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Objective

Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to:

Understand the process of Amplitude Modulation.

Understand different types of Amplitude Modulation.

Design different modulators for Amplitude Modulation.

Understand the different demodulation techniques.

Introduction

Baseband term is used to designate the band of frequencies of the signal delivered by the

source. In telephony, baseband is the audio band i.e. 0 3.5 KHz. Baseband Signals are

transmitted without modulation as they have sufficient power at low frequencies so they

cannot be transmitted at radio frequencies but by means of co-axial cables and optical

fibers.

Long haul communication over radio links requires modulation to shift the spectrum to

higher frequencies in order to enable efficient power radiation using antennas of reasonable

dimensions. Modulation is a process by which some characteristics of the carrier signal like

its Amplitude, Frequency or Phase are varied in proportion to message signal.

Amplitude Modulation refers to the process in which amplitude of the carrier wave is varied

with the message signal.

The process of modulation i.e. shifting the signal spectrum to a higher frequency is

illustrated below by an example,

By Frequency Shifting Property, x t e

jt

X and x t e

o

jt

X

o

Suppose, y t x t cos t

c

y t

x t j t

jc t

e c e

y t

1

X X

c

c

2

F.T. 1

Hence, x t cos 2f t X f f X f f

c

c

c

2

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In the figures shown above, M(0) represents the magnitude of spectrum at 0 frequency.

As can be seen from the above figures, that spectrum of baseband spectrum is shifted to

higher carrier frequency by multiplication with sinusoidal carrier signal. This is the basic

process of amplitude modulation.

Further, we will see different types of Amplitude Modulation.

DSB-FC (Double Side Band Full Carrier)

This is also known as ordinary Amplitude Modulation. The following terms are generally used

in regards to Amplitude Modulation,

Baseband signal message signal m(t)

Carrier signal c(t)

Modulated signal s(t)

Here, amplitude of carrier is changing according to message signal.

Assuming, c t A cos t

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

1

F.T.

cos t

f f f f

c

c

c 2

c

c

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S f

c f f f f 1 M f f M f f

c

c 2

c

c

2

The second term has been derived from Multiplication Theorem of Fourier Transform.

Spectrum of Baseband signal is shown below,

Bandwidth = f

m

Spectrum of Modulated Signal looks like as shown below,

Since, the spectrum consists of impulses at carrier frequency and two side bands namely USB

i.e. Upper Side Band and LSB i.e. Lower Side Band so it is called as Double Side Band Full

Carrier.

B.W. f f f f

2f H

c m

c m

m z

It means bandwidth of AM signal is twice the bandwidth of message signal.

Note: If message signal m(t) is non sinusoidal, and contains frequencies f ,f ,f

and

m1 m2 m3

so on and frequency of carrier c(t) is f ; frequencies in modulated signal will be,

c

s t f f , f f , f f

etc.

c m1 c m2 c m3

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Solved Examples

Problem: If a 60kHz carrier is amplitude modulated by a speech band of 300kHz 3kHz .

What is range of frequency for USB and LSB?

Solution: Carrier Frequency, f 60kHz

c

Message Frequency, f 300Hz 3kHz

m

Assuming a spectrum of message signal, the amplitude modulated spectrum is shown below,

B.W. 3 0.3 2.7kHz

100s, which of the frequency will not be present in output?

a) 1010kHz

b) 1020kHz

c) 1030kHz

d) 990kHz

Solution: If signal is non sinusoidal and is either square, triangular or saw tooth, then by

half wave symmetry it will contain only add harmonics.

f 1MHz

c

T 100s

Fundamental Frequency, f 104 Hz

m

Frequency in square wave: f ,3f ,5f ,7f

m m m m

Frequency in Modulated Signal,

f f 990kHz, 1010kHz

c m

f 3f 1030kHz, 970kHz

c

m

Ans: 1020 kHz

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Problem: A 1000kHz carrier is simultaneously modulated with 300Hz and 2kHz audio sine

wave. Which of the frequencies are not present in output?

a) 998kHz

b) 1000.3kHz

c) 999.7kHz

d)700kHz

c

Modulating Signal Frequency, f 0.3kHz f 2kHz

1

2

Frequencies present in output,

1002kHz

999.7kHz

f f

f f

c 1 998kHz

c 2 1000.3kHz

Ans: 700kHz

Modulation Index

Modulation Index is defined as the ratio of peak of message signal to the peak of carrier

signal.

Modulated Signal, s t A m t cos t

c

c

Modulation Index, m

a

mt

A

max

m

m t

max

A

m

A

so, m m

a A

c

If A A ; m 1; under modulation

m

c

a

If A A ; m 1; over modulation

m

c

a

If A A ; m 1 ; critical modulation

m

c

a

Time domain representation of modulated signal for sinusoidal signal

Under-modulation

A A

m

c

s t A m t cos t

c

c

m 1

a

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From the above figure it can be observed that shape of message signal remains intact as the

envelope of carrier signal and hence it can easily be detected.

Critical Modulation

A A

m

c

m 1

a

In this case, envelope detector is not an ideal solution because information will be lost at

touching points i.e. the points where the two envelopes meet each other.

Over Modulation

A A

m

c

m 1

a

No information is seen at CRO because positive and negative portion will cancel effect of

each other. Envelope detector cannot be used in this case.

The crossing over of positive and negative envelopes is shown in the figure below,

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A

Modulation Index, m m

a A

c

A A

A A

m

c

m

m c

a

A A

A A

c

m

c

m

A

A

min

m max

a A

A

max

min

So, maximum and minimum amplitude,

A

A 1 m

min

C

a

A

A 1 m

max

C

a

For eg. if A

10, A

5

max

min

10 5 1

Modulation Index, m

a 10 5 3

Frequency Domain representation of modulated signal for sinusoidal signal

c

c

let m t A cos t

m

m

s t A A cos t cos t

c

m

m

c

c

c

m

m

c

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A

s t A cos t m cos t cos

c

c

c

m

c

m

2

S A

m

c

c

c

2

A

m

c

m

c

m

c m c m

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

e jc t e jct Ac jc t Ac jct

A cos t A

e

e

c

c

c

2

2

2

2

A A

A 2

2

c

c

c

Power = c k

2 2

2

A2 m2 t

Power in Modulated Signal, P c

T

2

2

Let m t A cos t

m

m

m2 t A2 cos2 t

m

m

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A2

2

m t m

2

A2 A2

Hence, P c m

T

2

4

A2 m2

A

P c 1 a where m m

T

a A

2

2

c

m2

P P 1 a

T c

2

A2

P c of R 1

c

2

If R 1

A2

Power in Carrier Signal, P c

c 2R

m2

P P 1 a

T

c

2

Since, P I2

m2

I I 1 a

T a

2

m2

Power in Modulated Signal, P P a P

T

c

2 c

m2

Here, a P represents total sideband power.

