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Air Conditioning

Introduction to Air Conditioning


Air conditioning may be required in buildings which have ahigh
heat gainand as a result a high internal temperature.
Theheat gainmay be from solar radiation and/or internal gains
such as people, lights and business machines.
The diagram below shows some typical heat gains in a room.

If the inside temperature of a space rises to about25oCthen air


conditioning will probably be necessary to maintain comfort
levels.
This internal temperature (around 25oC) may change depending
on some variables such as:
type of building

location
duration of
of building
high
internal
temperature
expected
comfort
conditions.
degree of air
movement
percentage saturation
In some buildings it may be possible to maintain acomfortable
environmentwith mechanical ventilation but the air change
rate will tend to be high (above about8air changes per hour)
which can in itself cause air distribution problems.
Since air conditioning is bothexpensiveto install and maintain,
it is best avoided if possible.
This may possibly be achieved by careful building design and by
utilising methods such as:
owindow blinds or
shading methods
oheat absorbing glass
oheat reflecting glass
oopenable windows
ohigher ceilings
osmaller windows on
south
facing facades
oalternative
lighting
schemes.
The diagram below shows some of these methods.

If air conditioning is the only answer to adequate comfort in a


building then the mainchoice of systemcan be considered.
Full comfort air conditioningcan be used in summer to
providecool air(approx.13oCto18oC) in summer and warm air
(approx.28oCto36oC) in winter.
Also the air is cleaned by filters, dehumidified to remove
moisture or humidified to add moisture.
Air conditioning systems fall into three main categories, and are
detailed in the following pages;
1.Central
plant
systems.
2.Room
air
conditioning

units.

3.Fan coil units.


Central plantsystems have one central source of conditioned
air which is distributed in a network of ductwork.
Room air conditioning unitsare self-contained package units
which can be positioned in each room to provide cool air in
summer or warm air in winter.
Fan coil unitsare room units and incorporateheat exchangers
piped with chilled water and a fan to provide cool air.
There are other forms of air conditioning such as;
Chilled beams

units
Induction
Variable Air
Volume
units
Dual duct systems
Chilled ceiling,
but we will consider the more commonly used methods first.

1.0 Central Plant Systems


A typical central plant air conditioning system is shown below.

The system shown above resembles abalanced


ventilationsystem withplenumheatingbut with the addition of
a cooling coil.
For information onbalanced ventilationseeVENTILATIONsection.

In winter theheater batterywill be on and thecooling coilwill


probably be switched off for the majority of buildings.
In summer theheater batterywill not need to have the same
output and thecooling coilwill be switched on.
Ahumidifiermay be required to add moisture to the air when it
is 'dry'.
This is when outdoor air has a low humidity of around20% to
30%.
In theU.K.low humidities are rare and therefore humidification is
sometimes not used.
In dryer regions humidification is required through most of the
year whereas in tropical air conditioning one of the main features
of the system is the ability to remove moisture from warm moist
air.
Dampersare used in air conditioning central plant systems to
control the amount of air in each duct.
It is common to have20%fresh air and80%recirculated air to
buildings.
In buildings with high occupancy the fresh air quantity should be
calculated based on C.I.B.S.E. data., this may require a higher
percentage of fresh air (i.e. more than 20%).
SeeVentilation sectionfor examples of fresh air rates.

Filtersare required to remove particles of dust and general


outdoor pollution.
This filter is sometimes called a coarse filter or pre-filter.
A removable fibreglassdustfilter is positioned in the fresh air
intake duct or in larger installation an oil filled viscous filter may
be used.
Thesecondaryfilter, after the mix point, is used to removefine
dust particlesor other contaminant picked up in the rooms and
recirculated back into the plant. A removablebag filteris
generally used for this where a series of woven fibre bags are
secured to a framework which can be slid out of the ductwork or
air handling unit (A.H.U.) for replacement.

Air Handling Units


Air handling units (A.H.U.) are widely used as a package unit
which incorporates all the main plant items as shown below.
Pipework, ductwork and electrical connections are made after
the unit is set in place on site.
Since air conditioning plant rooms tend to be at roof level, the
largerA.H.U.'sare lifted into place by crane before the roof is
fixed.

In some cases it is usual to place thefan in front of(that is


upstream of) the heater battery and cooling coil.
This is because fans operate best if the system resistance is at
theoutletrather than the inlet of the impeller.
This is shown on the schematic diagrams above.
The photograph below shows a typical air handling unit with
handles on the doors for access to equipment.

2.0 Room Air Conditioning Units


These units use refrigerant to transfer cooling effect into rooms.
Room air conditioning units fall into two main categories:
1.Split type

2.Window/wall units.

Split Air Conditioners


Splitair conditioners have two main parts, theoutdoor unitis
the section which generates thecold refrigerant gasand
theindoor unituses this cold refrigerant to cool the air in a
space.
The outdoor unit uses acompressorand air cooled condenser to
provide cold refrigerant to acooling coilin the indoor unit.
A fan then blows air across the cooling coil and into the room.
The indoor unit can either be ceiling mounted(cassette unit),
floor mounted or duct type.
The drawing below shows a ceiling mounted (cassette unit).

The photographs below show a ceiling mounted cassette and an


outdoor unit.

Window / Wall Units


Window or wall units are morecompactthan split units since all
the plant items are contained in one box.
Window unitsare installed into an appropriate hole in the
window and supported from a metal frame.

Wall unitslike the one shown below are built into an external
wall and contain all the necessary items of equipment to provide
cool air in summer and some may even provide heating in
winter.

A smallhermetically sealed compressoris used to provide


refrigerant gas at the pressure required to operate the
refrigeration cycle.
Thecondenseris used tocondensethe refrigerant to a liquid
which is then reduced in pressure and piped to the cooling coil.

3.0Fan Coil Units


These are room air conditioners but usechilled waterinstead of
refrigerant.
Units can be floor or ceiling mounted.
The chilled water is piped to afinned heat exchangeras in a fan
convector.
A fan blows room air across the heat exchanger and cool air is
emitted into the room, as shown below.

Choosing an A/C System


Generally central plant systems are used in largeprestigious
buildingswhere a high quality environment is to be achieved.
Cassette units and other split systems can be used together with
central plant systems to provide a moreflexible design.

Each system has its own advantages and the following is a


summary of some of the main advantages and disadvantages.

Central Plant Systems - Advantages:


1.Noisein rooms is usually reduced if plant room is away
from occupied spaces.
2.The whole building can be controlled from acentral
control station.
This means that optimum start and stop can be used and a
weather compensator can be utilised.
Also time clocks can bring air conditioning on and off at
appropriate times.
3.Maintenanceis centralised in the plant room. Plant is
easier to access.

Central Plant Systems - Disadvantages:


1.Expensiveto install a complete full comfort airconditioning system throughout a building.
2.Spaceis required for plant and to run ductwork both
vertically in shafts and horizontally in ceiling spaces.
3.Individual room control is difficult with central plant.
Many systems have been tried such as Variable Air
Volume (VAV), dual duct systems and zone re-heaters.
Zone re-heaters are probably more successful than the
rest.

Room Air Conditioning Units - Advantages:


1.Cheaperto install.
2.Individual roomcontrol.
3.Works well where rooms have individual requirements.
4.No long runs of ductwork.

5.Can be used toheatas well as cool if a reversing valve is


fitted.

Room Air Conditioning Units - Disadvantages:


1.Sometimes the indoor unit fan becomesnoisy.
2.Noisy compressorin outdoor unit.
3.Each unit or group of units has a filter, compressor and
refrigeration pipework that
needs periodic maintenance and possible re-charging.
Units have course filters therefore filtration is not as good
as with AHUs.
4.The installation may require long runs of refrigerant
pipework which, if it leaks into the building, can be difficult to
remedy.
5.Not atrobustas central plant.
6.The majority of room air conditioners justrecirculate airin
a room
with no fresh air supply although most manufacturers
make units with fresh air capability.
7.Cooling output is limited to about9 kWmaximum per
unit;
therefore many units would be required to cool rooms
with high heat gains.

Fan coil units are similar is some respects to Room Air


Conditioners.

Fan Coil Units - Advantages:


1.Cheaperto install than all air central plant system.
2.Individual roomcontrol.

3.Works well where rooms have individual requirements.


4.No long runs of ductwork.
5.Can be used toheatas well as cool if 3 or 4-pipe system
is used.

Fan Coil Units - Disadvantages:


1.Sometimes the indoor unit fan becomesnoisy, especially
when the speed is changing
with in-built controls.
2.Each unit requiresmaintenance.
3.Long runs of pipework are required.
4.A chiller is still required to produce chilled water therefore
they do not save as much in plant
and plant room space asroom air conditioners.
Also boilers will be required if heating mode is installed.
5.Fresh airfacility may not be installed.
6.Cooling output is limited to about5 kW.

AirConditioning
Air Flow Rates

Whendeterminingairflowratesforroomsthatareairconditioned,thefollowingprocedureshouldb
adopted;
1.Calculateheatgains.
2.Completepsychometricchart.
3.Determinemassflowrateofsupplyairfromthefollowing;
m

(Cp x (tr ts))

where;
H=Sensibleheatgain(kW)
m=massflowrateofair(kg/s)
Cp=Specificheatcapacityofair(1.005kJ/kgK)
tr=roomtemperature(oC)
ts=supplyairtemperature(oC)frompsychometricchart.

4.Convertmassflowratetoavolumeflowrate:
Volume flow rate (m3/s)
(kg/m3)

mass flow rate (kg/s) / density of air

5.ConvertthistoanAirChangerateforcomparison.
Volume flow rate (m3/h)

Supply Air Rate (AC/h)

Volume flow rate (m3/s) x 3600

= Volume Flow Rate (m3/h) / Room Volume (m3)

6.CheckouttherecommendedairflowratefromCIBSEGuideB2
(VentilationandAirConditioning)Section3-Requirements.

Usethehighervalueofairchangeratefordesignpurposes.
Example 1

Determinethesupply,freshairandrecirculationairflowratesfortheSportsCentre(FitnessSuiteN
shownbelow.
SeeAssignmentssectionDrawings.
Theroomistobefullyairconditioned.

DATA
Occupancy=80people
Roomvolume=3740m3.

Roomtemperature=18oCfromtable3.19CIBSEguide.
Sensibleheatgain=70kWfromcalculations(notshown)
SeeHeatGainssectionofthesenotesforfurtherdetails.
Supplyairtemp.=13oCfrompsychrometricchart(notshown)
SeePsychrometricssectionofthesenotesforfurtherdetails.

Supplyairdensity=SeeSciencesectionPropertiesofairdensityat13oCand50%=1.225
kg/m3.
SupplyAirRate
m=H/(Cpx(trts))
m=70/(1.005x(18-13))
m=70/5.025
m=13.93kg/s

Volumeflowrate(m3/s)=massflowrate(kg/s)/densityofair(kg/m3)
=13.93/1.225
=11.37m3/s
Volumeflowrate(m3/h)=Volumeflowrate(m3/s)x3600
=11.37m3/sx3600
=40,932m3/h
SupplyAirRate(AC/h)=VolumeFlowRate(m3/h)/RoomVolume(m3)
=40,932m3/h/3740
=10.9 AC/h
Table3.1SummaryofRecommendations(GuideB2)directstoTable3.19.
FromTable3.19forFitnessCentretheairflowrateis10to12 AC/h.

Usehighervalueof12 AC/hsupplyairrateasfoundfromaboveTable.
Thishighervalueisthenusedtosizeallplantandductwork.
FreshAirRate

Section3.2.1.3Bodyodour(CIBSEguideB2)givesthefollowinginformation;

Therefore in the absence of further information, it is recommended that 8 litre.s-1 per perso
should be taken as the minimum ventilation rate to control body odour levels in rooms with
sedentary occupants.

