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A

PROJECT REPORT
On

Combination of hydraulic brake with power booster system


(Project Final Year 2016)
Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements
For the

B.Tech Engineering
In

Automobile Engineering

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. JYANI HITESH, RABADIYA PRIYANK,


DHAMELIYA SANJAY, PATEL PUNIT, DODIYA DHAVAL From INDUS
UNIVERSITY having Enrolment No:

IU1441011064, IU1441011070,

IU1441011062, IU1441011066, IU1441011063 has completed report on the


problem definition/Semester VI Project Report having title Combination of

Hydraulic brake with power booster system in a group consisting of 5


persons under the guidance of the TWINKEL PANCHAL MEM.

Sign of External Faculty

Sign of Internal Faculty

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

STUDENT PARTICULARS

FIRST
NAME

Jyani

LAST
NAME

Hitesh

MOBILE
NO

1.

EMAIL

Hitesh.jyani2@gmail.com

COLLEGE
NAME
ADDRESS

9586209406

2.

Indus University
Gargadiya hanuman Mandir road,
Sivaji Nagar,
Pipar Vadi, Savarkundla
Ta- Savarkundla , Dist.- Amreli

BRANCH

AUTOMOBILE

SEMESTER 6th semester


TEAM
NAME

YEAR

2016

Auto Rockers

SIGNATURE OF

J.H.M

STUDENT

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

FIRST
NAME

Rabadiya

LAST
NAME

Priyank

MOBILE
NO

1.

EMAIL

priyankrabadiya@gmail.com

COLLEGE
NAME
ADDRESS

7046938304

2.

Indus University
206, vrajbhumi sector 2 near sarthana police station
Surat
Ta- surat , Dist.- surat

BRANCH

AUTOMOBILE

SEMESTE
R

6th semester

TEAM
NAME

Auto Rockers

SIGNATURE OF

YEAR 2016

Priyank

STUDENT

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

FIRST
NAME

Dhameliya

LAST
NAME

Sanjay

MOBILE
NO

1.

EMAIL

Dhameliyasanjay1995@gmail.com

COLLEGE
NAME
ADDRESS

7698885509

2.

Indus University
Rajapara no 2
Ta: Talaja
Dist:Bhavanagar

BRANCH

AUTOMOBILE

SEMESTER 6th semester


TEAM
NAME

YEAR

2016

Auto rockers

SIGNATURE OF

Dhmeliya S.

STUDENT

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

FIRST
NAME

Patel

LAST
NAME

Punit

MOBILE
NO

1.

EMAIL

Punitpatel812@gmail.com

COLLEGE
NAME
ADDRESS

7383235079

2.

Indus University
Plot:34/1,
Sector-26,
Kishannagar, KH-road,
Gnadhinagar-382026

BRANCH

AUTOMOBILE

SEMESTE
R

6th semester

TEAM
NAME

Auto rockers

SIGNATURE OF

YEAR 2016

P Patel.

STUDENT

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

FIRST
NAME

Dodiya

LAST
NAME

Dhaval

MOBILE
NO

1.

EMAIL

Dodiyadhaval2714@gmail.com

COLLEGE
NAME
ADDRESS

9426222242

2.

Indus University
9/a Sitaram Nagar,
Nr.Rk Manglamhall,
Bhavnagar
Ta: Bhavnagar Dist.: Bhavnagar

BRANCH

AUTOMOBILE

SEMESTE
R

6th semester

TEAM
NAME

Auto rockers

SIGNATURE OF

YEAR 2016

D.Dhaval

STUDENT

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

THIS PROJECT PREPARE UNDER THE:


(Professor) Twinkle Panchal.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
The purpose of this publication is to allow the combination of hydraulic
brake with power booster system trainee or student to gain a better-thanbasic working knowledge of the system and its components plus a
diagnostic ability.
The student should be able to apply this knowledge so as to competently
repair and or modify a combination of hydraulic brake with power
booster system in order to return it to its full working capacity.

Combination of hydraulic brake with power booster system are not


discoveries of the past century. Simple forms of combination of hydraulic
brake with power booster system have been in use for thousands of years.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

-: INDEX:1.

INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY11

2.

BACKGROUND .12

3.

PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULIC BRAKING .14

4.

WORKING OF COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC


BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER SYSTEM..15

5.

CLASSIFICATION OF BRAKES...17

6.

WORKING COMPONENTS OF COMBINATION OF


HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
SYSTEM..19

7.

TYPES OF LININGS MATERIALS ..47

8.

BRAKE FLUID48

9.

WORKING OF COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC


BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER SYSTEM..50

10.

MODAL VIEW OF COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC


BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER SYSTEM ..52

11.

APPLICATION OF BRAKES.53

12.

ADVANTAGES...53

13.

DISADVANTAGES.54

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

14.

AUTOMATIC POWER BRAKE SENSOR..54

15.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH


POWER BOOSTER SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING.....55

16.

HOW TO BLEED BRAKE LINES...59

17.

COST ANALYSIS.72

18.

