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CHAPTER

13

DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Kinetics of Particles:

Energy and Momentum

Methods

Seventh

Edition

Contents

Introduction

Work of a Force

Principle of Work & Energy

Applications of the Principle of Work

& Energy

Power and Efficiency

Sample Problem 13.1

Sample Problem 13.2

Sample Problem 13.3

Sample Problem 13.4

Sample Problem 13.5

Potential Energy

Conservative Forces

Conservation of Energy

Motion Under a Conservative Central

Force

Sample Problem 13.7

Sample Problem 13.9

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Impulsive Motion

Sample Problem 13.10

Sample Problem 13.11

Sample Problem 13.12

Impact

Direct Central Impact

Oblique Central Impact

Problems Involving Energy and Momentum

Sample Problem 13.14

Sample Problem 13.15

Sample Problems 13.16

Sample Problem !3.17

13 - 2

Seventh

Edition

Introduction

Previously, problems dealing with the motion of particles

r were

r

solved through the fundamental equation of motion, F = ma.

Current chapter introduces two additional methods of analysis.

Method of work and energy: directly relates force, mass,

velocity and displacement.

Method of impulse and momentum: directly relates force,

mass, velocity, and time.

13 - 3

Seventh

Edition

Work of a Force

r

Differential vector dr is the particle displacement.

r r

dU = F dr

= F ds cos

= Fxdx+ Fydy+ Fz dz

Work is a scalar quantity, i.e., it has magnitude and

sign but not direction.

Dimensions of work are length force. Units are

1 J ( joule ) = (1 N )(1 m )

1ft lb = 1.356 J

13 - 4

Seventh

Edition

Work of a Force

Work of a force during a finite displacement,

A2 r

U12 =

F dr

A1

s2

s2

s1

s1

(F cos )ds = Ft ds

A2

(Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz )

A1

curve of Ft plotted against s.

13 - 5

Seventh

Edition

Work of a Force

Work of a constant force in rectilinear motion,

U12 = ( F cos ) x

dU = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

= W dy

y2

U12 = W dy

y1

= W ( y 2 y1 ) = W y

weight W and vertical displacement y.

Work of the weight is positive when y < 0,

i.e., when the weight moves down.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 6

Seventh

Edition

Work of a Force

Magnitude of the force exerted by a spring is

proportional to deflection,

F = kx

k = spring constant ( N/m or lb/in.)

Work of the force exerted by spring,

dU = F dx = kx dx

x2

x1

when x2 < x1, i.e., when the spring is returning to

its undeformed position.

Work of the force exerted by the spring is equal to

negative of area under curve of F plotted against x,

U12 = 12 ( F1 + F2 ) x

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 7

Seventh

Edition

Work of a Force

Work of a gravitational force (assume particle M

occupies fixed position O while particle m follows path

shown),

Mm

dU = Fdr = G 2 dr

r

r2

Mm

r1

r2

U12 = G

dr = G

Mm

Mm

G

r2

r1

13 - 8

Seventh

Edition

Work of a Force

Forces which do not do work (ds = 0 or cos = 0):

reaction at frictionless pin supporting rotating body,

reaction at frictionless surface when body in contact

moves along surface,

reaction at a roller moving along its track, and

weight of a body when its center of gravity moves

horizontally.

13 - 9

Seventh

Edition

Particle Kinetic Energy: Principle of Work & Energy

r

Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by force F

dv

Ft = mat = m

dt

dv ds

dv

=m

= mv

ds dt

ds

F t ds = mv dv

Integrating from A1 to A2 ,

s2

v2

s1

v1

2

2

Ft ds = m v dv = 12 mv2 12 mv1

U12 = T2 T1

T = 12 mv 2 = kinetic energy

r

The work of the force F is equal to the change in

kinetic energy of the particle.

2

m

m

T = 12 mv 2 = kg = kg 2 m = N m = J

s

s

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 10

Seventh

Edition

Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy

Wish to determine velocity of pendulum bob

at A2. Consider work & kinetic energy.

r

Force P acts normal to path and does no

work.

T1 + U12 = T2

0 + Wl =

1W 2

v2

2 g

v2 = 2 gl

expression for acceleration and integrating.

All quantities are scalars and can be added

directly.

Forces which do no work are eliminated from

the problem.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 11

Seventh

Edition

Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy

Principle of work and energy cannot be

applied to directly determine the acceleration

of the pendulum bob.

Calculating the tension in the cord requires

supplementing the method of work and energy

with an application of Newtons second law.

As the bob passes through A2 ,

Fn = m an

W v22

g l

W 2 gl

P =W +

= 3W

g l

P W =

v2 = 2 gl

13 - 12

Seventh

Edition

Power and Efficiency

Power = rate at which work is done.

r r

dU F dr

=

=

dt

dt

r r

= F v

Dimensions of power are work/time or force*velocity.

