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You are on page 1of 31

(a) P =

28.1

( V )2

becomes

(b) V = IR

= IR + Ir

20.0 W =

(11.6 V)2

R

so

11.6 V = I (6.73 )

so

and

so

R = 6.73

I = 1.72 A

Solution

r = 1.97

Goal Solution

A battery has an emf of 15.0 V. The terminal voltage of the battery is 11.6 V when it is delivering 20.0 W

of power to an external load resistor R. (a) What is the value of R? (b) What is the internal resistance of

the battery?

G: The internal resistance of a battery usually is less than 1 , with physically larger batteries having less

resistance due to the larger anode and cathode areas. The voltage of this battery drops significantly

(23%), when the load resistance is added, so a sizable amount of current must be drawn from the

battery. If we assume that the internal resistance is about 1 , then the current must be about 3 A to

give the 3.4 V drop across the batterys internal resistance. If this is true, then the load resistance

must be about R 12 V / 3 A = 4 .

O: We can find R exactly by using Joules law for the power delivered to the load resistor when the

voltage is 11.6 V. Then we can find the internal resistance of the battery by summing the electric

potential differences around the circuit.

A : (a)

R=

V 2 (11.6 V )

=

= 6.73

P

20.0 W

2

(b) The electromotive force of the battery must equal the voltage drops across the resistances:

= IR + Ir , where I = V R.

r=

I

11.6 V

L : The resistance of the battery is larger than 1 , but it is reasonable for an old battery or for a battery

consisting of several small electric cells in series. The load resistance agrees reasonably well with our

prediction, despite the fact that the batterys internal resistance was about twice as large as we

assumed. Note that in our initial guess we did not consider the power of the load resistance;

however, there is not sufficient information to accurately solve this problem without this data.

28.2

(a) Vterm = IR

becomes

10.0 V = I (5.60 )

so

I = 1.79 A

(b) Vterm = Ir

becomes

so

10.4 V

3.00 V

The total resistance is R = 0.600 A = 5.00

28.3

(b)

28.4

2

P batteries (0.408 )I

=

2 = 0.0816 = 8.16%

(5.00 )I

P total

(a) Here

Then,

= I(R + r),

so I =

R + r

12.6 V

= 2.48 A

(5.00 + 0.0800 )

(b) Let I1 and I 2 be the currents flowing through the battery and the headlights, respectively.

28.5

I1r I 2 R = 0

Then,

I1 = I 2 + 35.0 A , and

so

giving

I 2 = 1.93 A

Thus,

Therefore, (2.00 A)R 1 = (1.60 A)(R 1 + 3.00 ) or R 1 = 12.0

28.6

(a) Rp =

(1 7.00 ) + (1 10.0 )

= 4.12

(b) V = IR

34.0 V = I (17.1 )

I = 1.99 A for 4.00 , 9.00 resistors

Applying V = IR,

*28.7

8.18 V = I (7.00 )

so

8.18 V = I (10.0 )

so

1

2

5

1

= 500 + 250 = 500

R

*28.8

and

R = 100

I=

P

75.0 W

=

= 0.625 A

V

120 V

and

V

120 V

R = I = 0.625 A = 192

I=

120 V

= 0.620 A

193.6

so its power is P = (V)I = 119 V(0.620 A) = 73.8 W

28.9

same as Figure (a). The 20.0- and 5.00- resistors are in series, so

the first reduction is as shown in (b). In addition, since the 10.0-,

5.00-, and 25.0- resistors are then in parallel, we can solve for

their equivalent resistance as:

Req =

1

1

10.0

1

5.00

1

25.0

= 2.94

shown in (d).

Next, we work backwards through the diagrams applying

I = V/R and V = IR. The 12.94- resistor is connected across

25.0-V, so the current through the battery in every diagram is

25.0 V

V

= 1.93 A

I= R =

12.94

(a)

resistor to give a potential difference of:

V = IR = (1.93 A)(2.94 ) = 5.68 V

From Figure (b), we see that this potential difference is the same

across Vab, the 10- resistor, and the 5.00- resistor.