2 c

Since, sideband consists of Upper Sideband and Lower sideband

m2

P

aP

LSB

4 c

m2

P

aP

USB

4 c

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m2

P

P

c

2

4

never sinusoidal as sinusoidal signals are deterministic so no information is contained in it.

Solved Examples

Problem: If c(t) and a(t) are used to generate an AM signal with Modulation Index (M.I.)=0.5,

What is the ratio of total sideband power to carrier power?

m2

1

Solution: Total Sideband Power, a P P

c

2

8 c

carrier power

8

m

c

sideband power?

Solution: Message Signal, m t A sin2f t

m

m

m

c

Modulation Index, m 0.5

a

100

50

Carrier Power, P

c

2

m2

1

50

Average sideband power a P

= 3.125 watt

50

4 c 16

16

A A

A2

m

max

Peak output power

c

2R

2R

Important Formulas

Maximum Amplitude, A

A A

max

c

m

A2

Carrier power c P

c

2R

10

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m2

Total sideband power c P

2 c

m2

Average sideband power P

P

c .P

USB

LSB

4 c

2

A A

c

m

Peak output power

2R

Solved Examples

Problem: A given AM broadcasting station transmitter has a total power of 5W. If carrier is

modulated by a sinusoidal signal of m 0.707 .

a

Calculate (i) Average sideband power

(ii) Peak output power

In both cases, assume that antenna is replaced by a 50 resistance.

m2

T

c

2

P

5

T

4W

Carrier Power, P

c

1

2

ma 1 4

1 2

m2

1

Average sideband power a P 4 = 0.5W

4 c 8

2

A

Since, P c

c 2R

2

A 4 2 50 400

c

A 20

c

A

1

Modulation Index m m

a A

2

C

20

A

10 2

m

2

Ac Am

2R

1

20 1

11.65W

50 2

11

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m

(a) Increase by 50%

(b) Decrease by 50%

(c) Increase by 60%

(d) Decrease by 60%

Solution: If m 0 ; P P

a

T

c

m 2

1

If m 1 ; P 1 a P 1 P 1.5P

a

T

c

2 c 2 c

1.5 1 Pc

change in power

100 = 50%

P

c

Hence, Transmitted Power increases by 50%

Problem: If a carrier has peak amplitude of 10V at a frequency 1MHz. If sinusoidal signal of

frequency 1kHz modulates between 7.5 and 12.5. Then calculate,

(i) Modulation index

Solution: Given A

12.5

A

7.5

max

min

A

A

min 12.5 7.5 5 1

Modulation Index, m max

a A

A

12.5 7.5 20 4

max

min

m2 A2

1

100

1

Average sideband power a c

W 0.015625W

4

2R 4 16 2 50 64

2

2

A A

A2 1 m

100

c

m

c

a

2R

2R

2 50

A2 m2 t

Transmitted Power, P c

T

2

2

Sideband Power, P

SB

m2 t

2

P

Transmission efficiency SB

P

T

m2 A2 A2

P a c m

SB

2

2

4

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A2

P c

C

2

Efficiency,

A2

c

2

A2

m

4

m2

a

2

2 m2

A

a

m

a

1

100 33.33%

max 3

Only 33.33% power will be utilized while 66.67% power is wasted.

Note: Main disadvantage is that 66.6% power is wasted.

But at the same time, receiver has information about carrier frequency, so there will be no

need to use extra synchronizing circuit, for knowing carrier such as Costas Receiver in case of

suppressed carrier modulation.

Problem: If a message signal is given by m t

1

1

cos t sin t . If m(t) is modulated with

1 2

1

2

c

c

in% ?

Solution: Message Signal m t

1

Hence, A

m

2

A 1

c

1 2

2

cos t

sin t

cos t

1

1

2 2

2

2

1 4

A

m m 1

a

A

2

c

A

1

Modulation Index, m m

a A

2

c

1

m2

1

a

2

100%

2

1

5

2m

2

a

13

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s t A cos 400t Bcos 380t Bcos 420t . If P 100w and 40% what are

c

values of A and B?

Solution: Modulated Signal can also be expressed as,

s t A cos 400t B 2cos 400t cos20t A 2Bcos20t cos 400t

c

m

m

c

A2

Carrier Power, P c

c

2

100

Carrier Amplitude, A A 10 2

c

m2

a

2

Transmission Efficiency, 0.4

2

m

1 a

m2

a

2

m 2

a

2

Modulation Index, m

a

3

2B 2

m

a A

3

B 10

2

3

Calculate (a) m

a

T

(c)

(d) Bandwidth

s t 10 8cos200t cos2000t

8

Modulation Index, m

0.8

a 10

100 0.64

Transmitted Power, P

1

50 1.32 66.0 W

T

2

2

Transmission Efficiency,

0.64

800

100

24.2%

2.64

33

Since, modulated signal requires twice the bandwidth as compared to message signal,

400

Bandwidth B.W. 2f

200Hz

m

2

14

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A2 m2 t

Transmitted Power, P c

T

2

2

Here, m2 t is mean square value of message signal m(t). For a periodic message signal this

value can be computed as,

1

m2 t m2 t dt

T T

Where, T is time period of message signal m(t)

Solved Examples

c

T

(ii) Efficiency

T

1 2 2

1

2

2

2 dt

2 dt

Solution: Mean Square Value of Message Signal, m t

T

T

T

0

2

1

T 1T

m2 t 4 4 =4

T

2 42

A2 m2 (t) 4 4

P c

4

T

2

2

2 2

m2 (t)

2

% 2 100% 100% 50%

P

4

T

Problem: Solve the previous problem if square wave of message signal is replaced by

sawtooth waveform shown below,

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T T

Solution: Equation of m(t) in ,

2 2

mt

6

t

T

2

T /2

T /2 A

1

2 t dt 1

m t dt

m2 t

m

T T

T T/2

T /2

A2 T3 A2

32

2

m t m

m

3

3

3

3

T3

4 3

Transmitted Power, P 3.5w

T 2 2

3

Efficiency, 2 100 42.85%

3.5

Problem: Calculate total power and efficiency carrier signal is given as, c t 2cos t and

c

modulation index is m 0.5 . The message signal waveform is shown below,

a

a

m(t)max

A

k

0.5

2

Hence, K=1

16

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K2 1

3 3

A2 m2 t

Total Power, P c

T

2

2

4 1

P 2.167W

T 2 6

Transmission Efficiency,

0.16

100% 7.19%

2.16

a

A

A

min 30 0.5

Solution: Modulation Index, m max

a A

60

A

max

min

A

A

min 45 15 30

Carrier Amplitude, A max

c

2

2

Peak of modulating Signal, m t

max

A m 30 0.5 15

C

a

15 75

Mean Square Value of Message Signal, m2 t

3

2

A2 m2 t

Total Power, P c

T

2

2

900 75

P

487.5 W

T

2

2

Transmission Efficiency,

37.5

100% 7.69%

487.5

17

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Trapezoidal Method

If the modulated signal is plotted in X-Y mode on a CRO then the shape of a trapezoid

appears as shown below,

L L

m 1 2

a L L

1

2

Here, L represents the minimum amplitude and L represents maximum amplitude.