Units for power are

J

m

1 W (watt) = 1 = 1 N

s

s

or 1 hp = 550

ft lb

= 746 W

s

= efficiency

output work

=

input work

power output

=

power input

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 13

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.1

SOLUTION:

Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.

Determine the distance required for the

work to equal the kinetic energy change.

driven down a 5o incline at a speed of

60 mi/h when the brakes are applied

causing a constant total breaking force

of 1500 lb.

Determine the distance traveled by the

automobile as it comes to a stop.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 14

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.1

SOLUTION:

Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.

mi 5280 ft h

v1 = 60

= 88 ft s

h mi 3600 s

v2 = 0

T2 = 0

equal the kinetic energy change.

U12 = ( 1500 lb )x + (4000 lb )(sin 5)x

= (1151lb )x

T1 + U12 = T2

481000 ft lb (1151lb )x = 0

x = 418 ft

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 15

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.2

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of work and

energy separately to blocks A and B.

When the two relations are combined,

the work of the cable forces cancel.

Solve for the velocity.

Two blocks are joined by an inextensible

cable as shown. If the system is released

from rest, determine the velocity of block

A after it has moved 2 m. Assume that

the coefficient of friction between block A

and the plane is k = 0.25 and that the

pulley is weightless and frictionless.

13 - 16

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.2

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of work and energy separately

to blocks A and B.

FA = k N A = k W A = 0.25(1962 N ) = 490 N

T1 + U12 = T2 :

0 + FC (2 m ) FA (2 m ) = 12 m A v 2

FC (2 m ) (490 N )(2 m ) = 12 (200 kg )v 2

T1 + U12 = T2 :

0 Fc (2 m ) + WB (2 m ) = 12 m B v 2

Fc (2 m ) + (2940 N )(2 m ) = 12 (300 kg )v 2

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 17

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.2

When the two relations are combined, the work of the

cable forces cancel. Solve for the velocity.

FC (2 m ) (490 N )(2 m ) = 12 (200 kg )v 2

4900 J = 12 (500 kg )v 2

v = 4.43 m s

13 - 18

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.3

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of work and energy

between the initial position and the

point at which the spring is fully

compressed and the velocity is zero.

The only unknown in the relation is the

friction coefficient.

which is sliding on a horizontal surface.

The spring has a constant k = 20 kN/m

and is held by cables so that it is initially Apply the principle of work and energy

for the rebound of the package. The

compressed 120 mm. The package has a

only unknown in the relation is the

velocity of 2.5 m/s in the position shown

velocity at the final position.

and the maximum deflection of the spring

is 40 mm.

Determine (a) the coefficient of kinetic

friction between the package and surface

and (b) the velocity of the package as it

passes again through the position shown.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 19

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.3

SOLUTION:

Apply principle of work and energy between initial

position and the point at which spring is fully compressed.

T1 = 12 mv12 = 12 (60 kg )(2.5 m s )2 = 187.5 J

(U12 ) f

= kW x

T2 = 0

= 12 (2400 N + 3200 N )(0.040 m ) = 112.0 J

U1 2 = (U1 2 ) f + (U1 2 )e = (377 J ) k 112 J

T1 + U1 2 = T2 :

k = 0.20

13 - 20

10

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.3

Apply the principle of work and energy for the rebound

of the package.

T 3= 12 mv32 = 12 (60kg )v32

T2 = 0

U 23 = (U 23 ) f + (U 23 )e = (377 J ) k + 112 J

= +36.5 J

T2 + U 23 = T3 :

0 + 36.5 J = 12 (60 kg )v32

v3 = 1.103 m s

13 - 21

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.4

SOLUTION:

Apply principle of work and energy to

determine velocity at point 2.

Apply Newtons second law to find

normal force by the track at point 2.

A 2000 lb car starts from rest at point 1

Apply principle of work and energy to

and moves without friction down the

determine velocity at point 3.

track shown.

Apply Newtons second law to find

Determine:

minimum radius of curvature at point 3

such that a positive normal force is

a) the force exerted by the track on

exerted by the track.

the car at point 2, and

b) the minimum safe value of the

radius of curvature at point 3.

13 - 22

11

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.4

SOLUTION:

Apply principle of work and energy to determine

velocity at point 2.

T1 = 0

T2 = 12 mv22 =

U1 2 = +W (40 ft )

T1 + U1 2 = T2 :

1W 2

v2

2g

0 + W (40 ft ) =

1W 2

v2

2g

v2 = 50.8 ft s

the track at point 2.