REFERENCE.....73

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1. Introduction and History:

Power brakes are a system of hydraulics used to slow down or


stop most motor vehicles. It uses a combination of mechanical
components to multiply the force applied to the brake pedal by
the driver into enough force to actuate the brakes and stop a
vehicle that can weigh several tons.
The brake pedal is connected to the vacuum booster which is
the first step of the force multiplication. The booster passes the
force to the master cylinder which compresses a liquid and
forces it through the brake lines to the brakes themselves.
The liquid that is pushed into the brakes activates the brake
calipers which in the case of disc brakes, push against the brake
rotor causing friction that slows and eventually stops the
rotation of the vehicles wheels. In drum brakes, pistons push
two shoes against the brake drum accomplishing the same
effect.

a. Power assisted brakes were first employed in 1903 when air brakes
were fitted to a car called the Tincher that was developed by
Thomas L Tincher (American).
b. The pressure required to apply the foot operated four wheel drum
brakes on the 1919 Hispano-Suzie H6 model was enhanced by a
mechanical servo system that was driven by a special shaft from
the transmission.
c. On 19 October 1920 John Godfrey Thomas (British) submitted
and on 9 January 1923 was granted US patent #1,441,545 for an
invention which enables the brake to be applied or the clutch to be
COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
SYSTEM

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engaged by power.
d. A convenient source of (vacuum) power for the purpose is the
suction pipe of the internal combustion engine.
e. On 2 February 1926 the patent was assigned to the General Motor
Corporation.
f. In 1928 a vacuum power booster braking system designed by
Bragg-Kliesrath (USA) was fitted to a Pierce-Arrow car.
i. Sometime between 1927 and 1929 a Westinghouse designed
vacuum booster brake system is reported to have been
installed on the American Chandler cars; Tripling the force
applied to the wheels.
ii. There is a report that the Belgian 1928 Minerva model
employed a DE Wander designed vacuum booster.
iii. A 1928 advert for the British Bean car stated: A sport model,
the 14/70, was also available featuring a Dewandre brake
servo. It also now had four-wheel brakes.

g. In 1985 some cars produced by General Motors use an electrically


driven brake booster.

2. Background

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This article mainly refers to the electromechanical device in the context of


a brake booster or vehicular braking-system assist. The term "vacuum
servo" is actually a generic term for any device which uses a vacuum or
vacuum sensor to control an electrically operated servo (which may or
may not be controlled via the output of a microchip which has data
regarding the state of the vacuum as input) which in turn actuates another
part.

Vacuum servos, more accurately termed "vacuum-actuated servo motors"


have also been used extensively in engineering roles other than brake
boosters.

As an example, the cruise control units of many fuel-injected commercial


passenger vehicles produced from 1988 use vacuum-actuated servos (a
more descriptive term for "vacuum servo") to control an electric motor
which would then manipulate the angle of the throttle.

A brake booster is used on virtually all vehicles which use hydraulic


brakes for their primary braking circuit. Vacuum servos are not used on
vehicles which use cables, rods (or other mechanical linkages), or
pressurized air systems for their primary brake circuits.

It uses a stored vacuum to increase braking force applied by the driver to


the brake pedal, before applying the transferred force to the brake master
cylinder.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

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The vacuum booster or vacuum servo is used in most modern hydraulic


brake systems which contain four wheels the vacuum booster is attached
between the master cylinder and the brake pedal and assists the braking
force applied by the driver.

3. Principles of Hydraulic Braking:-

Fig: Principal of hydraulic brake system

Hydraulic brakes work on the principle of Pascals law which


states that pressure at a point in a fluid is equal in all directions
in space.
COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
SYSTEM

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According to this law when pressure is applied on a fluid it travels


equally in all directions so that uniform braking action is applied
on all four wheels.
Fluids cannot be compressed.
Fluids can transmit Movement.
Acts Like a steel rod in a closed container.
Master cylinder transmits fluid to wheel cylinder or caliper
piston bore.
Fluids can transmit and increase force

Force/Area=pressure

4. Working of combination of hydraulic

brake with power booster system:-

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


SYSTEM

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Fig: combination of hydraulic brake with power booster system


Shows in figure you the major parts of a system with drum brakes at the rear
wheels and disc brakes up front. Use it as you review the steps that follow,
which give you a basic view of how a brake system operates.
1) To stop your vehicle, you step on the brake pedal.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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2) The brake pedal pushers against a piston in a cylinder located under the
hood. This part is called the master cylinder, and it's filled with a liquid
called brake fluid.
3) When the piston in the master cylinder is pushed by your brake pedal, it
forces the brake fluid out of the master cylinder into tubes called brake
lines, which run to each wheel. (A power brake booster located between the
brake pedal and the master cylinder increases the force applied to the piston
in the master cylinder so that it takes less effort to stop your vehicle.)
4) Each wheel has either disc brake or a drum brake. To keep it simple, I just
look at disc brakes here. (Drum brakes work on the same general principle.)
A disc brake is composed of a flat, iron disc (surprise!) sandwiched between
a pair of brake pads by a caliper, as shown in Figure 4-15. The caliper
contains one, two, or four pistons that force the friction material on the pads
against the disc.
5) Brake pads located in the caliper on both sides of the disc grab the disc and
force it to stop turning. This forces the wheel to stop turning. When the
wheels stop turning, the vehicle comes to a stop.
6) When you take your foot off the brake pedal, the whole process is reversed:
The brake pads release their hold on the disc, the fluid moves back up the
brake lines to the master cylinder, and the wheels can turn freely again.
7) Four-wheel disc brakes are standard on most new vehicles. Other vehicles
have disc brakes on the front wheels and drum brakes on the rear wheels. A
few older vehicles have drum brakes all around.