2

1

Solved Examples

Problem: If AM wave pattern for non periodic, signal in CRO is shown, what is value of

Modulation Index?

L2 0

L L

2 1

Modulation Index, m 1

a L L

1

2

Problem: In trapezoidal method, if ratio of short height to long height is 0.65, what is value

of modulation index?

L

Solution: Ratio of short height to long height is, 2

L

1

L

1 2L

L L

1 1 0.65 0.35 0.212

Modulation Index, m 1 2

a L L

L

1 0.65 1.65

1

2 1 2

L

1

Multi-tone Message Signal

Multi-tone message signals are those which have multiple frequency components. As for an

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example any periodic signal can be resolved into Fourier Series and so it can be treated as

Multi-tone Signal.

1

m1

2

m2

3

m3

c

c

c

1

m1

2

m2

c

s(t) A 1

c

A

1 cos t

m1

A

c

m2

c

A

c

c

a1

m1

a2

m2

c

Here, m represents modulation index for ith tone

ai

Modulation Index, m m2 m2 m2 ...........

a

a1

a2

a3

1 2

3

1 2 3

Frequency spectrum

The frequency spectrum for modulated multi-tone signal is as shown below,

Solved Examples

Problem: If equation of AM wave is given as:

Calculate, (i) m

(ii) P

(iii) Bandwidth

a

T

Solution: Modulation Index for different tones present in the signal are,

19

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5

2

m

0.5 and m

0.2

a1 10

a2 10

Modulation Index, m

a

A2

Power Transmitted, P c

T

2

2

m2

1 a 50 1 0.5385 = 57.25W

2

2

Transmission Efficiency,

50 0.5385

2 57.25

100% 12.66%

The first figure below shows the block diagram of low level modulation and second figure

shows block diagram shows block diagram for high level modulation

In case of low level, generation of AM takes place in initial stage only and this generated AM

is modified by using a linear device which may be a class A or class B amplifier.

In high level, modulation takes place in final stage of amplifier and modulation circuitry has

to handle high value of power.

These are two basic techniques to implement Amplitude Modulation.

The differences in both types of modulation techniques are listed below,

20

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High Level Modulation

Modulation occurs is initial stage of Modulation occurs is final stage of

amplifier

amplifier

Modulation circuit handles low power

Modulation circuit handles high power

Simple circuit

Complex Circuit

Low Power Audio Amplifier is required

High Power Audio Amplifier is required

Class A amplifier is used

Class C amplifier is used

Low efficiency

High Efficiency

Low Distortion

High Distortion

Generation of AM

There are two basic methods for generation of Amplitude Modulated Wave,

Switching Modulator

Non-Linear Device

Switching Modulator

The input voltage to the circuit is sum of message and

carrier signal.

During positive half cycle of input, Diode is ON

V V

o

i

The practical and ideal characteristics of Diode are shown

Below,

Practical characteristics are non-linear due to knee voltage. If knee voltage is neglected the

characteristics become linear.

This diode switching operation can also be assumed as multiplication of input signal by an

infinite square pulse shown below,

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Here, the switching pulse is 1 during the positive half cycle so that input and output are

same and switching pulse is 0 during negative half cycle as Diode is OFF so output becomes

zero.

Positive and negative cycles are assumed based on cosine function which is the carrier wave.

The time period of square wave,

Tp

1 2

2

p(t) cos t

cos3 t ............

c

c

3

2

1 2

2

V A cos t m t cos t

cos3 t ....

o c

c

c 3

c

2

V A cos t

o

c

c

mt

2

2

2

A cos2 t m t cos t .....

c

c

c

Desired components are (I) and (IV) out of all the components present after multiplication.

then first and fourth component can

c

m

be extracted but in that case 2nd component is also present at the output which is undesired.

and

c

c

m

m

m

Modulated Signal is the output of filter,

A

A

2

4

s t c cos t m t cos t c 1

m t cos t

c

c

c

2

2

A

c

4

k

amplitude sensitivity

a A

c

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Modulation Index, m m t

.k

max a

a

Using Non-Linear Device

V a v a v2

o 1i 2 i

i

c

c

V a m t A cos t a m t A cos t

o 1

c

c

2

c

c

o 1

1 c

c

2

2 c

c

2 c

c

Out of these terms the desired terms are second and fourth term.

c

m c

m

In order to remove the third term from the output of band pass filter, the necessary

condition is,

2a

o

1 c

c

2 c

c

1 c

c

a

1

2a

2 . mt

max

a

1

23

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Solved Examples

Problem: What is Modulation Index of generated A.M. wave where V V 0.1V2

2

i

i

and input voltage is V 4 cos200t 2cos2000t ?

i

Solution: Input Voltage, V 4 cos200t 2cos2000t

i

2

V 4 cos 200t 2cos 2000t 0.1 4 cos 200t 2cos 2000t

2

2

Here, second and fifth term are of interest in Amplitude Modulation. So, we apply a filter of

band pass frequency,

Range of BPF : w w w w

c

m

c

m

2000 200 2000 200 1800 2200

At the output of filter we have,

a

Modulation Index, m 0.8

a

Problem: A non linear device with transfer characteristics i 10 2V 0.2V2 mA is

i

i

applied with a carrier of 1V amplitude and a sinusoidal signal of 0.5V in series. If output of

only frequency components of Amplitude Modulated wave is considered, than what is the

depth of modulation?

2a

Solution: Depth of Modulation or Modulation Index, m 2 m t

max

a

a

1

0.2

m 2

0.5 0.1

a

2

The following three methods are used for demodulation of Amplitude Modulation,

(i)

(iii) By use of envelope detector.

