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International Journal of Educational

Science and Research (IJESR)


ISSN(P): 2249-6947; ISSN(E): 2249-8052
Vol. 6, Issue 3, Jun 2016, 75-86
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT (GAD) AWARENESS IN A HIGHER


EDUCATION INSTITUTION
CONCEPCION R. SUMADSAD1 & ARIEL P. TUAZON2
1

Program Coordinator, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sto. Tomas Branch, Batangas, Philippines
2

Faculty, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sto. Tomas Branch, Batangas, Philippines

ABSTRACT
In spite of the Philippines stellar position among countries with viable track records in gender equality, there is
still a need to propagate such advocacy to the widest audience as possible. As such, the study aimed to determine school
community awareness on Gender and Development (GAD) in a higher education institution as a potential basis for its
comprehensive dissemination. Twenty-two faculty members, eleven administrative staff and fifty-two graduating students
participated in the investigation. A researcher-made questionnaire was crafted to cull out respondents GAD perceptions
and impressions. Likert scale in conjunction with mean and ranking scheme was utilized.
Faculty members, staff and students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Sto. Tomas Branch, as a

GAD plan to programs, projects and activities, however, they are aware of gender roles and national mandates and other
related laws. Furthermore, school community members are conscious of significant factors affecting GAD awareness. In
this regard, sustainability of the GAD program should be ensured through wider information dissemination using print
and non-print forms; establishment of network and linkages among constituents working on gender concerns to share
information and strategies; and creation of opportunities for collaboration through peer-peer exchanges and exposure
visits. The authorities should give full support to GAD-initiated activities and should create a monitoring body to ensure

Original Article

whole, are found aware of GAD. While they are moderately aware of gender issues and government agencies integrating

compliance of government agencies with GAD provisions and to assist in promoting knowledge and appreciation of the
GAD programs and activities.
KEYWORDS: Gender and Development (GAD), Gender Equality, Womens Empowerment, Gender Issues, Gender Roles

Received: May 04, 2016; Accepted: May 10, 2016; Published: May 24, 2016; Paper Id.: IJESRJUN20169

INTRODUCTION
Gender inequality in society is a genuine issue of concern to the international community. As global
awareness is believed to be the key to improving the situation of both men and women, it is also considered to be
the most significant means for achieving gender equality and women's empowerment. The cooperation between
international organizations and national governments on the issue of gender equality is increasing, and the focus is
to advance and improve women's conditions as well as their societies (Belal, 2009). United Nations (UN)
conferences and resolutions that address human rights and women's rights as well, in various domains throughout
the world, include the UN Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, the UN Declaration of the Rights of Child in
1959, the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education in 1960, the UN Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1979, the UN International Women's Year in 1975,
the UN Decade for Women 1975-1985, the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies to the Year 2000 in 1985, and the

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Concepcion R. Sumadsad & Ariel P. Tuazon

Beijing Conference in 1995 (Hamza, 2002). These conventions, declarations and resolutions intend to uphold the principle
of human rights, equality, and women's rights to be completely educated and participate fully in the economic, political,
and social life of their societies. Gender equality, according to UNESCO (1996), should be based on providing the same
opportunity to women and men, boys and girls, to participate completely in the development of their societies and to
achieve self-fulfillment. It also indicated that gender equality is a key to development
Womens and mens rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or
female (Gumba, 2013). Gender equality implies that the interests, needs and priorities of both women and men are taken
into consideration, recognizing the diversity of different groups of women and men. It is, first and foremost, a human right.
Empowering

