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# Communication Systems (Theory)

## Chapter 2 Amplitude Modulation

Objective
Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to:
Understand the process of Amplitude Modulation.
Understand different types of Amplitude Modulation.
Design different modulators for Amplitude Modulation.
Understand the different demodulation techniques.
Introduction
Baseband term is used to designate the band of frequencies of the signal delivered by the
source. In telephony, baseband is the audio band i.e. 0 3.5 KHz. Baseband Signals are
transmitted without modulation as they have sufficient power at low frequencies so they
cannot be transmitted at radio frequencies but by means of co-axial cables and optical
fibers.
Long haul communication over radio links requires modulation to shift the spectrum to
higher frequencies in order to enable efficient power radiation using antennas of reasonable
dimensions. Modulation is a process by which some characteristics of the carrier signal like
its Amplitude, Frequency or Phase are varied in proportion to message signal.
Amplitude Modulation refers to the process in which amplitude of the carrier wave is varied
with the message signal.
The process of modulation i.e. shifting the signal spectrum to a higher frequency is
illustrated below by an example,

## If signal and its Fourier Transform is x t X

By Frequency Shifting Property, x t e

jt

X and x t e
o

jt

X
o

Suppose, y t x t cos t
c
y t

x t j t
jc t
e c e

y t

1
X X

c
c
2

F.T. 1
Hence, x t cos 2f t X f f X f f
c
c
c
2

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

In the figures shown above, M(0) represents the magnitude of spectrum at 0 frequency.
As can be seen from the above figures, that spectrum of baseband spectrum is shifted to
higher carrier frequency by multiplication with sinusoidal carrier signal. This is the basic
process of amplitude modulation.
Further, we will see different types of Amplitude Modulation.
DSB-FC (Double Side Band Full Carrier)
This is also known as ordinary Amplitude Modulation. The following terms are generally used
in regards to Amplitude Modulation,
Baseband signal message signal m(t)
Carrier signal c(t)
Modulated signal s(t)
Here, amplitude of carrier is changing according to message signal.
Assuming, c t A cos t
c
c

c

c
c
c
c

1
F.T.
cos t
f f f f

c
c
c 2
c
c

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## Spectrum of Modulated Signal,

S f

c f f f f 1 M f f M f f
c
c 2
c
c
2

The second term has been derived from Multiplication Theorem of Fourier Transform.
Spectrum of Baseband signal is shown below,

Bandwidth = f
m
Spectrum of Modulated Signal looks like as shown below,

Since, the spectrum consists of impulses at carrier frequency and two side bands namely USB
i.e. Upper Side Band and LSB i.e. Lower Side Band so it is called as Double Side Band Full
Carrier.

B.W. f f f f
2f H
c m
c m
m z
It means bandwidth of AM signal is twice the bandwidth of message signal.
Note: If message signal m(t) is non sinusoidal, and contains frequencies f ,f ,f
and
m1 m2 m3
so on and frequency of carrier c(t) is f ; frequencies in modulated signal will be,
c

s t f f , f f , f f
etc.
c m1 c m2 c m3

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Solved Examples
Problem: If a 60kHz carrier is amplitude modulated by a speech band of 300kHz 3kHz .
What is range of frequency for USB and LSB?
Solution: Carrier Frequency, f 60kHz
c
Message Frequency, f 300Hz 3kHz
m

## The lower frequency is mapped to 60 0.3 kHz

Assuming a spectrum of message signal, the amplitude modulated spectrum is shown below,

## Band pass signal

B.W. 3 0.3 2.7kHz

## Problem: A 1MHz sinusoidal signal is amplitude modulated by a symmetrical square wave of

100s, which of the frequency will not be present in output?
a) 1010kHz

b) 1020kHz

c) 1030kHz

d) 990kHz

Solution: If signal is non sinusoidal and is either square, triangular or saw tooth, then by
half wave symmetry it will contain only add harmonics.
f 1MHz
c
T 100s
Fundamental Frequency, f 104 Hz
m
Frequency in square wave: f ,3f ,5f ,7f
m m m m
Frequency in Modulated Signal,
f f 990kHz, 1010kHz
c m
f 3f 1030kHz, 970kHz
c
m
Ans: 1020 kHz

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Problem: A 1000kHz carrier is simultaneously modulated with 300Hz and 2kHz audio sine
wave. Which of the frequencies are not present in output?
a) 998kHz

b) 1000.3kHz

c) 999.7kHz

d)700kHz

## Solution: Carrier Frequency, f 1000kHz

c
Modulating Signal Frequency, f 0.3kHz f 2kHz
1
2
Frequencies present in output,
1002kHz
999.7kHz
f f
f f
c 1 998kHz
c 2 1000.3kHz
Ans: 700kHz
Modulation Index
Modulation Index is defined as the ratio of peak of message signal to the peak of carrier
signal.
Modulated Signal, s t A m t cos t
c

c
Modulation Index, m
a

mt
A

max

## for sinusoidal signal m t A cos t

m

m t

max

A
m

A
so, m m
a A
c

If A A ; m 1; under modulation
m
c
a
If A A ; m 1; over modulation
m
c
a
If A A ; m 1 ; critical modulation
m
c
a
Time domain representation of modulated signal for sinusoidal signal
Under-modulation
A A
m
c

s t A m t cos t
c
c

m 1
a

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

From the above figure it can be observed that shape of message signal remains intact as the
envelope of carrier signal and hence it can easily be detected.
Critical Modulation

A A
m
c
m 1
a

In this case, envelope detector is not an ideal solution because information will be lost at
touching points i.e. the points where the two envelopes meet each other.
Over Modulation

A A
m
c
m 1
a
No information is seen at CRO because positive and negative portion will cancel effect of
each other. Envelope detector cannot be used in this case.
The crossing over of positive and negative envelopes is shown in the figure below,

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## Calculation of M.I. from modulated waveform

A
Modulation Index, m m
a A
c

A A
A A
m
c
m
m c
a
A A
A A
c
m
c
m

A
A
min
m max
a A
A
max
min
So, maximum and minimum amplitude,

A
A 1 m
min
C
a

A
A 1 m
max
C
a

For eg. if A
10, A
5
max
min
10 5 1
Modulation Index, m

a 10 5 3
Frequency Domain representation of modulated signal for sinusoidal signal

## Modulated Signal, s t A m t cos t

c
c
let m t A cos t
m
m

s t A A cos t cos t
c
m
m
c

c
c
m
m
c

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

A
s t A cos t m cos t cos
c
c
c
m
c
m
2

S A
m

c
c
c
2
A

m
c
m
c
m

c m c m

c
c
c
c
c

## Power in A cos t can be calculated in terms of Fourier Series Coefficients ck ,

c
c
e jc t e jct Ac jc t Ac jct
A cos t A
e
e

c
c
c
2
2
2
2

A A
A 2
2
c
c

c
Power = c k
2 2
2

A2 m2 t
Power in Modulated Signal, P c
T
2
2

Let m t A cos t
m
m

m2 t A2 cos2 t
m
m

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

A2
2
m t m
2

A2 A2
Hence, P c m
T
2
4

A2 m2
A
P c 1 a where m m
T
a A
2
2
c

m2

P P 1 a
T c
2

## This is valid only if message signal is sinusoidal.

A2
P c of R 1
c
2
If R 1
A2
Power in Carrier Signal, P c
c 2R

m2

P P 1 a
T
c
2

Since, P I2
m2

I I 1 a
T a
2

m2
Power in Modulated Signal, P P a P
T
c
2 c
m2
Here, a P represents total sideband power.
2 c
Since, sideband consists of Upper Sideband and Lower sideband
m2
P
aP
LSB
4 c

m2
P
aP
USB
4 c

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m2

P
P

c
2
4

## If message signal is not given, it is assumed to be sinusoidal. In practical message signal is

never sinusoidal as sinusoidal signals are deterministic so no information is contained in it.
Solved Examples
Problem: If c(t) and a(t) are used to generate an AM signal with Modulation Index (M.I.)=0.5,
What is the ratio of total sideband power to carrier power?
m2
1
Solution: Total Sideband Power, a P P
c
2
8 c

carrier power
8

## Problem: If equation for AM is s t 10 1 0.5sin2f t cos2f t , what is value of average

m
c
sideband power?
Solution: Message Signal, m t A sin2f t
m
m

## Modulated Signal, s t 10 5sin2f t cos2f t

m
c
Modulation Index, m 0.5
a

100
50
Carrier Power, P
c
2
m2
1
50
Average sideband power a P
= 3.125 watt
50
4 c 16
16