24

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s t A 1 k m t cos t

c

a

c

By use of Non Linear device

c

c

c a

c

Assume the input-output relation of demodulator is, V a V a V 2

1 1i 2 i

1 1 c

c

a

c

c

2 c

c

c a

c

1 1 c

c

1 c a

c

2 c

c

a A2k2m2 t cos2 t 2a A2k m t cos2 t

2 c a

c

2 c a

c

2

Since, 2cos t 1 cos2 t

c

V a A cos t a A k m t cos t

1 1 c

c

1 c a

c

a A2

2 c 1 k 2m2 t 2k m t cos 2 t k 2m2 t cos 2 t 2k m t cos t

a

a

c

a

c

a

c

2

The desired output is the signal proportional to message signal,

a A2

Desired output 2 c 2k m t

a

2

To extract this term we will Use a LPF with cut off frequency , followed by a capacitor.

m

Due to presence of m2 t component, there may be harmonic distortion in output. For

neglecting harmonic distortion,

2k m t

a

1

2

k m2 t

a

k mt 2

a

It means this method is not suitable for large amplitude message signal, It is generally

preferred if message signal amplitude is less than 1volt.

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Solved Examples

Problem: What is a value of maximum Harmonic Distortion possible in non linear device

output?

m

m

k 2 A2

2

2

2

y t k A cos t 2k A cos t a m cos 2 t 2k A cos t

m

a m

m

a m

m

a m

m

2

k2A2

k2 A2

a

m

% Harmonic Distortion

100% a m 100% 25 k A

a m

2 2k A

4

a m

a m

Problem: Assertion: Square Law Detector are not particularly satisfactory for detection if

modulating signal base amplitude is greater than 1V.

Reason: A square detector H.D. is as high as 25% for completely modulated signal.

Solution: Both Assertion and Reason are correct but reason is not correct explanation of

assertion. Reason will be that is causes harmonic distraction for high amplitude ( m2 t will

be denominating).

Synchronous Detection

c

a

c

Here, synchronization means frequency of carrier and frequency of local oscillator are in

synchronization.

1

c

a

c

c

c

A A

V t A A' 1 k m t cos2 t c c 1 k m t 1 cos2 t

a

c

1

c c

a

c

2

A A'

V t c c 1 k m t cos2 t k m t cos2 t

1

a

c

a

c

2

26

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Output of LPF:

A A'

A A'

c ck m t c c

a

2

2

A A'

c ck m t

a

2

The capacitor blocks DC Voltage and so the output is proportional to message signal. So,

Output of capacitor:

Envelope Detector

For the case of under-modulation, the modulated wave and its envelope are shown below,

Here, if we are able to extract the envelope then message signal can be extracted from the

modulated waveform without the loss of any information.

When modulation index is 1 i.e. the case of critical modulation the modulated waveform and

its envelope are shown below,

But the information is lost when the modulated waveform touches the axis so message

signal cannot be completely recovered.

27

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In the figure shown above, the modulation index is greater than 1 and so it is a case of OverModulation.

Information is lost due to overlapping of positive and negative envelope so envelope

detection will not yield the message signal.

Hence, Envelope detector will work efficiently only when modulation index is less than 1.

Basic Operation

In positive half, diode will be ON and capacitor starts changing through resistance R .

s

The time constant for charging of capacitor is, R C .

s

c

Here capacitor will charge fast upto peak value and hence should be small.

1

R C

s

c f

c

If time constant is small, capacitor charging will be fast.

In negative half, diode becomes off and start discharging through R . In this case, R C

L

L

becomes very important.

If R C is very small, then there will be fluctuation in the output and high value of ripple

L

will be present. Due to this there may be some ripples at the output. These spikes/ripples

fluctuations will degrades the performance of output.

1

R C

L

f

c

If R C is very high; initially capacitor will be charged upto peak and due to high value of

L

R C . Let voltage discharge upto some value in negative half cycle (during period when

L

diode is off). Next peak at input having high value will charged capacitor to higher voltage.

During negative half cycle, capacitor discharges very slowly and cannot reach the level of

next peak. If having very small value, voltage is not sufficient to make diode ON and so, it will

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miss that peak; so an amount of information will be lost (small peaks) due to large discharge

time this is called as Diagonal clipping.

The capacitor shall be able to discharge by the next peak arrives so that no information is

1

missed and hence, R C T

L

m f

m

1

1

R C

{for satisfactory operation}

L

f

f

c

m

Solved Examples

Problem: An A.M. signal is detected using an envelope detector carrier frequency are 1MHz

and 2kHz, then what is value of time constant for envelope detector?

(a) 500s

(b) 20s

(c) 1s

(d) 0.2s

1

1

RC

6

10

2 103

1s RC 500s

Optimum value of RC to avoid diagonal clipping in a single tone sinusoidal signal is given by,

1 m2

a

RC

.m

m a

To avoid diagonal clipping, rate of discharge of capacitor voltage should be greater than rate

of decrease of modulating voltage.

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c

a

m

c

A 1 m cos t

envelope

c

a

m

t

V t V

e RC V

1

c

envelope

envelope RC

Capacitor should discharge before next peak arrives so no information is lost. Hence,

dV

dV

envelope

c

dt

dt

V

dV

c envelope

dt

RC

dV

envelope

sin t A m A m sin t

m m c a

c a

m m

dt

V

envelope

A m sin t

c a m

m

RC

A 1 m cos t

a

m

Thus, RC c

A m sin t

c a m

m

1 m cos t

a

m

RC

m sin t

a m

m

m

a

m

a m

m

a m

m

a

m

a

m

m

a

m

m cos t

a

m

1 ma cos mt

RC

m sin t

a m

m

1 m2

a

m 1 m2

a m

a

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1 m2

RC max m a

a m

Note:

This is valid for single tone sinusoidal signal only.

Here value of time constant depends upon max modulation frequency and modulation

index m .

a

Envelope detector is an Asynchronous detector (since no oscillator is used).

Solved Examples

detector, than what is maximum value time constant to avoid diagonal clipping?

1 m2

1 0.25

a

0.55

Solution: RC

max .m

0.5 2 500

m a

The biggest disadvantage is that transmitted power is wasted and efficiency is minimum.

One of the advantages is that it has simple modulation and demodulation method.

DSB SC (Double Side Band - Suppressed Carrier)

Amplitude Modulated signal with DSB-FC is,

s t A cos t m t cos t

c

c

c

If we suppress the carrier i.e. carrier is not present in the output signal. Then, it is known as

Double Side Band with Suppressed Carrier.

s t m t cos t

c

Due to carrier term removed the power in Transmitted Signal is,

m2

P P a

T

c 2

Hence, entire power belongs to message signal and no energy is wasted in transmitting the

carrier. So, transmission efficiency % 100%

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Solved Examples

Problem: In DSB FC, if m 1 , what is % saving in transmitted power if:

a

a) Only carrier is suppressed

b) Carrier and one side band is suppressed.