women

is

also

an

indispensable

tool

for

advancing

development

and

reducing

poverty

(United Nations Population Fund, 2013). Gender equality is seen both as a human rights issue and as a precondition for,
and indicator of, sustainable people-centered development (United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the
Empowerment of Women, 2012)
In the Philippines, the pursuit of gender equality and womens empowerment has achieved major inroads in the
past decades. The gender responsive laws, policies, and programs in place and the institutional and enabling mechanisms in
national government agencies and local government units are a result of the continuing advocacy of government and its
partners among lawmakers, peoples organizations, civil society groups, and the academe (Womens EDGE Plan
20132016, 2014)
The Philippines, as reported by Mercurio (2015), has been consistent in making to the top 10 global ranking in the
Global Gender Gap Index of World Economic Forum (WEF) since 2006. The index is comprised of 14 indicators
measuring educational attainment, health and survival, economic participation and opportunity, and political
empowerment. It measures the difference between men and womens access to resources and opportunities rather than the
total level of attainment. The Philippines stellar position among countries with viable track records in gender equality is
partly due to the fact that the country has an extensive and impressive institutional framework to promote gender equality
(MacPhail, 2015). More so, the highest law of the land sees to it that women are protected
The 1987 Constitution states two prominent provisions relative to the protection of women. The first in the
Declaration of Principles, Article II Section 14, asserts that "The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building and
shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men." Additionally, Article XIII, Section 14 provides
that "The state shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions taking into account their
maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full
potential in the service of the nation
Ironically, Anonuevo (2000) observed that the gender situation in the Philippines is characterized by sharp
contradictions. It graphically showcases samples of womens advancement in politics, academic and professional
excellence, and even legislation. But this is contrasted by images of prostituted women, battered wives, economically
disadvantaged women and exploited migrant workers. As such, there is still a need to propagate gender equality and
womens empowerment to the widest audience as possible
Awareness that development has a gender dimension began emerging in the international community in the late
1970s following International Womens Year (1975). Gender and Development (GAD) as an alternative development

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72

Gender and Development (Gad) Awareness in a Higher Education Institution

77

approach, however, was introduced in the Philippines only in the early 1990s. The barrier of gender inequality is what
womens right advocates in government and non-government organizations as well as national and local government
leaders are aspiring to eliminate in order to attain a just society. This basically, is what gender and development work is all
about. This is also why the GAD approach was institutionalized, and is being practiced and implemented in government
(NCRFW, 2006)
Gender and Development (GAD), according to UNESCO (2000), is an approach that seeks to integrate gender
awareness and competence into mainstream development, while recognizing that development activities may affect women
and men differently (due to sexual differences as well as historic circumstances), and therefore emphasizing the need to
apply appropriate gender planning in order to ensure that the resulting conditions and results are equitable to women and
men. Creating legal actions through enactment of laws is a means of reaching such worthwhile endeavor
Section 28 of Republic Act No. 10352 or the General Appropriations Act states that all agencies of the
government shall formulate a Gender and Development (GAD) Plan designed to address gender issues within their
concerned sectors or mandate and implement applicable provisions under R.A. No. 9710 or the Magna Carta of Women,
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Beijing Platform for Action, the
Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015), the Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive Development (1995-2025), and
the Philippine Development Plan (2011-2016)
The GAD Plan shall be integrated in the regular activities of the agencies, which shall be at least five percent (5%)
of their budgets. For this purpose, activities currently being undertaken by agencies which relate to GAD or those that
contribute to poverty alleviation, economic empowerment especially of marginalized women, protection, promotion, and
fulfillment of womens human rights, and practice of gender-responsive governance are considered sufficient compliance
with the said requirement
The preparation and submission of Annual GAD Plans and Accomplishment Reports is guided by Joint Circular
No. 2004-01 dated April 05, 2004 issued by the DBM, NEDA, and PCW, as well as other guidelines on GAD Planning and
Budgeting that may be issued by the appropriate oversight agencies
As their maiden journey on the issue of gender equality, the researchers conducted the study with an intent of
determining the awareness of the school community of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Sto. Tomas Branch
on GAD program of the government that dwells on component topics which include GAD national mandates and other
related laws; government agencies mandating the integration of GAD plan to programs, projects and activities (PPAs);
gender issues; and gender roles They had an impression that no local study of this kind has been done in the past and the
results could be the starting point for the school to come up with the most appropriate and well-structured GAD plan, not
only to comply with the stated government laws and regulations, but for the reason that gender concerns should be
well-disseminated to all sectors of the society, especially to a state higher education institution (HEI) in the Philippines
The study was primarily anchored on the concept of Social Cognitive Theory of Gender Development and
Differentiation of Kay Bussey and Albert Bandura (1999) which states that human differentiation on the basis of gender is
a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of peoples daily lives. It specifies how gender conceptions
are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and
self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct throughout the life course. The theory integrates psychological

