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A

TRANING REPORT
ON

EXTENSION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL


AND SCIENCE
Submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirement
for the
Award of degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Submitted to:

Submitted by:

MR.KEWAL SINGH

SABIRA BATOOL

HOD, CE.
CE 8 T H SEM

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY
SESSION-MAY 2016

EXTENTION OF
MAULANA AZAD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
As The Professional Courses Not Only Require the Theoretical Knowledge but Practical Knowledge too that is
Why University Started Conducting Training Programs for the Students. So That They Can Get Ample View Of
Practical Problems I Find It a matter Of Honour In Showing The Feeling Of Indebtedness & Thankfulness To
The Mr.Kewal Singh (H.O.D) Of Civil Department School Of Engineering And Technology For
Providing This Opportunity To Carry Out The Four Months Industrial Training. The Constant Guidance And
Encouragement Mr Nitish Malik assistant professor & Er.Dharmender Kamboj (Training & Placement
Cell.) Has Been Of Great Help In Carrying Out The Project Work And Is Acknowledged With Reverential. It Is
My Privilege To Express My Profound Ineptness, My Deep Sense Of Gratitude To Roshan Real Estate Pvt
Ltd. H.O At Malviya Nagar For Showing Trust In Me And Assigning Me Such An Important And Interesting
Project And Also For Sparing Time From His Schedule To Discuss & Clarify Issues Related To This Project.
I Sincerely Thank To my Project Guide Er.Najeeb Qadri(PM) Er.Tarun
Shetty (P.E) Er.Taj (A.E) Er.Bittu (S.E) Er.Waqar (S.E) Er.Punit Kumar (Quality Control Inspector)
And Durga (Foreman) For Guidance And Encouragement In Carrying Out This Project Work .I Wish To
Express My Sincerely Gratitude To Er.Taj (A.E) For Providing Me An Opportunity To Do My Project Work
On Extension Of Maulana Azad Institute Of Dental & Science At Old Delhi (Near Feroz Shah Kotla Cricket
Stadium) In Roshan Real Estate Pvt Ltd.
I Am Also Very Thankful To My Friends And Family Members Who Supported
Me Encouraged Me All The Time To Through This Whole Project.

Sabira Batool
Uni.Roll no:

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL


& SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION OF MY WORK
I have Completed Fourth Month Industrial Training In Extension of Maulana Azad
Institute of Dental & Science" Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg at Delhi Gate (Near Feroz Shah
Kotla Cricket Stadium).
During The Training Period I Am Supervising And Monitoring The Various
On Going Construction Works At The Construction Site Under The Guidance Of Engineer In
Charge At Site.
My task during Training
Brick Work
Column layout & Concreting
Check Slab Shuttering & Concreting
Some Cheeping works from Jack hammer
Scaffolding & Formwork
Slump Test
Silt test
Brick test
Project Type: - Educational Building
Location: - Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg (Delhi Gate)
Name of the Project: - Extension of Maulana Azad Institute of Dental &Science

Signature.

(Sabira batool)

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF


DENTAL & SCIENCE

STUDENT DECLARATION
I Sabira Batool Student Of B-Tech (Civil)-8th Semester College Roll No 12BTCE30 Has Undergone
Industrial Training In Roshan Real Estate Pvt Ltd As per Required Of Four Months Project. Semester For
The Award Of Degree Of B-Tech Civil Engineering School Of Engineering & Technology (Soldha
Bahadurgarh Distt.Jhajjar) And Prepared The Report Entitled Extension Of Maulana Azad Institute Of
Dental & Science Old Delhi Which Is An Authentic Record Of My Work Carried Out At Delhi Gate .
If Any Discrepancy Is Found Regarding The Originality Of This Project I May Be Held Responsible I Have
Not Copied From Any Report Submitted Earlier This Or Any Other College As Well As University .This Is
Purely Original And Authentic Work.

Sabira Batool
Univ.Roll No.

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE

COVER PAGE OF THE SITE

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING &


TECHNOLOGY)

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF


DENTAL & SCIENCE

SAFETY DETAILS & TYPES OF HELMET USED

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


6

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE

INDEX
CONTENT
1.
2.
3.
4.

Page No.

Information About Company


Information About Project & Project Cost
Student Profile
Steps Of Construction Work
Site Clearance
Layout For Excavation
Excavation
Laying Of P.C.C

11
12
13
14-16

Methodology of work

17

5. Waterproofing

18

App Membranes (5 Mm)


6. Form Work (Shuttering)

19-20

Plywood Formwork
Steel Formwork
Normal Size of Formwork

7. Concrete Placing Pipes Details

21-22

8. Scaffolding

23-25

Materials
Types Of Scaffolding
Individual Component
Types of Scaffolding
Individual Components
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)
EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
7

9. Retaining Wall

26

11. Raft Foundation Details

27

10. Column

28-30

Column Layout
Methods Of Construction
Specification
12.Laying Of Beams & Slabs
Specification Of Beam
Specification Of Slabs
13.Laying Of Stairs & Lift
Specification Of Stairs & Lift