Solution: For 100% Modulation Index, the transmitted power is

m 2

1 3

P P 1 a P 1 P

T

c

2 c 2 2 c

1

P P

T

c

2 2

1

3

2 Pc 2 Pc

% saving

3

P

2 c

= 66.67%

Now, if one sideband as well as carrier is suppressed the transmitted power becomes half

1

P P

T

c

2 4

1

3

2 Pc 4 Pc

% saving

3

P

2 c

100% = 83.33%

a

Solution: IN DSB-FC transmitted power is,

m 2

0.25

P P 1 a 1

P 1.125Pc

T

c

2

2 c

m 2 0.25

P P a

P 0.125Pc

T

c 2

2 c

2

% saving

1.125 0.125

100% 88.89%

1.125

32

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0.25

P

Pc

T

2 4

% saving

1.0.625 0.0625

100% 94.44%

1.0625

(i) Carrier should be suppressed

(ii) One sideband should be suppressed.

(iii) Modulation Index should be small

DSB SC time domain representation

In DSB-SC, whenever message signal crosses zero level i.e. it becomes negative from positive

or vice versa then modulated signal also changes polarity. This can be called as 1800 phase

shift in the sinusoidal carrier wave.

When m(t) is negative. Suppose, m(t) = -g(t)

Then, modulated signal becomes,

s t m t cos t g t cos t

c

c

s t g t cos t 1800

c

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Suppression of carrier means first generate DSB FC and then suppress the carrier.

s t m t cos t

c

S w

1

M M

c

c

2

Bandwidth, BW 2 rad

sec

m

Generation of DSB-SC Signal

There are two means of generating a DSB-SC signal,

Non-Linear Device

Linear Device

Non Linear Device

V a V a V2

1 1i 2 i

The input to Non-Linear Device is sum of message and carrier signal,

V m t A cos t

i

c

c

1 1

1 c

c

2

c

c

c

c

To generate DSB SC,

Make a 0 so that non linear device will be simply square law device. Then we can use a

1

c

m

c

m

Then, at the output second and fourth terms are present which means DSB-FC is generated.

The carrier is then suppressed to generate DSB-SC signal.

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Balanced/Product Modulator

s t A m t cos t

2

c

c

s t A m t cos t

1

c

c

s t s t 2m t cos t

1

2

c

Ring Modulator

The input to Ring Modulator is the message signal. The carrier signal controls the switching

of Diodes to transfer the input signal to output.

(i) For m(t) = 0 and D ,D ON and D ,D OFF

1 2

3 4

The output is zero.

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1 2

3 4

The output is zero.

(iii) For m t 0 and D ,D ON and D ,D OFF

3 4

1 2

Message Signal is transferred to output by means of two transformers with same polarity. So,

output is same as message signal.

(iv) for m t 0 and D ,D ON and D ,D OFF

1 2

3 4

Message Signal is connected to output as shown below,

Message Signal is transferred to output with opposite polarity due to cross connection.

36

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Since modulated wave becomes zero when m(t) becomes zero and there is phase reversal

also at m(t) = 0 as shown by circled points in output wave; hence it is DSB SC.

In ring modulator, if one frequency is f and other is f , output will have frequency

1

2

signal gets translated to new frequency so frequency shifts which is happening by this

method. Hence, both methods are generating DSB SC only.

Detection of DSB SC

The following methods can be used for detection of message signal from DSB-SC Modulated

Signal.

Switching Modulator

1 2

2

p(t) cos t

cos3 t ............

c 3

c

2

V V t .p t

o1

i

1 2

2

V m t cos t cos t

cos3 t ............

o1

c 2

c 3

c

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1

2

V m t cos t m t

o1 2

c

2

mt

mt

1

V mt

cos t

cos2 t ........

o1

c

c

2

To get message signal, one can design a LPF of cut off frequency practically, it can be taken

as 2

m

Synchronous Detection/Coherent Detection

Synchronization between modulating signal and carrier signal,

The carrier multiplied to message signal and the one used for demodulation needs to have

same frequency and hence synchronized to each other.

A mt

cos 2 t cos

V m t cos t A cos t c

1

c

c

c

c

2

V

o

A m t

c

cos

2

If

2

V m t cos t A sin t

1

c

c

c

A mt

c

sin 2 t

c

2

After filtering with a Low Pass Filter, there is no message signal recovery at the output. This

effect is called as Quadrature Null Effect.

If 0 , then

A mt

1 cos 2 t

V m t cos t A cos t c

1

c

c

c

c

2

After filtering with a Low Pass Filter, there is complete message signal recovery at the output.

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A m t

V c

o

2

In this case, the demodulating signal is in perfect synchronization with the modulating signal.

General Error in case of Synchronous Detection

In general, the signal used for demodulation may have slightly different frequency than the

modulated signal.

c

c

i

c

c

c

A' m t

c

cos 2 t cos t

A' m t

y t c

cos t

2

Case 1: 0 and 0

No distortion, no attenuation

mt

y t

2

Case 2: 0 and 0

Only attenuation as amplitude is changed.

m t cos

y t

2

Case 3: 0 and 0

A' m t

y t c

cos t

2

Case 4: 0 and 0

Only Distortion is present due to time dependent term in the output.

y t

m t cos t

2

39

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Costas Receiver

A Costas Loop is a phase locked loop used for recovery of carrier signal from DSB-SC

Modulated Signal.

c

1

2

A mt

cos 2 t cos

y t A m t cos t cos t c

1

c

c

c

c

2

A mt

sin 2 t sin

c

t

A

m

t

cos

cos

90

2

c

c

c

2

When both these signals are passed through LPF then the outputs are,

A mt

A mt

c

s t c

sin

cos

2

2

2

For small value of ; cos 1and sin

s t

1

s t

1

A m t

c

2

s t

2

A m t

c

difference . This DC voltage will modify phase in value such that VCO phase and input

phase are same so, by Costas Receiver, the receiver circuit will become complex and this is

for only low phase errors.

Solved Examples

Problem: A message signal band limited to frequency ' f ' has power 'P ' , what is power

m

m

of output shown in figure?

40

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c

P

m

m2 t

2

Output of multiplier is,

X t m t cos t cos t

1

c

c

mt

cos 2 t cos

c

2

y t

mt

2

cos

2

1 m t

Power

cos2

4

2

P

Power of Output m cos2

4

Problem: Determine the output of the system shown below,

sin 198t

2sin t

, c t cos 200t and n t

t

t

1

2

Solution: Output of Multiplier is, X t sin2t cos 200 t sin202t sin198t

1

t

t

Assume m t

1

t

t

t

t

202

101Hz

Frequency of output, f

m

2

41

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Since, cut-off frequency f 1Hz is less than the frequency of message signal. Hence,

c

Problem: If the input to a coherent detector is DSB SC signal plus noise, than what is value

of noise at output?