SincethelevelofactivityishigherthansedentaryintheFitnessRoom,wewilladoptafreshairrate
l/sperperson.
Freshairrate=24l/sx80people
=1920l/s
=1.92m3/s
=1.92x3600=6912m3/h
=6912m3/h/3740=1.9 AC/h
Percentagefreshair;1.9/12.0(x100%)=15.8%
RecirculationAirRate
RecirculationAirRate=Supplyairrate-Freshairrate
=12.0-1.9
=10.1 AC/h
Percentagerecirculationair;10.1/12.0(x100%)=84.2%
Theairflowratesareshownonthediagrambelow.

AslightnegativepressuremaybeprovidedintheFitnessRoom.
ThisissothatcontaminatedairdoesnotentertheadjoiningReception/Foyerarea.
TheReturnairamountmaybeincreasedto110%ofthepreviouslycalculatedvalue;thatis,13.2
AC/hor13.72m3/s.

Introduction

Heat gains from the sun can lead to increases in internal temperatures beyond t
This is usually above24oCdry bulb temperature in theUK.
A software programme such asHevacompis often used to determine the interna
for a building.
It is therefore necessary to determine the amount ofsolar radiationthat is trans
windows, walls, roof, floor and by admitting external air into the building.
Several measures can be adopted to reducesolar radiationin buildings.
These are external and internal shading and by careful building design.
Natural vegetation such as talltreescan also reduce solar heat gains.

Window areas can be reduced although natural day lighting is important in north
there is a limit to glass reduction.
Buildings can be orientated so that there is less window area facing directly sou
These are just some of the ways to reducesolar radiation.

Calculating Heat Gains

The load on an air-conditioning system can be divided into the following section
1.Sensible Transmission through glass.
2.Solar Gain through glass.

3.Internal Heat gains


4.Heat gain through walls.
5.Heat gain through roof.
6.Ventilation and/ or infiltration gains.

The heat gain through the glass windows is divided intotwoparts since
totemperature differencebetween outside and inside and another gain due tos
windows.
The method adopted uses theCIBSE guide A (2006)andCIBSE Guide J (2002).

The Tables that are referred to areCIBSE guide A (2006)Solar cooling loads inTa
CIBSE Guide J (2002)Air and Sol-air temperatures inTable 5.36 (London), Table 5
5.38 (Edinburgh)

This set of Tables is in Appendix A6 at the end of the guide.Table 5.36(London)


If internal gains are to estimated thenCIBSE Guide A (2006) Table 6.4 to 6.17ar
It would be helpful to have these Tables close by, to complete the calculations.
An example of a heat gain claculation is given inCIBSE Guide A (2006) section 5
Heat gains through solid ground floors are minimal and can be neglected.

1.0 Sensible Transmission Through Glass

This is the Solar Gain due to differences between inside and outside tempera
this can be quite significant.
This gain only applies to materials of negligible thermal capacityi.e. glass.

Qg=Ag . Ug (to- tr) .......


Where;
Qg=Sensible heat gain through glass (W)
Ag=Surface area of glass (m2)
Ug='U' value for glass(W/m2 oC)(see CIBSE guide

to=outside air temperature (oC). Can be obtained


Tables 5.36 to 5.38for various months and times in the day.
tr=room air temperature (oC)

2.0 Solar Gain Through Windows


This gain is when the sun shines though windows.

The cooling loads per metre squared window area have been tabulated inCIBSE
5.24for various; locations, times, dates and orientations.

These figures are then multiplied bycorrection factorsfor; shading and air node
Heat load is found from;

Qsg=Fc. Fs. qsg. Ag.

whereQsg=Actual cooling load (W)


qsg=Tabulated cooling load fromCIBSE Guide A (2006) T
Fc=Air node correction factor from Table below.
Fs=Shading factor from Table below.
Ag=Area of glass(m2)

The Air point control factors (F c) and Shading factors (Fs) are given in the Tab
glass, building weights and for open and closed blinds.

Type of glass

Clear 6mm

Bronze tinted 6mm


Bronze tinted 10mm
Reflecting

The CIBSE guide method of calculating solar gains through glazingin Guide A
slightly different formula as follows;
Qsg=S . qsg. Ag

whereQsg=Actual cooling load (W)


qsg=Tabulated cooling load from CIBSE Guide A (2006) T

S=Mean solar gain factor at the environmental node o


(2006) Table 5.7.
Ag=Area of glass(m2)

3.0 Internal Heat Gains - CIBSE Guide A (2006)

Internal gains can account for most heat gain in buildings in theU.K.
These gains are fromoccupants, lights, equipment and machinery,as detailed b
OCCUPANTS - Sensible and latent heat gains can be obtained fromCIBSE Guide
Typical gains are shown below.

Conditions
Seated very light work
Moderate office work
Standing, light work; walking
Walking standing
Sedentary work
Light bench work
Athletics

LIGHTING Average power density fromCIBSE Guide A (2006) - Tables 6.4.

ELECTRICALEQUIPMENT - PCs and Monitors -CIBSE Guide A (2006) - Tables 6.7


Laser Printers and Photocopiers -CIBSE Guide A (2006) - Tables 6.9 and 6.10
Electric Motors CIBSE Guide A (2006) - Table 6.13 and 6.14.
Lift Motors CIBSE Guide A (2006) - Table 6.15.
Cooking equipment CIBSE Guide A (2006) - Table 6.17.
Heat load is found from;

Qint.=Heat from Occupants+Heat from Lighting+Heat from Elec


from Cooking

4.0Heat Gain Through Walls


This is the unsteady-state heat flow through a wall due to the varying intensity
surface.

4.1Sol-Air Temperature

In the calculation of this heat flow use is made of the concept ofsol-airtempe

the value of the outside air temperature which would, in the absence of all
same rate of heat flow into the outer surface of the wall as the actual combina
and radiation exchanges.
SOL-AIR TEMP,

teo=ta+( ).....

where
teo=sol-air temperature (oC)
ta=outside air temperature (oC)
=absorption coefficient of surface

I=intensity of direct solar radiation on a su


rays of the sun. (W/m2)
a=solar altitude (degrees)
n=wall-solar azimuth angle (degrees)
Is=intensity of scattered radiation normal to
hso=external surface heat transfer coefficient

TheU.K.values of sol-air temperature are found fromCIBSE Guide J (2002) Table


(Manchester) and Table 5.38 (Edinburgh).
Table 5.36(London)starts at page A6-121.

4.2Thermal Capacity

The heat flow through a wall is complicated by the presence ofthermal capac
passing through it is stored, being released at a later time.

Thick heavy wallswith a high thermal capacity will damp temperature swings co
wallswith a small thermal capacity will have little damping effect, and flu
temperature will be apparent almost immediately.

The thermal capacity will not affect thedaily mean solar gainbut will affect
time.
The particular timeof a solar gain is normally the time of the maximum gain.

The heat gain arrives at the inside of a thick wall some time after the sun hits th
This time lag is.
The calculation is, therefore, again split into two components.
1. Mean gain through wall,

Q=A . U ( tem-tr)........ eqn


where,Q=heat gain through wall at time
A=area of wall (m 2)

U=overall thermal transmittance(W/m 2oC) (See Th


Science section of the notes) or (see CIBSE guide A (2006)Table 3.49 to 3.55) f

tem=24 hour mean sol-air temperature (oC)CIBSE G


5.38.

tr=constant dry resultant temperature (oC). In pract

2.Thevariation from the meansolar gain is subject to both a decrement fact

Q=f ( teo-tem).

whereQ=Heat gain through wall at time ()


=time lag in hours (see CIBSE guide A (2006)Tabl
constructions.
teo=sol-air temperature at time ((oC)CIBSE Gui
5.38.

tem=24 hour mean sol-air temperature (oC)CIBSE G


5.38.

f=decrement factor (see CIBSE guide A (2006)Tab


wall constructions.
Therefore the Solar Gain through a wall at time( )is;

Q=A . U [( tem-tr)+f ( teo-tem)]........ eq


where,Q=heat gain through wall at time(Watts)

=time lag in hours (see CIBSE guide A (2006)Tabl


constructions.

A=area of wall (m 2)

U=overall thermal transmittance(W/m 2oC) (see CI


3.49 to 3.55) for typical wall constructions.

tem=24 hour mean sol-air temperature (oC)CIBSE G


5.38.

tr=constant dry resultant temperature (oC) In practi


f=decrement factor (see CIBSE guide A (2006)Tab
wall constructions.
teo=Sol-air temperature at time () (oC)CIBSE Guide J (2002) - Ta

5.0Heat Gain Through Roof

The heat gain through a roof uses the same equation as for a wall as shown belo

Q + Roof=A U [( tem-tr)+f ( teo-tem)]........

6.0 Ventilation and/or Infiltration Gains


Heat load is found from;

Qsi=n. V(to- tr)/3 ........

whereQsi=Sensible heat gain (W)


n=number of air changes per hour (h-1) (see note b
V=volume of room(m3)
to=outside air temperature (oC) Can be obtained
Tables 5.36 to 5.38for various months and times in the day.
tr=room air temperature (oC)
Infiltration gains should be added to the room heat gains.

Recommended infiltration rates are1/2 air change per hourfor most air-condit
per hourfor double glazing or if special measures have been taken to prevent in
Ventilation or fresh air supply loads can be added to either the roomorcentral
accounted for once.

Total Room Load From Heat Gains

Qtotal=Qg+Qsg+Qint.+Q +Wall+Q

Qtotal=Ag .Ug(to-tr) 1. Sensible Gla


+Fc .Fs. qsg. Ag2. Solar Glass.
+Qint. 3. Internal
+A.U [( tem-tr)+f ( teo-tem)]4. Walls

+A.U [( tem-tr)+f ( teo-tem)]5. Roof

+n. V(to-tr)/36. Ventilation

In the majority of cases, by far the greatestexternal fluctuatingcomponent i


thewindows.

Therefore, it will be this gain which determines when the total heat gain to the r
Heat gains may be calculated and displayed in table form as shown below.
Heat Gain from

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sensible transmission through glass


Solar gain through glass
Internal
External walls
Roof
Ventilation
Total

Heat gain per m2floor area=


Heat gain per m3space=

Latent Gains

Latent heat gainsare calculated so that theTotal heat gaincan be determined


chart.
Total heat gain=Sensible heat gain+Latent heat gains
AlsoLatent heat gainsare required to size Chillers.

Latent heat gainsare comprised of latent gain fromoccupantsand from natural


Latent heat gains fromoccupantscan be obtained fromCIBSE Guide A (2006) The following formula gives the infiltration latent heat gain.

Qli=0.8 .n .V( msomsr)


Where;
Qli=Infiltration latent heat gain (W)

n=Number of air changes per hour (h -1)


V=Room volume (m 3)
mso=Moisture content of outside air (g/kg d.a.) from psychrometric ch
msr=Moisture content of room air (g/kg d.a.) from psychrometric char

Example1

The room shown below is to be maintained at a constant environmental te


operation of 12 hours per day.
The room is on the intermediate floor of an Library located inLondonlatitute51

The internal construction is lightweight demountable partitions, lightweigh


acoustically treated ceilings, shading is intermittent.
Calculate the maximum sensible cooling load in the room inJuly

The outsideair temperature(to) may be found from CIBSE Guide J (2002) - Table
The maximum value ocurrs at 16.00 hrs. and is25.4oC.
DATA:
Occupants=100
Infiltration=0.5 air changes per hour
Building classification=lightweight,
Building response=fast.

External wall 'U' value=0.45W/m 2oC, internal insulation, neg


External wall colour=light.
External wall decrement factor f=0.65
Glass type & 'U' value=clear 6mm,double glazing, U= 2.80
Window blinds=internal blind..
Lighting=30Watts / m 2floor area
Heat gain from machinery and equipment=4000 Watts

NOTE:It should be noted that this total heat gain is used to size central
Condensers andCoolingTowers.
Cooling coils are sized usually with a pschrometric chart.
Answer

Areas:
Area of window=1.2 x 1.7 = 2.04 m 2.
Total area of glass=2.04 x 12No. windows=24.4
Area of glass facing South=12.24 m 2.