31-32

33-35

Bricks Details
36
English Bond (230 mm)
Stretcher Bond (115 Mm)
14.How To Build A Brick Wall
15.Methods Of Plastering
Internal PlasteXSAring On Surface Of Brick And Concrete
External Wall Plastering
Improving Joints Of Brick Wall & Concrete

37-38
39

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &


SCIENCE

16.Steel Bar Cutter Machine Details

40
8

17.Steel Bar Bender Machine Details


18.Remove formwork
19.Concrete mixer
20.Needle Vibrators
21.JCB machine
22.Jack Hammer
Features
23.Quality Control & Testing
Slump Test
Test For Compressive Strength Of Concrete
Weight Of Steel
Grading Of Coarse Aggregate
Silt Content In Sand
Dimension Test Of Bricks
Soundness Test Of Bricks
Water Absorption Of Bricks

41
42
43-45
46-47
48
49-50
51-56
51
52-53
54
55
56
57
58
59

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE

1. INFORMATION ABOUT COMPANY


Roshan Real Estates Private Limited Is A Private Incorporated On 27 August 1997. It Is Classified As Non
Govt. Company And Is Registered At Registrar Of Companies, Delhi. Its Authorized Share Capital Is Rs.
30,000,000 And Its Paid Up Capital Is Rs. 20,000,000.It Is Involved In Real Estate Activities With Own Or
Leased Property.[This Class Includes Buying, Selling, Renting And Operating Of Self-Owned Or Leased Real
Estate Such As Apartment Building And Dwellings, Non-Residential Buildings, Developing And Subdividing
Real Estate Into Lots Etc. Also Included Are Development And Sale Of Land And Cemetery Lots, Operating
9

Of Apartment Hotels And Residential Mobile Home Sites.(Development On Own Account Involving
Construction Is Classified In Class A).Roshan Real Estates Private Limited's Annual General Meeting (AGM)
Was Last Held On 30 September 2014 And As Per Records From Ministry Of Corporate Affairs (MCA), Its
Balance Sheet Was Last Filed On 31 March 2014.
Directors of Roshan Real Estates Private Limited Are Syed Rashid Ali,
Roshan Real Estates Private Limited's Corporate Identification Number Is (CIN) U70101DL1997PTC089296
and Its Registration Number Is 89296.Its Email Address Is Midhasandeep@Hotmail.Com and Its Registered
Address Is 269-C Hauz Rani New Delhi DL 110017
Current Status of Roshan Real Estates Private Limited Is - Active.

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE

2. INFORMATION ABOUT PROJECT & PROJECT COST


LOCATION: DELHI GATE NEAR FIROZ SHAH KOTLA STADIUM (DELHI)
PROJECT: EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
STARTING DATE: DEC 2013
10

(2BASEMENT + 9TH FLOOR)


PROJECT BUDGET: 60 CRORE
STATUS: UNDER CONSTRUCTION
COMPLETION DATE: DEC 2017

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE

3. Students Profile

Name Of The Student:


Fathers Name:
College:
Course Name:
Roll No:
Session/Year:

Sabira Batool
Haji Nissar Ali
School Of Engineering & Technology
B-Tech (Civil Engineering)
12BTCE
2012-2016
11

E-Mail Id:
Contact No:
Name Of Organization:

Inbox4sabira@Gmail.Com
8295604254 & 9469734234
Extension Of Maulana Azad Institute

Of Dental & Science


Period Of Training:
Location Of The Project:

2nd Feb-2016 To 30th May 2016


Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg Near Feroz Shah

Kotla Cricket Stadium Old Delhi

( SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL


& SCIENCE

10.STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION WORK


There are the steps which are mainly followed for the beginning of
construction.
a. Types of building:- First select the types of building whatever
we want to construct.depending on the need likes
villas,flats,apartment,malls,industrial building or group
housing.
b. Site selection:-Site selection for construction of building can
be selected

according to the required and whatever the area

and the people demand.


in accordance with the population and bearing in mind the
geographical
12

and and industrial point of view for further development.


c. Survey:- By survey we measure all the dimensions and plot the
real position or place wherever we want to construct the
structure.this includes many aspects

like financial survey

.economical survey.topographical survey etc.


d. Site investigation:- By this we investigate the types of
soil.bearing capacity of the soil.nature of the bed.the
topographical feature of the area.which is in turn helps the
structural designer to design the footing of our project.
e. Construction:- After all these steps.construction are the
project start the consruction is done at the site in which
different section is divided such as civil.electrical mechanical
and electronics works.

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE

s
Architectural drawings:- Achitectural drawing are the heart of the
any project.because it

is the master drawing of the project as

well as which have all plans and construction


particular project

13

details about the

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Structural design:- Structural designer is that person who gives life
of the architectural

drawing because he suggests the types of

foundation.column.beams.aand slabs etc. which are needed for the


construction and who provides the amount of steel and its size.

14

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Methodology Of Work..
i.

Site clearance:- Its a very first step for any types of


construction work.in

which removal of grass and

vegetation along with any other objection in the site


ii.

location.
Positioning of central co.ordinate as per grid plan:The center point was marked with the help of a total
station as per the grid drawing with respect to this center
point.co.ordinate system are the most important parts of
any construction because its decided to all column are in
exact position.
15

iii.