(b)

(a) Since the current through the 20.0- resistor is also the current

through the 25.0- line ab,

5.68 V

Vab

=

= 0.227 A = 227 mA

I =R

ab

25.0

28.10

l l l l

(120 V )

120 V = IReq = I

+

+

+

, or I l =

1

A1 A2 A3 A4

1

1

1

+

+

+

A1 A2 A3 A4

V 2 =

I l

=

A2

(120 V )

= 29.5 V

1

1

1

1

A2

+

+

+

A1 A2 A3 A4

(c)

(d)

28.11

(a) Since all the current flowing in the circuit must pass through the

series 100- resistor, P = RI 2

P max = RI max 2 so

P

=

R

I max =

1

1

R eq = 100 +

+

100

100

25.0 W

= 0.500 A

100

= 150

(b) P = (V)I = (75.0 V)(0.500 A) = 37.5 W

P 1 = 25.0 W

28.12

Using 2.00-, 3.00-, 4.00- resistors, there are 7 series, 4 parallel, and 6 mixed combinations:

Series

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

28.13

6.00

7.00

9.00

Parallel

Mixed

0.923 1.56

1.20

2.00

1.33

2.22

1.71

3.71

4.33

5.20

V = IR = 3I

1

R

1

1

+ 500

R

1 + 500 = 3

28.14

total power

1

1

=3

+

R 500

so

and

R = 1000 = 1.00 k

I = / ( R + R)

and

P = 2 R / ( R + R)2

I = / (R + R / 2)

and

P = 2 ( R / 2) / (R + R / 2)2

Then,

2 R

( R + R)

2 R

2(R + R / 2)2

2R 2 + 2RR + R 2 / 2 = R 2 + 2RR + R 2

The condition becomes

R 2 = R 2 / 2

so

R = 2 R = 2 (1.00 ) = 1.41

28.15

Rp =

1

1

+

3.00 1.00

= 0.750

I battery =

V 18.0 V

=

= 2.67 A

Rs 6.75

P = I 2 R:

P 2 = ( 2.67 A ) ( 2.00 )

2

P 2 = 14.2 W in 2.00

P 4 = ( 2.67 A ) ( 4.00 ) = 28.4 W

2

V p = 18.0 V V 2 V 4 = 2.00 V

28.16

(= V3 = V1 )

P3 =

( V3 )2 = (2.00 V)2

= 1.33 W

in 3.00

P1 =

2

( V1 )2 = (2.00 V)

= 4.00 W

in 1.00

R3

R1

3.00

1.00

in 4.00

1

1

1

x + y = 690, and 150 =

x + y

1

1

1

(690 x) + x

150 = x + 690 x = x(690 x)

x 2 690x + 103,500 = 0

x=

2

x = 470

y = 220

28.17

(a) V = IR :

I1 = 3.00 A

P = I 2 R:

I 2 = 1.50 A

P 1 = ( 3.00 A ) (11.0 )

P 2 = (1.50 A ) ( 22.0 )

P 1 = 99.0 W

P 2 = 49.5 W

P = I ( V ) = ( 4.50)( 33.0) = 148 W

(b) P 1 + P 2 = 148 W

V = IR :

P = I 2 R:

P 1 = (1.00 A ) (11.0 )

P 2 = (1.00 A ) ( 22.0 )

P 1 = 11.0 W

P 2 = 22.0 W

(d) P 1 + P 2 = I 2 ( R1 + R2 ) = (1.00 A ) ( 33.0 ) = 33.0 W

2

(e)

28.18

5.00 = 7.00I1

so

I1 = 0.714 A

so

I2 = 1.29 A

I3 = I1 + I2 = 2.00 A

0.714 + I2 = 2.00

+ 2.00(1.29) (5.00)(2.00) = 0

= 12.6 V

28.19

From Kirchhoff's current rule,

I3 = I1 + I2

12.0 V (4.00)I3 (6.00)I2 4.00 V = 0

8.00 = (4.00)I3 + (6.00)I2

Applying Kirchhoff's voltage rule to the loop containing I1 and I2 ,

(6.00)I2 4.00 V + (8.00)I1 = 0

(8.00)I1 = 4.00 + (6.00)I2

Solving the above linear systems, I1 = 846 mA,

I2 = 462 mA,

I3 = 1.31 A

All currents flow in the directions indicated by the arrows in the circuit diagram.

*28.21

(a) By the 4.00-V battery:

By the 12.0-V battery:

(b) By the 8.00 resistor:

12.0 V (1.31 A) 120 s = 1.88 kJ

I 2 Rt = (0.846 A)2(8.00 ) 120 s = 687 J

By the 1.00 r e s i s t o r :

28.22

[1]

[2]

[3]

I2 = I1 + I3

equations yields

I1 = 0.385 mA (through R 1)

I3 = 2.69 mA (through R 3)

I2 = 3.08 mA (through R 2)

(b) V cf = 60.0 V (3.08 mA)(3.00 k) = 69.2 V

Point c is at higher potential.

28.23

Reduce the circuit by combining the two parallel resistors as

shown in the second figure.