Area of wall facing South=22.0 m x 4.0 m high=


12.24=75.76 m2.
Floor area=22 x 14=308m 2.
Room volume=308 x 4=1232 m 3.

Gains:
1.Sensible transmission through glassQg=AgUg(to-tr)
Qg=24.48 x 2.8
Qg=301.6 Watts

2.Solar Gain through glassQsg=FcFsqsgAg


where:
Qsg=Actual cooling load (W)
Fc=Air node correction factor fromTable in page 2 internal blind, fa
Fs=Shading factor from Table in page 2- forblind/clear/clear, fast re

qsg=Tabulated cooling load fromCIBSE Guide A (2006) Table 5.20Inte


orientation South, 12.30 hours gives maximum of 238 W/m 2
Ag=Area of glass facing South (m 2)

(Maximum is at 12.30 hrs)Qsg=0.91 x 0.95 x 238 x 12.24

Qsg=2,518.4 Watts

3.InternalQint.=Qint.
Qint.=Lights (30 W/m2x 308)+ 4000 W+ Peop
Qint.=9,240+4,000+10,000
Qint.=23,240.0 Watts

4.External wallQ Wall=A U [( tem-tr)+f ( te


where,
Q=heat gain through wall at time q+f (Watts)

A=area of wall facing South (m 2)


U=overall thermal transmittance given in question a

tem=24 hour mean sol-air temperature (oC)CIBSE G


12.30 hrs, light wall facing South 22.6 oC

tr=constant dry resultant temperature (oC). Room d


f=decrement factor for wall is given as 0.65.

teo=sol-air temperature when Tabulated cooling load


Guide J (2002) - Table 5.36, light wall, South facing gives 38.8oC.
Q+Wall=75.76 x 0.45 [( 22.6 21) + 0.65 ( 38.
Q+Wall=34.092[ 1.6 + 10.53 ]
Q+Wall=413.5 Watts
5.RoofQ+Roof=Nil for intermediate floor.
6.VentilationQsi=nV(to-tr)/3
Qsi=0.5 x 1232 (25.4 21)/3
Qsi=903.5 Watts

7.Qtotal=Qg+Qsg+Qint.+Q +Wall+Q+ Roof+

Qtotal=301.6+2,518.4+23,240.0+413.5+0+
Qtotal=27,377 Watts
The results are shown in the table below.

Heat Gain from


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sensible transmission through glass


Solar gain through glass
Internal
External walls
Roof
Ventilation
Total

Heat gain per m2floor area=88.9 W/m2


Heat gain per m3space= 22.2 W/m3

Example2

The room shown below is to be maintained at a constant environmental te


operation of 12 hours per day.
The room is on the intermediate floor of an Office Block located inLondon.

The internal construction is lightweight partitions, concrete hollow slab floors an


Calculate the maximum sensible cooling load in the room inJuly.

The outsideair temperature(to) may be found from CIBSE Guide J (2002) - Table
The maximum value ocurrs at 16.00 hrs. and is25.4oC.

DATA:
Occupants=80
Lighting=35Watts / m 2floor area
Infiltration=0.4air changes per hour
Building classification=lightweight with fast response.
External wall surface texture=dark.

External wall thickness=300mm, internal insulation


neglect time lag through wall.
Blinds=Internal

Heat gain from machinery and equipment=3000 Watts

Answer

Areas:
Area of window=1.2 x 1.7 = 2.04 m 2.
Total area of glass=2.04 x 10No. windows=
Area of glass facing South West=10.2 m 2.

Area of wall facing South West=18.0 m x 3.0 m high=54 m 2less glass=


Floor area=18 x 16=288m 2.
Room volume=288 x 3=864 m 3.

Gains:

1.Sensible transmission through glassQg=AgUg(to-tr)


Qg=20.4 x 2.6 (
Qg=233.4 Watts

2.Solar Gain through glassQsg=FcFsqsgAg


where:
Qsg=Actual cooling load (W)
Fc=Air node correction factor from Table in page 2;internal blind, fa
Fs=Shading factor from Table in page 2;forblind/clear/clear, fast re

qsg=Tabulated cooling load fromCIBSE Guide A (2006) Table 5.20Inte


orientation South West, 12.30 hours gives maximum of 328 W/m 2
Ag=Area of glass facing South (m 2)

(Maximum is at 16.00 hrs)Qsg=0.91 x 0.95 x 328 x 10.2


Qsg=2892.3 Watts

3.InternalQint.=Qint.
Qint.=Lights (35 W/m2x 288)+ 3000 W+ Peop
Qint.=10,080+3,000+8,000
Qint.=21,080.0 Watts
4.External wallQ Wall=A U [( tem-tr)
where,
Q=heat gain through wall at time(Watts)

A=area of wall facing South West (m 2)


U=overall thermal transmittance given in question a

tem=24 hour mean sol-air temperature (oC)CIBSE G


13.00 hrs, dark wall facing South West 26.7 oC

tr=constant dry resultant temperature (oC). Room d


f=decrement factor for wall is given as 0.27.

teo=sol-air temperature when Tabulated cooling load


Guide J (2002) - Table 5.36, dark wall,South Westfacinggives 47.1oC.

(dark faade)Q Wall=43.8 x 0.35 [( 26.7 21) + 0.27 ( 47.1


QWall=15.33[ 5.7 + 5.51 ]
QWall=171.9 Watts
5.RoofQ Roof=Nil for intermediate floor.
6.VentilationQsi=nV(to-tr)/3
Qsi=0.4 x 864 (25.4 21)/3
Qsi=506.9.0Watts

7.Qtotal=Qg+Qsg+Qint.+Q Wall+QRoof+Qsi

Qtotal=233.4+2,892.3+21,080.0+171.9+0+5
Qtotal=24,884.5 Watts
The results are shown in the table below.
Heat Gain from
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sensible transmission through glass


Solar gain through glass
Internal
External walls
Roof
Ventilation
Total

Heat gain per m2floor area=86.4 W/m2


Heat gain per m3space= 28.8 W/m3

The heat gain in the previous example was88.8 W/m2floor area and the total w
The heat gain in this example is86.4 W/m2floor area and the total is24,884.5

The value of sensible heat gain can be used in a psychrometic chart to determin
Air Handling Unit (AHU).

Example3

The Restaurant shown below is to be maintained at a constant environmental te


operation of 12 hours per day.
The Restaurant area is on the ground floor of an Single storey building located a

The internal construction is lightweight partitions, concrete hollow slab floors an


Calculate the maximum sensible cooling load in the Restaurant area inJuly.
DATA:
Occupants=70
Lighting=22Watts / m 2floor area
Infiltration=1.0air changes per hour
Outside air temperature (to)=28oC.

Building classification=lightweight, fast response build


External wall surface texture=dark.

External wall-use information from CIBSE guide A (2006


105mm Brick, internal 50mm EPS insulation,100mm lightweight aggregate
plaster, cavity wall.

Windows-Double glazed internal shade,clear 6mm glass, lig


shading.
Roof-use information from CIBSE guide A (2006) section
Heat gain from equipment=2000 Watts

Answer

Areas:
Area of window=1.4 x 2.0 = 2.8 m 2.
Total area of glass=2.8 x 10No. windows=28.0 m 2.
Area of glass facing South=14.0 m 2.

Area of wall facing South=14.0 m x 3.0 m high=42 m 2less glass=42

Floor area=14 x 10=140 m 2.


Ceiling area=Lengthx2(Rafter length inside)
Rafter length inside =0.5 x room wid

=Rafter len
300.

=Rafter leng
= 5.774 metres
Ceiling area=14x2 (5.774)=161.7 m 2.
Room volume=140m 2x3+( 14 x 5 x 2.9 )=623 m 3.

Gains:

1.Sensible transmission through glassQg=AgUg(to-tr)


Qg=28.0 x 2.8 (
Qg=470 Watts

2.Solar Gain through glassQsg=FcFsqsgAg


where:
Qsg=Actual cooling load (W)
Fc=Air node correction factor from Table in page 2 internal blind, fa
Fs=Shading factor from Table in page 2- forblind/clear/clear, fast re

qsg=Tabulated cooling load fromCIBSE Guide A (2006) Table 5.20Inte


orientation South, 12.30 hours gives maximum of 238 W/m 2
Ag=Area of glass facing South (m 2)

(Maximum is at 12.30 hrs)Qsg=0.91 x 0.95 x 238 x 14.0


Qsg=2,880 Watts
3.InternalQint.=Qint.

Qint.=Lights (22 W/m2x 140)+ 2000 W+ Peop


Qint.=3080+2,000+7,000
Qint.=12,080 Watts
4.External wall
Find information from CIBSE Guide A (2006) Table A3.49.

Wall is type 8(e) and the decrement factor is 0.42,time lagis 8.8 hour

If the maximum solar heat gain is at 12.30 pm and the time lag is 8.8 h
relevant sol air temperature is;
12.50 -8.8 = 3.7 sayis at 4.00 am.

teo=sol-air temperature when Tabulated cooling load (qsg) is at 04.00 hr


5.36, dark wall, South facing gives10.4oC.
A correction can be applied to this since we are using outsideair temperature(t

The tabulated maximum outsideair temperature(to) from CIBSE Guide J (2002)


4th) ocurrs at 16.00 hrs. and is25.40C.
The difference in outside temperatures is;28 25.4=2.6 oC.
The actual sol air temperature (teo)to use in this example is;2.6 oC+10.4oC

External wallQ+Wall=A U [( tem-tr)+f ( teo


Therefore the Solar Gain through a wall at time( )is;
Q=heat gain through wall at time(Watts)

=time lag in hours (see CIBSE guide A (2006)Tab


wall constructions.
A=area of wall facing South (m 2)

U=overall thermal transmittance given inCIBSE g


Table 3.49=0.52 W/m2oC.

tem=24 hour mean sol-air temperature (oC)CIBSE G


13.00 hrs, dark wall facing South 25.8 oC

tr=constant dry resultant temperature (oC). Room d

f=decrement factor for wall is given inCIBSE guide


3.49=0.42.
teo=sol-air temperature at time () (oC) from abov
(dark faade)Q Wall=A U [( tem-tr)+f ( t
QWall=28 x 0.52 [( 25.8 22)

QWall=14.56[ 3.8 + - 5
since it happens so early in the morning and will be neglected.
QWall=14.56[ 3.8]
QWall=55 Watts
5.Roof

Find decrement factor (f) from CIBSE Guide A (2006) Table 3.50, use info
The decrement factor is 0.88,time lag is 3.0 hours, U value 0.23 W/m
If the maximum solar heat gain is at 12.30 pm and the time lag is 3.0 h
relevant sol air temperature is;
is at 12.30 hrs -3.0 = 9.30 hrs

teo=sol-air temperature when Tabulated cooling load (qsg) is at 10.00 hr


5.36, dark wall, South facing gives40.4oC.
A correction can be applied to this since we are using outsideair temperature(t

The tabulated maximum outsideair temperature(to) from CIBSE Guide J (2002)


4th) ocurrs at 16.00 hrs. and is25.40C.
The difference in outside temperatures is;28 25.4=2.6 oC.
The actual sol air temperature (teo)to use in this example is;2.6 oC+40.4oC

QRoof=A U [( tem-tr)+f ( teo-tem


QRoof=161.7x0.23 [(25.8 22)+
QRoof=37.19[ ( 3.8+15.1 ) ]
QRoof=703 Watts
6.VentilationQsi=nV(to-tr)/3
Qsi=1.0 x 623 (28 22)/3
Qsi=1,246 Watts

7.Qtotal=Qg+Qsg+Qint.+Q Wall+QRoo

Qtotal=470+2,880+12,080+55+703+
Qtotal=17,434 Watts

The results are shown in the table below.