Excavation:- Excavation is carried out both manually as


well as mechanically. it was carried out providing
adequate side slopes depth of excavation was 9.5 meter

iv.

from the ground level.of the building but ramp is 1.8 meter
Layout of foundation:- After casting of raft foundation
again the layout of column was done in order to check the
actual position of vertical bars of column. the layout was
also helpful to place the shuttering on actual postion so
that the column should be in proper position according to
drawing (column layout drawing).

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
v.

Bar bending and column starter:-Shear reinforcement


is tied as according to structural drawing (column
schedule) up to the height determined from framing
plan.at bottom column starter were made so that
shuttering can be fixeed on desired accurate positions.

16

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Formwork:- The shuttering either wooden or steel is cleaned and oiled
properly.it is fixed around column and its plumb is checked out. at bottom
starters keep shuttering in position and top and middle. cover blocks are
fixed so that proper cover could be provided to

17

reinforcement.

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF
DENTAL & SCIENCE
Proping:- The shuttering plates are kept in position using the standard
(vertical)its size 900,1000,1200,1500,2000,2500,3000 and
ledger(horizontal) its size 500,900,1000,1200,1500,2000 with a base
plate at the bottom and screw U- jack at the top.

18

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF
DENTAL & SCIENCE
Concrete placing and compaction:- Concrete is placing in columns
with the help of pump and pipes.the different pieces of pipes are joined
with the help of couplers.at the end of pipes a flexible hose is provided
so as to facilitate the concrete placing process.

19

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING &


TECHNOLOGY)
EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
1. Check for vertically:-After the concrete is placed the vertical
shuttering checked again while concrete is still in fresh state.
2. Removal of formwork:- The very next day.shuttering of column is
removed.
3. chipping and finishing:- as the surface is smooth and plain.so
surface roughness and pecularities if any are reomoved and patches
are removed by the help of cement mortar.
4. Curing:- After the finishing work.the date of column is casted is
marked on it and its covered with the help or hazen clothes.the
surface of concrete is kept wet for next seven days by sprinkling
water continously.
5. Water proofing:- water-proof or water-resistent describes objects
relatively unaffected by water or resisiting the water under specified
condition.but damp proof refers to resistance to humidity or
dampness.
6. Laying of P.C.C (Plain cement concrete):- After the process of
compaction and levelling.laying of plain cement concrete that is PCC
is done .A layer of 150 mm thick of grade of PCC of Sade of M7.5
(1:4:8). Its provide a solid base for the raft foundation

20

( SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
7. Scaffolding:- Scaffolding is also called staging. It is a temporary
structure used to support the people and material in the
construction or repair of building and other structure.scaffolding has
beeen used since ancient times.there are many kinds of
prefabricated modular system of metal pipes or tubes.
8. Types of Scaffolding..
Independent scaffold:- The scaffolding supported
on two rows of uprights.independent of the structure
under construction.
Individual component types scaffold:Independent or putlog scaffold consisting of an
assembely of individual tubes and fitting.

21

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Putlog scaffold:- The scaffolding supported by single row of up rights
in combination with load bearing parts of the structure it may be either
Individual component type or units frame types.Individual
components
Base plate:- A plate for distributing the load from a standard or raker.
Brace:- A tubes incorporated diagonally in a scaffolding for stability.
Bridle:- A horizontal tube slung between putlogs for the purpose of
supporting intermediate putlogs where due to windows opening and
like that it is impossible to support a putlog in the wall.

22

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING &


TECHNOLOGY)
EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
Coupler:- A fitting by which a grip is applied to the external surface of
two tubes and which thereby holds them together.
Joint pin:- An internal fitting or joining two tubes end to end.
Putlog:- A tube or other member spanning from a ledger to the wall of
a building and which may have a specially formed end for the purpose
of fixing into the brick work.
Raker:- An inclined tube having a bearing on the ground or on
adjacent structure.
Formwork (Shuttering):- Formwork is an ancillary construction used
as a mould for a structure.into this mould fresh concrete is placed. of
the structure or even more.the operation of removing the formwork is
formwork takes time and involves expenditure

upto 20 to 25% of

the cost known as stripping.stripped formwork can be reused.reusable


23

formwork is also known as panel form and non usable is called


stationary forms.
Requirements of formwork
1. It should be strong enough to support all types of load such as dead
load & live load.
2. The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of cement
grout.
3. Construction of formwork should permit removal of various parts in
desired sequences without damage to the concrete
4. The material of the formwork should be cheap,easily available and
should be suitable for reuse.
5. The material of the formwork should be set accurately to the desired
line and levels

should have plain surface.