A A
A2
m
max
Peak output power
c
2R
2R

Important Formulas

Maximum Amplitude, A
A A
max
c
m
A2
Carrier power c P
c
2R

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

m2
Total sideband power c P
2 c

m2
Average sideband power P
P
c .P
USB
LSB
4 c
2
A A
c
m
Peak output power
2R

Solved Examples
Problem: A given AM broadcasting station transmitter has a total power of 5W. If carrier is
modulated by a sinusoidal signal of m 0.707 .
a
Calculate (i) Average sideband power
(ii) Peak output power
In both cases, assume that antenna is replaced by a 50 resistance.

m2

## Solution: Transmitted Power, P P 1 a

T
c
2

P
5
T

4W
Carrier Power, P
c
1

2
ma 1 4
1 2

m2
1
Average sideband power a P 4 = 0.5W
4 c 8
2
A
Since, P c
c 2R
2
A 4 2 50 400
c
A 20
c
A
1
Modulation Index m m
a A
2
C
20
A
10 2
m
2

Ac Am

2R

1
20 1

11.65W
50 2

11

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## Problem: If modulation index of A is changed from 0 to 1, then transmitted power will,

m
(a) Increase by 50%
(b) Decrease by 50%
(c) Increase by 60%
(d) Decrease by 60%
Solution: If m 0 ; P P
a
T
c
m 2
1
If m 1 ; P 1 a P 1 P 1.5P
a
T
c
2 c 2 c

1.5 1 Pc
change in power
100 = 50%
P
c
Hence, Transmitted Power increases by 50%
Problem: If a carrier has peak amplitude of 10V at a frequency 1MHz. If sinusoidal signal of
frequency 1kHz modulates between 7.5 and 12.5. Then calculate,
(i) Modulation index

## Assume that antenna used has a resistance of 50 .

Solution: Given A
12.5
A
7.5
max
min
A
A
min 12.5 7.5 5 1
Modulation Index, m max
a A
A
12.5 7.5 20 4
max
min
m2 A2
1
100
1
Average sideband power a c

W 0.015625W
4
2R 4 16 2 50 64
2
2
A A
A2 1 m
100
c
m
c
a

2R
2R
2 50

## Transmission efficiency in case of AM

A2 m2 t
Transmitted Power, P c
T
2
2

Sideband Power, P
SB

m2 t
2

P
Transmission efficiency SB
P
T

m2 A2 A2
P a c m
SB
2
2
4

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A2
P c
C
2

Efficiency,

A2
c
2

A2
m
4

m2
a

2
2 m2
A
a
m

## Maximum transmission efficiency: m 1

a
1

100 33.33%
max 3
Only 33.33% power will be utilized while 66.67% power is wasted.
Note: Main disadvantage is that 66.6% power is wasted.
But at the same time, receiver has information about carrier frequency, so there will be no
need to use extra synchronizing circuit, for knowing carrier such as Costas Receiver in case of
suppressed carrier modulation.
Problem: If a message signal is given by m t

1
1
cos t sin t . If m(t) is modulated with
1 2
1
2

## a carrier of frequency to generate s t 1 m t cos t , then what is the value of

c
c
in% ?
Solution: Message Signal m t

1
Hence, A
m
2

A 1
c

1 2
2

cos t
sin t
cos t

1
1
2 2
2
2
1 4

A
m m 1
a
A
2
c

A
1
Modulation Index, m m
a A
2
c
1
m2

1
a
2

100%
2
1
5
2m
2
a

13

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## Problem: For a given AM signal, if output is of the form:

s t A cos 400t Bcos 380t Bcos 420t . If P 100w and 40% what are
c
values of A and B?
Solution: Modulated Signal can also be expressed as,
s t A cos 400t B 2cos 400t cos20t A 2Bcos20t cos 400t

## Comparing with standard equation, s t A A cos t cos t

c
m
m
c
A2
Carrier Power, P c
c
2

100

Carrier Amplitude, A A 10 2
c
m2
a

2
Transmission Efficiency, 0.4
2
m
1 a

m2
a

2
m 2
a

2
Modulation Index, m
a
3

2B 2
m

a A
3
B 10

2
3

Calculate (a) m
a

T

(c)

(d) Bandwidth

## Solution: Combining the first and third term in modulated signal,

s t 10 8cos200t cos2000t
8
Modulation Index, m
0.8
a 10

100 0.64
Transmitted Power, P
1
50 1.32 66.0 W
T
2
2
Transmission Efficiency,

0.64
800
100
24.2%
2.64
33

Since, modulated signal requires twice the bandwidth as compared to message signal,
400
Bandwidth B.W. 2f
200Hz
m
2

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## Amplitude modulation in case of Non Sinusoidal Signals

A2 m2 t
Transmitted Power, P c
T
2
2

Here, m2 t is mean square value of message signal m(t). For a periodic message signal this
value can be computed as,

1
m2 t m2 t dt
T T
Where, T is time period of message signal m(t)
Solved Examples

c

## (i) Total power P

T

(ii) Efficiency

T
1 2 2
1
2
2
2 dt
2 dt
Solution: Mean Square Value of Message Signal, m t

T
T
T
0
2
1
T 1T
m2 t 4 4 =4
T
2 42
A2 m2 (t) 4 4
P c
4
T
2
2
2 2

m2 (t)
2
% 2 100% 100% 50%
P
4
T

Problem: Solve the previous problem if square wave of message signal is replaced by
sawtooth waveform shown below,

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

T T
Solution: Equation of m(t) in ,
2 2

mt

6
t
T
2

T /2
T /2 A

1
2 t dt 1
m t dt

m2 t
m
T T
T T/2
T /2

A2 T3 A2
32
2
m t m
m
3
3
3
3
T3

## Since, carrier signal is same so carrier power remains same.

4 3
Transmitted Power, P 3.5w
T 2 2
3
Efficiency, 2 100 42.85%
3.5
Problem: Calculate total power and efficiency carrier signal is given as, c t 2cos t and
c
modulation index is m 0.5 . The message signal waveform is shown below,
a

a

m(t)max
A

k
0.5
2

Hence, K=1

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K2 1

## Mean Square Value of Message Signal, m2 t

3 3

A2 m2 t
Total Power, P c
T
2
2

4 1
P 2.167W
T 2 6

Transmission Efficiency,

0.16
100% 7.19%
2.16

## Problem: Figure shows positive envelope of A.M. wave, calculate m and .

a

A
A
min 30 0.5
Solution: Modulation Index, m max
a A
60
A
max
min
A
A
min 45 15 30
Carrier Amplitude, A max
c
2
2
Peak of modulating Signal, m t

max

A m 30 0.5 15
C
a

15 75
Mean Square Value of Message Signal, m2 t
3
2

A2 m2 t
Total Power, P c
T
2
2

900 75
P

487.5 W
T
2
2

Transmission Efficiency,

37.5
100% 7.69%
487.5

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Trapezoidal Method
If the modulated signal is plotted in X-Y mode on a CRO then the shape of a trapezoid
appears as shown below,
L L
m 1 2
a L L
1
2

## It is generally used for non periodic signals.

Here, L represents the minimum amplitude and L represents maximum amplitude.
2
1
Solved Examples
Problem: If AM wave pattern for non periodic, signal in CRO is shown, what is value of
Modulation Index?