Apply Kirchhoffs loop rule to both loops in Figure (b) to

obtain:

and

(a)

yields:

I1 = 10.0 mA and I 2 = 130.0 mA

From Figure (b), Vc V a = ( I1 + I 2 )(1.71R) = 240 V

Thus, from Figure (a), I 4 =

Vc V a

240 V

=

= 60.0 mA

4000

4R

I = I 4 I1 = 60.0 mA 10.0 mA = + 50.0 mA ,

or

(b)

28.24

w + x + z = y. Loop equations are

Then

80.0x + 40.0 + 360 20.0y = 0

+ 360 20.0y 70.0z + 80.0 = 0

Eliminate y by substitution.

x = 2.50 w + 0.500

440 20.0 w 20.0 x 90.0 z = 0

Eliminate x :

w = 70.0/70.0 = 1.00 A upward in 200

z = 4.00 A upward in 70.0

Now

y = 8.00 A downward in 20.0

and for the 200 ,

28.25

12.0 (0.0100) I1 (0.0600) I 3 = 0

10.0 + (1.00) I 2 (0.0600) I 3 = 0

and I1 = I 2 + I 3

12.0 (0.0100) I 2 (0.0700) I 3 = 0

10.0 + (1.00) I 2 (0.0600) I 3 = 0

Solving simultaneously,

dead battery,

I 2 = 0.283 A downward

in the

28.26

V ab = (1.00) I1 + (1.00)( I1 I 2 )

V ab = (1.00) I1 + (1.00) I 2 + ( 5.00)( I I1 + I 2 )

V ab = ( 3.00)( I I1 ) + ( 5.00)( I I1 + I 2 )

Let I = 1.00 A , I1 = x, and I 2 = y

Then, the three equations become:

V ab = 2.00 x y , or y = 2.00 x V ab

V ab = 4.00 x + 6.00 y + 5.00

and

7.00V ab = 8.00 x + 5.00 and 6.00V ab = 2.00 x + 8.00

Solving these simultaneously yields V ab =

Then, Rab =

28.27

V ab 27 17 V

=

I

1.00 A

27

V

17

Rab =

or

(a) I1 = I2 + I3

Counterclockwise around the top loop,

12.0 V (2.00 )I3 (4.00 )I1 = 0

Traversing the bottom loop,

8.00 V (6.00 )I2 + (2.00 )I3 = 0

1

I1 = 3.00 2 I3

I2 = 3 + 3 I 3

V b V a = 1.82 V

and

I3 = 909 mA

27

17

We apply Kirchhoff's rules to the second diagram.

28.28

(1)

(2)

I1 = I2 + I3

(3)

Substitute (3) into (1), and solve for I1, I2, and I3

I1 = 20.0 A;

I2 = 5.00 A;

I3 = 15.0 A

(2.00 )1 :

(4.00 ) :

(2.00 )3 :

28.29

2

5.00

P = 2 A (4.00 ) = 25.0 W

(b) Q = C = (5.00 106 C)(30.0 V) = 150 C

(c)

28.30

I(t) =

e t/RC =

R

30.0

10.0

exp

= 4.06 A

6

6

6

1.00 10

(1.00 10 )(5.00 10 )

Q

5.10 106 C

I0 = RC =

= 1.96 A

(1300 )(2.00 109 F)

9.00 106 s

= 61.6 mA

9

(1300 )(2.00 10 F)

8.00 106 s

= 0.235 C

9

(1300 )(2.00 10 F)

(c) The magnitude of the current is

I0 = 1.96 A

28.31

2

U = 1 C ( V )

and

V = Q C

Therefore, U = Q 2 2C and when the charge decreases to half its original value, the stored

energy is one-quarter its original value:

28.32

U f = 1 U0

4

(b) = (1.00 105 )(10.0 106 F) = 1.00 s

10.0 V

= 200 A

50.0 103

10.0 V t/ 1.00 s

I = I0et/RC =

3 e

100 10

28.33

(a) Call the potential at the left junction V L and at the right V R .

"long" time, the capacitor is fully charged.

VL = 8.00 V because of voltage divider:

IL =

10.0 V

5.00

After a

= 2.00 A

Likewise,

2.00

VR =

10.0 V = 2.00 V

2.00 + 8.00

or

IR =

10.0 V

= 1.00 A

10.0

V = VL VR = 8.00 2.00 = 6.00 V

Therefore,

R=

1

= 3.60

(1/ 9.00 ) + (1/ 6.00 )

RC = 3.60 106 s

and

et/RC =

1

10

so

t = RC ln 10 = 8.29 s

28.34

)(

(b) I =

e t/RC

12.0

e t/12.0 s

6

4.00 10

q = 36.0 C 1 e t/12.0

28.35

V0 =

I = 3.00 Ae t/12.0

Q

C

Then, if

q(t) = Qe t/RC

V(t) = V0 e t/RC

V (t )