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Retaining wall:- A retaining wall is a structure designed and
constructed to resist the lateral pressure of soil.when there is desired
changes in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of respose of the
soil.Retaining wall must resist the lateral pressures generated by loose
soils or in some water pressure.
Steps involve in construction of Retaining wall.
1.Placing vertical steel of column
2.layout of column
3.Bar bending and column starter
4.Formwork and Propping
24

5.Concrete pouring and compaction


6.Check for vertical bar & horizontal
7.Removal of formwork
8.Chipping and finishing
9.Curing
10.water proofing
11.Backfillings

( SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF
DENTAL & SCIENCE
`

Raft foundation:- Raft foundation are used to spread the load from a
structure over a large area.normally the entire area of the structure.raft
foundation are used when large load is to be distributed and it is not
provide individual footings.We can say that raft foundation are used to
where the soil bearing capacity is low as well as present soil is soft or
loose particle. therefore raft foundation are to be used spread the load
over a larger area.
Specification of raft foundation: Area of raft foundation: Thickness of raft :- 1200 mm
Grade of concrete :- M25 (1:1:2)
Grade of steel:- Fe500
25

Bottom reinforccement:-20mm(dia)@200mm c/c(both


ways)
Top reinfocement:- 16&20mm(dia)@150mmc/c(both
ways)
Extra top reinfocement:- 20mm (dia)@200mmc/c

( SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Laying of Beam and Slabs:- A structural member which supports
lateral load and resist

bending is known as beam.Slabs are plane

structural member whose thickness is quite small as compared to its


other dimension.slabs supports mainly Transverse loads and transfer
them to end supports by bending action in one or more direction.The
steps which are followed for the construction of column are written as
below.
Fixing beam bottom and slab formwork:- Beam bottom are fixed
along with the vertical

reinforcement of columns using a

specially made arrangement called BEAM SUPPORTER generally beam


26

bottom and slabs shuttering is made of plywood and resisit of vertical


steel pipe. this arrangement is called PROBES

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE

27

Sr No.

Beam

Name of Beam

Number of Beam

1.

Size
230x60

B2,B3,B7,B8,B9,B11,B12,B14,B15

47

,B16,B29
B30A,B31A,B33,B37,B40,B41,B42
,B43,B45
B46,B50,B51,B52,B64,B64A,B64B
,B70,B71
B73,B74,B75,B78,B84,B85,B86,B
87A,B87B
B88,B95,B98,B99,B100,B101,B10

2.

400X60

3
B4,B5,B18,B19,B20,B21,B23,B25,

B26,B27,B28,B29,B32,B34,B35,B

41

38,B44,B48A,B48B,B51A,B51B,B5
3,B54,B55,B56,B57,B65,B66,B67,
B68,B69,B72,B72A,B77,B90,B91,
3.

230X75

B97,B102,B104,B105
B1,B13,B47

4.

0
230X25

B10

5.

0
400X25

B17,B39,B45,B49,B76,B76,B89,B

6.

0
300X60

93
B22,B59,B59A,B60,B61,B62,B81,

14

7.

0
400X85

B83,B92A,B92B,B96
B30,B31

8,.

0
150X17

B9A

9.

5
230X60

B36,B80

10.

0
300X15

HB1

11.

0
300X17

HB228

TOTAL

120

Specification of Beams:-

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EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
Lap length = 40D
Grade of concrete = M25(1:1:2)
Grade of steel =Fe500
Clear cover =25mm
Specification of Slab:Thickness of slab = 250mm, 175mm & 150mm
Grade of concrete = M25(1:1:2)
Grade of steel = Fe500
Clear cover = 20mm
Lap length = 40D

29

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EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
Laying of Column

30

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EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
Specification of Column:Sr.N

Size of

Name of Column

Number

Colum

of

n
600x60

C2,C25,C26,C27,C29,C30,C32,C34,C38A,

Column
16

0
450X90

C38B,C39,C40,C41,C41B,C42,
C1,C4,C5,C6,C7,C11,C12,C13,C14A,C14B,

36

C17A,C17B,C17C,C18A,C18B,C18C,C18D,
C19,C20,C21,C22,C23,C24C33,C34,C35,C36

A,C36B,C36
230X75 C3A,C3B,C3C,C8,C9A,C9B,C9C,C2,C28A,C28

18

B,C28C,C28D,C28E,C28F,C28G,C28H,C29,C

350X70

30
C10,C15,C16

0
300X90

C31

0
300X75

C12A

TOTAL NUMBERS OF COLUMN


Lap length = 49D to 60D

75

Grade of concrete = M25(1:1:2) & M30


Grade of steel =Fe500
31

Clear cover =40mm

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EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Laying of Stair & Lift:- A series of rise,trade & flight of steps that go
from one level to

another level is called Stair.the formwork can

be made by plywood and steel plate.The

first step is to cut

the side forms according to the drawing.add wooden member as


bracing against the outward movement and depending on the width of
stair

additional bracing should be provided at the centre.make

sure that formwork is level

checked by plumb after that concrete is

prepared that from R.M.C .and poured into framework.concrete should


be poured from the bottom step .vibrator should be used

to

remove air bubbles at last step is curing it can be done by gunny bags
or pipes.
Lift:- lift is a vertical access that moves up and down inside a building
and carries people

from

one floor to another floor. The lift is

made of R.C.C and construction method is same as other


member.there is one precaution is must be considered that it should be
vertical straight and levelled.the formwork should be strong enough to
take the dead load and live load during construction.it should be
waterright and easily removed after placing of concrete.
Specification of Stairs & Lift:Dia of stair slab bar :- 12mm dia 200 c/c
32