Heat Gain from
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sensible transmission through glass


Solar gain through glass
Internal
External walls
Roof
Ventilation
Total

Heat gain per m2floor area=125 W/m2


Heat gain per m3space= 28 W/m3

Air node correction factors


Building Weight
Light
Heavy

Shading factors (Fs)

Building Weight
Light
Heavy

Light
Heavy
Light
Heavy
Light
Heavy

Typical building
Offices, hotels, apartments
Offices, hotels, apartments
Department store, retail store
Bank
Restaurant
Factory
Gymnasium

Watts

Watts
301.6
2,518.4
23,240.00
413.5
0
903.5
27,377

Watts
233.4
2,892.30
21,080.00
171.9
0
506.9
24,884.50

Watts
470
2,880
12,080
55
703
1,246
17,434

on factors (Fc)

Single Glaz

Horizontal bl
0.91
0.83

ctors (Fs)

Single Glaz
Open horizontal blind
1
0.97

0.86
0.85
0.78
0.77
0.64
0.62

Sensible Heat Gain (Watts)


70
75
75
75
80
80
210

100%

%
1.1
9.2
84.9
1.5
0
3.3
100%

%
0.9
11.6
84.7
0.7
0
2.1
100%

%
2.7
16.5
69.3
0.3
4.0
7.2
100%

Single Glazing
Horizontal blind
0.91
0.83

Single Glazing
Closed horizontal blind
0.77
0.77

0.77
0.77
0.73
0.73
0.57
0.57

Latent Heat Gain (Watts)


45
55
55
70
80
140
315

Double glazing
Horizontal blind
0.91
0.9

Double glazing
Open
Closed
horizonta horizonta
l blind
l blind
0.95
0.74
0.94
0.76

0.66
0.66
0.54
0.53
0.48
0.47

0.55
0.57
0.47
0.48
0.41
0.41

Types of Heating and Cooling Coils


Fin & Tube Heat Exchangers

Fin and tube heat exchangers are used extensively forheating and cooling air.
one or more rows of finned tubes connected to headers and mounted within a sh
casing with flanged ends suitable for duct mounting.

Theheating elementsare normally manufactured with copper tubes, with the


surfaces, or fins, being of aluminium or sometimes copper.

The most common type of finning arrangements are thespirally woundand th


fin.

Heating coilsmay be used with hot water or steam as the heat transfer media
heaters usually have electric heating elements.

Cooling coilsare classified as being either of thewateror thedirect expansi


depending on the media flowing through the tubes.
Aheating coilis shown below.

In water coils,hotorchilledwater orbrinecirculates through the tubes of the


emitting or absorbing sensible heat as the air flows over the fins attached to the
surfaces.

Usually the flow of water and air are in opposite directions to each other, this be
ascounter-flow heat exchanger.
This configuration gives maximum heat transfer.

Direct Expansion Coils (Evaporator Coils)

In thedirect expansion coil (DX), or evaporator, a refrigerant evaporates insi


the coil, as shown below.

Latent heatis absorbed by the air stream from the refrigerant as the refrigeran

With this type of coil, as with steam, there is no distinction made between paral
flow since the surface temperature is more uniform owing to the refrigerant in th
at aconstant temperature.

Whendirect expansioncoils are used they become the evaporator of the refri
and may be termed either dry orflooded.

In thedryDX coil only a sufficient quantity of refrigerant is introduced to oper


predominantly vapour state.

In thefloodedDX coil most of the coil is filled with liquid refrigerant and altho
efficient, it is not used so much in air-conditioning since the additional refrigeran

Evaporator coilscome in a variety of shapes and sizes, depending on the type o


the amount of cooling capacity needed, and the manufacturer. They are constru
ofaluminium finned copper tubing.

The copper tubing runs perpendicular to the aluminium fins, making U-turns bac
until the desired coil size is achieved.

Added cooling capacity without an increase in length and width is accomplished


addingmore rows of copper tubing.
All evaporator coils must have adrain panto collect the water that condenses
flowing across the coil cools.
The water can drain away by gravity or be pumped away.

The cooling effect that takes place inside the coil requires apressure dropin the
This drop can be accomplished in a number of ways: capillary tube, piston or ori
thermostatic expansion valve.

Acapillary tubeis a thin copper tube of predetermined length into which the c
liquid refrigerant is pumped.

The length of the tubing causes thepressure dropand subsequent cooling effe
refrigerant.

A piston or orifice blocks the flow of refrigerant and forces it through a tiny hole,
needed pressure drop.

Athermostatic expansion valvemeters the flow of refrigerant to meet the co


of the coil.

It determines this demand by way of a sensing bulb attached to the outlet tube
Because it can meter the flow to meet demand, theexpansion valvecan keep
optimum cooling potential.

Because the cooling coil is an integral part of the air distribution system, itsgeo
number of rows, fin spacing, and fin profile contributes to the airside pressure
affects the sound power level of the fans. (Fan power needed to circulate air thro
system may warrant extra sound attenuation at the air handler.)

Water Removal
Moisture in air can condense in the air stream or when the air impinges upon a
solidcoolsurface.

This can happen at sharp bends where water collects in a puddle at the lower su
ductwork.

Adraincan be fitted on vertical sections of ductwork to remove water that has


Ducts can also beinsulatedin areas where condensing moisture is likely to occ

In hospitals and other situations water in ducts is to be avoided sincebacteriac


warm moist conditions.

Droplet separators have been developed to remove water droplet carry-over fro

They consist of a media that can absorb thewater dropletsand transport them
the material to the drainage section.
The system shown below uses aglass-fibre-based materialand the droplet s
best with air velocities between 0 and 4 m/s.
The media is so efficient that it can arrest100 litresof water per cubic metre of

Some droplet separators are produced as cassettes to ensure easy handling. sev
can be linked together to achieve the desired surface area.

HeaterBatteryPipework

The schematic diagram below shows a typical arrangement of pipework to a hea

Heat Transfer in Cooling Coils

Chilled-watercoolingcoilsarefinned-tubeheatexchangersconsistingofrowsoftubes(usuallycopp
throughsheetsofformedfins(usuallyaluminium).Asairpassesthroughthecoilandcontactstheco
transfersfromtheairtothewaterflowingthroughthetubes.
Thefollowingequationquantifiestheheat-transferprocess:
Q=UALMTD
Where,
Q=amountofheattransferred,Btu/hr(W)
U=heat-transfercoefficient,Btu/hrftF(W/mK)
A=effectivesurfaceareaforheattransfer,ft(m)
LMTD=log-meantemperaturedifferenceacrossthecoilsurface,F(

Increasinganyoneofthesevariables(heat-transfercoefficient,surfacearea,orlog-meantemperatu
inmoreheattransfer.

Arguablythemosteffectivewaytoimproveheat-transferperformanceistoincreasethelog-meante
difference(LMTD).Inthecontextofachilled-watercoolingcoil,LMTDdescribesthedifferencebe
temperaturesoftheairpassingacrossthecoilfinsandthewaterflowingthroughthecoiltubes:
LMTD=(TD2TD1)/ln(TD2/TD1)

Where;
TD1=leaving-airandentering-watertemperaturedifferenceatthecoil
TD2=entering-airandleaving-watertemperaturedifferenceatthecoil
OnewaytoincreaseLMTDistosupplythecoilwithcolderwater.
Heat-transfer coefficient, Q=UALMTD

AlsocalledU-valueorthermal transmittance value,theheat-transfercoefficientdescribestheoveral


throughthecoil.Threefactorsdeterminethisrate:

Airside film coefficientdescribesthebarrier(resistancetoheattransfer)betweenthepassinga


surfaces

Waterside film coefficientdescribesasimilarbarrierbetweentheinsidesurfacesofthecoppe


circulatingfluid

Thermal conductancedescribestherateatwhichheatflowsthroughthealuminiumfinsandcop

Systemdesignerscandolittletoaffectthermalconductance,buttheycanalterthefilmcoefficients.
of airflowreducesheat-transferresistanceontheairsideofthecoolingcoil.Likewise,increasingthe
velocityreducesthewatersideresistancetoheattransfer.

Fin geometrycan improve the overall heat-transfer coefficient, too, by lessening the airside film coeffi

Turbulent water flow, like turbulent airflow, also reduces resistance to heat transfer. And, like fin geom

Bothmethodsofimprovingtheheat-transfercoefficient(increasedvelocityandturbulence)createhi
whichcanmeanadditionalfanorpumppower.
Coil surface area, Q=UALMTD

Thethirddeterminantofheattransferisthecoilssurfacearea.Typically,fin spacingforcomforthe
rangesfrom24to50finspermetre.Spacingthefinsclosertogethermultipliesthesurfaceareabype
perlinearunit.Althoughtheairsidepressuredropmayincrease,addingfinsextendstheavailablesu
affectingtheoverallsizeofthecoil.

Addingrowsoftubesalsoincreasestheheat-transfersurfacearea.Mostcoilsareconstructedwithsa
connections,sorowsareusuallyaddedinpairs.Theweightandcostofthecoilincreaseaccordingly
pressuredropmaynot.(Widerfinspacingoftenaccompaniesthedecisiontoaddrows.)

Thebestwaytoextendthesurfaceareaforheattransferistodecreasetheface velocityofthecoil,t
relative to airflow:
facevelocity=airflow/facearea

Facevelocitycanbereducedinoneoftwoways:byincreasingthesizeofthecoilor(paradoxically)
requiredairflow.Selectingaphysicallylargercoilincreasestheinitialinvestmentinthecoilandthe
alsoenlargetheair-handlerfootprint...seldomdesirableoutcomes.So,howcanwereducetherequi
sacrificingcoilcapacity?

Improving Coil Performance

Loweringthesupplyairtemperaturereducestheamountofairrequiredforsensiblecoolingandsave
ourreviewoftheheat-transferequation,weknowthat:lessairflowincreasesairsidefilmresistance,
transfercoefficientU;andrequirescolderair,whichdecreasesLMTD.

Tocompensateforthenegativeeffectsoncoilperformancethataccompanylessairflow,wemustfin
increaseU(heat-transfercoefficient)and/orA(surfacearea).Inotherwords,wemustselectacoolin
than-averageheat-transfercharacteristics.
Increase U

Recallthatturbulentflowreducesthefilmresistancetoheattransfer.Choosingafinconfigurationw
pronouncedwaveformand/oraddingturbulatorsinsidethecoiltubeswillimprovetheheat-transferc
Increase A

Anyadditionalincreaseinheat-transfercapacitymustbeachievedbyphysicallyincreasingtheavail
thatis,by:
Adding rows
Adding fins

Increasing the physical size of the coil (which will increase the initial costs of the coil, air ha
accessories).

Introduction

The aim of this section of the notes is to allow students to size air conditioning plant such as;
cooling coil, heater battery and humidifier.
The notes are divided into several sections as follows:
PSYCHROMETRY FOR AIR CONDITIONING
THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
EXAMPLES OF PSYCHROMETRIC PROPERTIES
AIR CONDITIONING PLANT FOR SUMMER & WINTER
BASIC PROCESSES
TYPICAL AIR CONDITIONING PROCESSES
ANNOTATION AND ROOM RATIO
SUMMER AND WINTER CYCLES
EXAMPLES

The first section deals with Psychrometry for air conditioning and discusses some properties o
A simplified psychrometric chart is shown for familiarisation, and some examples of how to find
are provided.
A diagram of an air conditioning system is shown in schematic form in the section entitled AIR
PLANTFORSUMMER&WINTER.
Before sizing takes place the student should also understand the processes that take place in
systems.
There are four basic processes for summer and winter air conditioning systems.
The following basic processes are explained:
1. Mixing
2. Sensible Cooling and Heating
3. Cooling with Dehumidification

4. Humidification
The section on Typical Air Conditioning Processes shows winter and summer schematic diagra
psychrometric charts.
There are some more details that may be useful to the designer of air conditioning systems.
Further information is as follows: Annotation, Room ratio

When the processes have been superimposed onto a psychrometric chart then calculations m
These are as detailed in the following sections of the notes.
Summer and Winter Cycles
1. Summer cycle psychrometrics
2. Summer cycle calculations
3. Winter cycle psychrometrics
4. Winter cycle calculations
5. Duct and Fan gains.
The final section is seven examples of plant sizing using psychrometric charts.