## Solution: From the figure, minimum amplitude

L2 0

L L
2 1
Modulation Index, m 1
a L L
1
2
Problem: In trapezoidal method, if ratio of short height to long height is 0.65, what is value
of modulation index?

L
Solution: Ratio of short height to long height is, 2

L
1

L
1 2L
L L
1 1 0.65 0.35 0.212
Modulation Index, m 1 2
a L L
L
1 0.65 1.65
1
2 1 2
L
1
Multi-tone Message Signal
Multi-tone message signals are those which have multiple frequency components. As for an

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

example any periodic signal can be resolved into Fourier Series and so it can be treated as
Multi-tone Signal.

1
m1
2
m2
3
m3

c
c

c
1
m1
2
m2
c

s(t) A 1
c

A
1 cos t
m1
A
c

m2
c

A
c

## s t A 1 m cos t m cos t ....... cos t

c
a1
m1
a2
m2
c
Here, m represents modulation index for ith tone
ai
Modulation Index, m m2 m2 m2 ...........
a
a1
a2
a3

1 2
3

## B.W. 2max , , ,............

1 2 3

Frequency spectrum
The frequency spectrum for modulated multi-tone signal is as shown below,

Solved Examples
Problem: If equation of AM wave is given as:

## s t 10 5cos 2 103 t 2cos 4 103 t cos 2 106 t

Calculate, (i) m
(ii) P
(iii) Bandwidth
a
T
Solution: Modulation Index for different tones present in the signal are,

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

5
2
m
0.5 and m
0.2
a1 10
a2 10

Modulation Index, m
a

## 0.52 0.22 0.29 0.5385

A2
Power Transmitted, P c
T
2

2
m2

1 a 50 1 0.5385 = 57.25W

2
2

## Bandwidth, B.W. 2max 103 ,2 103 4kHz

Transmission Efficiency,

50 0.5385
2 57.25

100% 12.66%

## Low Level and High Level Modulation

The first figure below shows the block diagram of low level modulation and second figure
shows block diagram shows block diagram for high level modulation

In case of low level, generation of AM takes place in initial stage only and this generated AM
is modified by using a linear device which may be a class A or class B amplifier.
In high level, modulation takes place in final stage of amplifier and modulation circuitry has
to handle high value of power.
These are two basic techniques to implement Amplitude Modulation.
The differences in both types of modulation techniques are listed below,

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## Low Level Modulation

High Level Modulation
Modulation occurs is initial stage of Modulation occurs is final stage of
amplifier
amplifier
Modulation circuit handles low power
Modulation circuit handles high power
Simple circuit
Complex Circuit
Low Power Audio Amplifier is required
High Power Audio Amplifier is required
Class A amplifier is used
Class C amplifier is used
Low efficiency
High Efficiency
Low Distortion
High Distortion
Generation of AM
There are two basic methods for generation of Amplitude Modulated Wave,
Switching Modulator
Non-Linear Device
Switching Modulator
The input voltage to the circuit is sum of message and
carrier signal.
During positive half cycle of input, Diode is ON
V V
o
i
The practical and ideal characteristics of Diode are shown

Below,

Practical characteristics are non-linear due to knee voltage. If knee voltage is neglected the
characteristics become linear.
This diode switching operation can also be assumed as multiplication of input signal by an
infinite square pulse shown below,

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Here, the switching pulse is 1 during the positive half cycle so that input and output are
same and switching pulse is 0 during negative half cycle as Diode is OFF so output becomes
zero.
Positive and negative cycles are assumed based on cosine function which is the carrier wave.
The time period of square wave,
Tp

## Since, it is a periodic function, it can be represented in terms of Fourier Series

1 2

2
p(t) cos t
cos3 t ............
c
c
3
2

## The output of switching modulator is then,

1 2

2
V A cos t m t cos t
cos3 t ....

o c
c
c 3
c
2

V A cos t
o
c
c

mt
2

2
2
A cos2 t m t cos t .....
c
c
c

Desired components are (I) and (IV) out of all the components present after multiplication.

## If one selects a LPF with cut-off frequency

then first and fourth component can
c
m
be extracted but in that case 2nd component is also present at the output which is undesired.

and
c
c
m
m

## Here, is maximum frequency of message signal.

m
Modulated Signal is the output of filter,

A
A
2
4
s t c cos t m t cos t c 1
m t cos t
c
c
c

2
2
A
c

4
k
amplitude sensitivity
a A
c

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Modulation Index, m m t
.k
max a
a
Using Non-Linear Device

V a v a v2
o 1i 2 i

## Input Voltage, V m t A cos t

i
c
c

V a m t A cos t a m t A cos t
o 1
c
c
2
c
c

## V a m t a A cos t a m2 t a A2 cos2 t 2a A m t cos t

o 1
1 c
c
2
2 c
c
2 c
c
Out of these terms the desired terms are second and fourth term.

## The band of Filter is, ,

c
m c
m

In order to remove the third term from the output of band pass filter, the necessary
condition is,

2a

o
1 c
c
2 c
c
1 c
c

a
1

2a
2 . mt
max
a
1

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Solved Examples
Problem: What is Modulation Index of generated A.M. wave where V V 0.1V2
2
i
i
and input voltage is V 4 cos200t 2cos2000t ?
i
Solution: Input Voltage, V 4 cos200t 2cos2000t
i

2
V 4 cos 200t 2cos 2000t 0.1 4 cos 200t 2cos 2000t
2

## V 4 cos200t 2cos2000t 1.6cos2 200t 0.4 cos2 2000t 1.6cos200t cos2000t

2
Here, second and fifth term are of interest in Amplitude Modulation. So, we apply a filter of
band pass frequency,

## 1.6 cos 200t cos 2000t = 0.8 cos2200t cos1800t

Range of BPF : w w w w
c
m
c
m
2000 200 2000 200 1800 2200
At the output of filter we have,

## V 2cos2000t 1.6cos200t cos2000t 2 1 0.8cos200t cos2000t

a
Modulation Index, m 0.8
a
Problem: A non linear device with transfer characteristics i 10 2V 0.2V2 mA is
i
i

applied with a carrier of 1V amplitude and a sinusoidal signal of 0.5V in series. If output of
only frequency components of Amplitude Modulated wave is considered, than what is the
depth of modulation?

2a
Solution: Depth of Modulation or Modulation Index, m 2 m t
max
a
a
1
0.2
m 2
0.5 0.1
a
2

## Detection method of Amplitude Modulation

The following three methods are used for demodulation of Amplitude Modulation,
(i)

## (ii) By use of synchronous detections.

(iii) By use of envelope detector.