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Concepcion R. Sumadsad & Ariel P. Tuazon

and socio-structural determinants within a unified conceptual structure. In this theoretical perspective, gender conceptions
and roles are the product of a broad network of social influences operating interdependently in a variety of societal
subsystems. Human evolution provides bodily structures and biological potentialities that permit a range of possibilities
rather than dictate a fixed type of gender differentiation. People contribute to their self-development and bring about social
changes that define and structure gender relationship through their actions within the interrelated systems of influence
Gender development is a fundamental issue because some of the most important aspects of peoples lives, such as
the talents they cultivate, the conceptions they hold of themselves and others, the socio-structural opportunities and
constraints they encounter, and the social life and occupational paths they pursue are heavily prescribed by societal
gender-typing. It is the primary basis on which people get differentiated with pervasive effects on their daily lives. Gender
differentiation takes on added importance because many of the attributes and roles selectively promoted in males and
females tend to be differentially valued with those ascribed to males generally being regarded as more desirable, effectual
and of higher status (Berscheid, 1993)
The Moser Gender Planning Framework (MGPF), developed by Caroline Moser (1993) is also applied to this
study. It is a tool for planning and assessing assumptions related to gender in development interventions at all levels,
including policy, program, project, or community work. The Moser Framework introduces the notion of womens triple
roles, i.e., productive, reproductive, and community involvement and maps them over a 24-hour period. Productive roles
are those tasks that are monetarily reimbursed. Reproductive roles are those associated with child rearing/raising and
caretaking of the home (i.e., cooking/cleaning). Community involvement highlights those tasks related to collective
support and community gain
Given womens inequality in comparison to men and their triple roles in families, communities, etc., the MGPF
also assesses practical and strategic needs. Practical needs are immediate needs necessary to ensure safety, health, and
basic needs, such as water, sanitation, healthcare, etc. These do not fundamentally transform gender discriminatory power
structures. Strategic needs, on the other hand, forward womens equality and empowerment by challenging those power
structures, such as having equitable laws, living free from domestic violence, etc
After assessing needs, womens and mens access to and control over resources are examined. Finally, planning is
done to assess the extent to which womens triple roles can be balanced. The tool also provides a lens for assessing how
different development paradigms address womens strategic and practical needs (i.e., welfare approaches, GAD,
empowerment)
Research Design and Methodology
The descriptive method of research was considered by the researchers as the most appropriate method for this
study. According to Adanza, Bermundo and Rasonabe (2009), it is designed to gather information about the present
conditions, status or trend, and dealing with what are prevailing. The main objective is to describe the nature of a situation
as it exists at the time of the study, and to explore the causes of a particular phenomenon. The descriptive research design
fits well into this study because it intends to determine school community awareness on Gender and Development (GAD)
in a higher education institution as a potential basis for its comprehensive dissemination. Twenty-two faculty members,
eleven administrative staff and fifty-two graduating students participated in the investigation. A researcher-made
questionnaire was crafted to cull out respondents GAD perceptions and impressions. Likert scale in conjunction with