Psychrometry for Air Conditioning


Psychrometry is the study of air and water vapour mixtures.
Air is made up of five main gases i.e.

Nitrogen 78.03%, Oxygen 20.99%, Argon 0.94%, Carbon Dioxide 0.03%, and Hydrogen 0.01%
The Ideal Gas Laws are used to determine psychrometric data for air so that the engineer can
calculations.

To make life easier a chart has been compiled with all the relevant psychrometric data indicate
This is called the Psychrometric Chart.
A typical chart is shown below.

Air at any state point can be plotted on the psychrometric chart.


The information that can be obtained from a Psychrometric Chart is as follows:
1. Dry bulb temperature
2. Wet bulb temperature
3. Moisture content
4. Percentage saturation
5. Specific enthalpy
6. Specific volume.
The following is a brief description of each of the properties of air.
1. Dry bulb temperature
This is the air temperature measured by a mercury-in-glass thermometer.
2. Wet bulb temperature

This is the air temperature measured by a mercury-in-glass thermometer which has the mercu
gauze that is kept moist by a reservoir of water.

When exposed to the environment the moisture evaporates from the wetted gauze, which give
reading on the thermometer.

This gives an indication of how dry or how moist the air is, since in dry air the water will eva
from the gauze, which depresses the thermometer reading.
3. Moisture content

This is the amount of moisture in air given in kg of moisture per kg of dry air e.g. for room air a
and 15oC wet bulb, the moisture content is about 0.008 kg/kg d.a.

This is a small mass of moisture ( 0.008 kg = 8 grams) per kg of dry air or 9.5 grams per cubic
4. Percentage saturation
The Percentage saturation is another indication of the amount of moisture in air.

This is the ratio of the moisture content of moist air to the moisture content of saturated air at t
temperature.

When air is saturated it is at 100% saturation and cannot hold any more moisture.
5. Specific enthalpy
This is the amount of heat energy (kJ) in air per kg.

If heat is added to the air at a heater battery for example, then the amount to be added can be
from Specific enthalpy change.
6. Specific volume
This is the volume of moist air (dry air + water vapour) per unit mass.
The units of measurement are m3 per kg.
Also specific volume = 1 / density.

The Psychrometric Chart

The six properties of air previously discussed can be shown on one chart called a Psychromet

One of the purposes of the Psychrometric Chart is to size heater batteries, cooling coils and hu
A simplified Psychrometric Chart is shown below.

This chart is only for demonstration purposes.


If accurate assessments are to be carried out use a C.I.B.S.E. chart.

Using the Psychrometric Chart

If any two properties of air are known then the other four can be found from the psychrometric

Examples of Psychrometric Properties


EXAMPLE 1

Find the moisture content of air at 25oC dry-bulb temperature and 25oC wet-bulb temperature.

Referring to the chart below, a vertical line is drawn upwards from 25oC dry-bulb temperature u
25oC wet-bulb temperature.
This intersection point happens to be on the 100% saturation line.
The intersection point is highlighted and a horizontal line is drawn to the right to find the corres
content.
The moisture content is therefore 0.020 kg/kg dry air.

EXAMPLE 2

Find the specific volume and wet-bulb temperature of air at 20oC dry-bulb temperature and 50%

Referring to the chart below, a vertical line is drawn upwards from 20oC dry-bulb temperature u
with the 50% saturation curve.
The intersection point is sometimes referred to as the state point.
The specific volume is found to be 0.84 m3/kg and the wet-bulb temperature is 14oC

EXAMPLE 3

Find the specific volume, percentage saturation and moisture content of air at 15 oC dry-bulb te
10oC wet-bulb temperature.

Referring to the chart below, a vertical line is drawn upwards from 15oC dry-bulb temperature u
with the 10oC wet-bulb temperature line.
This intersection is the state point.
The specific volume is found to be 0.823 m3/kg, the percentage saturation 52% and the moistu
content 0.0054 kg/kg d.a.

EXAMPLE 4

Find the specific volume, wet-bulb temperature, moisture content and specific enthalpy of air a
temperature and 30% saturation.

Referring to the chart below, a vertical line is drawn upwards from 35oC dry-bulb temperature u
with the 30% saturation curve.
This intersection is the state point.
The specific volume is found to be 0.883 m3/kg, the wet-bulb temperature is 22oC, the moistur
content 0.011kg/kg d.a.and the specific enthalpy 65 kJ/kg.

Air Conditioning Plant for Summer and Win

In the summer time when cooling is required by the air conditioning plant it will be necessary to
the cooling coil,reheater and possibly other plant as well.

In winter time the preheater and reheater battery will probably be on to provide warm air to ove
losses.
Other plant may be switched on as well.
These plant items are shown in the diagram below.

The photographs below show some plant items.

Basic Air Conditioning Processes


1. Mixing

Where two air streams are mixed the psychrometric process is shown as a straight line betwee
conditions on the psychrometric chart, thus points 1 and 2 are joined and the mix point 3 will lie
Two air streams are mixed in air conditioning when fresh air (m1) is brought in from outside and
with recirculated air(m2).
The resulting air mixture is shown below as (m3).

The mixing ratio is fixed by dampers.


Sometimes, in more sophisticated plant, modulating dampers are used which are driven by ele
control the mixture of air entering the system.
The diagrams below show mixing of two air streams.

By the conservation of mass formula:


By the conservation of energy formula:

m1 + m 2 = m 3
m1 h1 + m2 h2 = m3 h3

where: m = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)


h = specific enthalpy of air (kJ/kg) found from psychrometric chart.

Basic Air Conditioning Processes


2. Sensible Cooling and Heating

When air is heated or cooled sensibly, that is, when no moisture is added or removed, this proc
represented by a horizontal line on a psychrometric chart.

For sensible heating:


The amount of heating input to the air approximates to;
H1-2 = m x Cp x (t2 - t1)
Or more accurately from psychrometric chart:
H1-2 = m x (h2 - h1)
For sensible cooling:
The amount of cooling input to the air approximates to;
H2-1 = m x Cp x (t2 - t1)
Or more accurately from psychrometric chart:
H2-1 = m x (h2 - h1)

where:

H = Heat or cooling energy (kW)


m = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
Cp = Specific heat capacity of air, may be taken as 1.01 kJ/kg degC.
t = Dry bulb temperature of air (oC)
h = specific enthalpy of air (kJ/kg) found from psychrometric chart.

Basic Air Conditioning Processes


3. Cooling with Dehumidification

The most commonly used method of removing water vapour from air (dehumidification) is to co
its dew point.
The dew point of air is when it is fully saturated i.e. at 100% saturation.

When air is fully saturated it cannot hold any more moisture in the form of water vapour.
If the air is cooled to the dew point air and is still further cooled then moisture will drop out of th
of condensate.

This can be shown on a psychrometric chart as air sensibly cooled until it becomes fully satura
point is reached) and then the air is cooled latently to a lower temperature.

This is apparent on the psychrometric chart as a horizontal line for sensible cooling to the 100%
curve and then the process follows the 100% saturation curve down to another point at a lower

This lower temperature is sometimes called the Apparatus dew Point (ADP) of the cooling co

In reality the ADP of the cooling coil is close to the cooling liquid temperature inside the coil.
Chilled water or refrigerant may be the cooling liquid.
The psychrometric process from state point 1 to 2 to 3 may be shown as a straight line for sim
above with a yellow line.

The total amount of cooling input to the air approximates to;

H1-3 = m x (h1 - h3)


The sensible heat removed is:

H1-2 = m x (h1 - h2)

The latent heat removed is:

H2-3 = m x (h2 - h3)


where:

H = Cooling energy (kW)


m = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
h = specific enthalpy of air (kJ/kg)

found from psychrometric chart.

In the absence of a suitable psychrometric chart the following formula may be used;
The sensible heat removed is:

H1-2 = m x Cp x (t1 - t2)

The latent heat removed is:

H2-3 = m x hfg x (g2 - g3)

where:

H
m

= Cooling energy (kW)


= mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

Cp = Specific heat capacity of air, may be taken as 1.01 kJ/kg degC.


t
= Dry bulb temperature of air (oC)
hfg = latent heat of evaporisation, may be taken as 2454 kJ/kg @20oC.
g = moisture content of air from psychrometric chart (kg/kg dry air)

Basic Air Conditioning Processes


3.1 Cooling Coil Contact Factor

Some of the air going through a cooling coil does not come into contact with the tubes or fins o
and is therefore not cooled to the ADP temperature.

A mixing process therefore takes place as two air streams mix downstream of the cooling coil a

One air stream is cooled down to the ADP and the other air stream by-passes the coil surfaces
coil air temperature (mixed air stream) a little higher than the ADP.

This may be looked upon as an inefficiency of the coil and is usually given as the cooling coil c
The process is shown on the psychrometric chart below.

The contact factor of a cooling coil may be found from;

Another expression for contact factor is;

Basic Air Conditioning Processes


4. Humidification

If is it necessary to add some moisture to the supply air then this is best done by injecting stea
stream.

Humidification can be carried out by spraying a fine mist of water droplets into the air but this is
recommended in rooms occupied by people due to the risk of bacteria carry over.

Dry steam may be injected from a steam supply pipe or generated in a local packaged unit as
photograph below. A disadvantage of using an existing steam supply is smells may be carried

The steam package unit is situated close to the air duct and is sized to meet the maximum req
usually in winter in the U.K.

A steam pipe ( sometimes hoses are used) passes from the packaged unit to the air duct and
injected into the air stream via. a sparge pipe. The un-used steam is drained from the system v
tundish and drain. It is important to layout the steam pipework so that any condensate will drain
The psychrometric process is shown below.

See Summer and Winter Cycles section for calculation of amount of moisture added at humidi

Typical Air Conditioning Processes

The schematic diagram below shows a typical plant system for summer air conditioning.

The psychrometric diagram below shows a typical summer cycle.

The schematic diagram below shows a typical plant system for winter air conditioning.

The psychrometric diagram below shows a typical winter cycle.

Annotation
The state points on a psychrometric chart may be given numbers or symbols to identify them.
used the following system may be adopted:

Room Ratio
This is the ratio of sensible to total heat in the room for summer or winter.

The total heat gain (summer) or loss (winter) will be determined by adding the Latent and Sens
room or rooms, i.e.
(SUMMER)

Total heat gain

Sensible heat gain + Latent heat gain

(WINTER)

Total heat

Sensible heat loss + Latent heat gain

The room ratio is used on a psychrometric chart to determine the supply air state point.

A room ratio line is superimposed from the protractor on the psychrometric chart onto the main
by a line passing through the room state point R.
An example calculation is as follows:
Sensible heat gain

9.0 kW

Latent heat gain

2.25 kW

Total heat gain

9.0 kW + 2.25 kW

Room ratio

Sensible / Total heat

Room ratio

9 / 11.25

11.25 kW.

0.8

The supply air state point must also be somewhere on this room ratio line to meet the room he
requirements i.e. the room ratio line always passes through points R and S.

