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# LECTURE 7

(1)

Determination of c value

## Ratios for local buckling

cf

cw
tw

tf

The ratio of
or
is considered to check the local buckling. c f is the width of outstand of the flange and c w is
the width of web is not clearly defined in EC3-1-1. Also the radius of the corners of the sections is not specified in
both EN 10210-2 and EN 10219-2. The calculations are shown below:
For I and H sections (refer to figure 1.1 of EC3):

b t w 2r
2

b tw
r
2 2
Width of outstand of flange cf =

or

h 2t f 2r
Width of web cw =
For channel sections

c f b tw r

h 2t f 2r
Width of web cw =
For box sections

b 2t 2r
Width of flange cf =

h 2t 2r
Width of web cw =
Circular hollow sections: the ratio of the outside diameter to thickness is taken for checking local buckling.
For square and rectangular hollow sections:

c f b 3t

c w h 3t

and
For square hollow sections c f and cw are equal. The expressions for c f and cw are used for both hot roll finished and
cold roll formed sections. These equations provide conservative values of the ratio for hot formed and cold roll
formed sections.

(2)

## EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA AND SECTION MODULUS FOR

CLASS 4 SECTIONS

The cross section of a compression member may buckle before the yield stress fy is attained. Such cross sections are
defined in EC3 as class 4 sections or slender sections. Whereas those cross sections which reach yield stress before
local buckling are defined as class 1, class 2 or class 3 sections. In such cases, the whole cross sectional area is
effective and effective area is taken as the gross area of the section. For class 4 or slender cross sections, the
effective cross sectional area and section modulus is determined as explained below.
Cross sections are assumed to be composed flat plate elements. The elements do not have buckling effect when the
b/t ratio of every element of the cross section satisfies the limit given below

b
3
t

3
where

is the class 3 slenderness limit chosen appropriately from table 5.2 of EC3.

## that has been defined earlier as

is a constant

235
fy
.

Note that when a cross section is classified, each element is first separately classified considering the nature of
stresses and the boundary conditions. The classification for the section is the lowest of the classification for the
elements. Thus, if there is at least one element with class 4 classification, then the section is classified as class 4. For
such elements the effective area will be less than the gross area. The effective area of the section is calculated as the
sum of the areas of class 1,2,and 3 elements and the effective area of class 4 elements.
The effective area of class 4 element, Ac.eff is obtained from the gross area by

Ac ,eff Ac

is calculated as follows:
1.

Firstly the value of K is chosen from table 4.2 of EC3-1-5 (Design of Steel Structures: Plated structural
elements), where K is the local buckling coefficient. Two types of elements are identified namely (1) plate
elements with only one longitudinal edge simply supported and the other free and (2) elements simply
supported along both longitudinal edges.
For plate elements that are have one longitudinal edge supported and the other free the value of K =0.43
regardless of the aspect ratio. For short plates, the actual value of K increases. To determine this increase
an expression is given.
For unstiffened plate elements which are simply supported subjected to a linear stress distribution, the
buckling coefficient K is determined from table 2.9 and 2.10 below.

Table 2.9 gives the value of K in the last row of the table for different values of for internal compression

elements. is the ratio of the stresses at the two ends of the element.
is the larger compressive stress and
is
smaller compressive stress; sometimes it can be tension. The compressive stress is assumed to be positive. The value
of =1 when the element is under uniform compression. When the value of varies linearly from one end to the
other varies and both compressive then is between 0 and 1. The case of =0 is also defined. When the stress
changes from compression to tension, is negative but varies between 0 and -1. Table 4.2 gives values of K for
different values of for outstand compression elements.

p
2.

fy

3.

cr

given by

b
1
t 28.4 k

## Reduction factor, , is given by following equations. Two cases are identified.

Case 1: For element supported on both edges:

p 0.055 3
p

1.0

2
1

where

2
1
1

0.22

p2

1.0

## Case 1: For element supported on only one edge or outstands:

0.188

1.0

Table 2.8 Internal Compression Elements (Refer to Table 4.1 of EC3-1-5 for more details)
Stress Distribution