= e t/RC

V0

4.00

1

= exp

R 3.60 10 6

2

Therefore

ln

4.00

1

=

2

R 3.60 10 6

R = 1.60 M

28.36

V0 =

Q

C

Then, if q(t) = Q e t RC

V(t) = ( V0 ) e t RC

and

( V0 )

When V(t) =

V(t)

1

( V0 ) , then

2

e t RC =

Thus,

= e t RC

1

2

t

1

= ln 2

= ln

2

RC

R=

t

C(ln 2)

28.37

28.38

so

q(t)

= 1 e t/RC

Q

0.600 = 1 e 0.900/RC

or

0.900

= ln(0.400)

RC

thus

RC =

I g (75.0 ) + I I g Rp = 0

q(t) = Q 1 e t/RC

0.900

= 0.982 s

ln(0.400)

Rp =

28.39

I g (75.0 )

(I Ig )

(1.50 10

A (75.0 )

1.00 A 1.50 10 3 A

= 0.113

25.0 = 1.50 10-3(Rs + 75.0)

V = IR:

Rs = 16.6 k

Solving,

Solution

Goal Solution

The galvanometer described in the preceding problem can be used to measure voltages. In this case a

large resistor is wired in series with the galvanometer in a way similar to that shown in Figure P28.24b

This arrangement, in effect, limits the current that flows through the galvanometer when large voltages

are applied. Most of the potential drop occurs across the resistor placed in series. Calculate the value of

the resistor that enables the galvanometer to measure an applied voltage of 25.0 V at full-scale deflection.

G: The problem states that the value of the resistor must be large in order to limit the current through

the galvanometer, so we should expect a resistance of k to M.

O: The unknown resistance can be found by applying the definition of resistance to the portion of the

circuit shown in Figure 28.24b.

Rg = 75.0 . For the two resistors in series,

A : V ab = 25.0 V; From Problem 38, I = 1.50 mA and

Req = Rs + Rg so the definition of resistance gives us: V ab = I(Rs + Rg )

Therefore,

Rs =

V ab

25.0 V

Rg =

75.0 = 16.6 k

I

1.50 10 3 A

L : The resistance is relatively large, as expected. It is important to note that some caution would be

necessary if this arrangement were used to measure the voltage across a circuit with a comparable

resistance. For example, if the circuit resistance was 17 k, the voltmeter in this problem would

cause a measurement inaccuracy of about 50%, because the meter would divert about half the current

that normally would go through the resistor being measured. Problems 46 and 59 address a similar

concern about measurement error when using electrical meters.

28.40

We will use the values required for the 1.00-V voltmeter to obtain the internal resistance of the

galvanometer.

V = Ig (R + rg)

Solve for rg :

rg =

V

1.00 V

R=

900 = 100

Ig

1.00 10-3 A

We then obtain the series resistance required for the 50.0-V voltmeter:

R=

28.41

V

50.0 V

Ig rg = 1.00 10-3 A 100 = 49.9 k

V = I g r g = I I g Rp , or Rp =

I grg

(I Ig )

I g (60.0 )

(I Ig )

Rp =

(0.500 mA)(60.0 ) =

99.5 mA

0.302

Solution

Goal Solution

Assume that a galvanometer has an internal resistance of 60.0 and requires a current of

0.500 mA to produce full-scale deflection. What resistance must be connected in parallel with the

galvanometer if the combination is to serve as an ammeter that has a full-scale deflection for a current of

0.100 A?

G: An ammeter reads the flow of current in a portion of a circuit; therefore it must have a low resistance

so that it does not significantly alter the current that would exist without the meter. Therefore, the

resistance required is probably less than 1 .

O: From the values given for a full-scale reading, we can find the voltage across and the current through

the shunt (parallel) resistor, and the resistance value can then be found from the definition of

resistance.

A : The voltage across the galvanometer must be the same as the voltage across the shunt resistor i n

parallel, so when the ammeter reads full scale,

V = (0.500 mA )(60.0 ) = 30.0 mV

Through the shunt resistor,

Therefore,

R=

V 30.0 mV

=

= 0.302

I

99.5 mA

L : The shunt resistance is less than 1 as expected. It is important to note that some caution would be

necessary if this meter were used in a circuit that had a low resistance. For example, if the circuit

resistance was 3 , adding the ammeter to the circuit would reduce the current by about 10%, so the

current displayed by the meter would be lower than without the meter. Problems 46 and 59 address a

similar concern about measurement error when using electrical meters.

