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INCA CIVILIZATION

POLITCAL STRUCTURE
The main form of their government was monarchy.
The Inca government was called the Tawantinsuyu. It was a monarchy ruled by a single leader
called the Sapa Inca
Officers who helped to rule the empire
Viceroy - He was a close relative of the Sapa Inca and worked as his closest advisor.
High Priest - The high priest, called the "Willaq Umu", was also a very powerful man.
Governors of a Quarter - The Inca Empire was divided up into four quarters. Each of
these quarters was ruled by a governor called an Apu.
Council of the Realm - The Sapa Inca also kept a council of men who advised him on
major matters.
Inspectors - The inspectors were called "tokoyrikoq".
Military Generals - These leaders were called "Apukuna".
Other Officials - There were many other government officials and leaders throughout the
Inca Empire such as priests, military officers, judges, and tax collectors.
The laws were made by the Sapa Inca and passed down to the people through the tax
collectors
(Inca Empire)

SOCIAL STRUCTURE
The Empire was divided up into quarters called "suyu"
Each suyu was then further divided into provinces called "wamani"
The smallest, and maybe the most important, division of government was the ayllu
Upper Class
Women in these noble families had household duties such as cooking and making clothes,
taking care of the children.
Sons of upper class families went to school in Cuzco
Lower Class
Parents taught their children to work, most didn't get to go to school.
Some specially chosen girls got to go to school to learn weaving, cooking and religion.

Lower class lived in houses outside of Cuzco.


They had to wear plain clothes
They couldn't own more than they needed.
(The Inca Social Structure)

SOCIAL CLASS
Sapa Inca
Most powerful person during the Inca civilization and in other terms, was the king of the Incas
Considered to be the son of the sun and was the wealthiest and most respected person
Royalty
relatives and family of the king
wealthiest and the most powerful people during the Incas civilization and enjoyed all the
luxuries
Nobility
Capac Incans-highest ranking nobles
Huhua Incans- these were not the true nobles but were still given the status and rights
Curacas-these were the local leaders and collected taxes.
Commoner

Farmers
Herders
Servants
slaves

(Incas Social Hierarchy)

ECONOMY TRADE SYSTEM


The main industry of the Inca empire was farming
Using mit'a labor to construct irrigation canals and carve terraces from steep mountainsides
Some crops, such as potatoes, would grow in high-altitude cool climates, while others, such as
maize, grew in the hot, irrigated lowland areas
Incas encouraged each region to set up colonies in a variety of climate zoneshighland,
lowland, coastalso that each region could be mostly self-sufficient
The Inca economy was not based on a money system, and it did not have commerce (or free
trade
Incas invested mit'a labor: They directed terracing and irrigation projects that enabled peasants

to grow more food


A large group of full-time artisans began to produce pottery, metalwork, and other crafts
Inca economy was unique among the world's ancient civilizations in that the government
maintained control of almost all exchanges and took over all aspects of trade
The government supported the elderly and sick
Each ayllu was responsible for paying taxes to the government
The Inca had tax inspectors that watched over the people to make sure that they paid all their
taxes
(Inca Government and Economy)
TECHNOLOGIES

Road & Communication


They did invent a network of roads and highways that connected their territory on a

scale never seen before in South America.


The entire system was reserved for government officials; if you were a commoner, you

needed to seek special permission to walk the Capac-Nan (Imperial Highway System).

Quipus
Information was relayed across the roads and bridges of the Incan empire through the
passing of items known as khipus (sometimes spelled "quipus") in which they
believed that the number of knots -- as well as knot types and their position on each
pendant cord -- was used for record keeping according to a decimal system.

Rope Bridges
Terrace Farming
Building stepped terraces help the Incas create farmland, and the clever construction of

each terrace gave crops the best chance of survival.

Freeze Drying
KNOWLEDGE INVENTIONS WRITINGS
Tambo
They were temporary lodgings for travelers on the road. They also served as
storehouses, where Inca officials stored weapons, food, clothing and other supplies.
Tambos also served as emergency bunkers needed in case of a foreign invasion, an
emergency or a natural disaster.

Intihuatana astronomical clock

The Intihuatana was used as a sort of calendar.


Brain Surgery
Skull surgery was used to relieve inflammation from head trauma.
Medicine
Coca leaves were used to lessen hunger and pain.
The Inca also used guinea pigs for not only food but for a so-called well-working
medicine.

RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
The Tahuantinsuyu, or Incan religion was pantheist (sun god, earth goddess, corn god, etc.).
Subjects of the empire were allowed to worship their ancestral gods as long as they accepted
the supremacy of Inti, the sun god, which was the most important god worshiped by the Inca
leadership.
The main festival was the annual sun-celebration, when thanksgiving for the crop was given
and prayers for an even better harvest next year. Before the festival, the people fasted and
abstained from sex. Mummies of distinguished dead were brought to observe the ceremonies.
Solemn hymns were sung and ritual kisses blown towards the sun-god. The king, as son of the
sun god, drank from a ceremonial goblet, then the elders also drank.
A llama was also sacrificed by the Willaq Uma, or High Priest, who pulled out the lungs and
other parts with which to predict the future. A sacred fire was lit by using the sun's heat.
Sanqhu, a type of holy bread was also offered.
Burial Practices
The Inca believed in reincarnation. Those who obeyed the Incan moral codeama suwa, ama
llulla, ama quella (do not steal, do not lie, do not be lazy)went to live in the sun's warmth.
The Inca also believed in mummifying prominent personages. The mummies would be
provided with an assortment of objects which were to be taken into the pacarina. Upon
reaching the pacarina, the mummies or mallqui would be able to converse with the area's other
ancient ancestors, the huacas. The mallquis were also used in various rituals or celebrations.

The deceased were generally buried in a sitting position.

ARTS & ARCHITECTURE


Arts
The artistic style of the Inca utilized the vocabulary of many regions and cultures, but
incorporated these themes into a standardized imperial style that could easily be replicated and
spread throughout the empire.

The simple abstract geometric forms and highly stylized animal representation in ceramics,
wood carvings, textiles, and metalwork were all part of the Inca culture.

The motifs were not as revivalist as previous empires. No motifs of other societies were
directly used with the exception of Huari and Tiwanaku arts.
Architecture
Incas are known for their stonemasonry.
The most elegant Inca architecture is simple and, for the most part, undecorated on the outside.
Temples and palaces were constructed of precisely cut limestone or granite blocks, some of
which were immense. They were pieced together like an intricate and three-dimensional jigsaw
puzzle. They needed no mortar to cement them together because the fit was so perfect. These
buildings are still standing five centuries later, while earthquakes and the ravages of time have
crumbled more-modern structures.
The Incas had no iron tools for cutting the stones. Once a block of stone arrived at the work
site, a group of workers would begin the long process of cutting the stone to fit into the wall,
probably using hard stone instruments to chip, rub, and sculpt the blocks.
RIVER SYSTEM
A partially navigable headwater of the Amazon River, it rises in the Andes to the southeast of
Cuzco.
It originates on the slopes of Khunurana in the Puno Region, Melgar Province, near the La Raya

pass.
It flows in north-north-west for 724 kilometres before coalescing with the Tambo River to form the
Ucayali River.

CITY STATE
The Incas were simply a small tribe, lived in the city of Cuzco.
Cuzco was the capital and birthplace of the Inca Empire. The emperor, or Sapa Inca, lived in a

palace in Cuzco.
Cuzco was founded by Manco Capac around 1200 AD. He established the Kingdom of Cuzco as a
city-state that ruled the surrounding lands.
North to south were the Andes Mountains - home of the Inca civilization.
The Andes Mountain created a natural barrier between the coastal desert on one side and the
Amazon jungle on the other.
Inca built bridges across the across snow-capped mountains were full of deep gorges, so they could
reach all parts of their empire quickly and easily.
These mountain gorges were natural barriers. If an enemy approached, the Incas could simply burn
the bridges.

Works Cited
Inca Empire. (n.d.). Retrieved May 17, 2016, from Ducksters:
http://www.ducksters.com/history/inca/government.php
Inca Government and Economy. (n.d.). Retrieved May 17, 2016, from
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Incas Social Hierarchy. (n.d.). Retrieved May 17, 2016, from http://www.hierarchystructure.com/incassocial-hierarchy/
The Inca Social Structure. (n.d.). Retrieved May 17, 2016, from
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5
http://www.slideshare.net/pamaee/inca-civilization-16446095
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urubamba_River

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