+ Fn = m an :

W + N = m an =

W v22 W 2(40 ft )g

=

g 2 g 20 ft

N = 10000 lb

N = 5W

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 23

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.4

Apply principle of work and energy to determine

velocity at point 3.

T1 + U13 = T3

0 + W (25 ft ) =

1W 2

v3

2g

v3 = 40.1ft s

curvature at point 3 such that a positive normal force is

exerted by the track.

+ Fn = m an :

W = m an

=

W v32 W 2(25 ft )g

=

3

g 3 g

3 = 50 ft

13 - 24

12

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.5

SOLUTION:

Force exerted by the motor

cable has same direction as

the dumbwaiter velocity.

Power delivered by motor is

equal to FvD, vD = 8 ft/s.

The dumbwaiter D and its load have a

combined weight of 600 lb, while the

counterweight C weighs 800 lb.

motion. Determine force exerted by

motor cable from conditions for static

equilibrium.

electric motor M when the dumbwaiter

(a) is moving up at a constant speed of

8 ft/s and (b) has an instantaneous

velocity of 8 ft/s and an acceleration of

2.5 ft/s2, both directed upwards.

accelerating. Apply Newtons

second law to each body to

determine the required motor cable

force.

13 - 25

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.5

In the first case, bodies are in uniform motion.

Determine force exerted by motor cable from

conditions for static equilibrium.

Free-body C:

+ Fy = 0 :

2T 800 lb = 0

T = 400 lb

Free-body D:

+ Fy = 0 : F + T 600 lb = 0

Power = Fv D = (200 lb )(8 ft s )

= 1600 ft lb s

Power = (1600 ft lb s )

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1 hp

= 2.91 hp

550 ft lb s

13 - 26

13

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.5

In the second case, both bodies are accelerating. Apply

Newtons second law to each body to determine the required

motor cable force.

a D = 2.5 ft s 2

aC = 12 a D = 1.25 ft s 2

Free-body C:

+ Fy = mC aC : 800 2T =

800

(1.25)

32.2

T = 384.5 lb

Free-body D:

600

(2.5)

32.2

F + 384.5 600 = 46.6

+ Fy = m D a D : F + T 600 =

F = 262.1 lb

Power = (2097 ft lb s )

1 hp

= 3.81 hp

550 ft lb s

13 - 27

Seventh

Edition

Potential Energy

r

Work of the force of gravity W,

U12 = W y1 W y 2

only on the initial and final values of Wy.

V g = Wy

= potential energy of the body with respect

to force of gravity.

U12 = (V g ) (V g )

1

measured is arbitrary.

Units of work and potential energy are the same:

V g = Wy = N m = J

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 28

14

Seventh

Edition

Potential Energy

Previous expression for potential energy of a body

with respect to gravity is only valid when the

weight of the body can be assumed constant.

For a space vehicle, the variation of the force of

gravity with distance from the center of the earth

should be considered.

Work of a gravitational force,

GMm GMm

U12 =

r2

r1

Potential energy Vg when the variation in the

force of gravity can not be neglected,

Vg =

GMm

WR 2

=

r

r

13 - 29

Seventh

Edition

Potential Energy

Work of the force exerted by a spring depends

only on the initial and final deflections of the

spring,

U12 = 12 kx12 12 kx22

to the elastic force,

Ve = 12 kx 2

U12 = (Ve )1 (Ve )2

valid only if the deflection of the spring is

measured from its undeformed position.

13 - 30

15

Seventh

Edition

Conservative Forces

Concept of potential energy can be applied if the

work of the force is independent of the path

followed by its point of application.

U12 = V ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) V ( x2 , y 2 , z 2 )

Such forces are described as conservative forces.

For any conservative force applied on a closed path,

r r

F dr = 0

Elementary work corresponding to displacement

between two neighboring points,

dU = V ( x, y, z ) V ( x + dx, y + dy, z + dz )

= dV ( x, y, z )

V

V

V

Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz =

dx +

dy +

dz

z

x

y

r

V V V

+

+

F =

= grad V

x y z

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 31

Seventh

Edition

Conservation of Energy

Work of a conservative force,

U1 2 = V1 V2

U1 2 = T2 T1

Follows that

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

E = T + V = constant

T1 = 0 V1 = Wl

T1 + V1 = Wl

T2 = 12 mv22 =

T2 + V2 = Wl

1W

(2 gl ) = Wl V2 = 0

2g

conservative forces, the total mechanical

energy is constant.

Friction forces are not conservative. Total

mechanical energy of a system involving

friction decreases.

Mechanical energy is dissipated by friction

into thermal energy. Total energy is constant.