2
1
1

When

## Effective width (beff)

beff b
The effective width calculated is
distributed equally on both sides of the
plate

be1 0.5beff
1

2
0
1

beff b

When

be1

2
0
1

be 2 0.5beff

2
beff b b b
e2
eff
e1
5

beff be

be
where

## is the part of the

be

When
plate in compression.

is found using

be

b
1

expression

2
1

Buckling Factor,

1 0

0 1

-1

1 3

4.0

8.2
1.05

7.81

## 7.81 6.29 9.78 2

23.
0

5.81

Table 2.10 shows the expressions for evaluating the effective width for outstand compression elements. The first
case shows the compressive stress at the supported end being lower than or equal to that at the free end or the case of
tension at the supported end. The second case shows the case of higher compressive stresses at the supported end
compared to the free end and tension at the free end.
Table 2.10 Outstand compression elements (refer to Table 4.2 of EC3-1-5 for more details)
Stress Distribution

beff
Effective width

1 0
0

Support at

2
1
k

beff bc
0

-1

1 3

0.43

0.57

0.85

1 0

beff c

Support at

beff bc

2
1

Buckling

c
1

Buckling factor

beff c

factor

c
1

1 0

0 1

0.43

0.578
0.34

1.70

-1

## EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA (Aeff) WHEN CONSIDERING PURE COMPRESSION

For class 4 sections subject to compression, the effective cross sectional area A eff is determined using provisions of
BS EN 1993-1-1 clause 6.2.2.5 and BS EN 1993-1-5: 2006 clause 4.3 and 4.4 . Effective section properties depend
(A) ROLLED I-SECTION UNDER PURE COMPRESSION
The effective area Aeff for UB,UC and joists is determined using

Aeff A 41 f c f t f 1 w c w t w

Since the effective areas are still placed symmetrically, this does not change the position of the centroidal axis of the
effective cross section. If the web or flange is non-slender, the corresponding tern in the above expression vanishes
since =1.
(B) RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE HOLLOW SECTION (RHS OR SHS) under pure compression
The effective area Aeff for RHS and SHS is determined using

Aeff A 21 f c f t f 21 w c w t w
When the web only is slender:

Aeff A 21 w c w t w

## (C) PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS under pure compression

Aeff A 21 f c f t f 1 w c w t w
(D) EQUAL ANGLES

Aeff A 21 ht

## (E) UNEQUAL ANGLES

Aeff A 1 h b t
(F) CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS
BS EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6.2.2.5 (5) refers to BS EN 1993-1-6
(G) Elliptical hollow sections

90t 235

Aeff A
D f
e y
from ref 14

a2
b

## Where De is the equivalent diameter =

; a is half the outside dimension of the section on its major axis; b is
half the outside dimension of the section on its minor axis;

Aeff

## Often the ratio of the effective area to the gross area

is calculated to know how much of the section is
effective. Publication P363states that even though BS EN 1993-1-1 classifies some sections as class 4 ; when the
effective area is calculated using provisions of BS EN 1993-1-5, it is found that the effective area is equal to the
gross area.
EFFECTIVE SECTION MODULUS (ZEFF) CONSIDERING PURE BENDING
When a section is under pure bending, certain elements will be under compression stress, others will be under
tension and some partially under compression and partially under tension.
Example 1:
For an I- section under bending about the ZZ axis (shown in figure 25), the top flange will be under compression,
bottom flange will be under tension whereas the web will be partially under compression (top part of web) and
partially under tension (bottom part of web).
The same I section if it is acted upon by bending about the YY axis, both flanges are under partial compression and
tension. The web has no stresses since it falls at the neutral axis.
For the rectangular hollow section shown in figure 26, if acted by bending moment along the zz axis; top flange will
be in compression, bottom flange will be under tension, the two webs will have compression along top half and
tension along bottom half.