A vacuum servo is a component used on motor vehicles in


their braking system, to provide assistance to the driver by decreasing the
braking effort. In the US it is commonly called a brake booster.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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5. Classification of brakes: On the Basis of Method of Actuation


(a) Foot brake (also called service brake) operated by foot pedal.
(b) Hand brake it is also called parking brake operated by hand.
On the Basis of Mode of Operation
(a) Mechanical brakes
(b) Hydraulic brakes
(c) Air brakes
(d) Vacuum brakes
(e) Electric brakes.
On the Basis of Action on Front or Rear Wheels
(a) Front-wheel brakes
(b) Rear-wheel brakes.
On the Basis of Method of Application of Braking Contact
(a) Internally expanding brakes
(b) Externally contracting brakes.

Types of Braking Systems

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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Fig: Service brakes system

Service brakes. Its the primary braking system using a pedal connected to a
hydraulic system causing it to operate.

Parking brakes. Its mechanically applied by a lever or pedal.

6. Working Components of combination

of hydraulic brake with power booster


system:COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
SYSTEM

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Let us now go to the workings of an automobile combination of hydraulic


brake with power booster system and how the above principles are
applied. We will take it component by component.

1. Master cylinder2. Power booster3. Brake pedal assembly4. Disc brakes5. Drum brake6. Handbrake7. Lines8. Calipers9. Wheel cylinders10.Warning light valve11.Proportioning valve-

1) Master cylinder:-

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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Fig: Master cylinder


Below is a schematic showing the parts of the Master Cylinder
assembly. The two lines at the bottom go to the proportioning valve,
then to the wheels.
Since this is a dual-circuit system (like all US-legal brakes since
1968), there are two separate paths for the fluid to follow, and two
separate pressure-generating chambers for the lines.
Most (if not all) Hondas have "dual-diagonal" systems, meaning the
right-rear and left-front wheels are on one circuit, and the left-rear and
right-front ones are on the other. Some makers, such as Toyota, tend to
use a front/rear split. This makes a difference in how you bleed the
system.
The reservoir is common to both circuits, splitting only where the
vertical wall is, in the MC body.

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Foot pedal "free play" location:

Fig: free play location


And this is where the foot pedal's "free play" comes from. It is absolutely
necessary that there be some amount of clearance, otherwise the seals
may be pushed forwards enough to prevent the intake/return ports from
ever opening up again to allow excess pressure to vent to the reservoir.
The factory manual for my car specifies 1mm to 5mm clearance.
The intake/return ports are less than a millimeter in diameter, and the seal
lips sit immediately behind them, so it doesn't take much of a
maladjustments to close off the ports, even partially.
Too little clearance here may cause the brakes to lock on slowly as you
drive. Too much clearance will make your pedal feel soft, with excessive
travel. (More info below, in red)
Notice the blue plug at the back? It's actually black steel, and has two Orings: One for the MC body and one for the plunger. It's entirely
independent of the hydraulic seals that push the fluid around, and that's
why a leaky Master Cylinder won't drip anywhere that you can see. Fluid
squirting past the seals simply goes back up the equalization ports.
Nothing you do at the pedal affects clearances inside the MC body until
the pushrod starts to push the seal assemblies forward.
COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
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Within first 3/8" of pedal movement:

Fig: Within first 3/8" of pedal movement


Everything starts to happen within the first 3/8" of pedal movement. That
translates to about 2mm at the pushrod.
The arrows indicate fluid direction and also indicate where it's moving.
Notice that as the second circuit rear seal moves forwards, fluid must pass
down its equalization port to prevent suction from forming behind the
rear seal.
The first circuit's return spring is quite a bit lighter than the second
circuit's return spring. This means that initial fluid pressure does not
begin to build in the second circuit until it has started to build in the first.
This is how pressure equalization is effected between the circuits.
Effect at the wheels is minimal right now.
COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
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Once pressure in the first circuit is present and is high enough (which is
almost immediate), the second circuit's spring will begin to compress...

Still within first 3/8" of pedal movement:

Fig: Within first 3/8" of pedal movement

...as we see here


Pressure in the first circuit is now high enough to overcome the spring in the
second circuit, and the pushrod has begun to pressurize the fluid in the
second circuit.
At this point, braking effect can be felt at the wheels. The pedal still has not
traveled much more than 3/8" to 1/2".
Of course, if the system is in poor shape, has air, or is misadjusted, the pedal
will need to travel further before pressure is present.

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I haven't shown arrows at the equalization port for the first circuit. There is
fluid displacement here, but it's tiny, mostly having to do with seal distortion.
The solid spacer itself does not compress, unlike the parts.

At maximum braking effort (about 1.5" of pedal travel):

Fig: maximum braking effort (about 1.5" of pedal travel)


Full braking effect is now available in both circuits. The pistons
and seals will continue to move forwards, squeezing the fluid and
increasing pressure as long as you keep pressing harder on the
pedal.
A system in good shape will have a pedal that moves about 1.5" to
achieve maximum braking effort. That's about 1/2" at the pushrod.
In this graphic, the seals are shown approximately at their point of
maximum travel. In other words, this driver is pressing hard on the
pedal.
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See the nose of the solid spacer (yellow)? It still has some room
left to travel before it hits the front of the Master Cylinder body.
That room gets used when you pedal-pump bleed the system.
The surface immediately ahead of where the seals are in this
graphic is the area that the seals normally never travel on. This is
the area that collects gunk if the system is neglected. This is the
area that tears up the seals if the pedal-pump bleeding method is
used on a car that has had its brake fluid left in too long (more than
5 years).