R 2R 3

28.43

2.50 R 2

1000

= 400

2.50

Rx =

R1

R 2R 3

28.42

( 21.0 ) I1 + (14.0 ) I 2 = 0, so I1 =

21.0

2

I2

3

I2

+

70.0 V

28.44

R=

L

L

and Ri = i

A

Ai

But, V = AL = Ai Li , so R =

L2

V

and Ri =

2

Li 1 + ( L Li )

( Li + L)

=

Therefore, R =

V

V

28.45

x = s ; = s Rx

x

Rs

Rs

Rs

7.00

I2 - Ig

( )

Ig

14.0

10.0 4.00 2 I 2 = I g ,

7.00

I1 + Ig

I1

L2i

V

= Ri [1 + ]

R = R i (1 + 2 + 2)

48.0

=

(1.0186 V) = 1.36 V

36.0

where

L

L

*28.46 (a) In Figure (a), the emf sees an

equivalent

resistance

of

200.00 .

6.0000 V

6.000 0 V

I=

= 0.030 000 A

200.00

20.000

20.000

20.000

180.00

180.00

180.00

(a)

(b)

(c)

1

1

Req =

+

180.00 20 000

= 178.39

I=

6.000 0 V

= 0.030 167 A

198.89

1

1

180.50 + 20 000

= 178.89

I=

6.000 0 V

= 0.030 168 A

198.89

The voltmeter reads

I=

V 5.396 6 V

=

= 0.029 898 A

R

180.50

The connection shown in Figure (c) is better than that shown in Figure (b) for accurate readings.

28.47

(a) P = I(V)

I=

P

1500 W

=

= 12.5 A

V

120 V

750 W

I = 120 W = 6.25 A

1000 W

I = 120 V = 8.33 A (Grill)

sufficient.

The current draw is greater than 25.0 amps, so this would not be

28.48

(a) P = I 2 R = I 2

2

8

l (1.00 A) (1.70 10 m)(16.0 ft)(0.3048 m / ft)

=

= 0.101 W

A

(0.512 10 3 m)2

28.49

2

2

I Al

RAl = I Cu

RCu

I Al =

so

RCu

Cu

I Cu =

I Cu =

RAl

Al

1.70

(20.0) = 0.776(20.0) = 15.5 A

2.82

*28.50 (a) Suppose that the insulation between either of your fingers and the conductor adjacent is a

chunk of rubber with contact area 4 mm 2 and thickness 1 mm. Its resistance is

R=

)(

13

3

l 10 m 10 m

2 1015

A

4 10 6 m 2

2 1015 + 10 4 + 2 1015 5 1015

It is: I =

V

120 V

~

R

5 1015

~ 10 14 A

(b) The resistors form a voltage divider, with the center of your hand at potential V h 2 , where V h

is the potential of the "hot" wire. The potential difference between your finger and thumb is

V = IR ~ 10 14 A 10 4 ~ 10 10 V . So the points where the rubber meets your fingers are at

potentials of

*28.51

Vh

+ 10 10 V

2

)(

and

Vh

10 10 V

2

The set of four batteries boosts the electric potential of each bit of charge that goes through them

by 4 1.50 V = 6.00 V. The chemical energy they store is

U = qV = (240 C)(6.00 J/C) = 1440 J

The radio draws current

6.00 V

V

= 0.0300 A

I= R =

200

E

1440 J

=

= 8.00 10 3 s

P 0.180 J / s

t=

240 C

Q

t = I = 0.0300 A = 8.00 103 s = 2.22 h

*28.52

I=

R+r

Let x

2R

or

( R + r )2 =

( R + r )2 = xR

or

R 2 + ( 2r x )R r 2 = 0

, so P = I 2 R =

2 ,

P

then

( R + r )2

2

R

P

R 2 + ( 2.40 x )R 1.44 = 0,

R=

(a) With

= 9.20 V and

P = 12.8 W , x = 6.61:

R=

( 2.40 x )

2

( 4.21)2 5.76

+ 4.21

3.84

1.59 3.22

2

or

0.375

(b) For

= 9.20 V and

P = 21.2 W, x

2 = 3.99

R=

(1.59)2 5.76

+1.59

The equation for the load resistance yields a complex number, so there is no resistance that will

extract 21.2 W from this battery. The maximum power output occurs when R = r = 1.20 , and

that maximum is: P max = 2 4r = 17.6 W

28.53

so

I = 2.00 A

Thus,

28.54

3.00 10 5 R

R=

3.00 10 5 R

or

and

( 3.00 s )

4.00 V = (10.0 V )1 e

Using 1 Farad = 1 s ,

V (t ) = Vmax 1 e t RC

= 0.600

3.00 10 5

= ln(0.600)

R

3.00 10 5

= + 5.87 10 5 = 587 k

ln(0.600)

R 10.0 10 6 s

28.55

Ps

225 W

=

= 9.00

2

I

( 5.00 A)2

Then,

Rs = x + y =

and

Pp

xy

50.0 W

Rp =

= 2 =

= 2.00

x+y I

( 5.00 A)2

so

x(9.00 x )

= 2.00

x + (9.00 x )

y = 9.00 x

x

y

x 2 9.00 x + 18.0 = 0

( x 6.00)( x 3.00) = 0

so

x = 6.00 or x = 3.00

y = 3.00

or

28.56

Then, Rs = x + y =

Pp

xy

Ps

and Rp =

= 2.