Examples of Psychrometric Calculations for Summ


Winter
Example 1. Summer Cycle

A room is to be maintained at 22oC dry-bulb temperature, 50% saturation, when the sensibl
10.8 kW in summer.
The latent heat gain is 7.2 kW.
Determine the cooling coil and reheater outputs required by using a psychrometric chart if t
schematic is as shown below.
DATA:
Outdoor condition is 28oC, 80% saturation.
The outdoor air and recirculated air ratio is 20%/80%.
The Apparatus Dew Point ADP is 8oC
Neglect the cooling coil contact factor.

Note:

The cooling coil output of 38.2 kW is a much higher value than the sensible heat gain of 10

It should be remembered that the difference is these two values is mostly from the fresh air

It takes quite a lot of energy in summer to cool fresh air coming into air handling units.
This can be minimised by bringing in minimum fresh air but not too little otherwise the build
from lack of oxygen and feel stuffy.

Sometimes mistakes are made when sizing cooling apparatus.


If a cooling coil or indoor cooling unit is sized on the sensible heat gain only without allowin
load then it will be grossly undersized.

That is why psychrometric charts are required to calculate cooling coil output including fresh

So, dont size cooling coil and indoor cooling units on sensible heat gain only if there is fres
the plant.
Size these items of plant using a psychrometric chart.

Example 2. Winter Cycle

A room has a 18.0 kW sensible heat loss in winter and a 4.5 kW latent heat gain from the o

Determine the supply air temperature and heater battery load using the following informatio
DATA:
Indoor condition: 21oC dry-bulb temperature, 50% saturation.
Outdoor condition: -2oC d.b., 80% saturation.
The outdoor air and recirculated air ratio is 20%/80%.
No preheating or humidification takes place in this simplified example.

Procedure (Winter Cycle)


1. Draw schematic diagram of air-conditioning plant (see above)
2. Plot room condition R on psychrometric chart.
3. Plot outside condition O on psychrometric chart.

4. No Preheater condition P
5. Join points O and R

6. Find the mix point M by measuring the length of the line O-R
and multiply this by the mixing ratio.
On a full size CIBSE psychrometric chart this measures 110mm.
The ratio of recirculated air is 0.therefore;110mm x 0.8 = 88mm
Measure up theO-R line from pointO by 88mm.
This determines pointM .

If there is more recirculated air than outside air at the mix point, then point M will be closer t
point O.
7. Find the room ratio.
This is the sensible to total heat ratio.
Neglect signs ie. the total heat for the room will be Sensible loss plus Latent gain.
Total heat = 18 kW sensible + 4.5 kW latent = 22.5 kW total.
Heat ratio = 18 / 22.5 = 0.8

Plot this ratio on the protractor, top segment, on the psychrometric chart and transfer this lin
so that it passes through point R.

8. Find the supply air dry bulb temperature by calculation.

9. Plot the supply air condition S on the room ratio line.

This is on a horizontal line from point M to the right hand side of the chart, and inters
RRL.

The supply air Temperature is found to be 32.5oC.

Supply Air Flow Rate

When the sensible heat loss and supply air temperature in winter are known then the mass
calculated from the following formula:

Hs = ma x Cp ( ts - tr )
where:
Hs
=
ma
=

Sensible heat loss (kW)


mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

Cp

Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)

tr

room temperature (oC)

ts

supply air temperature ( oC)

..............th

ma = Hs / Cp ( ts - tr )
ma = 18 / 1.01 (32.5 - 21)
ma = 18 / 11.615
ma = 1.55 kg/s

Heater Battery Output


The heater battery output is as follows:
H reheater battery = ma ( hS - hM)
where:
H reheater battery = Reheater battery output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hS = specific enthalpy at condition S (kJ/kg)
hM = specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg)

The specific enthalpies at pointsSandMare shown on the psychrometric chart belo

Hheater battery = ma ( hS - hM)


Hheater battery = 1.55 ( 50 - 34)
Hheater battery = 24.8 kW
Therefore the heater battery load is 24.8 kW.

Example 3.Summer Cycle (Cooling Coil contact factor)

An office is to be maintained at 22oC dry-bulb temperature, 50% saturation in su


The sensible heat gain is 8.0 kW.
The latent heat gain is 2.0 kW.

Determine the cooling coil and reheater outputs required by using a psychromet
plant schematic is as shown below.
DATA:
Outdoor condition is 28oC, 80% saturation.
The outdoor air and recirculated air ratio is; 20% / 80%.
The Apparatus Dew Point ADP is 8 oC
The cooling coil contact factor is 0.8. (See explanation of contact factor in page

Procedure (Summer Cycle)


1.Draw schematic diagram of air-conditioning plant (see above)
2.Plot room conditionRon psychrometric chart.
3.Plot outside conditionOon psychrometric chart.
4.Join pointsOandR.

5.Find the mix pointMby measuring the length of the lineO-Rand multiply
mixing ratio.
On a full size CIBSE psychrometric chart this measures 85mm.
The ratio of recirculated air is 0.8...therefore;85mm x 0.8 = 68m
Measure down theO-Rlinefrom pointOby 68mm.
This determines pointM.
6.Find the room ratio.This is the sensible to total heat gain ratio.
Total heat = 8 kW sensible + 2 kW latent = 10 kW total.
Heat ratio = 8 / 10 = 0.8

Plot this ratio on the protractor, bottom segment, on the psychrometric chart an
line onto the chart so that it passes through pointR.
7.Plot the Apparatus Dew PointADPof the cooling coil.
This is on the 100% saturation curve.The ADP is 80C.

8.Join pointsMandADP.

9.Find the off-coil conditionWby measuring the length of the lineM-ADPa


this by the cooling coil contact factor..
On a full size CIBSE psychrometric chart this measures 75mm.
The cooling coil contact factor is 0.8...therefore; 75mm x 0.8 = 60mm
Measure down along the lineM-ADPby 60mm.
This determines pointW.
10.Plot the supply air conditionS.
The reheater process will be a horizontal line from pointWto pointS.
PointSis on the room ratio line.
The supply air temperature is 17oC.

Mass Flow Rate


When the supply air temperature has been found from the psychrometric chart
flow rate of air can be calculated from the following formula:
ma=Hs/( Cp ( tr - ts ) )
where:

Hs=Sensible heat gain to room (kW)


ma=mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

Cp=Specific heat capacity of humid air (appro


degC)
tr=room temperature ( oC)
ts=supply air temperature ( oC)
The supply air temperature is 17oC.
ma=8 / ( 1.01 ( 22 - 17 ) )

ma=1.584 kg/s

Cooling Coil Output


The cooling coil output is as follows:
Hcooling coil=ma( hM- hADP)

where:
Hcooling coil=Cooling coil output (kW)
ma=mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

hM=specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg) determine


psychrometric chart.
hADP=specific enthalpy at condition ADP (kJ/kg) determ
psychrometric chart

The specific enthalpies at pointsMandADPare shown on the psychrometric Ch


Hcooling coil=1.584 ( 50.5 - 25)
Hcooling coil=40.4 kW

HeaterBatteryOutput
The heater battery or reheater output is as follows:
Hheater battery=ma( hS- hW)
where:
Hheater battery=Heater battery output (kW)
ma=mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

hS=specific enthalpy at condition S (kJ/kg) de


psychrometric chart.

hW=specific enthalpy at condition W (kJ/kg) de


psychrometric chart.

The specific enthalpies at pointsSandWare shown on the psychrometric Chart

Hheater battery=1.584 ( 36.5 - 30.5)


Hheater battery=9.5 kW

Example 4.

Winter Cycle with Humidifier

An conference room is to be maintained at 21oC dry-bulb temperature, 50% saturation in winte

The sensible heat loss for the room is 17.0 kW.


The latent heat gain is 40 Watts per person (see Air Conditioning section).

Determine the preheater and reheater outputs required and the amount of moisture to be adde
humidifier in litre/hour, by using a psychrometric chart if the plant schematic is as shown below

DATA:
Outdoor condition is -2oC, 80% saturation.
The outdoor air and recirculated air ratio is 50%/50%.
Maximum occupancy is 250 people.
The preheater off coil temperature is 5oC.
Supply air quantity is 8 air changes per hour.
Room volume is 20 x 12 x 4m high = 960 m3.

Latent Heat Gain

The latent heat gain =

heat gain per person x number of people

The latent heat gain =

40 W/person x 250 =

The latent heat gain =

10 kW

10,000 Watts

Supply Air & Fresh Air Quantities


Supply air quantity (m3/h)

air change rate x room volume (m 3)

Supply air quantity (m3/h)

8 x 960(m3)

Supply air quantity (m3/h)

7680 (m3/h)

Supply air quantity (m3/s)

7680(m3/h) / 3600 = 2.13 (m3/s)

Supply air mass flow rate (kg/s)

= Supply air quantity (m 3/s) / Specific Volume (m3/kg)

Supply air mass flow rate (kg/s)

= 2.13 (m3/s) / 0.87 (m3/kg)

Supply air mass flow rate (kg/s)

= 2.45 kg/s

The fresh air flow rate (kg/s)

= 2.45 kg/s x 50% = 1.23 kg/s

Winter Cycle Psychrometrics


1.
2.
3.

Draw schematic diagram of air-conditioning plant (see above).


Plot room condition O, M and R on psychrometric chart.
Plot the after Preheater condition P.

The Preheater process will be a horizontal line from O to P and acts as a fro
case, heating the air to 5oC.
4.
Join points P and R.
5.
Find the mix point M by measuring the length of the line P-R
and multiply this by the mixing ratio.
The line measures 82mm long.
82 x 0.5 = 41 mm
6.
Find the room ratio.
Plot this ratio on the protractor, so that it passes through point R.
Total heat is 17 kW sensible + 10 kW latent = 27kW.
Ratio is 17/27 = 0.63.

7.Find the supply air dry bulb temperature by calculation.


This is found by calculation because we have already calculated the mass flow rate of
information given in the question.

Supply Air Dry Bulb Temperature


The temperature of supply air is calculated from the following formula:

Hs

ma x Cp ( ts - tr )

where:
Hs
=
ma
=

Sensible heat loss from room (kW)


mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

Cp

Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)

tr

room temperature (oC)

ts

supply air temperature ( oC)

( ts - tr )

8.

Hs /

ma x Cp

( ts - tr )

17 / 2.45 x 1.01

( ts - tr )

6.87 deg.C

( ts - 21)

6.87 deg.C

ts

21 + 6.87 deg.C

ts

27.87 oC say 28 oC.

Plot the supply air condition S on the room ratio line.

9.
Plot condition H on the psychrometric chart.
This is vertically down from point S, and horizontally across from point M.
This is because M-H is the reheater process and thus a horizontal line and H-S is the humi
and is close to a vertical line if steam is used.

Preheater Battery Output (Or Frost Coil)


The preheater battery output is as follows:

H preheater battery = maf ( hP - hO)


where:
H preheater battery =
m af
=
hP
=
hO
=

Preheater battery output (kW)


mass flow rate of fresh air (kg/s)
specific enthalpy at condition P (kJ/kg)
specific enthalpy at condition O (kJ/kg)

H preheater battery = 1.23 ( 12 - 5.5)


H preheater battery = 8.0 kW

Reheater Battery Output


The reheater battery output is as follows:

H reheater battery = ma ( hH - hM)


where:
H reheater battery =
Reheater battery output (kW)
ma
=
mass flow rate of supply air (kg/s)
hH
=
specific enthalpy at condition H (kJ/kg)
hM
=
specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg)
Hreheater battery = 2.45 ( 42 - 27)

Hreheater battery = 36.8 kW

Humidifier Output
The amount of moisture added to the air may be calculated from the following formula:

m moisture added = ma (msS - msH)


where:
m moisture added =
ma

The amount of moisture or added or steam flow rate (kg/s)


=
mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

m sS

moisture content at condition S (kg/kg d.a.)

m sH

moisture content at condition H (kg/kg d.a.)

m moisture added = 2.45 (0.0064 - 0.0054)


m moisture added = 2.45 (0.001)
m moisture added = 0.00245 kg/s
1 litre of water weights 1 kg, therefore;
m moisture added = 0.00245 litre/s
m moisture added = 0.00245 litre/s x 3600 = 8.82 litres/hour

Example 5

Summer Cycle (Air Flows To Be Calculated)

A Lecture Theatre measures 15 m x 10 m x 6 m high.