The pedal has been released:

Fig: The pedal has been released

2) Power booster:-

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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Fig: Power booster (A direct-acting servo is fitted between the brake pedal and the master
cylinder. The pedal can work the master cylinder directly if the servo fails or if the engine is
not running.)

Many cars also have power assistance to reduce the effort needed to apply
the brakes.
Usually the source of power is the pressure difference between the
partial vacuum in the inlet manifold and the outside air.
The servo unit that provides the assistance has a pipe connection to the inlet
manifold.
A direct-acting servo is fitted between the brake pedal and the master
cylinder. The brake pedal pushers a rod that in turn pushes the mastercylinder piston

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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But the brake pedal also works on a set of air valves, and there is a large
rubber diaphragm connected to the master-cylinder piston.
When the brakes are off, both sides of the diaphragm are exposed to the
vacuum from the manifold.
Pressing the brake pedal closes the valve linking the rear side of the
diaphragm to the manifold, and opens a valve that lets in air from outside.
The higher pressure of the outside air forces the diaphragm forward to push
on the master-cylinder piston, and thereby assists the braking effort.
If the pedal is then held, and pressed no further, the air valve admits no more
air from outside, so the pressure on the brakes remains the same.
When the pedal is released, the space behind the diaphragm is reopened to
the manifold, so the pressure drops and the diaphragm falls back.
If the vacuum fails because the engine stops, for example the brakes still
work because there is a normal mechanical link between the pedal and the
master cylinder. But much more force must be exerted on the brake pedal to
apply them.

How the brake servo works:

Fig: Brake off - both sides of the diaphragm are under vacuum.
COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
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Fig: Applying the brake lets air in behind the diaphragm, forcing it against the cylinder.

Some cars have an indirect-acting servo fitted in the hydraulic lines


between the master cylinder and the brakes. Such a unit can be mounted
anywhere in the engine compartment instead of having to be directly in
front of the pedal.
It, too, relies on manifold vacuum to provide the boost. Pressing the brake
pedal causes hydraulic pressure build up from the master cylinder, a valve
opens and that triggers the vacuum servo.

Power Brake Booster Failure:


Although its possible to drive a vehicle that has a failed power brake
booster, it isnt especially safe. This is because it can be extremely
difficult to brake effectively when a power brake booster fails.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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The pedal will be much stiffer than you are used to, which can make it
impossible to apply as much force to the brake master cylinder as you
would normally be able to.

FIG: VACUUM POWER BRAKE BOOSTERS SIT BETWEEN THE BRAKE PEDAL AND THE MASTER
CYLINDER.

If you notice an especially high, hard pedal when you are driving, your
power brake booster may have failed. You may also be experiencing a
severe vacuum leak at the booster or a loss of hydraulic power, both of
which will also result in additional symptoms. In either case, you should
make sure to account for the fact that you may experience radically
increased stopping distances.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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The fix for a failed vacuum brake booster is typically just to replace it,
although they can sometimes be rebuilt. The issue may also be a vacuum
leak or a bad check valve, which is a much easier fix.

How Does a Vacuum Brake Booster Work?

A typical vacuum brake booster consists of a large, hollow chamber that


acts as a vacuum reservoir or tank. This casing is connected to manifold
vacuum via a check valve and a vacuum hose.
When the engine is turned on, and a partial vacuum is generated inside

the intake manifold, all of the air is sucked out of the casing, which
creates an internal vacuum. This vacuum is then used to provide
assistance when braking.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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Fig: Vacuum power brake boosters use vacuum to amplify


braking power.

When the driver presses on the brake pedal, it operates an input shaft on
one side of the brake booster.
This is connected to a vacuum-operated server, which itself is connected
to the master cylinder push rod. If a vacuum exists inside the casing of
the brake booster when the pedal is depressed, the servo will force its
push rod into the brake master cylinder with relatively little effort.

What If There Isnt Any Manifold Vacuum?

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During normal operation of a naturally-aspirated gasolinepowered internal combustion engine, there will always be manifold
vacuum whenever the brakes are required. Manifold vacuum is highest
when the throttle plate in the throttle body or carburetor is closed, which
means that the maximum level of vacuum is present whenever you arent
pressing on the gas pedal. Although manifold vacuum drops significantly
at wide open throttle, you shouldnt normally have to hold a vehicle at
wide open throttle while braking.
In vehicles that use turbocharged gasoline engines, and vehicles that use
diesel engines, a lack of manifold vacuum is an issue. In these cases,
there are a number of ways that vacuum can be provided to a power brake
booster. In most cases, a belt-driven pump will provide a constant
vacuum source whenever the engine is running.
In some cases, a vacuum canister or reservoir will also be used. This is
essentially just a hollow vessel that has all of the air sucked out of it by a
pump or natural manifold vacuum, which allows it to act as a backup
when additional vacuum is required.

3)Brake pedal assembly:-

Fig: brake pedal


COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
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Foot pedal that moves a piston in the master brake cylinde


r.
Hydraulic brake, hydraulic
brakes - brake system in which a brake pedal moves a piston inthe master
cylinder brake fluid then applies great force to the brake pads or shoes.
Foot lever, foot
pedal, treadle, pedal - a lever that is operated with the foot

Swing Mount Brake Pedal Description:

This swinging mount pedal assembly mounts two single outlet brake
master cylinders in a forward position outside the firewall. It features a
lightweight aluminium frame, with a high strength reinforced I-Beam
style forged 7:1 ratio pedal arm.
The non-skid waffled pedal pad can be laterally adjusted for driver
preference or clearance as necessary. The balance bar incorporates a
positive detent stop every full turn to maintain adjustment position and
driver awareness.
A pin and clevis pushrod attachment system provides highest possible
degree of misalignment angle for bind free operation through the entire
range of travel. The balance bar can be locked in place with the included
COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
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jam nut, or used with an optional remote cable for quick on-track
adjustments.
This pedal accepts any Wildwood vertical mount flange single outlet
master cylinders that are ordered separately by style and bore size

4)Disc brakes-

Fig: Disc brake


(The basic type of
disc brake, with
a single pair of
pistons. There may be more than one pair, or a single piston operating both pads, like a
scissor mechanism, through Different types of calipers - a swinging or a sliding caliper.)

