provides interface tracing, subscriber tracing, and entire-process tracing. It is a powerful tool for equipment maintenance.

Interface tracing tasks can be performed on interfaces such as the Gb, Iu, Gn, Gp, Gs, Gd, Gr, Ga, S1-MME, S6a, S10, and S11 interface or performed for the protocols such as SCCP, MTP3B, SAAL, DIAMETER, and S1AP.

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The subscriber tracing traces the messages of the specified IMSI or mobile station international ISDN number (MSISDN).

The entire-process tracing traces how the packets with specified characteristics are transmitted between modules and calculate the number of packets of the same characteristics processed in each module. This is used to locate the problems during packet transmission such as protocol handling errors, packet loss, delay, packet fault, or sequence disorder.

Operators can save the trace results to handle any queries in the future.

Configuration rollback

The configuration rollback in batches is supported. Only one rollback point can be set.

One-key upgrade and installation

Software patching in function level

Through online software patching, software errors can be solved without interrupting services. The USN9810 also supports remote patching and version fallback.

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5 Technical Specification

The technical specifications of the USN9810 mainly include performance specifications, clock indexes, physical interfaces, engineering parameters, and reliability parameters.

5.1 Performance Specifications

Table 5-1 and 0 list the performance specifications of the USN9810.

Table 5-1 Performance specifications of the USN9810 (4G)

Parameter

Value

Number of subscribers supported by the system

12

million

Number of bearers supported by the system

24

million

Number of bearers activated by a UE at the same time

11

Number of eNodeBs supported by the system

50,000

Number of S-GWs and P-GWs supported by the system at the same time

3,000

Table 5-2 Performance specifications of the USN9810 (2.5G/3G)

Name

Value (2.5G)

Value (3G)

Maximum number of attached subscribers

12

million

12

million

Maximum number of PDP context can be activated at the same time

24

million

24

million

Maximum packet data transfer capacity (pps)

1.1

million

12

million

Maximum packet data transfer flow

3.6

Gbit/s

48

Gbit/s

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5.2 Physical Interfaces

Error! Reference source not found. lists the types and numbers of external physical interfaces provided by the USN9810.

Table 5-3 Physical interfaces provided by the USN9810

Interfaces

Physical

Characteristics

Protocol

Maximum

 

ports

S1-MME/S6a/

GEGigabit

IP/MAC

384

S10/S11/S3/S

Ethernet

Gs/S4/Sv

FEFast Ethernet

IP/MAC

384

Iu

Gigabit

IP/MAC

384

Ethernet(GE)

10 Gigabit Ethernet

IP/MAC

48

(10GE)

Fast Ethernet(FE)

IP/MAC

384

STM-1

ATM

384

(single-mode and

multi-mode)

STM-4

ATM

192

(single-mode and

multi-mode)

Gn, Gp, Ga, X1-1, X2, and

GE

IP/MAC

384

     

X3

10GE

IP/MAC

48

FE

IP/MAC

384

STM-1

IP over ATM (IPOA)

384

STM-4

IPOA

192

Gb

E1/T1

FR

1536

GE

IP/MAC

384

FE

IP/MAC

384

10GE

IP/MAC

48

Channelized STM-1

FR

96

SS7

E1/T1

SS7

100 2 Mbit/s signaling links or 1,600 64 kbit/s signaling links

Channelized STM-1

SS7

48

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Interfaces

Physical

Characteristics

Protocol

Maximum

 

ports

 

GE

IP/MAC

384

FE

IP/MAC

384

10GE

IP/MAC

48

O&M

FE

IP

2

384 10GE IP/MAC 48 O&M FE IP 2 The USN9810 supports a maximum of 384 FE

The USN9810 supports a maximum of 384 FE and GE interfaces.

5.3 Clock Indexes

Table 5-4 lists the primary technical parameters of the clock system in the USN9810.

Table 5-4 Technical parameters of the clock system in the USN9810

Sequence

Name

Index and Function

No.

1

Clock

Minimum

Stratum-2: ± 4 x 10 -7

network-e

accuracy

Stratum-3: ± 4.6 x 10 -6

ntry

   

parameters

Pull-in range

Stratum-2: ± 4 x 10 -7

Stratum-3: ± 4.6 x 10 -6

Maximum

Stratum-2: 5 x 10 -10 per day

frequency

Stratum-3: 2 x 10 -8 per day

deviation

Initial

Stratum-2: less than 5 x 10 -10 per day

maximum

Stratum-3: less than 1 x 10 -8 per day

frequency

deviation

 

2

Long-term

Ideal

MRTIE 1 ms

phase

working state

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Sequence

Name

Index and Function

No.

 

variation

Hold-in

MRTIE (ns) a x s + (1/2) x b x s2 +

working state

c

Where s refers to the time whose units is second, and the unit of MRTIE is ns.

Stratum-2:

a = 0.5

b = 1.16 x 10-5

c = 1000

Stratum-3:

a = 10

b = 2.3 x 10-4

c = 1000

3

Working

Fast tracking

modes of

Tracing

 

the clock

Retaining

Free running

4

Input jitter

For details, see Figure 5-1.

tolerance

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HUAWEI USN9810 Unified Service Node Product Description Minimum accuracy: maximum deviation value of nominal frequency in

Minimum accuracy: maximum deviation value of nominal frequency in a long period (20 years) without external frequency benchmark, that is, the clock is in free running state.

Maximum frequency deviation: a maximum value of the clock's relative frequency change in a UI during a consecutive operation process.

Pull-in range: maximum frequency bandwidth of the input signal locked by a clock

MRTIE: The MRTIE extracts the offset that appears in measurements performed with local reference clocks.