It is to be air conditioned in summer so that the room is maintained at 22 oC dry-bulb temper


saturation.
Determine the cooling coil and reheater outputs required by using a psychrometric chart if t
schematic is as shown below.
DATA:
Outdoor condition is 28oC, 80% saturation.
The Apparatus Dew Point ADP is 7.5oC.
The latent heat gain is 10.0 kW.
The sensible heat gain is 12.0 kW.
Maximum occupancy is 200 people.
The cooling coil contact factor is unknown at present and should be calculated.

Use CIBSE guide B2 (2001) to determine air flow rates and calculate the mass flow rate of
supply air to the room.
The lecture room may be taken as an Assembly hall.
The room is a non-smoking area.

Mass Flow Rates

Information from CIBSE Guide B2 (2001) Table 3.3 is as follows (see Ventilation Ventilatio
The recommended outdoor air rate is 8 l/s/person for non-smoking.

Information from CIBSE Guide B2 (2001) Table 3.1 is as follows (see Ventilation Ventilatio

Assembly halls and auditorium refers to Table 3.6 (see Ventilation Ventilation rates section

The recommended total air supply rate is 6 10 air changes per hour for high level mecha
Fresh Air Flow Rate

Fresh air rate = 8 l/s/p x 200 people

1600 l/s

1.6 m 3/s

The specific volume at the outside condition may be determined from a psychrometric chart
Mass flow rate = Volume flow rate / specific volume
Mass flow rate (Fresh Air) = 1.6 / 0.88
=
1.82 kg/s .
Supply Air Flow Rate

If the maximum ventilation supply air rate is taken from Table 3.6 to be 10.0 air changes pe
mass flow rate can be calculated.

Volume flow rate (m3/h)


Volume of room (m3)
Volume flow rate (m3/h)
Volume flow rate (m3/h)

=
=
=
=

Volume of room (m3) x air change rate (ac/h)


15 x 10 x 6
=
900 m 3
900 (m3) x 10 (ac/h)
9000 m3/h

Volume flow rate (m3/s)


=
9000
/ 3600
Mass flow rate = Volume flow rate / specific volume

2.5 m 3/s.

The specific volume at the supply condition may be approximated at this stage from a psych
is 0.834 m3/kg.
Mass flow rate (Supply Air) =
2.5 / 0.834
=
3.0 kg/s.

Fresh Air And Recirc. Ratio.

The ratio by mass is therefore;


Fresh air rate
=
1.82 kg/s
Supply air rate
=
3.00 kg/s
Recirculation air rate =
3.00 - 1.82 = 1.18 kg/s
The ratio of fresh air to total supply air is;
1.82 / 3.00 = 0.6, i.e. 60% fresh air and therefore 40% recirculated air.
It is not unusual to have a high percentage of fresh air in a high occupancy room such
theatre.
The air flows are shown on the schematic diagram below.

Supply Air Temperature by Calculation

In this example the supply air temperature will be found by rearranging the following formula

Hs

ma x Cp ( tr - ts )

where:
Hs
=
ma
=

Sensible heat gain to room (kW)


mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

Cp

Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)

tr

room temperature (oC)

ts

supply air temperature ( oC)

Rearranging the above formula gives:

( tr - ts )

Hs / ( ma x Cp )

( tr - ts )
( tr - ts )
since tr
ts
ts

=
=
=
=
=

12 / ( 3.00 x 1.01 )
3.96 deg.C
22oC
22 - 3.96 =
18.04 oC
18 oC approx.

The processes can now be plotted on a psychrometric chart as shown below.

1. Points O, M and R can be shown on the chart.

2. Point ADP can be indicated and lines drawn between these points as shown.
3. The room ratio line can be drawn.
4. Point S is then shown on the chart, on the room ratio line at 18 oC.
5. A horizontal line is then drawn from point S towards the line O ADP.
6. Point W can then be found where the horizontal line W - S intersects the line O - ADP.
From the psychrometric chart point W is at approximately 9 oC dry bulb.
The heat ratio is 12 kW sensible / 22 kW total = 0.545.

The specific enthalpies are shown below.

Cooling Coil Output

The cooling coil output is as follows:

H cooling coil

ma (hM - hADP)

where:
H cooling coil
ma

Cooling coil output (kW)


mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

hM
=
specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg)
from psychrometric chart.
hADP =
specific enthalpy at condition ADP (kJ/k
from psychrometric chart

The specific enthalpies at pointsMandADPare shown on the psychrometric Chart ab


H cooling coil =

3.00 ( 64 - 24)

H cooling coil =

120.0 kW

Reheater Battery Output


The heater battery or reheater output is as follows:

H heater battery

ma ( h S - h W )
where:
H heater battery
ma

=
=

Heater battery output (kW)


mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

hS
=
specific enthalpy at condition S (kJ/kg)
psychrometric chart.
hW
=
specific enthalpy at condition W (kJ/kg
from psychrometric chart.

The specific enthalpies at pointsW andSare shown on the psychrometric Chart above

H heater battery =
H heater battery =

Example 7

3.00 ( 36 - 26.5)
28.5 kW

Summer Cycle with duct and fan gains

A Computer Suite Theatre measures 24 m x 10 m x 3.5 m high.

It is to be air conditioned in summer so that the room is maintained at 22 oC dry-bulb temper


saturation.
Determine the cooling coil and reheater outputs required.
The air conditioning system is shown schematically below.
DATA:

Outdoor condition is 27oC, 80% saturation.


The Apparatus Dew Point ADP is 8oC
The internal latent heat gain is 40 W per person, plus additional gain of 5 kW.
The internal sensible heat gain is 200 Watts per computer, 100W per person and 15 W/m 2
lights.
The solar gain through windows is 6.0 kW
Maximum occupancy is 80 people.
Number of computers is 80.
The cooling coil contact factor is 0.8.
Duct and fans gains are 2oC.
Fresh air, recirculated air ratio is 20%/80%.

HEAT GAINS

Sensible (200 x 80) + (100 x 80) + ( 15 x 24 x 10) = 27,600 Watts = 27.6 kW + sola
kW = 32.6 kW
Latent
Total heat gain
Room ratio

(40 x 80) = 3200 Watts


= 3.2 kW + other 5kW = 8.2 kW
=
32.6 + 8.2 =
40.8 kW
=
32.6 / 40.8 =
0.8

Mass Flow Rate

When the supply air temperature has been found from the psychrometric chart then the ma
to offset heat gains can be calculated from the following formula:
ma

Hs / ( Cp ( tr - ts ) )

where:
H s = Sensible heat gain to room (kW)
m a = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
C p = Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)
tr = room temperature (oC)
ts = supply air temperature (oC)
The supply air temperature is 14.5oC.
ma
ma

=
=

32.60 / ( 1.01 ( 22 - 14.5 ) )


4.3 kg/s

The processes can now be plotted on a psychrometric chart as shown below.


From the psychrometric chart point W is at approximately 11 oC dry bulb.
Point D is 11oC + 2oC (duct and fan gains given in Data) = 13oC

Cooling Coil Output


The cooling coil output is as follows: H cooling coil =
where:
Hcooling coil =
ma
=

Cooling coil output (kW)


mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

ma ( hM - hADP)

hM

specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg) determined from psychromet

hADP =

specific enthalpy at condition ADP (kJ/kg) determined from psychrom

The specific enthalpies at pointsMandADPare shown on the psychrometric Chart ab


H cooling coil =

4.3 ( 49.5 - 25)

H cooling coil

105.4 kW

Reheater Battery Output


The heater battery or reheater output is as follows: H heater battery = ma ( hS - hD)
where:
Hheater battery
ma

=
=

Heater battery output (kW)


mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

hS

specific enthalpy at condition S (kJ/kg) determined from psyc

hD

specific enthalpy at condition D (kJ/kg) determined from psyc

The specific enthalpies at pointsS andDare shown on the psychrometric Chart above
H heater battery =

4.3 ( 33.5 - 32)

H heater battery =

6.5 kW

Displacement Ventilation

Displacement ventilation is whencool air is introducedinto a room atvery lo

This air is not forced by a fan butmigratesslowly through a space gradually di

The previously cooled air rises slowly to the ceiling when it is heated by the room
ceiling level.
The diagram below shows awall mountedoutlet but under floor outlets can also

The temperature of the stratified layer near the ceiling can be allowed to rise ab
because itisabove the occupied zone.
The cooling capacity of displacement ventilation systems is about40 W/m2.

The rate of air supply is typically around 4 air changes per hour.

A displacement ventilation system isenergy efficientin that both fan power a


reduced.
There is no need to push air into the room through ceiling diffusers at a required
occupied zone thus reducing fan power required.

The supply air is not too cold (about18oCis not unusual) thus reducing theamo
energy input at chillers.

The system is sometimes combined with active cooling systems such aschilled
cooling capacity.
Ideally, a minimum floor to ceiling height of2.7 mis required.
Appropriate diffusers must be selected.

In some circumstancesthe air from a wall-mounted terminal can flow downward


and move around the room close to the floor, creating a thin layer of cool air.

Natural convection from internal heat sources, such as occupants and equipmen
movementin the room.
The more heat there is in the room the quicker the air will rise.
The warm, contaminated air forms a stratified region above the occupied zone,
high level.
Some advantages are as follows;
Useless energythan conventional systems.
Quiet.
Some disadvantages are as follows;

Spaceis required to drop a vertical duct down to floor mounted displacement v


required under floors for floor units.
Close temperature control is difficult to provide.
The slow upward movement of air may become disturbed in areas where downd

Other Ways to Cool Buildings

There arealternative methodsof cooling buildings other than full comfort air co
These include;
Night-time cooling
Evaporative cooling
Ice storage
Chilled beams and ceilings
Hollow floor slabs with air
Cooling air by subsoil or water

Some of these will use significantlyless energythan conventional air condition


The following is a brief description of each of the systems listed above.

Night-time Cooling

Cool airis passed through the building at night-time.


In some buildings this may be achieved byopening windowsand using a purely
system.

Most buildings however, require to be mechanically ventilated to obtain the high


change to cool down the building fabric.

This is particularly suited to areas where the summer temperature drops off at n

The system is improved by having building fabric exposed to the cooling effect o
time air as shown below.

Night cooling of exposed heavyweight constructions can offset from20 to 30 Wa


heat gains during the day, reducing peak internal temperatures by2-30C.

Evaporative Cooling
As water is sprayed into an air stream thewater evaporates.

The heat that allows the water to evaporate (the latent heat of vaporisation) is t
the air thus causing adrop in the dry bulbtemperature.
This is demonstrated on the psychrometric chart below.

We usuallyavoid spaying waterinto air streams to reduce the risk of bacteria


(such aslegionella).
A way around this may be to cool the exhaust air with evaporative cooling and u
cool the supply air by using a heat exchanger.

The exhaust louvre for this system must be well away from the fresh air intake l
ensure nocross contaminationof air streams.
The efficiency of the system relies on the efficiency of the heat exchanger.
The best heat exchangers at present arethermal wheels.
Many systems already incorporate a heat exchanger in the exhaust to recover h
winter.
A plentiful supply of water is required to add at the humidifier.

Ice Storage

The storage oficecan be used to provide chilled water for; cooling coils, fan coi
induction units or chilled beam/ceiling.
The advantage of using ice is that it acts as abuffer.
In ice storage systems refrigeration plant generates an ice bank duringoff-pea
which is melted to provide chilled water for use during peak periods.

The ice store can be maintained at 0 oC by a chiller running on off-peak electricit


cheap energy source.