A disc brake has a disc that turns with the wheel. The disc is straddled by
a caliper, in which there are small hydraulic pistons worked by pressure
from the master cylinder.
The pistons press on friction pads that clamp against the disc from each
side to slow or stop it. The pads are shaped to cover a broad sector of the
disc.
There may be more than a single pair of pistons, especially in dual-circuit
brakes.
The pistons move only a tiny distance to apply the brakes, and the pads
barely clear the disc when the brakes are released. They have no return
springs.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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Fig: Disc plat (When the brake is applied, fluid pressure forces the pads against the disc. With
the brake off, both pads barely clear the disc.

Rubber sealing rings round the pistons are designed to let


the pistons slip forward gradually as the pads wear down,
so that the tiny gap remains constant and the brakes do
not need adjustment.
Many later cars have wear sensors leads embedded in the
pads. When the pads are nearly worn out, the leads are
exposed and short-circuited by the metal disc, illuminating
a warning light on the instrument panel.

5)Drum brake:-

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Fig: Drum brake (A drum brake with a leading and a trailing shoe, which
has only one hydraulic cylinder; brakes with two leading shoes have a
cylinder for each shoe and are fitted to the front wheels on an all-drum
system.)

A drum brake has a hollow drum that turns with the wheel. Its open back is
covered by a stationary back plate on which there are two curved shoes
carrying friction linings.

The shoes are forced outwards by hydraulic pressure moving pistons in the
brake's wheel cylinders, so pressing the linings against the inside of the drum
to slow or stop it.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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Fig: Drum (With the brakes on, the shoes are forced against the drums by their
piston.)

Each brake shoe has a pivot at one end and a piston at the other. A leading
shoe has the piston at the leading edge relative to the direction in which the
drum turns.
The rotation of the drum tends to pull the leading shoe firmly against it when
it makes contact, improving the braking effect.
Some drums have twin leading shoes, each with its own hydraulic cylinder;
others have one leading and one trailing shoe - with the pivot at the front.
This design allows the two shoes to be forced apart from each other by a
single cylinder with a piston in each end.
It is simpler but less powerful than the two-leading-shoe system, and is
usually restricted to rear brakes.
In either type, return springs pull the shoes back a short way when the brakes
are released.
Shoe travel is kept as short as possible by an adjuster. Older systems have
manual adjusters that need to be turned from time to time as the friction
linings wear. Later brakes have automatic adjustment by means of a ratchet.

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8

Drum brakes may fade if they are applied repeatedly within a short time they heat up and lose their efficiency until they cool down again. Discs, with
their more open construction, are much less prone to fading.

6)Handbrake:-

Fig: The handbrake mechanism (The handbrake acts on the shoes by means of a mechanical
system, separate from the hydraulic cylinder, consisting of a lever and arm in the brake drum;
they are operated by a cable from the handbrake lever inside the car.)

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Apart from the hydraulic braking system, all cars have a


mechanical handbrake acting on two wheels - usually the
rear ones.

The handbrake gives limited braking if the hydraulic


system fails completely, but its main purpose is as
a parking brake.

The handbrake lever pulls a cable or pair of cables linked


to the brakes by a set of smaller levers, pulleys and guides
whose details vary greatly from car to car.

A ratchet on the handbrake lever keeps the brake on once


it is applied. A push button disengages the ratchet and
frees the lever.

On drum brakes, the handbrake system presses the brake


linings against the drums.

Disc brakes sometimes have a comparable handbrake


arrangement, but because it is difficult to place
the linkage on a compact caliper, there may be a
completely separate set of handbrake pads for each disc.

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7)Brake Lines:-

Fig: Brake lines

Arguably, one of the most important brake parts in turning pedal


action into stopping power is a vehicle's brake lines.
Most cars and light trucks have hydraulic braking systems. That
means they use fluid to transfer the braking power from your foot
to the brakes.
In extremely basic terms, here's how a typical disc brake system
operates: The fluid is stored in the master cylinder.
When the brake pedal is applied, it moves fluid from the master
cylinder to the brake calipers, forcing them to clamp down on the
brake rotors to slow the car.
That fluid is carried through the brake lines, making them a rather
critical brake part. If your brake lines don't work, your brakes won't
work and you (and your car) will be in a heap of trouble.
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In this article, we're going to learn how brake lines work. We'll
check out the tools you'll need to repair and replace them, how the
lines are threaded through the car and learn about several different
materials that brake lines can be made out of.

We'll even learn about motorcycle brake lines. But first, let's
investigate the tools you should have if you plan to do a little brake
line work.