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## The input to receiver is the Amplitude Modulated Wave,

s t A 1 k m t cos t
c
a
c
By use of Non Linear device

## Input of Demodulator, s t A cos t A k cos t

c
c
c a
c
Assume the input-output relation of demodulator is, V a V a V 2
1 1i 2 i

1 1 c
c
a
c
c
2 c
c
c a
c

## V a A cos t a A k m t cos t a A2 cos2 t

1 1 c
c
1 c a
c
2 c
c
a A2k2m2 t cos2 t 2a A2k m t cos2 t
2 c a
c
2 c a
c

2
Since, 2cos t 1 cos2 t
c

## This expression can be expressed as,

V a A cos t a A k m t cos t
1 1 c
c
1 c a
c
a A2
2 c 1 k 2m2 t 2k m t cos 2 t k 2m2 t cos 2 t 2k m t cos t
a
a
c
a
c
a
c
2
The desired output is the signal proportional to message signal,
a A2
Desired output 2 c 2k m t
a
2
To extract this term we will Use a LPF with cut off frequency , followed by a capacitor.
m
Due to presence of m2 t component, there may be harmonic distortion in output. For
neglecting harmonic distortion,
2k m t
a
1
2
k m2 t
a

k mt 2
a
It means this method is not suitable for large amplitude message signal, It is generally
preferred if message signal amplitude is less than 1volt.

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Solved Examples
Problem: What is a value of maximum Harmonic Distortion possible in non linear device
output?

## Solution: Let m t A cos t

m
m
k 2 A2
2
2
2
y t k A cos t 2k A cos t a m cos 2 t 2k A cos t
m
a m
m
a m
m
a m
m
2

k2A2
k2 A2
a
m
% Harmonic Distortion
100% a m 100% 25 k A
a m
2 2k A
4
a m

## Maximum Harmonic Distortion = 25% max k A 1

a m

Problem: Assertion: Square Law Detector are not particularly satisfactory for detection if
modulating signal base amplitude is greater than 1V.
Reason: A square detector H.D. is as high as 25% for completely modulated signal.
Solution: Both Assertion and Reason are correct but reason is not correct explanation of
assertion. Reason will be that is causes harmonic distraction for high amplitude ( m2 t will

be denominating).
Synchronous Detection

## Modulated Signal, s t A 1 k m t cos t

c
a
c
Here, synchronization means frequency of carrier and frequency of local oscillator are in
synchronization.

## V t s t c t A 1 k m t cos t A' cos t

1
c
a
c
c
c

A A
V t A A' 1 k m t cos2 t c c 1 k m t 1 cos2 t
a
c
1
c c
a
c
2
A A'
V t c c 1 k m t cos2 t k m t cos2 t
1
a
c
a
c
2

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Output of LPF:

A A'
A A'
c ck m t c c

a
2
2

A A'
c ck m t

a
2
The capacitor blocks DC Voltage and so the output is proportional to message signal. So,
Output of capacitor:

## there is no distortion in output.

Envelope Detector
For the case of under-modulation, the modulated wave and its envelope are shown below,

Here, if we are able to extract the envelope then message signal can be extracted from the
modulated waveform without the loss of any information.
When modulation index is 1 i.e. the case of critical modulation the modulated waveform and
its envelope are shown below,

But the information is lost when the modulated waveform touches the axis so message
signal cannot be completely recovered.

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

In the figure shown above, the modulation index is greater than 1 and so it is a case of OverModulation.
Information is lost due to overlapping of positive and negative envelope so envelope
detection will not yield the message signal.
Hence, Envelope detector will work efficiently only when modulation index is less than 1.
Basic Operation

In positive half, diode will be ON and capacitor starts changing through resistance R .
s
The time constant for charging of capacitor is, R C .
s
c
Here capacitor will charge fast upto peak value and hence should be small.

1
R C
s
c f
c
If time constant is small, capacitor charging will be fast.
In negative half, diode becomes off and start discharging through R . In this case, R C
L
L
becomes very important.
If R C is very small, then there will be fluctuation in the output and high value of ripple
L
will be present. Due to this there may be some ripples at the output. These spikes/ripples
fluctuations will degrades the performance of output.
1
R C
L
f
c
If R C is very high; initially capacitor will be charged upto peak and due to high value of
L
R C . Let voltage discharge upto some value in negative half cycle (during period when
L
diode is off). Next peak at input having high value will charged capacitor to higher voltage.

During negative half cycle, capacitor discharges very slowly and cannot reach the level of
next peak. If having very small value, voltage is not sufficient to make diode ON and so, it will

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

miss that peak; so an amount of information will be lost (small peaks) due to large discharge
time this is called as Diagonal clipping.

The capacitor shall be able to discharge by the next peak arrives so that no information is

1
missed and hence, R C T
L
m f
m
1
1
R C
{for satisfactory operation}
L
f
f
c
m
Solved Examples
Problem: An A.M. signal is detected using an envelope detector carrier frequency are 1MHz
and 2kHz, then what is value of time constant for envelope detector?
(a) 500s

(b) 20s

(c) 1s

(d) 0.2s

1
1
RC
6
10
2 103
1s RC 500s

## Optimum Time Constant

Optimum value of RC to avoid diagonal clipping in a single tone sinusoidal signal is given by,
1 m2
a
RC
.m
m a

To avoid diagonal clipping, rate of discharge of capacitor voltage should be greater than rate
of decrease of modulating voltage.

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c
a
m
c

A 1 m cos t
envelope
c
a
m

## When the capacitor discharges, the capacitor voltage is given by,

t
V t V
e RC V
1
c
envelope
envelope RC
Capacitor should discharge before next peak arrives so no information is lost. Hence,

dV
dV
envelope
c
dt
dt
V
dV
c envelope
dt
RC

dV
envelope
sin t A m A m sin t
m m c a
c a
m m
dt

V
envelope
A m sin t
c a m
m
RC

A 1 m cos t
a
m
Thus, RC c
A m sin t
c a m
m

1 m cos t

a
m
RC
m sin t
a m
m

m
a
m
a m
m
a m
m
a
m

a
m
m
a
m

m cos t
a
m

1 ma cos mt
RC
m sin t
a m
m

1 m2
a
m 1 m2
a m
a

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

1 m2
RC max m a
a m

Note:
This is valid for single tone sinusoidal signal only.
Here value of time constant depends upon max modulation frequency and modulation

index m .
a
Envelope detector is an Asynchronous detector (since no oscillator is used).
Solved Examples

## Problem: If s t 10 1 0.5cos 2 500t cos 2 106 t and demodulated by envelope

detector, than what is maximum value time constant to avoid diagonal clipping?
1 m2
1 0.25
a

0.55
Solution: RC
max .m
0.5 2 500
m a

The biggest disadvantage is that transmitted power is wasted and efficiency is minimum.
One of the advantages is that it has simple modulation and demodulation method.
DSB SC (Double Side Band - Suppressed Carrier)
Amplitude Modulated signal with DSB-FC is,
s t A cos t m t cos t
c
c
c

If we suppress the carrier i.e. carrier is not present in the output signal. Then, it is known as
Double Side Band with Suppressed Carrier.

s t m t cos t
c
Due to carrier term removed the power in Transmitted Signal is,
m2
P P a
T
c 2
Hence, entire power belongs to message signal and no energy is wasted in transmitting the
carrier. So, transmission efficiency % 100%