Chilled Beams and Ceilings

Chilled water is circulated throughnarrow cooling unitscalled beams or through


incorporated into aceiling.
Chilled beams havenofanbuilt in.
Chilled beams can bepassiveoractive.
Passive chilled beamshave a longchilled water pipewhich cools room air.
Warm air rises to the ceiling and enters the top of the beam, where it is cooled b
with the cold coil.

The cool air descends into the room through outlet slots on the underside of the

Active chilled beamshaveprimary cool airsupplied through ducting in the beam


Warm room air is induced into the beam and through the cooling coil reducing it
temperature.

The chilled ceiling operates by radiation heat exchange and does not involve co
fan assisted air movement.

Hollow Floor Slabs with Air


Precast hollow concrete floor slabs can be used as a conduit for conditioned air.

Theslab is cooledby chilled air or night time cool air so that the concrete mass
lowered temperature.
The system has several advantages;
Dampens swingsin internal temperature due to high thermal
concrete.
Uses existing space in slabs for transporting air.

Uses the cooler slab as a means of keeping the building air cond
without the need for ductwork.

Hollow Floor Slab systems can offset heat gains up to 30 W/m 2where the under
slab is not exposed and 50 W/m2where it is exposed.

Cooling Air by Subsoil or Water

The year round ground temperature at 2m to 5m depth in theU.K.is 10 oC to 14


Thissub-soil layercan be used to cool air.
A series of air pipes are laid in the ground at a suitable depth.
As air is forced through the pipes it is cooled.

The cooled air from the above system can be used either; directly tocool a bui
pre-conditioned air to be further cooled by a refrigeration system.

The system also can be used to pre-heat air in winter when the ground tempera
above the outside air temperature.

Theefficiencyof the system depends on; air temperatures, air flow rates and t
effectiveness of the soil/pipe/air heat transfer system.

Another method of cooling air uses water sources such as; the sea, a lake, a rive

Where available this is preferred over subsoil cooling, since water has aboutfou
heat capacitycompared to air.

Water is pumped from the source and passed through a heat exchanger where w
chilled and passed to cooling coils.

Another use of cool water is as a source for a; water to water or water to air hea

Example Computer Suite


A computer suite in a college is to be Air Conditioned.
Choose the air conditioning system and design a suitable system.
Show the design on an appropriate drawing.
The room measures 20 m x 10 m x 3.0 m ceiling height.
The room is on the top floor of a 3-storey building.
The glazing area along the 20m wall is 15 m x 1.2m high.
Internal heat gains are; 10kW people + 4kW lighting + gains from 50 p.c.s.

Estimate the external heat gains for this


example.

Choose Air Conditioning System


The system could be;
1.Central plant with ductwork
2.Room Air conditioning units
3.Fan Coil units.
For this room, Air conditioning units have several advantages;
1.individual room control.
2.easy to install, no space required for ducts.
3.cheaper to install compared to central plant systems.
4.do not take up much space like central plant systems do.

5.quick response to fluctuations in load and matches fluctuating l


units.
6.refrigeration pipework is small and easy to route.
7.no water pipes are required as in Fan Coil units.
8.most room a.c. units are heat pumps and can heat as well as co
9.no plant room is required.
There are a few disadvantages for air conditioning units;
1.fan in unit may become noisy over time.

2.no fresh air delivery to the room, this can be overcome with a fr
separate ducted system.
3.filters in room a.c. units are not very efficient and staining may

4.if used extensively and at full load for most of the running perio
use central plant.
5.the condensate drain may block and stain the ceiling.

We will choose room air conditioning units for this example.

Several ceiling mounted cassette units will be installed flush with the ceiling and
connected to outdoor units (air cooled condensers)
The outdoor units can be mounted at ground level or on a roof or wall of the bui
They should be protected from vandalism and pollution and leaves blocking the

Suction and delivery refrigeration pipework is routed from the outdoor units to t
mounted cassettes.

Determine heat gains for the room.


Heat gain from People=10 kW
Heat gain from Lights=4 kW

Heat gain from PCs;


CIBSE guide A (2006) Tables 6.7 and 6.8
PC heat gain - Highly conservative continuous use=75 Watts
Large monitor heat gain -continuous use=80 Watts
Total=155
50 PCsx155 W each=7750 Wattssay8 kW heat gain
Sub Total=10 + 4 + 8=22 kWheatgain
For this example we will assume this is 70% of the total heat gain.

This is typical for this country and can be checked from other examples in this s
Examples of heat gain calculations give Internal gains to be 67% to 85% of the t

To include other gains from sun :22 / 0.7=31.42 kW say32 kWtotal heat

Sizing Cassettes from catalogue.


Go to an appropriate web site or catalogue.

Thehttp://www.toshiba-aircon.co.uk,http://www.mitsubishiaircon.co.ukandhttp://www.daikin.co.uksites give information for commercial 4


For this example we could use theDaikininformation.

Go to;products,commercial spaces,one room,4 way blow ceiling mounted


data.
An FCQ 100 B has an output of 10 kW of cooling.
Choose4 No. FCQ 100 Bcassettes (indoor units)to give total output of40 kW
The accompanying outdoor unit is reference RZQ 100 B.
The COP is 3.71.
Dimensions are;840mm x 840mm x 288mm high plus decoration panel.
Sound level at high fan speed is 53 dB.

The R410A is the type of refrigerant used; this does not deplete the ozone layer
Power supply is 230-3-50, i.e. 230volt, 3 phase, 50hertz supply.
Benefits -2,3 or 4 indoor units can be connected to only 1 outdoor unit even if
capacities.

All indoor units operate within the same mode (cooling or heating) from one rem

Reverse cycle means that the unit can be switched to heat pump mode and hea

Daikin Air Conditioners u


Outdoor

Model
RZQ71B
RZQ100B
RZQ71B
RZQ100B
RZQ71B
RZQ71B

RZQ100B
RZQ100B
RZQ71B

System Design
The drawing below shows a suitable system.
Refrigeration suction and delivery pipework omitted for clarity.

Cooled /Split/ Reverse Cycle

0A

Indoor
unit

Cooling Cooling EER


Capacit power
y
input
kW

kW

Class

FAQ71B
FAQ100B

7.1
10

2.36
2.79

EER
3.01 B
3.58 A

FCQ71B
FCQ100
B

7.1
10

2.17
2.63

FHQ71B
FUQ71B

7.1
7.1

2.47
2.26

Heating Heating Heating


capacity power
power
input
input
kW

kW
8
11.2

2.42
3.2

3.31
3.5

3.27 A
3.8 A

8
11.2

2.49
3.02

3.21
3.71

2.87 C
3.14 B

8
8

2.78
2.71

2.88
2.95

FHQ100B

10

3.16

3.16 B

11.2

3.6

3.11

FUQ100B

10

3.05

3.28 A

11.2

3.29

3.4

7.1

2.15

3.3 A

2.31

3.46

FBQ71B

Class

COP
C
B
C
A
D
D

D
C
B

Problems in Air Conditioning systems


(i)LegionnairesDisease

(ii)HumidifierFever
(iii)SickBuildingSyndrome

Legionnaires Disease
Thebacteriathrivenaturallyinwarm moist conditionsfoundinswamps

Theyhaveadaptedtotheartificialclimate/environmentofairconditionedbuildings.

Anypermanentlymoist/warm situationsuchasadeadlengthsofpipeandtrapped
waterinshowerrosescouldattractthebacteria.

Cooling towersofairconditioningplantsarethemostpredominantbreedingarea.
Themostatriskareelderlyandpeoplewithrespiratorydisordersthoughrelatively
youngfitpeoplehavedied.

Thebacterialivesandmultipliesattempsbetween20-60OC(Optimum35OC).
Solution:Abolitionofcoolingtowers,replacementwithaircooledcondenserunitsorastrict
maintenanceroutine.

ThroughtheHealthandSafetyCommission(HSC),airconditionedbuildingownersmustnow
undertakeregularmaintenenceofcoolingtowers.

Treatwaterwithbiocides
Keeprecordsofmaintenanceandtreatment

Appointapersonorfacilitiesmgt.companytoberesponsibleforsupervisionof
maintenance.

Humidifier Fever

Anallergycausingtemporarydiscomfortwithsymptomssimilartoinfluenza.

Thesourcehasbeenfoundinwater reservoirsofhumidifiers.
Microorganismsoftheamoebaespeciesbreedwhiletheplantisshutdownfor
weekendsandholidays.

Thedeadhusksoftheamoebaearedrawnintotheairstreamanddryintoafinedust
whichisinhaledbybuildingoccupants.
Biocidal treatmenttothespraywaterisonesolution,replacementwithasteam
injectionhumidifierisanother.

Sick Building Syndrome


Manifestsitselfinanumber,orcombinationofsymptomsincluding
headaches, lethargy, skin irritations, dry or running eyes, runny nose, throat
inflammation and loss of concentration.

Theseoccurancesaremoreprevalentincontemporarybuildings,whicharesealed a
haveanartificiallycontrolledenvironment.

Definedinsymptoms,notcauses,sickbuildingsyndromeissomethingofamystery

Fortunatelynotdeadlyordisablingbutisacontributortoabsenteeism.
SickBuildingSyndromehasbeenrecognisedintraditional buildings(notjustair
conditionedones)

Additionalissuesbeingconsideredascontributoryareairpollutants,poorly
maintainedormisusedventilationsystems,eliminationoffreshairfromsystemsto
economiseonfuel,cleaningequipmentandmaterials,syntheticfibres/materialsin
carpetsandsoftfurnishings,organicdustpollution,microbiologicalinfestationfrom
dustorcarpetmites.

Commissioning
CIBSE

Commissioning Code A (1996 confirmed 2006) Air Distribution Systems gives de


commission air conditioning systems.

CIBSE document TM44:Inspection of air conditioning systems (2012)provides g


inspection of air conditioning systems in accordance with Article 9 of the Energy
Buildings Directive (EPBD).

Health and Safety Issues

The commissioning engineer should be alert toLegionellarisks from standing w


equipment.

Equipment such ascooling towersorevaporative coolerscan be at risk from


bacteriaand the engineer should investigate this equipment thoroughly.
Cleaning and disinfection records and logbooks shall be examined to

confirm that an appropriate risk assessment has been carried out, an effective m
strategy is in place for controlling risks and that the required cleaning and dosin
adhered to rigorously.

Commissioning Procedures
Preliminary Checks

1.System cleanliness check all equipment.


2.Air regulating devices and other components within airw
3.Fan checks
4.Electrical checks

Checks

1.Checkfanon light load, direction of shaft, noise and vibr


overheating, sparks, current at various loads, volume flow rate a

2.Balance system usingdampers.


The process consists essentially of workingback tothe fanfro
branches.
Thecorrect proportionalair flowat each junction of the syste
turn(without regard for definitive flow rates) and so balancingth

After this is completed, theair volume flow ratesthroughout t


brought to their design values by adjusting thefan total volum

Drawings
As installeddrawings are important to the commissioning process.

A schematic drawing of the system is most valuable and should show the gener
sizes of the distribution ductwork, including the positions of the following:
1.test points
2.branch dampers
3.fire dampers
4.fans
5.louvres (intake and exhaust)
6.control sensors
7.grilles (together with details)
8.heater/cooler batteries
9.filters
10.terminal units
11.energy recovery devices.

Design flow rates and pressure drops should be recorded on the drawing, ideally
selected test points.

Avoidance of draughts

It is important that air distribution to occupied spaces is achieved without causin


particularly where people are likely to be sedentary.

Avoidance of Noise

Design consideration should be given to ensure that plant noise is minimised an


can be correctly set up by the commissioning engineer without the introduction
noise.

Ductwork Leakage Testing


It is essential that all airways have an appropriate degree of air tightness.

Where required by the specification, ductwork leakage testing should be carried


with DW142 and DW143