Fig: location of brake lines

Brake lines are steel tubing with copper and lead coatings to
prevent rust and corrosion.
As the brake pedal is depressed, it moves pistons within the master
cylinder and forcing hydraulic brake fluid

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8)Calipers:-

Fig: disc brake caliper

Contraction of disc brake caliper:

Boot
Piston
Seal
Caliper Housing
Bleed Screw
O-Ring
Bushing
Bolts

Types of caliper:
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1) Sliding Caliper:-

Fig: Sliding Caliper

Applies pressure to two pads on opposite sides of rotor


Caliper
Sliding
Fixed
Friction Material exposed to air.

2) Fixed Caliper:-

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Fig: fixed caliper

Calipers are disc brakes that use a caliper that is FIXED in position and does
not slide. They have pistons on both sides of the disc. There may be 2 or 4
pistons per caliper.
Applies two pistons to opposite sides of rotor.
Caliper stays stationary.
Disc Brakes require higher hydraulic pressure.

9)Wheel cylinders:-

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Fig: wheel cylinders

A wheel cylinder is a component in a drum brake system. It is located in


each wheel and is usually positioned at the top of the wheel, above the
shoes. Its function is to exert force onto the shoes so as to bring them into
contact with the drum and stop the vehicle with friction. The wheel
cylinders are usually connected to the shoes with small bird-beak shaped
rods.
It is very similar to a slave cylinder and functions in much the same way,
internally consisting of only a simple plunger. On older vehicles these
may begin to leak and hinder the performance of the brakes, but are
normally inexpensive and relatively easy to replace.
The wheel cylinder consists of a cylinder that has two pistons, one on
each side. Each piston has a rubber seal and a shaft that connects the
piston with a brake shoe. When brake pressure is applied, the pistons are
forced out pushing the shoes into contact with the drum. Some designs
use two single piston wheel cylinders, one at the top of the drum and one
at the bottom, each connected to one brake shoe.
Wheel cylinders must be rebuilt or replaced if they show signs of leaking.
The wheel cylinder used to be made of cast iron. However, it was more
prone to rusting and to prevent damage to seals, aluminum is the
preferred choice nowadays.

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Each piston has a rubber seal and a shaft that connects the piston with a
brake shoe.
When brake pressure is applied, the pistons are forced out pushing the
shoes into contact with the drum.
The wheel cylinder consists of a cylinder that has two pistons, one on
each side.

Hydraulic Action in the Wheel Cylinder:

Fig: Hydraulic Action in the Wheel Cylinder

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10) Warning light valve and Proportioning


valve:-

Fig: Warning light valve and proportioning valve

7. Types of Linings Materials: Asbestos- these have phased out, very hazardous to breathe the dust.
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Organic- mixture of asbestos and organic materials with a resin binder


Semi-metallic- organic mixed with metal shavings, last longer and very
good at dissipating heat.
Ceramic low dust output, provide exceptional braking performance
Carbon/Kevlar- Motor sports application, not used on road vehicles
because of cost and they take time to warm up.

BRAKE SHOE
Fig: Brake shoe

8.

B
r
a
k
e
Fluid:-

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The fluid through which the energy is passed in hydraulic braking


systems is Known as BRAKE FLUID

Properties of Brake Fluid:


Does not thicken or then with changing heat
Must not boil
Must be compatible with brake parts material
Must lubricate internal parts
Must not evaporate easily

Brake Fluid types:

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DOT= Department of Transportation


High #= High stands, quality and boiling point

DOT 3 and 4 Polyglycol based


Most common
Compatible with one another
Inexpensive
Destroys paint
Ruined by moister

DOT 5-

Silicone Based
Used only for heavy

duty applications

Not Compatible with

4&5

Very Expensive
Does not damage paint

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9. Working of combination of hydraulic


brake with power booster system:-

Fig: combination of hydraulic brake with power booster system

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The vacuum booster is a very simple, elegant design. The device needs
a vacuum source to operate. In gasoline cars, the engine provides a vacuum
suitable for the boosters.
In fact, if you hook a hose to a certain part of an engine, you can suck some
of the air out of the container, producing a partial vacuum. Because diesel
engines don't produce a vacuum, diesel-powered vehicles must use a
separate vacuum pump.
On cars with a vacuum booster, the brake pedal pushers a rod that passes
through the booster into the master cylinder, actuating the master-cylinder
piston.

The engine creates a partial vacuum inside the vacuum booster on both
sides of the diaphragm.

When you hit the brake pedal, the rod cracks open a valve, allowing air to
enter the booster on one side of the diaphragm while sealing off the vacuum.
This increases pressure on that side of the diaphragm so that it helps to push
the rod, which in turn pushes the piston in the master cylinder.

As the brake pedal is released, the valve seals off the outside air supply
while reopening the vacuum valve. This restores vacuum to both sides of the
diaphragm, allowing everything to return to its original position.

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10. Model view of combination of

hydraulic brake with power booster


system:-

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11. Application of Brakes: When brake pedal is pressed to apply the brakes engine vacuum to
operate power booster and then piston in the master cylinder forces
the brake fluid.
This increases the pressure of fluid. This pressure is transmitted in
all the pipes and upto all wheel cylinders according to Pascals law.
This increased pressure forces out the two pistons in the wheel
cylinders.
These pistons are connected to brake shoes. So, the brake shoes
expand out against brake drums. Due to friction between brake
linings and drum, wheels slow down and brakes are applied.

12.

Advantages: Equal braking action on all wheels.


Increased braking force.
Low wear rate of brake linings.
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Flexibility of brake linings.


Increased mechanical advantage.
Low effort of braking applying.
Very fastly brake apply.

13. Disadvantages:

System is very costly and high.


Brake construction is high.
Whole braking system fails due to leakage of fluid from brake linings.
Presence of air inside the tubings ruins the whole system.