I

c

Q

c

c

n : In-phase component of Noise

I

n : Quadrature component of Noise

Q

c

I

c

Q

c

X t m t cos2 t n cos2 t n cos t sin t

1

c

I

c

Q

c

c

mt n mt n

n

I

I cos 2 t Q sin2 t

X t

1

c

c

2

2

2

mt n

I

y t

Types of Envelope

There are three types of envelope,

Pre Envelope

An analytic signal is a complex signal created by adding a signal with its Hilbert Transform in

Quadrature. It is also known as pre-envelope of a signal.

x t x t jx t

p

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By taking the pre-envelope the negative frequency components are discarded and the real

signal can be easily recovered from complex signal by discarding the imaginary part.

Natural Envelope

The magnitude of pre-envelope of a signal is known as natural envelope of a signal.

Natural Envelope:

x t

p

Complex Envelope

Analytic Signals are often shifted in frequency or down converted to 0Hz. It possibly creates

negative frequency components. This helps in reducing the maximum frequency so that

sampling rate also reduces. Complex Envelope is given by,

x

t xp t e

c

j t

c

Solved Examples

Problem: A modulated signal is given by

c

c

(i) Pre envelope

Solution: Pre-envelope, s t s t js t

p

p

c

c

This happens because Hilbert transform of cosine signal is sine signal.

s t eatu t e

p

j t

j t

c

eate c

ut

Complex Envelope, s t s t e

c

p

j t

j t

j t

c eate c

c

u t e

jt

s t eate

ut

c

p

j t

c

u t eatu t

43

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Note: In questions, if only envelope is asked, then envelope taken is natural envelope.

If s t s cos t s sin t

I

c

Q

c

Natural envelope: s t s t s2 s2

p

I

Q

Problem: If a modulated signal is given as, x t m t cos ct . Determine natural

envelope of the signal.

Solution: Method-1

p

c

c

x t m t cos t jsin t m t e

p

c

c

j t

c

Natural Envelope, x t m t

p

Method-2

I

c

Q

c

c

c

Natural Envelope x t m2 t m2 t m2 t m t

p

I

Q

Problem: For the system shown below,

sin199t

2sinnt

, mt

t

t

Solution: Output of first multiplier,

Determine the output if, n t

and c t cos200t

1

X t m t c t sin 202t sin 198t

1

t

mt c t nt

t

t

t

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2t

2t

2t

1

sin 402t sin2t sin399t sin t sin398 t sin2t

c t m t c t n t

c t mt c t n t

402

f

201Hz

1

2

2

f

1Hz

2 2

399

f

199.5Hz

3

2

f

0.5Hz

4 2

398

f

199Hz

5

2

Hence, at the output of LPF only 1Hz and 0.5 Hz components are present.

1

y t 2sin2t sin t

2t

Problem: Consider a system shown in figure. Let X(f) and Y(f) denote Fourier Transform of

x(t) and y(t) respectively. If ideal HPF has cut off frequency of 10kHz. Then positive

frequencies where Y(f) will have spectral peaks are?

45

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So, the positive frequency peaks lie in the spectrum at 2kHz and 24kHz.

Alternatively, we can directly solve by observing that input has peaks at -1kHz and 1kHz, so

after first multiplier peaks will lie at 9kHz and 11kHz. After High Pass Filter, only 11kHz and 11kHz peak passes and after second multiplier -11kHz is shifted to 2kHz and 11kHz is shifted

to 24kHz.

Problem: A DSB SC signal is to be generated with carrier frequency f / =1MHz using a non

c

linear device with input-output characteristics V a V a V3 where a and a are

o

1

o

1i 1i

constants. The output of non linear device can be filtered by an appropriate BPF. Let

i

c

c

c

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V a V a V3

o

o i 1i

V a A cos2f t m t a A3 cos3 2f t a m3 t

o

o c

c

1 c

c

1

V a A cos2f t m t a A cos2f t m t

o

o c

c

1 c

c

3a m t A2 cos2 2f t 3a m2 t A cos2f t

1

c

c

1

c

c

This can also be expressed as,

V a A cos 2f t m t a A3 cos3 2f t a m3 t

o

o c

c

1 c

c

1

1 cos 4 f t

c 3a m2 t A cos 2f t

3a m t A2

c

1

c

1

c

3a A2

y t 1 c m t cos 4 f t

c

2

c

m t cos 2f 't

c

On comparing with generated DSB-SC,

4f 2f '

c

c

f ' 1MHz

f c

2.5MHz 250kHz

c 2

2

are fed to a modulator. If output of modulator is passed through a HPF with cut off

frequency of 100MHz and output of filter is added to 100MHz signal of 1V amp. And 900

phase shift as shown in figure, than what is resultant of envelope of the signal?

47

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V cos 2 100 106 t

i

1

V cos 2 100 106 t . cos 2 106 t = cos 2 101 106 t cos 2 99 106 t

2

When it is passed through a HPF, the output is

1

1

V cos 2 101 106 t = cos2 108 106 t

2 2

2

After the adder the output is,

y t

1

cos 2 108 106 t sin2 106 t

2

y t

1

1

cos 2 108 t cos 2 106 t sin 2 108 t sin 2 106 t sin 2 106 t

2

2

1

y t cos 2 106 t cos t sin 2 106 t 1 sin t

c 2

c

2

The natural envelope of the signal is,

2

2

1

2

2

Here, 2 106 rad / sec

m

y t

1

1

1

cos2 t sin2 t 1 sin t

m

m

m

4

4

2

5 1

sin 2 106 t

4 2

QAM is a modulation scheme by which we can transmit two message signal by Amplitude

Modulation of two carrier waves which are in phase quadrature to each other. Both the

signals are then summed and transmitted together.

The modulated signal by QAM is of the form,

s t s t s t m t A cos t m t A sin t

1

2

1

c

c

2

c

c

A motivation for the use of quadrature amplitude modulation comes from the fact that a

straight amplitude modulated signal, i.e. double sideband even with a suppressed carrier

occupies twice the bandwidth of the modulating signal. This is very wasteful of the available

frequency spectrum. QAM restores the balance by placing two independent double sideband

suppressed carrier signals in the same spectrum as one ordinary double sideband

suppressed carrier signal.

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Generation of QAM

By 900 phase shift we generate a second carrier A sin t in phase quadrature with the

c

c

carrier signal A cos t

c

c

Detection of Message Signal in QAM

y t s t .A cos t A2m t cos2 t A2m t sin t cos t

1

c

c

c 1

c

c 2

c

c

1 cos2 t A2m t

2

c c 2

y t A m t

sin2 t

1

c 1

c

2

2

A2m t

y c 1

01

2

49

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y t s t .A sin t A2m t sin t cos t A2m t sin2 t

1

c

c

c 1

c

c

c 2

c

A2m t 1 cos2 t

2

c

y t A m t sin2 t c 2

1

c 1

c

2

2

A2m t

y c 2

02

2

In QAM, we transmit two signals using the same Bandwidth and so it leads to efficient

utilization of Bandwidth.