Outsta
Intern
nd
al
eleme
Figure
2.45
Figure 2.46
eleme
nts
The effective cross section properties of class 4 sections under pure bending are based on the effective widths of the
nts parts and full width of parts under tension. The effective widths are calculated according to provisions
compression
of BS EN 1993-1-1 clause 6.2.2.5 and BS EN 1993-1-5: 2006 clauses 4.3 and 4.4. The process of determining the
effective section properties involves iteration. Also the equations used depend on the classification of the element
under consideration.

In the standard hot rolled UB and UC sections none of them have slender webs when neutral axis is at mid-depth. It
is used when considering welded sections such as plate girders

## Worked Example 2.11

Find the effective cross sectional area for a 610 x 229 x 125 UB S 275 subjected to pure compression from an axial
Solution:
Properties of section: A=160cm2; h=611.9 mm; b=229.0 mm; tw=11.9; tf=19.6 mm; r=12.7 mm; d=547.3mm
Classification:

## c 229 11.9 2 12.7

9.78
t
19.6

Flange:
For flange compression; class 3 limit is 14=14x0.92=12.88
The flange is non-slender.

c d 547.3

45.99
t tw
11.9
Web:
For web under compression, class 3 limit is 42=42x0.92=38.64
Flange is slender.
Class 1 flange and class 4 web
Method 1(similar to BS 5950 method)
Clause: 6.2.2.4 of EC3-1-1
Considering only the limiting value of d/t as effective
Effective area of web = 40t2= 40x0.92x11.9x11.9=5211.248mm2
Effective area of section = Ag (dt effective area of web)
= 16000 (547.3x11.9 5211.248) = 14698.378mm2.
Method 2: Eurocode method
Since the web is slender, K is to be found for the web. The web is under uniform compression. So =1. Referring
to table 4.1;k=4.0

p
Modified plate slenderness

fy

cr
fy

cr

given by

b
1
t 28.4 k

45.99

1
28.4 0.92 4.0

0.88

0.22

p2

1.0

0.88 2

Hence OK

## Ac ,eff Ac 0.852 547.3 11.9 5548.97

Effective area of section = 16000 (547.3x11.9-5548.97)=15036.1mm2
Worked Example 2.11a
Find the effective cross sectional area for the cross section. The weld size is 8 mm. Hence determine its compression
resistance. Grade of steel is S355.

360mm
8mm
400mm
tw= 8 mm
Solution:
Classification:

235
0.81
355

c/t
Flange

cf
tf

Web

360 8 2 8
21
28

c w 400 16 2 8

46
tw
8

## Overall the section is class 4

Determination of effective flange area:

Class 3 limit
14=11.34
Therefore flange is class 4

42 42 0.81 34.02
Web is class 4

2
1
1

## Since the flange is in uniform compression;

k 0.43
Thus

b
1
360 8 2 8
1.826
p

2.77 0.748
t 28.4 k
8 28.4 0.81 0.43 0.66

p 0.188
p

2.77 0.188
0.34
2.77 2

2
1
1

k 4 .0
Thus

b
1
400 2 8 2 8
p

0.99 0.673
t 28.4 k
8 28.4 0.81 4.0

p 0.055 3
p

0.99 0.055 3 1
0.786
0.99 2

## Total effective area = 2211.84+2441.98=4653.82mm2

N c , Rd

Aeff f y

M0

4653.82 355
1652.1kN
1 .0

Compression resistance:
Worked Example 2.12
Find the effective plastic section modulus for a 300 x300 x 6.3 Square Hollow section (SHS) S 275 subject to pure
Section properties:
T = 6.3 mm
A = 73.6 cm2
Iyy = 10500 cm4
For square hollow sections:

## c w h 3t 300 3 6.3 281.1

cf
tf

281.1
44.62
6.3

The limit for internal compression part (flange in this case) for class 3 elements is 42 which is equal to
42x0.92=38.64. Thus flange is class 4.
The web is part subject to bending and compression. Checking for class 3, first the value of

fy

f y

ratioofendstresses 1

## For =-1 the limiting value of c/t is given by

c
62 1
t
c
62 0.921 1 1 114.08
t LIMIT
The web is not class 4.
Since the flange is slender, K is to be found for the flange. The flange is under uniform compression. So =1.
Referring to table 4.1; k=4.0

p
Modified plate slenderness

fy

cr
fy

b
1
t 28.4 k

44.62

cr

0.22

given by

1
28.4 0.92 4.0

0.854

1.0

0.854 2

Hence OK

## Area of ineffective part = 281.1x6.3-1539.5=231.43mm2

Effective area of section = 7360 (281.1x6.3-1539.5)=7128.6mm2

Position of centroid from the base: Note that the cg of top plate is at D-t/2 from base. The gross area of RHS is
obtained from tables. The ineffective portion is considered as a negative area.
Taking moments of the gross area and negative area about the base and equating it to moment of effective area about
the base

7360

300
6.3

231.43 300
7128.6 y eff
2
2

## 1104000 68699.9955 7128.6 y eff

y eff

1104000 68699.9955
145.232mm
7128.6
y eff

Alternately

ai y i

ai

## can be calculated using

7360

300
6.3

231.43 300

2
2

145.232mm
7360 231.43

I xx I centroidalaxis Ay 2

## I ineffective is small ; so ignored.

29.1 6.33
2
183.33 296.85 146.25 100.94 106 mm4
12

2

Z eff

I xx
100.94 106

D y 300 146.25

## Worked Example 2.12b

Figure shows a welded box section with weld size 6mm and grade of steel S355. Determine the moment of
resistance of the section.

470

10mm

430
450

10mm

Solution:
Classification:

235
0.81
355

c/t
Flange

cf
tf

Class 3 limit

42 42 0.81 34.02

430
43
10

## Therefore flange is class 4

Web is in bending
c w 450 20 2 6

## 41.8 72 72 0.81 58.32

tw
10

Web

Web is class 1
Overall the section is class 4
Determination of effective flange area:

## Since the flange is in uniform compression;

2
1
1

k 4 .0
Since it is an internal compression element

b
1
430

0.93 0.673
t 28.4 k 10 28.4 0.81 4.0

p 0.055 3
p

0.93 0.055 3 1
0.82
0.93 2

## Determination of effective web area:

Since the web is class 1 it is fully effective.

## 470 430 352.6 10 470 10 2 450 20 10

Total effective area =

## Aeff 3926 4700 8600 17226mm 2

Location of new centroid:

part ineffective
470 10mm
430
430 10mm
450
10mm
10mmNew cg

Old450
cg

## 470 430 352.6 10

450

10
10
450
470 10 2 450 20 10
2
2
2

17226 x zc =
Solving

zc

215.11mm
17226

I eff

10

2

10
470 10 215.11
2

2 450 20 10
450

2 450 20 10
215.11
12
2

## I eff 3926 52849.4 207487197 132511667 841184.06 548326792mm 4

Moment of resistance of section:

Weff ,min

I eff
z max

548326792
2325581.4mm3
450 215.11

M c , Rd

(3)

Weff f y

M0

2325581.4 355
825.6kNm
1

## Determination of section properties using Midline method:

Clause 3.5.1 of BS 5950 Part 5 1998 states that for steel with uniform thickness and thickness upto 3.2 mm the
section properties can be determined using the mid line method. The material is assumed to be concentrated at the
midline. The round corners are replaced by flat elements. A reduction of 0.04mm can be reduced to account for
thickness of galvanising. A reduction of t/2 is made for each rectangular fold. Figure 2.50 makes it clear how
midline dimensions are determined.