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Solved Examples
Problem: In DSB FC, if m 1 , what is % saving in transmitted power if:
a
a) Only carrier is suppressed
b) Carrier and one side band is suppressed.
Solution: For 100% Modulation Index, the transmitted power is

m 2

1 3
P P 1 a P 1 P
T
c
2 c 2 2 c

## If carrier is suppressed then, transmitted power becomes,

1
P P
T
c
2 2
1
3
2 Pc 2 Pc
% saving
3

P
2 c

= 66.67%

Now, if one sideband as well as carrier is suppressed the transmitted power becomes half
1
P P
T
c
2 4
1
3
2 Pc 4 Pc
% saving
3

P
2 c

100% = 83.33%

## Problem: Repeat previous question for m 0.5

a
Solution: IN DSB-FC transmitted power is,

m 2

0.25
P P 1 a 1
P 1.125Pc
T
c
2
2 c

m 2 0.25
P P a
P 0.125Pc
T
c 2
2 c

2
% saving

1.125 0.125
100% 88.89%
1.125

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0.25
P
Pc
T
2 4
% saving

1.0.625 0.0625
100% 94.44%
1.0625

## So, in order to save more transmitted power:

(i) Carrier should be suppressed
(ii) One sideband should be suppressed.
(iii) Modulation Index should be small
DSB SC time domain representation

In DSB-SC, whenever message signal crosses zero level i.e. it becomes negative from positive
or vice versa then modulated signal also changes polarity. This can be called as 1800 phase
shift in the sinusoidal carrier wave.
When m(t) is negative. Suppose, m(t) = -g(t)
Then, modulated signal becomes,

s t m t cos t g t cos t
c
c

s t g t cos t 1800
c

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Suppression of carrier means first generate DSB FC and then suppress the carrier.
s t m t cos t
c

S w

1
M M

c
c
2

## From, the spectrum of modulated wave,

sec
m
Generation of DSB-SC Signal
There are two means of generating a DSB-SC signal,
Non-Linear Device
Linear Device
Non Linear Device

## The output of Non-Linear Device is,

V a V a V2
1 1i 2 i
The input to Non-Linear Device is sum of message and carrier signal,
V m t A cos t
i
c
c

## V a m t a A cos t a m2 t A2 cos2 t 2A m t cos t

1 1
1 c
c
2
c
c
c
c
To generate DSB SC,
Make a 0 so that non linear device will be simply square law device. Then we can use a
1

## Band Pass Filter of frequency to

c
m
c
m

Then, at the output second and fourth terms are present which means DSB-FC is generated.
The carrier is then suppressed to generate DSB-SC signal.

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## By use of Linear Device

Balanced/Product Modulator

s t A m t cos t
2
c
c
s t A m t cos t
1
c
c

## The output of modulator is,

s t s t 2m t cos t
1
2
c

## The output of Balanced Modulator is product of Message and Carrier Signal.

Ring Modulator

The input to Ring Modulator is the message signal. The carrier signal controls the switching
of Diodes to transfer the input signal to output.
(i) For m(t) = 0 and D ,D ON and D ,D OFF
1 2
3 4
The output is zero.

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## (ii) For m(t) = 0 and D ,D ON and D ,D OFF

1 2
3 4
The output is zero.
(iii) For m t 0 and D ,D ON and D ,D OFF
3 4
1 2
Message Signal is transferred to output by means of two transformers with same polarity. So,
output is same as message signal.
(iv) for m t 0 and D ,D ON and D ,D OFF
1 2
3 4
Message Signal is connected to output as shown below,

Message Signal is transferred to output with opposite polarity due to cross connection.

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Since modulated wave becomes zero when m(t) becomes zero and there is phase reversal
also at m(t) = 0 as shown by circled points in output wave; hence it is DSB SC.
In ring modulator, if one frequency is f and other is f , output will have frequency
1
2

## Multiplication in time domain = convolution in frequency domain and by convolution the

signal gets translated to new frequency so frequency shifts which is happening by this
method. Hence, both methods are generating DSB SC only.
Detection of DSB SC
The following methods can be used for detection of message signal from DSB-SC Modulated
Signal.
Switching Modulator

## The Fourier Series of the switching waveform can be expressed as,

1 2

2
p(t) cos t
cos3 t ............
c 3
c
2

## The output of diode is,

V V t .p t
o1
i

1 2

2
V m t cos t cos t
cos3 t ............
o1
c 2
c 3
c

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1
2
V m t cos t m t
o1 2
c

## 1 cos 2ct 2 m t cos t

2

mt
mt
1
V mt
cos t
cos2 t ........
o1
c
c
2

To get message signal, one can design a LPF of cut off frequency practically, it can be taken
as 2
m
Synchronous Detection/Coherent Detection
Synchronization between modulating signal and carrier signal,

The carrier multiplied to message signal and the one used for demodulation needs to have
same frequency and hence synchronized to each other.

A mt
cos 2 t cos
V m t cos t A cos t c

1
c
c
c
c
2

V
o

A m t
c
cos
2

If

## i.e. the demodulating carrier signal is in quadrature to modulated signal, then

2

V m t cos t A sin t
1
c
c
c

A mt
c
sin 2 t
c
2

After filtering with a Low Pass Filter, there is no message signal recovery at the output. This
effect is called as Quadrature Null Effect.
If 0 , then

A mt
1 cos 2 t
V m t cos t A cos t c

1
c
c
c
c
2

After filtering with a Low Pass Filter, there is complete message signal recovery at the output.

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

A m t
V c
o
2

In this case, the demodulating signal is in perfect synchronization with the modulating signal.
General Error in case of Synchronous Detection
In general, the signal used for demodulation may have slightly different frequency than the
modulated signal.

c
c

i
c
c
c

A' m t

c
cos 2 t cos t

## After passing through the LPF, output is

A' m t
y t c
cos t
2

Case 1: 0 and 0
No distortion, no attenuation
mt
y t
2
Case 2: 0 and 0
Only attenuation as amplitude is changed.
m t cos
y t
2
Case 3: 0 and 0
A' m t
y t c
cos t
2

## Here, attenuation as well as distortion is present in the output.

Case 4: 0 and 0
Only Distortion is present due to time dependent term in the output.

y t

m t cos t
2

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

A Costas Loop is a phase locked loop used for recovery of carrier signal from DSB-SC
Modulated Signal.

c

## The output y t and y t will be,

1
2

A mt
cos 2 t cos
y t A m t cos t cos t c

1
c
c
c
c
2

A mt
sin 2 t sin
c
t

A
m
t
cos

cos

90

2
c
c
c
2

When both these signals are passed through LPF then the outputs are,
A mt
A mt
c
s t c
sin
cos
2
2
2
For small value of ; cos 1and sin

s t
1

s t
1

A m t
c
2

s t
2

A m t
c

## Phase discriminator is a device which generates DC voltage corresponding to phase

difference . This DC voltage will modify phase in value such that VCO phase and input
phase are same so, by Costas Receiver, the receiver circuit will become complex and this is
for only low phase errors.
Solved Examples
Problem: A message signal band limited to frequency ' f ' has power 'P ' , what is power
m
m
of output shown in figure?