2

x+y I

I

becomes

x Ps I 2 x

x + Ps I x

2

Pp

I

Ps

x , and the second

I2

Ps Pp

P

or x 2 2s x + 4 = 0.

I

I

Then, y =

P s P s2 4P s P p

2I 2

P s > P s2 4P s P p

Ps

.

x

gives

y

=

2I 2

I2

P s + P s2 4P s P p

2I 2

and

P s P s2 4P s P p

2I 2

y = 6.00

28.57

(a)

Vter = Ir =

(b)

I=

(c)

P = I 2R = 2

R+r

R+r

R+r

and

Vter as R

and

as R 0

R

(R + r)2

2 2 R

dP

2 = 0

= 2 R(2)(R + r)3 + 2 (R + r)2 =

+

dR

(R + r)3 (R + r)2

Then

2R = R + r

Solution

R=r

and

Goal Solution

A battery has an emf and internal resistance r. A variable resistor R is connected across the terminals of

the battery. Determine the value of R such that (a) the potential difference across the terminals is a

maximum, (b) the current in the circuit is a maximum, (c) the power delivered to the resistor is a

maximum.

G: If we consider the limiting cases, we can imagine that the potential across the battery will be a

maximum when R = (open circuit), the current will be a maximum when R = 0 (short circuit), and

the power will be a maximum when R is somewhere between these two extremes, perhaps when

R = r.

O: We can use the definition of resistance to find the voltage and current as functions of R, and the

power equation can be differentiated with respect to R.

A : (a) The battery has a voltage

Vterminal = Ir =

I=

P = I 2R =

R

R+r

or as R , Vterminal

or as R 0,

R+r

2R

(R + r)2

To maximize the power P as a function of R, we differentiate with respect to R, and require that

dP /dR = 0

2 2 R

dP

2 = 0

= 2 R(2)(R + r)3 + 2 (R + r)2 =

+

3

dR

(R + r)

(R + r)2

Then 2R = R + r and

R=r

L : The results agree with our predictions. Making load resistance equal to the source resistance to

maximize power transfer is called impedance matching.

28.58

(a)

I(R) (1 + 2 ) = 0

40.0 V (4.00 A)[(2.00 + 0.300 + 0.300 + R)] (6.00 + 6.00) V = 0;

P = I 2 R = ( 4.00 A ) ( 2.00 ) =

2

so

R = 4.40

32.0 W

28.59

(a)

I = current measured by the ammeter.

(a) When using circuit (a), IRR = V = 20 000(I IR)

or

solution

V

V

and IR = R , we have

But since I = R

m

IR

and

R = 20 000

(R R m )

0.0500

R

(b) When using circuit (b),

But since IR =

V

Rm ,

(b)

R = 20 000 1

IR

R

= R

m

(R R m)

Rm

(1)

R 1050

IRR = V IR (0.5 ).

Rm = (0.500 + R)

(R m R)

0.0500

R

R 10.0

(2)

Goal Solution

The value of a resistor R is to be determined using the ammeter-voltmeter setup shown in Figure P28.59.

The ammeter has a resistance of 0.500 , and the voltmeter has a resistance of 20 000 . Within what

range of actual values of R will the measured values be correct to within 5.00% if the measurement is

made using (a) the circuit shown in Figure P28.59a (b) the circuit shown in Figure P28.59b?

G: An ideal ammeter has zero resistance, and an ideal voltmeter has infinite resistance, so that adding

the meter does not alter the current or voltage of the existing circuit. For the non-ideal meters in this

problem, a low values of R will give a large voltage measurement error in circuit (b), while a large

value of R will give significant current measurement error in circuit (a). We could hope that these

meters yield accurate measurements in either circuit for typical resistance values of 1 to 1 M .

O: The definition of resistance can be applied to each circuit to find the minimum and maximum current

and voltage allowed within the 5.00% tolerance range.