Dia of Lift bar:- 25 mm 20 mm 16 mm & 12mm 100c/c


Dia of stirupps bar :- 10mm & 8mm 100c/c
Grade of concrete :- M25 (1:1:2)
Grade of steel :- Fe500
Clear cover :- 25mm
Lap length :-40D
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)

SITES INSPECTION AS A TRAINEE ENGINEER


CHECK DOG-LEGGED STAIR CASE DETAILS:33

Specification of Stairs
Riser : 150mm
Tread : 300mm
Flight thickness : 200mm
Landing Size : 2100mmx2000mm

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)

How to build a brick wall:- Follow our step by step guide to


bricklying from mixing mortar to getting a good quality finish.
Apparatus:- Brick trowel old board measuring tape spirit level plumb
hammer stiff brush.
Step 1:- After any necessary foundation have been prepared layout
the bricks at both ends of wall where the pillers will start. Using string
line make a straight guideline at brick height between the two outside
bricks.now with the help of chipping hameer tacking of the surface is
done to made it rough and facilitate the bonding of mortar with already
casted concrete surface.
Step 2:- mix uniformly colour of cement with sand as well as water
mixed according to requirement for obtained the good quality of
mortar.
Step 3:- Vertical mortar joints should be broken and 10mm mortar
thickness
Step 4:- To finish the beds use the rounded edge of a brick jointer to
scape mortar into the joints.its easier to remove any excess mortar this
way.

34

step 5.to finish the beds.use the rounded edge of a brick jointer to
scrape the mortar into the joint.start with horizontal line and follow with
vertical line its easier to remove any excess

mortar this way.

step 6.in the case of half brick thick wall.the 6mm dia reinforcement
wire which is provided

after every 3rd course should be centrally

located and end of the bar should penetrate in the column by 10mm
minimum.the reinforcement needed only if the height of wall exceeds 1
meter only.
step 7.give the finished wall a gentle brush over and clean up any
mortar that has fallen into the floor before it dries. you can use water to
wash cement away from the floor.but be sure to keep it away from your
newly-built wall.
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EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE


Construction of Brick wall

35

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EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Site Bricks Details:Dimensions
230x115x75 mm
raw materials used
fly ash 45%
sand/stone dust 40%
lime sludge 10%
gypsum 5%

Advantage
1.high fire insulation
2.no breakage as campare toclay bricks
3.its uniform size , less mortar required 50%
Disadvantage
1.mechanical strength is low.
2.only modular size production
36

4.gypsum plaster can be directly attach with plaster


there are two types of brick wall (english bond & stretcher bond) are
used in the project
115 mm and 230 mm
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)
EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Installation of expantion and contraction joints in roofs.floors &
column:the expansion joints used in roofs shall be finished such as to obtain an
effective seal against penetration of water.a watebar shall be suitabley
treated for waterproofing.
Internal plastering on surfaces of brick and concrete:surface where plastering is to be done is cleaned.
all the brick walls are watered before pasting mortar on the walls.
first coat mortar filling (1:6) upto 15 mm is applied on surface where
required mortar

thickness exceeds 25 mm.

generally walls and column palaster by 1:4 ,1:5 & 1:6


vertical joints of structural columns / walls & brick walls are treated by
200 mm width chicken mesh with wire nails
External wall plastering :Alignment and fixing level pegs on external wall surface are done
using the surveying instrument / centre plumb bobs.
projection on the wall surfaces are chipped off and cleaned after
completing the level pegs on walls.
37

first coat mortar filling (1:6) upto 15 mm is applied on surface


where required mortar thickness exceeds 25 mm.

generally walls and column palaster by 1:4 ,1:5 & 1:6


vertical joints of structural columns / walls & brick walls are
treated by 200 mm width chicken mesh with wire nails
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)
EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE

STEEL BAR BENDER MACHINE DETAILS:Model :- Cosin Gw42


Serial Number :- 034
Bending Specification :Plain Carbon Steel <=42mm dia
Thread steel Grade<=32mm dia
Size 80x800x860mm
Motor Power 3 kw
Weight 320kg
Working speed 10-20r\min

38

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
STEEL BAR CUTTER MACHINE DETAILS:Model :- Cosin(China) GQ50
Serial number :- 024
Cutting Specification :Plain Carbon Steel <=50mmDia
Thread steel Grade <=42mmDia
Size= 1560x480x870mm
Motor Power = 4kw
Voltage = 380V
Weight = 560 kg
Motor speed = 2880r\min
Cutting Times\min = 28 times\min
SIZE OF COVER BLOCKS & CLEAR COVER
According to I.S 1786-1979
Raft Foundation

50mm & 75 mm

Retaining wall

40mm

Column

40mm

39

Lift column

40mm

Beams

25mm

Slab

20mm

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE
Order of method of removing formwork: The sequence of orders
and method of removal of formwork are as follows :
Shuttering forming the vertical faces of wall, beam, & column sides
should be removed first as tyey bear no load but only retain the
concrete.
Shuttering forming soffit of slabs shouid be removed next.
Shuttering forming soffit of beam , girders or other heavly loaded
shuttering

should be removed in the end .