14. Automatic power brake Sensor:-

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Fig: vacuum pressure drop sensor arrangement.

15. Combination of hydraulic brake with

power booster system Troubleshooting:-

Condition Cause

Remedy

Hard Pedal

Contact dealer for


service
Contact dealer for
service

Binding pedal
linkage
Pedal misalignment

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(side to side)
Low booster supply
flow
Power steering
pump flow control
valve
Power steering
pump relief valve
setting too low
Fluid contamination

Master cylinder
Booster

Repair/replace
power steering
pump, check
tension in belt
Repair/replace
power steering
pump, check
tension in belt
Replace power
steering pump
See vehicle service
manual for Type of
fluid required.
Drain,
flush and refill
system, replace
booster or master
cylinder as
appropriate, and
power steering
reservoir filter as
necessary
Replace master
cylinder
Replace booster

Tube and hose


passages are
Blocked shut

Excessive
pedal travel
(pedal goes to
The floor)

Improper pedal
adjustment

Replace parts
containing
Blocked passages
See vehicle service
manual
for pedal rod
adjustment
(If system is

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8

Excessive pedal
travel
(pedal goes to the
floor)
(Continued)

Pulsating
Brake pedal

External leak in
brake
fluid system

Internal master
cylinder
Leak
Air in brake fluid
system
Brake linings

Master cylinder
Weak brake hoses
that
expand under
pressure
Poor quality brake
fluid
(Low boil point)
Brake self-adjusting
Mechanism
Soft, spongy
Brakes

Actuated pedal
Does not return

Actuated pedal
does not return
(Continued)

Air in hydraulic brake


system
Poor quality brake fluid
(low boil point)
Weak brake hoses that
Expand under pressure
Binding pedal linkage

Fluid contamination

adjustable)
Check all fittings
and
connections for the
master cylinder,
callipers, hoses,
and
tubes, replace if
necessary
Replace master
cylinder
Bleed system
Inspect and adjust,
or replace brake
shoes, if necessary
Replace master
cylinder
Replace hoses
Drain the system,
flush and refill with
the recommended
Fluid.
See vehicle service
manual (if Brakes
are adjustable)
Bleed brake system
Drain the system, flush
and refill with
recommended fluid
Replace defective
hoses
Contact dealer for
service

See vehicle service


manual for type of
fluid required.
Drain, flush and

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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Pulsating brake
Pedal

Brake self-apply

Dragging brake
Dragging brake
(Continued)

refill system,
replace
booster or master
cylinder as
appropriate, and
Master cylinder
power steering
Binding booster
reservoir filter as
Self-applied booster necessary
(Fluid flow too high) Replace master
cylinder
Replace booster
Repair or replace
power
Steering pump.
ABS operation
See appropriate service
manual
Wheel bearings loose or See appropriate service
worn
manual
Excessive rotor thickness See appropriate service
variation
manual
Parking brake control
See appropriate service
valve
manual
(HR1) has internal leak
Self-applied booster
Repair or replace power
(fluid flow too high)
steering pump
Constricted master
Clean vent passage in
cylinder Reservoir vent
reservoir Cap
Self-applied booster
Repair or replace power
(fluid Flow too high)
steering Pump
Stuck or bound calliper
See appropriate service
pins or rails
manual
Binding booster
Replace booster
Binding pedal linkage
Contact dealer for
service
Master cylinder
Replace master cylinder
Soft or swollen master
Flush out old brake fluid
cylinder seals due to
then replace master
brake fluid
cylinder and add new
contamination
brake fluid
Tube and hose passages Replace the parts
Restricted
containing the restriction

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Noise / Whistle

Inherent in some
boosters
(Whistle)

None - Does not


affect operation

Backup pump
operates
Continuously

Brake switch

See vehicle service


manual
See vehicle service
manual
See vehicle service
manual
Remove switch
components, clean,
inspect for damage
or
contamination and
replace if necessary
Contact dealer for
service
Repeat as above
See service manual
Replace backup
pump
Replace master
cylinder
Replace booster
Replace
diaphragms and
caps
See vehicle service
manual for type of
fluid required.
Drain, flush and
refill system,
replace
booster or master
cylinder as
appropriate, and
power steering
reservoir filter as
necessary
Replace seals

Monitor module
Relay
Flow switch

Binding pedal
linkage
Backup pump
does not
operate

Same as above
Electrical ground
Backup pump

Leakage

Master cylinder
Booster
Master cylinder
reservoir
vent caps
Fluid contamination

Backup pump
mounting seals
Flow switch seal
Hydraulic fittings
and

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connections

Silicone floating
in master cylinder
Fluid level
indicator light
comes on

This material is an
assembly lubricant
Low fluid level

Fluid level indicator


switch
Brake pads worn
out

Brake indicator
light and buzzer
malfunction

Vehicle specific

Replace O-ring
See vehicle service
manual, tighten and
replace if necessary
None - Does not
affect operation
Inspect brake pads,
replace as
necessary, add fluid
as required
Replace master
cylinder
Inspect brake pads,
replace as
necessary, add fluid
as required
See vehicle service
manual

16. How to Bleed Brake Lines:-

You are slowing down to stop at a traffic light only to find that your
brakes are soft and the pedal is low.
COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
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2

This could be a sign that air has crept into the brake lines. To fix this, it
may be necessary to bleed your brakes.
This is a two-man job that requires a coordinated effort. The result is a
stiffer brake pedal and a more reactive braking system.