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## Solution: The power content in the signal m t cos t

c

P
m

m2 t

2
Output of multiplier is,

X t m t cos t cos t
1
c
c

mt
cos 2 t cos

c
2

## The output of Low Pass Filter becomes,

y t

mt
2

cos

2
1 m t
Power
cos2
4
2
P
Power of Output m cos2
4
Problem: Determine the output of the system shown below,

sin 198t
2sin t
, c t cos 200t and n t
t
t
1
2
Solution: Output of Multiplier is, X t sin2t cos 200 t sin202t sin198t
1
t
t

Assume m t

1

## sin202t sin198 t sin198 t sin202t

t
t
t
t

202
101Hz
Frequency of output, f
m
2

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Since, cut-off frequency f 1Hz is less than the frequency of message signal. Hence,
c

## y t 0 which means no signal will pass through LPF.

Problem: If the input to a coherent detector is DSB SC signal plus noise, than what is value
of noise at output?

## Assume n t n cos t n sin t and c t cos t

I
c
Q
c
c
n : In-phase component of Noise
I
n : Quadrature component of Noise
Q

c
I
c
Q
c

## The output of multiplier is,

X t m t cos2 t n cos2 t n cos t sin t
1
c
I
c
Q
c
c

mt n mt n
n
I
I cos 2 t Q sin2 t
X t

1
c
c
2
2
2

mt n
I
y t

## Hence, in-phase component of noise is present at the output of system.

Types of Envelope
There are three types of envelope,
Pre Envelope
An analytic signal is a complex signal created by adding a signal with its Hilbert Transform in
Quadrature. It is also known as pre-envelope of a signal.
x t x t jx t
p

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

By taking the pre-envelope the negative frequency components are discarded and the real
signal can be easily recovered from complex signal by discarding the imaginary part.
Natural Envelope
The magnitude of pre-envelope of a signal is known as natural envelope of a signal.
Natural Envelope:

x t
p

Complex Envelope
Analytic Signals are often shifted in frequency or down converted to 0Hz. It possibly creates
negative frequency components. This helps in reducing the maximum frequency so that
sampling rate also reduces. Complex Envelope is given by,
x

t xp t e
c

j t
c

Solved Examples
Problem: A modulated signal is given by

c
c
(i) Pre envelope

## (ii) Complex envelope

Solution: Pre-envelope, s t s t js t
p

## s t eat cos t t u t jsin t t eat

p
c
c
This happens because Hilbert transform of cosine signal is sine signal.
s t eatu t e
p

j t
j t
c
eate c
ut

Complex Envelope, s t s t e
c
p

j t
j t
j t
c eate c
c
u t e

jt
s t eate
ut
c

p

j t
c
u t eatu t

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Note: In questions, if only envelope is asked, then envelope taken is natural envelope.
If s t s cos t s sin t
I
c
Q
c
Natural envelope: s t s t s2 s2
p
I
Q
Problem: If a modulated signal is given as, x t m t cos ct . Determine natural
envelope of the signal.
Solution: Method-1

## Pre-Envelope, x t m t cos t jm t sin t

p
c
c

x t m t cos t jsin t m t e

p
c
c

j t
c

Natural Envelope, x t m t
p
Method-2

## x t m t cos t cos m t sin t sin m t cos t m t sin t

I
c
Q
c
c
c

Natural Envelope x t m2 t m2 t m2 t m t
p
I
Q
Problem: For the system shown below,

sin199t
2sinnt
, mt
t
t
Solution: Output of first multiplier,
Determine the output if, n t

and c t cos200t

1
X t m t c t sin 202t sin 198t
1
t
mt c t nt

t
t
t

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## 2sin202t. cos 200t 2sin199t cos 200t 2 sin198t cos 200 t

2t
2t
2t

1
sin 402t sin2t sin399t sin t sin398 t sin2t

c t m t c t n t
c t mt c t n t

## Frequency components present in the output,

402
f
201Hz
1
2
2
f
1Hz
2 2
399
f
199.5Hz
3
2

f
0.5Hz
4 2
398
f
199Hz
5
2

Hence, at the output of LPF only 1Hz and 0.5 Hz components are present.
1
y t 2sin2t sin t
2t
Problem: Consider a system shown in figure. Let X(f) and Y(f) denote Fourier Transform of
x(t) and y(t) respectively. If ideal HPF has cut off frequency of 10kHz. Then positive
frequencies where Y(f) will have spectral peaks are?

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## The output of second multiplier will be,

So, the positive frequency peaks lie in the spectrum at 2kHz and 24kHz.
Alternatively, we can directly solve by observing that input has peaks at -1kHz and 1kHz, so
after first multiplier peaks will lie at 9kHz and 11kHz. After High Pass Filter, only 11kHz and 11kHz peak passes and after second multiplier -11kHz is shifted to 2kHz and 11kHz is shifted
to 24kHz.
Problem: A DSB SC signal is to be generated with carrier frequency f / =1MHz using a non
c
linear device with input-output characteristics V a V a V3 where a and a are
o
1
o
1i 1i
constants. The output of non linear device can be filtered by an appropriate BPF. Let

i
c
c
c

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## Solution: The input-output relation of Non-Linear Device is,

V a V a V3
o
o i 1i

V a A cos2f t m t a A3 cos3 2f t a m3 t
o
o c
c
1 c
c
1

V a A cos2f t m t a A cos2f t m t
o
o c
c
1 c
c

3a m t A2 cos2 2f t 3a m2 t A cos2f t
1
c
c
1
c
c
This can also be expressed as,

V a A cos 2f t m t a A3 cos3 2f t a m3 t
o
o c
c
1 c
c
1
1 cos 4 f t
c 3a m2 t A cos 2f t
3a m t A2
c
1
c
1
c

## Desired component for DSB-SC generation,

3a A2
y t 1 c m t cos 4 f t
c
2

## The DSB-SC for a carrier frequency of f ' must be,

c

m t cos 2f 't
c
On comparing with generated DSB-SC,
4f 2f '
c
c
f ' 1MHz
f c
2.5MHz 250kHz
c 2
2

## Problem: A 100MHz carrier of 1V amplitude and 1MHz modulating square of 1V amplitude

are fed to a modulator. If output of modulator is passed through a HPF with cut off
frequency of 100MHz and output of filter is added to 100MHz signal of 1V amp. And 900
phase shift as shown in figure, than what is resultant of envelope of the signal?

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## Solution: The input to the modulator is,

V cos 2 100 106 t
i

## The output of modulator is,

1
V cos 2 100 106 t . cos 2 106 t = cos 2 101 106 t cos 2 99 106 t

2
When it is passed through a HPF, the output is

1
1
V cos 2 101 106 t = cos2 108 106 t
2 2
2
After the adder the output is,
y t

1
cos 2 108 106 t sin2 106 t
2

y t

1
1
cos 2 108 t cos 2 106 t sin 2 108 t sin 2 106 t sin 2 106 t
2
2

1
y t cos 2 106 t cos t sin 2 106 t 1 sin t
c 2
c
2

The natural envelope of the signal is,

2
2
1

## y t cos 2 106 t sin 2 106 t 1

2
2
Here, 2 106 rad / sec
m
y t

1
1
1
cos2 t sin2 t 1 sin t
m
m
m
4
4
2

5 1
sin 2 106 t
4 2

QAM is a modulation scheme by which we can transmit two message signal by Amplitude
Modulation of two carrier waves which are in phase quadrature to each other. Both the
signals are then summed and transmitted together.
The modulated signal by QAM is of the form,

s t s t s t m t A cos t m t A sin t
1
2
1
c
c
2
c
c

A motivation for the use of quadrature amplitude modulation comes from the fact that a
straight amplitude modulated signal, i.e. double sideband even with a suppressed carrier
occupies twice the bandwidth of the modulating signal. This is very wasteful of the available
frequency spectrum. QAM restores the balance by placing two independent double sideband
suppressed carrier signals in the same spectrum as one ordinary double sideband
suppressed carrier signal.