Figure 5-1 Maximum permissible lower limit of input jitter and wander

Y (UI)

Peak-to-peak jitter and wander amplitude (logarithm)

10 2 A 0 =36.9 10 1 Slope: 20dB / 10 times of frequency interval
10 2
A 0 =36.9
10 1
Slope: 20dB / 10 times of frequency interval
A 1 =1.5
1
A 2 =0.2
10 -1
X
1.2
10 -5 10
20
2.4 k
18 k
100 k
f (Hz)

When the jitter frequency of an input frequency is 1 kHz and the amplitude is more than 1.5 UI, you can infer that the input signal meets the requirements if the system operates normally.

meets the requirements if the system operates normally. UI refers to the unit of time interval.

UI refers to the unit of time interval. One UI equals the reciprocal of the frequency of the digital signal. For example, the UI of the 2.048 Mbit/s signal is 488 ns.

5.4 Engineering Parameters

5.4.1 Power Input and Typical Power Consumption

Table 5-5 Power input and typical power consumption of the USN9810

Parameter

Value

Power Input

-40 V to -57 V DC

Power consumption for full configuration of one subrack

1700 W

Maximum power consumption

3 cabinets with 9 subracks (1 pair of OMUs, 24 pairs of ECUs, and 24 pairs of EPUs): 14,650 W

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5.4.2 Dimensions and Weight of a Cabinet

Table 5-6 lists the dimensions and weight of a USN9810 cabinet.

Table 5-6 Dimensions and weight of a USN9810 cabinet

Parameter

Value

Cabinet dimensions (H x W x D)

2200 mm x 600 mm x 800 mm

Cabinet weight

100 kg (with empty cabinet), < 400 kg (with full configuration)

5.4.3 Noise

Table 5-6 lists the noise of a USN9810.

Table 5-7 Noise of a USN9810

Parameter

Value

Noise (acoustic power)

72 dBA at 23°C (The noise varies with the ambient temperature.)

5.5 EMC Specifications

The USN9810 complies with the following electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) specifications:

ETSI EN 300 386V1.3.3: 2005

AS/NZS CISPR 22: 2004

CISPR 22: 2002 CLASSA

EN 55022: 1998 + A1: 2000+A2: 2003 CLASSA

EN 55024:1998 + A1:2001 + A2:2003

FCC part 15:2006

VCCI V-3: 2006

CISPR 24: 1997

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5.5.1 Environment Requirements

5.5.2 Storage Environment

Climatic Requirements

Table 5-8 lists the climatic requirements.

Table 5-8 Climatic requirements

Item

 

Range

Altitude

5000 m

Air pressure

70 kPa–106 kPa

Temperature

-40to +70

Temperature change rate

1/min

Relative humidity

10%–100%

Solar radiation

1120 W/s²

Heat radiation

600 W/s²

Wind speed

30 m/s

Biological Requirements

The biological requirements of the USN9810 in storage are as follows:

The environment should not be conducive for the growth of fungus or mildew.

There should be no rodents such as rats.

Air Purity Requirements

The air purity requirements of the USN9810 in storage are as follows:

The air must be free of explosive, conductive, magnetic conductive, or corrosive dust.

The density of physically active materials must comply with the requirements listed in Table 5-9.

Table 5-9 Requirements for the density of physically active materials

Physically Active Material

Unit

Density

Suspended dust

mg/m³

5.00

Falling dust

mg/m²·h

20.0

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Physically Active Material

Unit

Density

Sand

mg/m³

300

Note:

Suspended dust: diameter 75 µm

 

Falling dust: 75 µm diameter 150 µm

Sand: 150 µm diameter 1,000 µm

The density of chemically active materials must comply with the requirements listed in Table 5-10.

Table 5-10 Requirements for the density of chemically active materials

Chemically Active Material

Unit

Density

 

SO 2

mg/m³

0.301.00

H

2 S

mg/m³

0.100.50

 

NO 2

mg/m³

0.501.00

 

NH 3

mg/m³

1.003.00

Cl

2

mg/m³

0.100.30

 

HCl

mg/m³

0.100.50

HF

mg/m³

0.010.03

O

3

mg/m³

0.050.10

Mechanical Stress Requirements

Table 5-11 lists the mechanical stress requirements

Table 5-11 Mechanical stress requirements

Item

Sub-Item

Range

 

Sinusoidal

Offset

7.0 mm

-

vibration

Accelerated speed

-

20.0 m/s²

Frequency range

2 Hz to 9 Hz

9 Hz to 200 Hz

Unsteady impact

Impact response

250 m/s²

spectrum II

 

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Item

Sub-Item

Range

 

Static payload

5 kPa

Note:

Impact response spectrum: refers to the maximum acceleration response curve generated by the equipment under specified impact excitation.

Static payload: refers to the capability of the equipment to bear the pressure from the top when it is packed in the stack method.

Waterproof Requirements

Table 5-12 lists the waterproof requirements

Table 5-12 Waterproof requirements

Item

Requirement

Being stored

Water should not accumulate on the ground or fall on the package.

indoors

The equipment should be located away from water sources such as hydrant and air-conditioner.

(recommended)

Being stored

The package is intact.

outdoors

Waterproof measures are taken to prevent water penetration.

Measures are taken to prevent exposure to sunlight from damaging the package

Water does not accumulate on the ground or fall on the package.

5.5.3 Transport Environment

Climatic Requirements

Table 5-13 lists the climatic requirements.

Table 5-13 Climatic requirements

Item

Range

Altitude

5,000 m

Air pressure

70 kPa to 106 kPa

Temperature

-40to +70

Temperature change rate

1 /min

Relative humidity

5%100%

Solar radiation

1,120 W/s²

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Item