A : (a) In Figure P28.59a, at least a little current goes through the voltmeter, so less current flows through

the resistor than the ammeter reports, and the resistance computed by dividing the voltage by the

inflated ammeter reading will be too small. Thus, we require that V/ I = 0.950R where I is the

current through the ammeter. Call I R the current through the resistor; then I I R is the current i n

the voltmeter. Since the resistor and the voltmeter are in parallel, the voltage across the meter equals

the voltage across the resistor. Applying the definition of resistance:

V = I R R = ( I I R )( 20 000 )

Our requirement is

so

I=

I R (R + 20 000 )

20 000

IRR

0.95R

I R (R + 20 000 )

20 000

Solving,

and

1000

0.95

or

R 1.05 k

(b) If R is too small, the resistance of an ammeter in series will significantly reduce the current that

would otherwise flow through R. In Figure 28.59b, the voltmeter reading is I (0.500 ) + IR , at least a

little larger than the voltage across the resistor. So the resistance computed by dividing the inflated

voltmeter reading by the ammeter reading will be too large.

We require

V

1.05R

I

Thus,

0.500 0.0500R

so that

and

I (0.500 ) + IR

1.05R

I

R 10.0

L : The range of R values seems correct since the ammeters resistance should be less than 5% of the

smallest R value ( 0.500 0.05R means that R should be greater than 10 ), and R should be less

than 5% of the voltmeters internal resistance ( R 0.05 20 k = 1 k ). Only for the restricted range

between 10 ohms and 1000 ohms can we indifferently use either of the connections (a) and (b) for a

reasonably accurate resistance measurement. For low values of the resistance R, circuit (a) must be

used. Only circuit (b) can accurately measure a large value of R.

28.60

dE

E

= P = E I = E e 1/RC

R

dt

dE =

dE =

2 (RC)

R

t=0

t dt

t

exp

= 2C exp

RC RC

RC

2 exp

R

t

dt

RC

= 2C[0 1] = 2 C

dE

2 2t

= P = V R I = I 2 R = R 2 exp

RC

dt

R

dE = 0

2 RC

dE =

R

2C exp 2t

2t 2dt

exp

=

RC RC

RC

2

2 exp

R

2t

dt

RC

2C [0 1] = 2C

The energy finally stored in the capacitor is U = 2 C (V)2 = 2 C 2. Thus, energy is conserved:

1

2C = 12 2C + 12 2C

28.61

(a) q = C( V ) 1 e t RC

and resistor and capacitor share equally in the energy from the battery.

q = 1.00 10 6 F (10.0 V )

(b) I =

I=

(c)

= 9.93 C

dq V t RC

e

=

dt R

10.0 V 5.00

= 3.37 10 8 A = 33.7 nA

e

2.00 106

dU d 1 q 2 q dq q

I

=

=

=

dt dt 2 C C dt C

dU 9.93 10 6 C

=

3.37 10 8 A = 3.34 10 7 W = 334 nW

dt 1.00 10 6 C V

28.62

2

2

V and the switch has just closed. The voltage is V

3

3

and is decaying towards 0 V with a time constant RBC.

2

VC (t) = V e t/RBC

3

We want to know when V C(t) will reach

1

1

2

V = V e t/RBC or e t/RBC =

3

2

3

Therefore,

or

1

V.

3

t1 = R BC ln 2

1

V,

3

2

V C (t) = V V e t/(RA +RB )C

3

When V C (t) =

so

28.63

2

V,

3

2

2

V = V Ve t/(RA +RB )C

3

3

or

e t/(RA +RB )C =

t2 = (R A + R B)C ln 2

and

T = t1 + t2 = (R A + 2R B)C ln 2

R=

1

2

P = (V)2 R

=

= 240

P

60.0 W

by applying Equations 28.6 and 28.7:

Req = R1 +

1

= 240 + 120 = 360

(1/ R2 ) + (1/ R3 )

The potential difference across R 1 is

P=

I=

=

= 40.0 W

Req

360

P

=

Req

V1 = IR1 =

40.0 W 1

= A

360

3

1

A (240 ) = 80.0 V

3

V 23 = IR23 =

1

1

A

= 40.0 V

3 (1/ 240 ) + (1/ 240 )

28.64

V = IR

(a) 20.0 V = (1.00 10-3 A)(R1 + 60.0 )

R1 = 1.994 104 = 19.94 k

28.65

R 2 = 30.0 k

R 3 = 50.0 k

I g = 1.00 mA. For the 25.0 mA scale:

25.0

24.0

or

R1 + R2 + R3 =

or

49.0( R1 + R2 ) = 25.0 + R3

or

99.0R1 = 25.0 + R2 + R3

(1)

(2)

(3)

R1 = 0.260 ,

28.66

R2 = 0.261 ,

Ammeter:

I g r = 0.500 A I g (0.220 )

or

I g (r + 0.220 ) = 0.110 V

(1)

Voltmeter:

2.00 V = I g (r + 2500 )

(2)

Ig = 0.756 mA

and r = 145

R3 = 0.521

28.67

(a) After steady-state conditions have been reached, there is no DC current through the capacitor.