Table period of removal of formwork:S.No

Description of structural

Period of time

.
1

member
Walls, columns, & vertical sides of

1 to 2 days

2
3
4
5

beams
Slabs (props left under)
Beam soffits (props left under)
removal of props to slabs
For slabs spanning upto 4.5m
For slabs spanning upto 4.5m
Removal of props to beams &
arches
spanningupto 6m
spanning over 6m

40

3 days
7 days
7 days
14 days

14 days
21 days

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE

Concrete Mixer (Computerised)

Concrete Mixer Plant:- Mixer plants provides the facility to mix the
various ingredients of concrete in required proportion at the in order to
fulfil the quanties of concrete and without morelead distance . A
concrete plant also known as a batch plant is a device that combines
various ingredients to form concrete . some of these inputs include
sand,water,aggregate,fly-ash,cement and the centre of the concrete
41

batching plant is the mixer . these employ compuetr aided control to


assist in the fast. Accurate measurement of inputs constituents or
ingrdients as well as tie together the variuos parts and accessories for
coordinate and safe operation.

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE

42

Schwing Trailer concrete pump:- it is a high pressure machine with


low concrete pressure or

low delivery with high concrete pressure

ensuring high efficiency in both cases.it is an output


governed hydraulic pump that ensure the prime mover is never overheaded.
The automatic governor splits available engine output into oil flow
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)
oil pressure and allows the pump to run always at the optimum level.at
the same time. The manual de-stroker can be used to vary output
independent of the automatic governor for the tuning.the open circuit
and theHi-Flowintegrate spool block. apply minimum stress on the
components and wears parts.The constant filtering and circulation this
set up offers reduces heat generation and so allows for prolonged
operation.
Concrete Trailer Pumps:- A concrete pump is a machine is used for
transfering liquid

concrete by pumping. There are two types of

concrete pumps.
1.

Truck mounted concrete pumps:- it is either mounted on a


truck and known as a truck-mounted concrete pump or placed on
a trailer and it is commonly reffered to as aline pump or trailermounted concrete pump. This pump requires steel or flexible
concrete placing houses to be manually attached to the outlet of
the machine.Those hoses are linked together and lead to wherever
the concrete needs to be placed .line pumps normally pump
concrete at lower volumes than boom pumps and are used for
smaller volume concrete placing application such as swimming
pools. Sidewalls and single family home concrete slabs and most
ground slabs.
43

2.

Trailer-mounted boom concrete:- it is attached to a truck.it


uses a remote- controlled articulating robotic arm (called a boom)
to place concrete accurately. Boom pumps are used on most of the
larger construction projects as they are capable of pumping at
very high volumes and because of the labour saving nature of the

3.

placing boom.
Transit Mixer:- it is used to transport the concrete from the place
of production to the site Nominal capacity of Transit mixer is 6
cum and Total geometric volume is 9 cum. It is a equipment
which is used for transpoting the concrte from batching plant
directly to the place where it is to be poured it has a wide range of
application specially for mass concreting works like high rise
building construction, Dam Airports etc.The angle of drum is 15
and drum speed varies from 0-4 rpm

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE

44

Immersion or needle vibrator:- This is perhaps the most commonly


used vibrator.it essentially consists of a steel tube(with one end closed
and rounded) having an eccentric vibrating element inside it. This steel
tube called poker .it is connected to an eccentric motor or a diesel
engine through a flexible tube . They are available in size varying from
4o mmm to

100 mm diameter.The diameter of the poker is decided

from the consideration of the spacing between the reinforcement bars


in the form work.The frequency of vibration varies upto 15000 rpm
However a range between 3000 to 6000 rpm is suggested as a
desirable minimum with an accelartion of 4g to 10g.The normal radius
of action of an immersion vibrator is

0.50 to 1.0 m. However it

would be preferable to immerse the vibrator into concrte at intervals of


not more than 600mm or 8 to 10 times the diameter of the poker .The
period of vibration required may be of the order of 30 seconds to 2
minutes . The concrete should be placed in layes not more than 600
mm high.
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)
EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
Concrete Vibration Practices : Before starting a job, be sure to have a spare vibrator ready as a
backup plan.
Do not over vibrate concrete Over- vibration of concrete will lead to
honeycombing
instead of reducing it.
If you are pouring a low slump concrete be sure not to under vibrate
it as honeycomb will
also be a problem.
Concrete with higher slump will require little vibration.
When pouring self consolidating concrete already placed to reduce
cold joints.the vibrator shall penetrate at least 6 inches into the
previous layer
45

The vibrator shall be penetrate vertically to maximize its effects


Do not over bend the vibrator, it will fail.
A common practice is used to the vibrator as a concrte placement
tool if you do this .you could be creating an inconsistent surface
and the concrete mix will be affected in certain areas.
Concrete vibrator shall be hold at least 10 seconds into the concrte
mix.
Vibrator shall be pulled up at an average rate of 3 inches per
seconds
Remember to use hand spading or pudding.
Every time the vibrator is inserted it radius of action shall overlap
from the previous one.remember that every concrete vibrator has its
own field of action it is estimated that the field of action four times
the vibrator tip diameter.
Causes of Blockages:- There are basically three main causes of pump
line blockages a
deficiency in the mix design,problem with the pipeline itself and the
human factor .
The Wrong Mix:- Concrete can bleed due to poorly graded sand that
allows water to bleed thoughts the small channels formed due to voids
in the sand or if the concrete mixInsufficient mixing can cause
segregation in the mix for successful pumping aggregte must

have

a full coating of cement grout to lubricate the mix as it is being


pumped.
A delay in placing the concrete to begin to set prematuarely this
creates a mix that may be too stiff to pump it wont fill the pumping
cylinders,causing excessive pumping presures.
Problem with pipe line:- The entire pumping system must be
evaluated for the job it is to perform.Consideration include a property
46

size sysytem including pump capacity and motor horsepower to move


the concrete through the full length of the pipeline.