Review of Hilbert Transform

Fourier Transform changes time domain signal to frequency domain but Hilbert transform

changes time domain to time domain signal only but phase is changed.

0

90

0

90

V

V

0

0

F.D. t

j 2

e , 0

j

e 2 , 0

j, 0

H

j, 0

jsgn

1 FT

jsgn w

t

Since h t 0 for every value of t, hence h t 0 for t < 0; hence it is non casual system.

Hilbert Transform of a signal is orthogonal to its Hilbert Transform.

x(t) and x t are orthogonal to each other.

Also,

d

d

H.T.

x t x t

dt

dt

50

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Solved Examples

Problem: What is Hilbert Transform of x t sin t ?

o

Solution: The spectrum of signal x(t) is,

o

o

j

H jsgn

o

o

Y X H sgn

o

o

y t cos t

o

The spectrum of different modulation schemes is shown below,

When we use only one of the sidebands instead of two sidebands it is known as Single

Sideband.

51

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In the above spectrum, we have only considered Upper Sideband for SSB Modulation.

In the above spectrum we have considered the lower sideband out of the two sidebands.

SSB SC requires minimum value of Bandwidth and minimum value of transmitted power.

Since, information is carried out by 2 sidebands and they are images of each other, hence

they carry same information.

Bandwidth is noise filtering characteristics of the system, means as Bandwidth increases the

effect of Noise increases. The power spectral density of Noise is constant so the higher the

Bandwidth more is the Power contained in Noise and so more is the effect of Noise.

For one to many communication, we will prefer either DSB SC or DSB FC since design for

receiver needed is simple for one to one communication, we will use SSB SC modulation.

SSB can be effectively used for FDM and generally used in point to point communication

and mobile communication.

Generation of SSB SC

To generate SSB-SC, we first create DSB-FC and suppress the carrier in order to generate

DSB-SC and then either upper or lower sideband is suppressed to create SSB-SC.

Let m t A cos t and c t A cos t

m

c

m

c

DSB-FC modulated signal is,

c

c

c

c

m

m

c

If the carrier is suppressed,

A

s t A cos t cos t m

m

m

c

2

cos t cos

c

m

c

m

A

A

s t m cos t m cos t

c

m

c

m

2

2

The first term has higher frequency and second one has lower frequency. So, first one is

called as Upper Sideband and second term is called as Lower Sideband

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A

t

mt

m

y USB m cos t cos t sin t sin t

cos t

sin t

c

m

c

m

c

c

2

2

2

Here, m

t A sin t

If m t A cos t and m

m

m

m

m

For Lower Sideband,

A

t

mt

m

y LSB m cos t cos t sin t sin t

cos t

sin t

c

m

c

m

c

c

2

2

2

Generation of SSB SC

There are three methods used for generation of SSB-SC signal,

(1) Frequency discriminator

(2) Phase discriminator

(3) Weaver discriminator

Frequency Discriminator or Filter Method

This method first generate DSB SC and a filter is used to remove unwanted sidebands.

This filter may be RC, LC or mechanical filter depending on carrier frequency.

This filter may have flat pass band and extremely highly attention outside the pass band.

The frequency generated by this filter may be very low which will be translated to a higher

frequency by use of local oscillator.

This dc filter may be used upto a frequency of 100kHz and is bulky in size which can

create a problem. Hence mechanical filter will be preferred and due to this reason,

mechanical filter are preferred.

Advantages

This method gives side suppression ratio upto 90 dB which is quite adequate.

Side band filter also help to attenuate carrier if present in Balanced Modulator.

In this case, Pass Band is sufficiently flat and wide.

Kreatryx. All Rights Reserved.

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Disadvantages

They cannot generate SSB at every frequency.

They are bulky in size.

At lower audio frequency, design becomes expensive.

The spectrum at various steps of this modulator is shown below,

Step-1: Output of Multiplier or Balanced Modulator is DSB-SC signal

Step-3: This spectrum must be translated to higher carrier frequency by the use of Local

Oscillator. The output will have a spectrum of,

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By this method, we can generate SSB-SC in which only upper sideband is present. Similarly,

by changing the signal pass band we can generate the Lower Sideband signal.

Phase shift/Phase Discriminator/Hartley Modulation Method

Here, BM represents Balanced Modulator which multiples message signal with carrier signal.

H.T. represents Hilbert Transform.

The outputs of Balanced Modulators are,

S t sin t sin t

2

m

c

S t cos t cos t

1

m

c

1

S t cos t cos t

2

c

m

c

m

2

1

S t cos t cos t

1

c

m

c

m

2

The output of summer will be either upper sideband or lower sideband based on whether

signals are added or subtracted.

1 2

c

m

1 2

c

m

Advantages

Bulky filter are replaced by small filter.

It can generate SSB at any frequency.

Low audio frequency may be used for modulation.

There is easy switching from one sideband to other side band.

To generate SSB at high frequency up conversion and repetitive mixing is not required.

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Disadvantages

It requires a complex audio frequency phase shift network because it has to work for low

frequency range.

Sideband suppression depends on phase relationship between two phase shifters else

sideband may not be successfully suppressed.

Output of 2 balanced modulators must be exactly same otherwise correlation is not

complete and desired frequency component is not achieved.

Solved Examples

Problem: In following scheme, if spectrum M(f) of m(t) is shown in the figure, then spectrum

Y(f) of y(t) will be?

Solution: This is a phase discrimination method of generation of SSB-SC and due to addition

of both signals, LSB will be generated.

The DSB-SC spectrum will be as shown below,

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Weaver Method

In Weaver Method, the band of interest is first translated to zero by modulating with a carrier

B

wave of frequency lying at the center of band, f

c1 2

This pair of signals is passed through LPF to remove sidebands that is not centered at zero.