Figure 2.50
Worked example 2.13
Determine the properties of a cold formed lipped Z section subject to bending in the plane of web. The dimensions
of the cross section are :Depth of web h= 210 mm ; Width of flange in compression b c = 80 mm; Width of flange in
tension bt = 80 mm; Length of lip c = 25 mm ; Thickness t = 3 mm ; The basic yield strength of steel f yb = 390
N/mm2

## (b) Midline dimensions

Figure 2.51

Check whether the dimensions are within the limits given in EC3-1-3. Determine the midline dimensions for the
section. Determine the gross properties of the section.

Solution:
The design approach in EC3-1-3 can be applied when the following conditions are satisfied.

b 80

26.7 60................OK
t
3
For lipped flange (both compression flange and tension flange):

c 23.5

7.8350.......OK
t
3
For the lip:

h 217

72.33 500.......OK
t
3
For the web:
Section 5.2 of BS EN 1993-1-3 limits the size of the stiffener to the range given below so that it has sufficient
stiffness and itself does not undergo primary buckling.

0.2

c
0.6
b
Both top and bottom flange has to be separately checked.

0 .2

c
c
25
0 .6

0.3125.....OK
bc
b c 80

0.2

c
0.6
bt

c 25

0.3125.....OK
b t 80

## Midline dimensions are shown in figure 2.51.

Determination of gross section properties:
Area= t(midline length) = 3(23+77+217+77+23)=417x3=1251mm2

zc z t

217
108.5mm
2

## The neutral axis is at mid height.

Moment of inertia of gross section:

3 217 3 23.5 3 77 77 33
23.5

Iy

## 2 77 3108.5 2 23.5 3 108.5

12
12
2

Iy

310218313 12977.875
346.5 5438779.5 659919.656 8656868.39mm 4
12

Iz can be determined in a similar manner. Gross Section modulus with respect to compression flange is

W y ,el,c

Iy
Zc

8656868.39
79786.8mm 3
108.5

## Gross Section modulus with respect to tension flange is

W y ,el,t

Iy
Zt

8656868.39
79786.8mm 3
108.5

Determination of effective section properties has not been included since it involves iterative and lengthy
calculations.
Worked example 2.14
Determine the properties of a lipped channel 220 x 70 x 25 x 4.0 mm. Internal radius at corners = 1.5t. Use midline
dimension method.

Actual Dimensions

Midline dimensions
Figure 2.52

Solution:
The section properties are evaluated by using the centre line dimensions. The centre line dimensions are shown in
figure 2.52.
216x4x216/2 + 66x4x216 + 66x4x0 +23x4x23/2+23x4x(216-23/2)= (216x4+2x66x4+2x 23 x 4) cy
93312+57024+1058+18814 = (864+264+264+184) cy
Cy = 170208/1576=108 mm (to be expected since there is a line of symmetry)
216x4x0 + 2x66x4x66/2+ 2x23x4x66 = (864+264+264+184) cz
0+17424+12144 = (1576) cz
Cx = 29568/(1576) = 18.76 mm

## Figure 2.53 Centre line dimensions and co-ordinate axes

Co-ordinates of centroid
Note that the positive z direction is downwards and positive y axis leftwards.
Co-ordinates of flanges
Top flange
66
z c 108mm

y 18.76

Bottom flange

y 18.76

14.24mm

66
14.24mm
2

Web

y 18.76mm

Top lip

y 47.24mm

Bottom lip

y 47.24mm

z c y 108mm
Z=0

z 108
z 108

23
96.5mm
2

23
96.5mm
2

## Determination of moment of inertia

The parallel axis theorem is used.
Moment of inertia with respect to Y axis

bh 3
Iy
A z2
12

66 4 3
4 216 3
4 233
2
2

2
66 4108

23

96
.
5

12
12
12

= 11240093.34mm4

hb 3
Iz
A y2
12

4 66 3
216 4 3
66

2

216 4 18.76 2
4 66
18.76
12
12
2

23 4

2
23 4 47.24 2
12

=1014819.6mm4