Backhoe Loader:- These are heavy construction equipment consisting


of a boom,stick bucket and cab on a rotating platform (known as the
house).A cable-operated excavator uses winches and steel ropes to
accomplish the movements.they are a natural progression from the
steam shovels and often called power shovels.
Ecavator capacity = 0.26 cum
Loader capacity = 1.1 cum

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE

JACK HAMMER
47

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING &


TECHNOLOGY)
EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
48

Jack hammer :It is used for:

Renovating floors of all kinds


Demolishing concrete and masonry at floor level or below waist level
Removing tiles,bushing and compacting
Corrective chiseling such as adjustments to door and window

openings.
Features of jack hammer: Maximum chiseling performance =
5250 cusec/min
Weight
=
11.8 kg
QUALITY CONTROL AND TESTING:Various tests which are done on different materials are listed below:
Slump test
Compressive strenght test of concrete
Weight of steel
Silt content
Grading of Aggregate
Test of Bricks
Dimension Test
Water absorption test
Soundness test
Visual inspection test
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)
EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
Slump test:- This test is used to check the workability of concrete at
site.Steel mould is used which is in the form of frustrum of cone whose
dimensions are 100 mm at Top dia 200 mm at bottom dia length is
300mm and Rod 10mm dia.
Standard value:Sr.No.

Slump value

Degree of Workability
49

Uses at site

1
Less than 25
Very Low
2
25-75
Low
3
75-100
Medium
4
Greater than 100
High
Observation and calculation:-

Precast Work
Road pavement
R.C.C footing
Column,beam

Sr.No

Mix of

Water Cement

Slump

Remarks

.
1
2
3

Concrete
M25
M30
M35

ratio
0.50
0.46
0.44

value
115
112
110

Raft , Slab
Lift , Column
Column , Lift

Result:- Our sample is coming in category 4 . when concrete is


transported through pump then its value should be taken more than
standard value.
Test for Compressive Strength of Concrete:Compressive stregth test plays an important role in controlling the
quality of cement concrte work.Systematic testing of the raw material.
The fresh concrete and the hardened concrte is an inseparable part of
any quality control programme for concrete which helps to achieve
higher efficiency of the materials used and greater assurance of the
performance of the concrete is regard to both strength and ductility.
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY0

50

Sr.N

D.O.

Locati

D.O.

Mix of

Loa Compre

Mark

Avg

on

concre

ssive

s of

(N/mm2)

te

(kN

strengt

cube

h
N/mm2)

03/02

/16
15/02

Raft

29/0

M30

740

34.33

C1

P.C.C

2/16
21/0

M2

720

31.67

C7

M35

930

42.3

C12

41.8

M25

728

32.1

C20

31.7

M30

820

37.8

C30

34.9

/16
3

29/02 COLUM

03/0

/16

2/16

16/03

Trimix

11/0

/16
5

31/03
/16

33.56

3/16
Slab

29/0
4/16

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE


Size of Test Specimen:- Test specimen cubical in shape shall be
15x15x15 cm. if the largest nominal size of the aggregate does not
exceed 2 cm . 10 cm cubes may be used as an alternative . Cylindrical
test specimen shall have a length equal to twice the diameter . They
shall be 15 cm in dia and 30 cm long . Smaller test specimens shall
have a ratio of diameter of specimen to maximum size of aggregate of
not less than 3 .
Calculation:-The measured compressive strength of the specimen
shall be calculated by dividing the maximum load applied to the
specimen during the test by the cross-sectional area calculated from
the mean dimensions of the section and shall be expressed to the
nearest kg per sq cm.Average of the three values shall be taken as the
representative ofr the batch provided the individual variation is not
more than (ve or +ve) percent of the average otherwise repeat
51

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & SCIENCE


Weight of steel:- This is a field test which is performed on steel to check weight per
meter length because there are number of impurities which get added in the materials due
to temperature variation and thus weight of steel bars varies from its standard value.there
are chances of corrosion and rusting of steel bars as well.