Assume m t cos 2f t

m

1

1

Due to 900 phase shift, v

t sin 2f1t

1

v t cos 2f t sin 2f t sin 2 f f t sin 2 f f t

4

m

1

1 m

m 1

2

1

v t cos 2f t cos 2f t cos 2 f f t cos 2 f f t

3

m

1

1 m

m 1

2

After the LPF only the low frequency component is passed through,

v

1

t cos 2 f f t

5

1 m

2

1

t sin 2 f f t

6

1 m

2

v

t sin 2f2t

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v

v

1

t cos 2 f f t cos 2f t

9

1 m

2

2

1

t cos 2 f f f t cos 2 f f f t

9

2 1 m

2 1 m

4

Similarly,

1

v t sin 2 f f t sin 2f t

10

1 m

2

2

1

v t cos 2 f f f t cos 2 f f f t

10

2 1 m

2 1 m

4

y t

1

cos 2 f f f t

2 1 m

2

B

B

If f and f f

1 2

2 c 2

1

Then, y t cos 2 f f t which is the Upper Sideband signal and similarly Lower

C m

Comparison of Techniques

Parameter

900 phase shift

SSB Generation

Up-conversion

Complexity

Design Aspect

Switching Capacity

Filter

Not Required

Not for all frequency

Required

Less

Size, Weight and

Frequency

Not Possible

Phase Shift

Required

All Frequencies

Not Required

Moderate

Phase Shift of 900

Weaver

Required

All Frequencies

Not Required

Highest

Symmetry of B.M.

Easy

Easy

Detection of SSB SC

Synchronous Detection

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t sin t

s t m t cos t m

c

c

mt

t sin t cos t

y t m t cos2 t m

1 cos2 t

c

1

c

c

c

2

t

m

2

sin2 t

c

mt

y t

2

Phase Synchronization problem

SSB Modulated Signal is,

t sin t

s t m t cos t m

c

c

If the carrier input to Balanced Modulator has a phase shift with respect to modulated signal,

c t cos t

c

y t m t cos t cos t

1

c

c

y t

1

mt

cos 2 t cos

c

2

t sin t cos t

m

c

c

t

m

sin 2 t sin

c

2

t

mt

m

y t

cos

sin

2

2

If 0,

y t

;

2

y t

mt

2

t

m

2

It means there is no Quadrature Null Effect problem in the SSB SC due to phase error.

Pilot carrier in SSB

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Due to absence of carrier and one side band, transmitted power and Bandwidth are reduced

but at same time due to absence carrier, receiver will become complex. In order to reduce

this problem, a small power carrier signal is directly transmitted from the transmitter so that

these will be synchronization in frequency of local oscillator and modulated signal.

Same function is served by costar receiver in DSB SC.

Important points about SSB SC

(1)

transmitted and received signal hence it cannot be used for transmission of good quality

signal

such

as

music

but

can

be

used

for

speech

communication.

(2) Bandwidth and transmitted power is reduced in SSB SC and there is no Quadrature

Null effect.

Vestigial side band modulation (VSB - SC)

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The first waveform shows the spectrum of DSB-SC modulated signal. The second and

third waveforms represent Upper Sideband and Lower Sideband variation of VSB signal.

B.W. f f

m b

Major advantage of SSB is that it reduced bandwidth equal to half as compared to AM or

DSB FC but SSB signal are very different to generate because it is difficult to desired side

band and eliminate undesired sideband.

For this purpose, filter must have a very sharp cut off frequency and in case information

contains low frequency signal, then generation of SSB be difficult. This difficulty is generate

by a scheme because VSB SC which is a compromise b/w DSB SC and SSB SC.

Mathematical explanation of VSB SC (Design of VSB filter)

1

c

Output, y t y t h t m t cos 2f t h t

1

c

y t y t ht

1

y t

y t h d

1

h m t cos 2fc t d

y t cos 2f t

c

h m t cos 2f d sin2f t

c

c

h m t sin2fc d

We can break the output into two components one in-phase component and other is

Quadrature Component.

s t

I

Mf . 21 Hf fc Hf fc

1

S f M f . H f f f f f

I

c

c

2

61

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H f f H f f 1,

c

c

Thus, S f

I

M f

2

f W

and s t

I

mt

2

s t

Q

h m t sin2fc d m t h t sin2fct

1

S f M f . H f f H f f

Q

c

c

2j

s t

Q

m t

Q

2

s

t

VSB

mt

cos t

c

2

t

m

Q

sin t

c

2

62

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Generation:

S M M .H

c

c I

Detection:

Y w S S M H H

I

1

c

c

c

I

c

Here, we have neglected 2 components

c

1

H

o H H

I

c

I

c

Y Y .H M = M(w)

o

1

o

Hence, y

t mt

DSB-FC Modulated Signal is represented as,

s t A m t cos t

c

c

Comparing this to SSB signal, the in-phase and quadrature component of signal are,

s t A mt

I

c

and

s t 0

Q

Natural Envelope A m t

c

SSB SC

t sin t

s t m t cos t m

c

c

63

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A A

s t m c cos t

c

m

2

A A

A A

s t c m cos t cos t c m sin t sin t

c

m

c

m

2

2

The in-phase and quadrature component are,

A A

s c m cos t

I

m

2

A A

Envelope c m

2

A A

s c m sin t

Q

m

2

SSB FC

A A

s t A cos t c m cos t

c

c

c

m

2

A A

A

s t A cos t 1 m cos t m c sin t sin t

c

c

m

c

m

2

2

A

s 1 m cos t A

I

m c

2

2

Envelope A 1

c

A

s m sin t

Q

m

2

A2 A2

A2

m cos2 t A cos t c m sin2 t

m

m

m

m

4

4

A2

A2A2

m

2

2

2

c

m

1 A cos t

Envelope

A A A cos t A

c 4

m

m

c

c m

m

4

A2

Envelope A 1 m A cos t

c

m

m

4

In case of SSB FC, envelope is function of message hence it can be detected by envelope

detector.

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64

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In this case, different side bands are carrying different information and that is why very useful

for point to point communication.

Figure to Merit (FOM)

F.O.M.

SNR o

SNR c

noise both measured at receiver output.

SNR c Defined as ratio of average power of modulating signal to average power of noise

both measured at receiver input.

FOM for DSB SC

c2A2P

SNR o 4 cN

m o

Here,

c2 A2P

SNR c 4 cN

m o

c = constant

A = Carrier power

c

P = power of message signal

= message signal Bandwidth

m

N

o

2 = Power spectral density of white noise

FOM for SSB SC = 1

In case of SSB SC, at the output power is just half of DSB SC, But F.O.M. will remain same.

F.O.M. in both cases is same as transmission efficiency.

65

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A2K 2P

SNR 0 2c Na

m o

A2 1 k 2P

SNR c c2 N a

m o

k2P

Figure of Merit, F.O.M. a

1 k2P

a

m2

a

FOM

2 m2

a

where P

A2

m

1

If m 1 ; F.O.M. which is same as Transmission Efficiency

a

3

Technical names of Amplitude Modulation methods

DSB FC A3E

DSB SC R3E

SSB FC H3E

SSB SC J3E

VSB C3F

ISB B8E

66

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