13 - 32

16

Seventh

Edition

Motion Under a Conservative Central Force

When a particle moves under a conservative central

force, both the principle of conservation of angular

momentum

r0 mv0 sin 0 = rmv sin

T0 + V0 = T + V

1 mv 2

0

2

GMm 1 2 GMm

= 2 mv

r0

r

may be applied.

Given r, the equations may be solved for v and .

At minimum and maximum r, = 90o. Given the

launch conditions, the equations may be solved for

rmin, rmax, vmin, and vmax.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 33

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.6

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of conservation of

energy between positions 1 and 2.

The elastic and gravitational potential

energies at 1 and 2 are evaluated from

the given information. The initial kinetic

energy is zero.

A 20 lb collar slides without friction

along a vertical rod as shown. The

spring attached to the collar has an

undeflected length of 4 in. and a

constant of 3 lb/in.

velocity at 2.

position 1, determine its velocity after

it has moved 6 in. to position 2.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 34

17

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.6

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of conservation of energy between

positions 1 and 2.

Position 1: Ve = 12 kx12 = 12 (3 lb in.)(8 in. 4 in.)2 = 24 in. lb

V1 = Ve + Vg = 24 in. lb + 0 = 2 ft lb

T1 = 0

Position 2: Ve = 12 kx22 = 12 (3 lb in.)(10 in. 4 in.)2 = 54 in. lb

Vg = Wy = (20 lb )( 6 in.) = 120 in. lb

T2 = 12 mv22 =

1 20 2

v2 = 0.311v22

2 32.2

Conservation of Energy:

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

0 + 2 ft lb = 0.311v22 5.5 ft lb

v2 = 4.91ft s

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 35

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.7

SOLUTION:

Since the pellet must remain in contact

with the loop, the force exerted on the

pellet must be greater than or equal to

zero. Setting the force exerted by the

loop to zero, solve for the minimum

velocity at D.

spring and released from rest at A.

Neglecting friction, determine the

smallest deflection of the spring for

which the pellet will travel around the

loop and remain in contact with the

loop at all times.

energy between points A and D. Solve

for the spring deflection required to

produce the required velocity and

kinetic energy at D.

13 - 36

18

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.7

SOLUTION:

Setting the force exerted by the loop to zero, solve for the

minimum velocity at D.

2

+ Fn = man : W = man

mg = m vD

r

2

vD

= rg = (2 ft )(32.2 ft s ) = 64.4 ft 2 s 2

points A and D.

V1 = Ve + Vg = 12 kx 2 + 0 = 12 (36 lb ft )x 2 = 18 x 2

T1 = 0

V2 = Ve + Vg = 0 + Wy = (0.5 lb )(4 ft ) = 2 ft lb

2

T2 = 12 mvD

=

1 0.5 lb

64.4 ft 2 s 2 = 0.5 ft lb

2 32.2 ft s 2

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

0 + 18 x 2 = 0.5 + 2

13 - 37

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.9

SOLUTION:

For motion under a conservative central

force, the principles of conservation of

energy and conservation of angular

momentum may be applied simultaneously.

parallel to the surface of the earth

with a velocity of 36900 km/h from

an altitude of 500 km.

minimum and maximum altitude to

determine the maximum altitude.

point and the point of minimum altitude to

determine maximum allowable orbit

Determine (a) the maximum altitude

insertion angle error.

reached by the satellite, and (b) the

maximum allowable error in the

direction of launching if the satellite

is to come no closer than 200 km to

the surface of the earth

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 38

19

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.9

Apply the principles of conservation of energy and

conservation of angular momentum to the points of minimum

and maximum altitude to determine the maximum altitude.

Conservation of energy:

TA + VA = TA + VA

1 mv 2

0

2

GMm 1 2 GMm

= 2 mv1

r0

r1

r

r0 mv0 = r1mv1

v1 = v0 0

r1

Combining,

2

2GM

r

1 v 2 1 r0 = GM 1 r0

1+ 0 =

r

2 0

2

r

r

r

r0v02

0

1

1

1

r0 = 6370 km + 500 km = 6870 km

v0 = 36900 km h = 10.25 106 m s

)(

)2

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 39

Seventh

Edition

Sample Problem 13.9

Apply the principles to the orbit insertion point and the point

of minimum altitude to determine maximum allowable orbit

insertion angle error.

Conservation of energy:

GMm

1 mv 2 GMm = 1 mv 2

T0 + V0 = TA + VA

0

max

2

2

r0

rmin

Conservation of angular momentum:

r

r0 mv0 sin 0 = rmin mvmax

vmax = v0 sin 0 0

rmin

Combining and solving for sin 0,

sin 0 = 0.9801

0 = 90 11.5

13 - 40

20

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