Observation and Calculation:-

Sr.No Dia of bar Standard weight (DxDxL/162.2) Actual


1
6 mm
220 gm
221
2
8 mm
390 gm
392
3
10 mm
620 gm
624
4
12 mm
890 gm
891
5
16 mm
1580 gm
156
6
20 mm
2469 gm
242
7
25 mm
3850 gm
384
8
32 mm
6313 gm
630
RESULT:- From the result we can check most of the values are matching
with each other.
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING &
TECHNOLOGY)

52

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF


DENTAL & SCIENCE
SILT CONTENT TEST

Silt Content:- Silt is a material of particle sizes between 0.002 mm to


0.075mm .it is usually found in sands obtained from natural sources such as
river bed . If it is present in excess then it prevents development of bond
between cement and aggregate. Silt value should not more than 8 % and
minimum value is 5% by volume . measuring cylinder of 250 ml capacity is
used to perform at our site Observation and Calculation:(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING &
TECHNOLOGY)
Height of sample = 150 ml
Height of silt after 3 hours = 6 ml
Percentage of silt = 6 %
Result :- It is does not exceed 8% by volume

53

Grading of aggregate:- The art of doing gradation of an aggregate


as determined by sieve analysis is known as grading of aggregate.The
principle of grading is that the small size particles will fill the voids
between large size particle .thre are four types of grading which are
continuous grading .poor grading ,Gap grading and well grading.
Obsevation and calculation:Date of test 23/01/16
Grading limit for 20 mm Aggregate
Weight of aggregate taken = 5000 gm
IS
Sieve
20 mm
10 mm
4.75
Pan

Weight Retained % retained


Gm
90
4720
150
30

1.8
94.4
3

Grading Zon

passing
98.2
5.6
0.8

85-100
0-20
0-5

Grading Limit for Coarse aggreate (10 mm)


Weight of aggreagate taken = 3000 gm
IS Sieve
12.5 mm
10 mm
4.75 mm
2.36 mm
Pan

Weight
gm
0
411
2458
103
24

% retained

% passing

Grading Zone II

0
13.7
81.9
3.4

100
86.3
4.4
1

85-100
0-20
0-5

54

EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &


SCIENCE
Grading of sand: On the basis of particle size, fine aggregate is graded
into four zones. Where the grading falls outside the limits of any particular
IS

Grading

Grading Zone

Grading

Grading Zone

Sieve
10 mm
4.75

Zone I
100
90-100

II
100
90-100

Zone III
100
90-100

IV
100
90-100

mm
2.36

60-95

75-100

85-100

95-100

mm
1.18

30-70

55-90

75-100

90-100

mm
600

15-34

35-59

60-79

80-100

mic
300

5-20

8-30

12-40

15-50

mic
150

0-10

0-10

0-10

0-15

mic
grading zone of sieves, other than 600 micron IS sieve, by a total amount
not exceeding 5 percent, it shall be regarded as falling within that grading
zone.
Percentage passing for

General Requirements of Bricks: Visually the bricks shall be sound,compact and uniform in
shape.The bricks shall be free from visible cracks,and organic
matters.
The bricks shall be solid and with or without frog 10 to 20 mm
deep on one of its flat side.
In case of non-modular size of bricks,frog dimensions shall be the
same as for modular size bricks.
Hand-moulded bricks of 90 mm or 70 mm height shall be
moulded with a frog 10 to 20 mm deep on one of its flat sides .
55

bricks of 40 or 30 mm height as well as those made by extrusion


process may not be provided with frogs.
The bricks shall have smooth rectangular faces with sharp
corners and shall be uniform in shape and colour
(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)
EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
Water Absorption of Bricks:The bricks, when tested in accordance with the procedure laid down in
IS 3495(Part 2) After 1992 immesion in cold water for 24 hours.water
absorption shall not be more than 20 percentage by weight up to class
12.5 and 15 percent by weight for higher classes
According to IS.Code 3495-(Part-2) 1992
Formula :Water absorption = {(w2-w1)/w1}x100
Where..W1 = Cooled brick weight
W2= warm brick weight
Result:- Average of water absorption is not more than 20% by weight
Dimensional Tolerance:The dimension of bricks when tested shall be within the following limits
per 20 bricks.
Procedure:Twenty (or more according to the size of stack) whole bricks shall be
selected at random from the stack. All

56

Blisters,loose particle of clay and small projection shall be


removed.They shall be arranged upon a level surface succesively as
shown in fig.
All bricks connect with a straight line. The overall length of the
assembled brick shall be measured with a steel tape or other suitable
inextensible measure sufficiently long to measure

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)


EXTENTION OF MAULANA AZAD INSTITUTE OF DENTAL &
SCIENCE
The whole row at one stretch.measurement by reapeated application of
short rule or measure shall not be permitted .If any reason it is found
impracticable to measure bricks in one row,the sample may be divided
into rows of 10 bricks each which shall be measured separately to the
nearest millimetres.all these dimension shall be added together.
Obsevations:Length = 4580 mm
Width = 2220 mm
Height = 1440 mm
Results:- As the dimensions of bricks fall under dimensional tolerance,
thus bricks are good to use for construction.
a. For modular size:
Length 3720 to 3880 mm(3800+or- 80 mm)
Width 1760 to 1840 mm(1800+ or 40 mm)
Height 1760 to 1840 mm (1800 + or 40 mm)
b. For non- modular size :
Length 4520 to 4680 mm(4600 + or 80 mm)
57

Width 2240 to 2160 mm (2200 + or 40 mm)


Height 1440 to 1360 mm (1400 + or 40 mm)

(SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY)

58