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Generation of QAM

By 900 phase shift we generate a second carrier A sin t in phase quadrature with the
c
c
carrier signal A cos t
c
c
Detection of Message Signal in QAM

## The output of first multiplier is,

y t s t .A cos t A2m t cos2 t A2m t sin t cos t
1
c
c
c 1
c
c 2
c
c

1 cos2 t A2m t
2
c c 2
y t A m t
sin2 t
1
c 1
c

2
2

A2m t
y c 1
01
2

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## The output of second multiplier is,

y t s t .A sin t A2m t sin t cos t A2m t sin2 t
1
c
c
c 1
c
c
c 2
c

A2m t 1 cos2 t
2
c

y t A m t sin2 t c 2
1
c 1
c

2
2

## By the use of LPF, the output is,

A2m t
y c 2
02
2

In QAM, we transmit two signals using the same Bandwidth and so it leads to efficient
utilization of Bandwidth.
Review of Hilbert Transform
Fourier Transform changes time domain signal to frequency domain but Hilbert transform
changes time domain to time domain signal only but phase is changed.
0

90

0

90

V
V

0
0

F.D. t

j 2
e , 0
j
e 2 , 0

j, 0
H
j, 0

jsgn

## The time domain representation of this signal is,

1 FT
jsgn w
t

Since h t 0 for every value of t, hence h t 0 for t < 0; hence it is non casual system.
Hilbert Transform of a signal is orthogonal to its Hilbert Transform.
x(t) and x t are orthogonal to each other.
Also,

d
d
H.T.
x t x t

dt
dt

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Solved Examples
Problem: What is Hilbert Transform of x t sin t ?
o
Solution: The spectrum of signal x(t) is,

o
o
j

H jsgn

o
o

Y X H sgn

o
o

y t cos t
o

## Single Side Band Modulation Suppressed Carrier (SSB - SC)

The spectrum of different modulation schemes is shown below,

When we use only one of the sidebands instead of two sidebands it is known as Single
Sideband.

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

In the above spectrum, we have only considered Upper Sideband for SSB Modulation.

In the above spectrum we have considered the lower sideband out of the two sidebands.
SSB SC requires minimum value of Bandwidth and minimum value of transmitted power.
Since, information is carried out by 2 sidebands and they are images of each other, hence
they carry same information.
Bandwidth is noise filtering characteristics of the system, means as Bandwidth increases the
effect of Noise increases. The power spectral density of Noise is constant so the higher the
Bandwidth more is the Power contained in Noise and so more is the effect of Noise.
For one to many communication, we will prefer either DSB SC or DSB FC since design for
receiver needed is simple for one to one communication, we will use SSB SC modulation.
SSB can be effectively used for FDM and generally used in point to point communication
and mobile communication.
Generation of SSB SC
To generate SSB-SC, we first create DSB-FC and suppress the carrier in order to generate
DSB-SC and then either upper or lower sideband is suppressed to create SSB-SC.
Let m t A cos t and c t A cos t
m
c
m
c
DSB-FC modulated signal is,

## s t A m t cos t A cos t A cos t cos t

c
c
c
c
m
m
c
If the carrier is suppressed,
A
s t A cos t cos t m
m
m
c
2

cos t cos

c
m
c
m

A
A
s t m cos t m cos t
c
m
c
m
2
2

The first term has higher frequency and second one has lower frequency. So, first one is
called as Upper Sideband and second term is called as Lower Sideband

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## For Upper Sideband,

A
t
mt
m
y USB m cos t cos t sin t sin t
cos t
sin t
c
m
c
m
c
c
2
2
2

## t is Hilbert Transform of m(t)

Here, m
t A sin t
If m t A cos t and m
m
m
m
m
For Lower Sideband,

A
t
mt
m
y LSB m cos t cos t sin t sin t
cos t
sin t
c
m
c
m
c
c
2
2
2
Generation of SSB SC
There are three methods used for generation of SSB-SC signal,
(1) Frequency discriminator
(2) Phase discriminator
(3) Weaver discriminator
Frequency Discriminator or Filter Method

This method first generate DSB SC and a filter is used to remove unwanted sidebands.
This filter may be RC, LC or mechanical filter depending on carrier frequency.
This filter may have flat pass band and extremely highly attention outside the pass band.
The frequency generated by this filter may be very low which will be translated to a higher
frequency by use of local oscillator.
This dc filter may be used upto a frequency of 100kHz and is bulky in size which can
create a problem. Hence mechanical filter will be preferred and due to this reason,
mechanical filter are preferred.
This method gives side suppression ratio upto 90 dB which is quite adequate.
Side band filter also help to attenuate carrier if present in Balanced Modulator.
In this case, Pass Band is sufficiently flat and wide.

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

They cannot generate SSB at every frequency.
They are bulky in size.
At lower audio frequency, design becomes expensive.
The spectrum at various steps of this modulator is shown below,
Step-1: Output of Multiplier or Balanced Modulator is DSB-SC signal

## The output of the filter will have the spectrum,

Step-3: This spectrum must be translated to higher carrier frequency by the use of Local
Oscillator. The output will have a spectrum of,

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

By this method, we can generate SSB-SC in which only upper sideband is present. Similarly,
by changing the signal pass band we can generate the Lower Sideband signal.
Phase shift/Phase Discriminator/Hartley Modulation Method

Here, BM represents Balanced Modulator which multiples message signal with carrier signal.
H.T. represents Hilbert Transform.
The outputs of Balanced Modulators are,

S t sin t sin t
2
m
c
S t cos t cos t
1
m
c

## These signals can also be represented as,

1
S t cos t cos t
2
c
m
c
m
2
1
S t cos t cos t
1
c
m
c
m
2

The output of summer will be either upper sideband or lower sideband based on whether

1 2
c
m

## Subtraction: y t S S cos t USB

1 2
c
m
Bulky filter are replaced by small filter.
It can generate SSB at any frequency.
Low audio frequency may be used for modulation.
There is easy switching from one sideband to other side band.
To generate SSB at high frequency up conversion and repetitive mixing is not required.

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

It requires a complex audio frequency phase shift network because it has to work for low
frequency range.
Sideband suppression depends on phase relationship between two phase shifters else
sideband may not be successfully suppressed.
Output of 2 balanced modulators must be exactly same otherwise correlation is not
complete and desired frequency component is not achieved.
Solved Examples
Problem: In following scheme, if spectrum M(f) of m(t) is shown in the figure, then spectrum
Y(f) of y(t) will be?

Solution: This is a phase discrimination method of generation of SSB-SC and due to addition
of both signals, LSB will be generated.
The DSB-SC spectrum will be as shown below,

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Weaver Method

In Weaver Method, the band of interest is first translated to zero by modulating with a carrier
B
wave of frequency lying at the center of band, f
c1 2
This pair of signals is passed through LPF to remove sidebands that is not centered at zero.