Thus, for R 3:

I R3 = 0 (steady-state)

For the other two resistors, the steady-state current is simply determined by the 9.00-V emf

across the 12-k and 15-k resistors in series:

For R 1 and R 2:

I(R1 +R2 ) =

R1 + R2

9.00 V

= 333 A (steady-state)

(12.0 k + 15.0 k)

(b) After the transient currents have ceased, the potential difference across C is the same as the

potential difference across R 2(= IR 2) because there is no voltage drop across R 3 . Therefore, the

charge Q on C is

Q = C (V)R2 = C (IR2) = (10.0 F)(333 A)(15.0 k ) = 50.0 C

(c) When the switch is opened, the branch containing R 1 is no longer part of the circuit. The

capacitor discharges through (R 2 + R 3) with a time constant of (R 2 + R 3)C = (15.0 k + 3.00

k )(10.0 F) = 0.180 s. The initial current Ii in this discharge circuit is determined by the initial

potential difference across the capacitor applied to (R2 + R3) in series:

Ii =

(333 A)(15.0 k)

(V)C

IR2

=

=

= 278 A

(R2 + R3 ) (R2 + R3 ) (15.0 k + 3.00 k)

changes instantaneously from 333 A (downward) to

278 A (downward) as shown in the graph. Thereafter, it

decays according to

I R2 = Ii e t/(R2 +R3 )C = (278 A)e t/(0.180 s)

(for t > 0)

according to

q = Qi e t/(R2 +R3 )C

Qi

= Qi e(t/0.180 s)

5

5 = e t/0.180 s

t

ln 5 = 180 ms

t = (0.180 s)(ln 5) = 290 ms

(a)

28.68

V = e t RC so ln

A plot of ln

1

=

t

V RC

1

versus t should be a straight line with slope =

.

V

RC

t (s)

0

4.87

11.1

19.4

30.8

46.6

67.3

102.2

ln( V )

0

0.109

0.228

0.355

0.509

0.695

0.919

1.219

V (V)

6.19

5.55

4.93

4.34

3.72

3.09

2.47

1.83

yields the graph to the right.

xi = 282 ,

Slope =

xi2 = 1.86 10 4 ,

N ( xi yi ) ( xi )( yi )

N

( ) (x )

xi2

xi yi = 244,

2

i

2

i

N=8

Intercept =

N ( x ) ( x )

= 0.0118

yi = 4.03 ,

ln

= (0.0118) t + 0.0882

V

1

1

=

= 84.7 s

slope 0.0118

84.7 s

=

= 8.47 F

R 10.0 106

i i

28.69

r

i/6

r

r

r

r

a

i/6

i/3

i/6

i/3

3 junctions at

the same potential

28.70

i/3

i/6

r

r

i/3

i/6

i/3

i/6

i/3

another set of

3 junctions at

the same potential

in Figure 1.

Rab = R1 = Ry + Ry = 2Ry

Ry =

so

1

R1

2

R1

a

Ry

Rac = R2 =

(1)

1

Ry + Rx

2

Ry

Rx

Figure 1

in Figure 2.

Thus,

R2

a

Ry

(2)

Ry

c

Rx

Figure 2

R2 =

1 1

R1 + Rx ,

22

or

Rx = R2

1

R1

4

Rx = 2.75

The antenna is inadequately grounded since this exceeds the limit of 2.00 .

28.71

Since the total current passes through R3 , that resistor will dissipate

the most power. When that resistor is operating at its power limit of

32.0 W, the current through it is

2

I total

=

P 32.0 W

=

= 16.0 A 2 , or I total = 4.00 A

R 2.00

Half of this total current (2.00 A) flows through each of the other two

resistors, so the power dissipated in each of them is:

P=

2

1

I

R

2 total

R1

R3

R2

R 1 = R2 = R3 = 2.00

28.72

R=

.00 k

= 2.00 F

2 .00 k + 3.00 k

.00 k

= 3.00 F

20 V

C = 2.00 F + 3.00 F = 5.00 F

The potential difference between point d and e in this series RC

circuit at any time is:

V = 1 e t RC = (120.0 V ) 1 e 1000t

]=

(b) Req =

1

R

=

(1/ R) + (1/ R) + (1/ R) 3

6

]=

I=

I=

3R

3

R

connection.

P series = I =

P parallel = I =

3 2

R

3R

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