Part

Getting Ready

1
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3

Confirm you need to bleed the brake lines.


The sinking brake pedal often does mean the brake lines need to be bled.
However, it is very important to confirm that the sinking pedal is not caused by
something else.

Try this simple test when you are stopped and waiting at a red light. With
your foot, keep an even pressure on the brake pedal. Does the pedal sink lower,
even a little bit? If so, then you should have your car's brake system inspected
by an ASE Certified Master Auto Technician to confirm the root cause is not
something else. If the pedal holds constant pressure, then there is no air in the
system.
A sinking brake pedal could also be caused by other things that could be
very dangerous. For example, brake pedals can also sink if there is a hydraulic
problem, like a failing master cylinder, a leaking rear wheel cylinder, a bad
caliper or bad ABS. So it is important to rule out these dangerous possibilities
via professional inspection before proceeding.

2
Position your car on a flat surface.
Cars with automatic transmissions should be in park and those with
standard transmissions should be in first gear. The emergency (or
parking) brake should be on at all times.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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4

3
Take off any hubcaps and raise the car and secure it on jack stands.

Remove all four wheels.

COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER


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5

4
Release the hood and locate the Master Cylinder brake fluid reservoir.
It's a fist size (or larger) transparent container that is bolted to the
firewall on the drivers side of the car. It will be connected to an
aluminum object the has metal tubes coming out of its sides. These
metal lines are the brake lines that direct the hydraulic brake fluid
COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
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6

to your individual wheels. There the brake fluid activates either the
disc or drum brake components that stop your car.

5
Eliminate the old, dirty brake fluid that is present in the Master Cylinder
Reservoir.

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7

Fill the Master Cylinder with fresh, clean brake fluid, making sure
that it's the proper type for your car. If you have questions, ask the
parts person to look up your car's brake fluid when you purchase it.

Part

Bleeding the Brakes

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1
Go to the right rear wheel, wipe off any dirt from the brake bleeder screw
area and remove its rubber dust cap.
Using a box-end wrench, loosen the bleeder screw. Take a piece of
rubber vacuum hose and put it on to the end of the bleeder screw
and put the other end into an empty clear plastic bottle.

2
Hold onto the box wrench while holding the plastic bottle.
Have your partner pump the brakes slowly until the dirty fluid
comes out of the brakes lines and into the bottle. Allow enough
fluid to exit so that the end of rubber hose is submerged in brake
COMBINATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE WITH POWER BOOSTER
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9

fluid. (Check the Master Cylinder frequently to make sure there is


plenty of brake fluid.)

3
When the brake fluid becomes clear, direct your partner to hold the pedal
to the floor.
Close the bleeder screw with the wrench and have your partner
pump the pedal 3 times and hold it. Open up the bleeder screw
briefly to allow the brake fluid to exit the rubber hose.
Have your partner tell you when the brake pedal is on the floor,
and, have him/her keep it there while you close the bleeder screw.
Repeat this process two more times. (Remember periodically check
the Master Cylinder fluid level, so it does not go dry!) After the
third time, tighten the bleeder screw and repeat this process on the
other three wheels and, in this order; Left Rear, Right Front and
Left Front.

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Depending on the vehicle, the bleeding procedure will vary in


which wheel is bled first, second and so on. The above sequence
will work for a large portion of vehicles, however you should
check with a website like All data or similar to verify bleeding
sequence.

4
In order to make sure your brakes are not spongy and there aren't any
leaks in the system, perform this test when you are finished bleeding the
brakes.

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1

With the engine off, have your partner push down on the brake pedal and
go around to all four wheels and check for leaks. Then, push the brake
pedal with your foot. It should travel about 13 inches (2.57.6 cm) and
stop. The brake pedal should feel very hard at this stopping point.

5
Get rid of any surplus brake fluid in a proper and safe manner.
Remember that brake fluid is considered hazardous waste and therefore
should never be poured down the sink or toilet, onto the ground in your
yard, in the garbage, or down the sewer drain or septic tank.[1] Talk with
your local auto shop or look for a household hazardous waste (HHW)
recycling collection site.
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2

Part

Testing the Brakes

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1
Replace all four wheels and hand-tighten all the lug nuts.
Lower the vehicle to the ground and properly torque the lug nuts. Replace
the hub caps if necessary.

2
Go for a test drive to verify that the brakes are functioning correctly.

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4

If there are still problems, have your car inspected by an ASE Certified
Master Auto Tech.

17. Cost analysis:-

Parts name

Cost Rs.

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1.MASTER CYLINDER:-

800/-

2.POWER BOOSTER:-

1500/-

3.DRUM ASSEMBLY:-

1400/-

4.DISC ASSEMBLY:-

800/-

5.BRAKE LINE:-

100/-

6.SUPPORTING STRUCTURE:-

1000/-

7.BRAKE PEDAL ASSEMBLY:-

200/-

8.All BRAKE PIPE CONNECTION:-

100/-

All total:-

5900/-

18. Reference:https://www.google.com
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_brakes

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http://www.alpinecoachassociation.com/chassis/Bosch
%20HydroMax%20Booster%20Manual
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/auto-parts/brakes/brakeparts/types-of-brake-fluid1.htm
http://www.carhistory4u.com/the-last-100-years/parts-of-thecar/brakes
http://www.crankshift.com/power-brake-booster-vacuumhydraulic/
http://www.wikihow.com/Bleed-Brake-Lines
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/auto-parts/brakes/brakeparts/brake-lines.htm

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