## Then it is modulated to desired carrier frequency by a pair of quadrature mixers.

Assume m t cos 2f t
m

## The output of first oscillator is, v t cos 2f t

1
1
Due to 900 phase shift, v

t sin 2f1t

## After the multiplier or Balanced Modulator the output is,

1
v t cos 2f t sin 2f t sin 2 f f t sin 2 f f t
4
m
1
1 m
m 1
2

1
v t cos 2f t cos 2f t cos 2 f f t cos 2 f f t
3
m
1
1 m
m 1
2

After the LPF only the low frequency component is passed through,
v

1
t cos 2 f f t

5
1 m
2

1
t sin 2 f f t

6
1 m
2

v

t sin 2f2t

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## The output of second set of Balanced Modulators is,

v
v

1
t cos 2 f f t cos 2f t

9
1 m
2
2

1
t cos 2 f f f t cos 2 f f f t

9
2 1 m
2 1 m
4

Similarly,

1
v t sin 2 f f t sin 2f t
10
1 m
2
2
1
v t cos 2 f f f t cos 2 f f f t
10
2 1 m
2 1 m
4

## The output of Weaver Modulator is,

y t

1
cos 2 f f f t
2 1 m
2

B
B
If f and f f
1 2
2 c 2
1
Then, y t cos 2 f f t which is the Upper Sideband signal and similarly Lower
C m

## Sideband signal can be generated.

Comparison of Techniques
Parameter
900 phase shift
SSB Generation
Up-conversion
Complexity
Design Aspect
Switching Capacity

Filter
Not Required
Not for all frequency
Required
Less
Size, Weight and
Frequency
Not Possible

Phase Shift
Required
All Frequencies
Not Required
Moderate
Phase Shift of 900

Weaver
Required
All Frequencies
Not Required
Highest
Symmetry of B.M.

Easy

Easy

Detection of SSB SC
Synchronous Detection

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t sin t
s t m t cos t m
c
c

mt
t sin t cos t
y t m t cos2 t m
1 cos2 t
c
1
c
c
c
2

t
m
2

sin2 t
c

## After Passing through LPF,

mt
y t
2
Phase Synchronization problem
SSB Modulated Signal is,

t sin t
s t m t cos t m
c
c

If the carrier input to Balanced Modulator has a phase shift with respect to modulated signal,

c t cos t
c

y t m t cos t cos t
1
c
c
y t
1

mt
cos 2 t cos

c
2

t sin t cos t
m
c
c

t
m
sin 2 t sin

c
2

## After passing through LPF,

t
mt
m
y t
cos
sin
2
2
If 0,

y t

;
2

y t

mt
2

t
m

2
It means there is no Quadrature Null Effect problem in the SSB SC due to phase error.
Pilot carrier in SSB

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

Due to absence of carrier and one side band, transmitted power and Bandwidth are reduced
but at same time due to absence carrier, receiver will become complex. In order to reduce
this problem, a small power carrier signal is directly transmitted from the transmitter so that
these will be synchronization in frequency of local oscillator and modulated signal.
Same function is served by costar receiver in DSB SC.
(1)

## Due to absence of carrier, a little change in frequency with hamper quality of

transmitted and received signal hence it cannot be used for transmission of good quality
signal

such

as

music

but

can

be

used

for

speech

communication.

(2) Bandwidth and transmitted power is reduced in SSB SC and there is no Quadrature
Null effect.
Vestigial side band modulation (VSB - SC)

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## Communication Systems (Theory)

The first waveform shows the spectrum of DSB-SC modulated signal. The second and
third waveforms represent Upper Sideband and Lower Sideband variation of VSB signal.
B.W. f f
m b
Major advantage of SSB is that it reduced bandwidth equal to half as compared to AM or
DSB FC but SSB signal are very different to generate because it is difficult to desired side
band and eliminate undesired sideband.
For this purpose, filter must have a very sharp cut off frequency and in case information
contains low frequency signal, then generation of SSB be difficult. This difficulty is generate
by a scheme because VSB SC which is a compromise b/w DSB SC and SSB SC.
Mathematical explanation of VSB SC (Design of VSB filter)

## Output of Multiplier, y t m t cos 2f t

1
c

Output, y t y t h t m t cos 2f t h t
1
c
y t y t ht
1
y t

y t h d
1

h m t cos 2fc t d

y t cos 2f t
c

h m t cos 2f d sin2f t
c
c

h m t sin2fc d

We can break the output into two components one in-phase component and other is
s t
I

## Taking Fourier Transform,

Mf . 21 Hf fc Hf fc

1
S f M f . H f f f f f
I
c
c
2

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H f f H f f 1,
c
c
Thus, S f
I

M f
2

f W

and s t
I

mt
2

## Quadrature component of output is,

s t
Q

h m t sin2fc d m t h t sin2fct

1
S f M f . H f f H f f
Q
c
c
2j

s t
Q

m t
Q
2

s
t
VSB

mt

cos t
c
2

t
m
Q
sin t
c
2

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## Generation and Detection of VSB

Generation:

S M M .H

c
c I
Detection:

Y w S S M H H

I
1
c
c
c
I
c
Here, we have neglected 2 components
c
1
H
o H H
I
c
I
c

Y Y .H M = M(w)
o
1
o

Hence, y

t mt

## Calculation of Envelope in case of SSB SC

DSB-FC Modulated Signal is represented as,

s t A m t cos t
c

c
Comparing this to SSB signal, the in-phase and quadrature component of signal are,

s t A mt
I
c

and

s t 0
Q

Natural Envelope A m t
c
SSB SC

t sin t
s t m t cos t m
c
c

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## For USB Signal,

A A
s t m c cos t
c
m
2

A A
A A
s t c m cos t cos t c m sin t sin t
c
m
c
m
2
2
The in-phase and quadrature component are,

A A
s c m cos t
I
m
2
A A
Envelope c m
2

A A
s c m sin t
Q
m
2

## So, envelope of SSB SC is constant. So, envelope detector cannot be used.

SSB FC

A A
s t A cos t c m cos t
c
c
c
m
2

A A
A
s t A cos t 1 m cos t m c sin t sin t
c
c
m
c
m
2
2

## The in-phase and quadrature component are,

A
s 1 m cos t A
I
m c
2

2
Envelope A 1
c

A
s m sin t
Q
m
2

A2 A2
A2
m cos2 t A cos t c m sin2 t
m
m
m
m
4
4

A2

A2A2
m

2
2
2
c
m
1 A cos t
Envelope
A A A cos t A
c 4
m
m
c
c m
m
4

A2
Envelope A 1 m A cos t
c
m
m
4

## Envelope of SSB SC is constant and independent of message.

In case of SSB FC, envelope is function of message hence it can be detected by envelope
detector.

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## ISB (Independent side banding)

In this case, different side bands are carrying different information and that is why very useful
for point to point communication.
Figure to Merit (FOM)

F.O.M.

SNR o
SNR c

## SNR o Defined as ratio of average power of demodulated signal to average power of

noise both measured at receiver output.

SNR c Defined as ratio of average power of modulating signal to average power of noise
FOM for DSB SC

c2A2P
SNR o 4 cN
m o
Here,

c2 A2P
SNR c 4 cN
m o

c = constant
A = Carrier power
c
P = power of message signal
= message signal Bandwidth
m
N
o
2 = Power spectral density of white noise

## FOM for DSB SC = 1

FOM for SSB SC = 1
In case of SSB SC, at the output power is just half of DSB SC, But F.O.M. will remain same.
F.O.M. in both cases is same as transmission efficiency.

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## FOM for DSB FC/AM

A2K 2P
SNR 0 2c Na
m o

A2 1 k 2P
SNR c c2 N a
m o

k2P
Figure of Merit, F.O.M. a
1 k2P
a
m2
a
FOM

2 m2
a

where P

A2
m

1
If m 1 ; F.O.M. which is same as Transmission Efficiency
a
3
Technical names of Amplitude Modulation methods
DSB FC A3E
DSB SC R3E
SSB FC H3E
SSB SC J3E
VSB C3F
ISB B8E