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72

Gender and Development (Gad) Awareness in a Higher Education Institution

79

mean and ranking scheme was utilized

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Gad National Mandates & Related Laws
The first objective of the study was to determine the level of awareness of the school community on national
mandates and other related laws on the governments Gender and Development (GAD) program at the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines Sto. Tomas, Batangas Branch. The following table shows the collected information on this
matter
Table 1GAD Awareness of the School Community on National Mandates and Other Related Laws
INDICATORS
1. RA 7192 Women in Development and Nation Building Act (An
Act Promoting the Integration of Women as Full and Equal Partners of
Men in Development and Nation Building and for Other Purposes)
2. RA 9710 The Magna Carta of Women (An Act Providing for the
Magna Carta of Women)
3. RA 7877 Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995 (An Act Declaring
Sexual Harassment Unlawful in the Employment, Education or Training
Environment and for Other Purposes)
4. RA 9208 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 (An Act
Instituting Policies to Eliminate Trafficking in Persons Especially
Women and Children, Establishing the Necessary Institutional
Mechanisms for the Protection and Support of Trafficked Persons,
Providing Penalties for its Violations, and for Other Purposes)
5. RA 8353 Anti-Rape Law of 1997 (An Act Expanding the Definition
of the Crime of Rape, Reclassifying the Same as a Crime against
Persons, Amending for the Purpose Act No. 3815, as amended,
Otherwise known as the Revised Penal Code, and for Other Purposes)
6. Section 14, Article II of the 1987 Constitution (Recognizing the Role
of Women in Nation Building and shall ensure the Fundamental
Equality before the Law of Women and Men)
7. Section 28 of the General Appropriations Act (GAA) (Directing
Government Entities to formulate a GAD plan, the Cost of which shall
not be less than Five Percent of their Yearly Budget, Otherwise known
as the GAD Budget)
8. Executive Order (EO) 273 (Directing all Government Agencies and
Local Levels to institutionalize (GAD) efforts in Government by
incorporating GAD concerns in their Planning, Programming and
Budgeting Process)
GENERAL ASSESSMENT

MA

VI

3.68

3.61

4.03

3.80

3.96

3.80

2.96

MA

3.00

MA

3.61

Legend: MA Mean Assessment; VI Verbal Interpretation; 4.50 5.00, Highly Aware (HA); 3.50 4.49,
Aware (A); 2.50 3.49, Moderately Aware (MA); 1.50 2.49, Slightly Aware (SA); 1.00 1.49, Not Aware (NA)
Table 1 shows that the faculty, administrative staff and students of the concerned state higher education institution
(HEI), taken as one group, are aware (3.61) of GAD national mandates and other related laws. Composite mean
assessments show that they are aware of six out of the eight legal directives. Both at the tail end are Section 28 of the
General Appropriations Act (GAA) and Executive Order (EO) 273 with mean assessments of 2.96 (moderately aware) and
3.00 (moderately aware). This is understandable considering that executive orders and GAAs are implementing legal
policies specifically directed to officials and government agencies for compliance and minimally discussed in public fora
From the findings of the study, one can deduce that the school community is gender-aware and are informed on
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Concepcion R. Sumadsad & Ariel P. Tuazon

the legal developments of gender equality. The said findings jibe well with the concepts put forth in the handbook on
Gender and Development for the Sanggunian Committee on Women and Family entitled Moving Forward with GAD
(NCRFW, 2006). In the context of advocacy for womens equality and empowerment, laws can be potential avenues or
channels for womens alternative ideologies and visions for themselves, their families and their society. Thus, laws can
make a difference in women and mens lives, more so, in minimizing the gap in the opportunities differently provided for
the two genders.
Government Agencies Integrating GAD Plan to Programs, Projects and Activities (PPAs)
Another concern of the study was to determine the extent school personnel aware of government entities
mandated to implement GAD. Results of the query done are presented in the following table
Table 2: GAD Awareness of the School Community on Government Agencies
Integrating GAD Plan to Programs, Projects and Activities (PPAs)
INDICATORS
1. The Philippine Commission on Women (PCW), previously the National
Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCRFW), leads in setting the
priority agenda for womens empowerment and gender equality.
2. The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) ensures that
GAD issues and concerns, gender equality and womens empowerment are
mainstreamed.
3. The Department of Budget and Management (DBM) ensures that agencies
submit their annual GAD Plan and Budget (GPB) and GAD
Accomplishment Report (AR).
4. The Commission on Audit (COA) conducts annual audit on the use of the
GAD budget.
GENERAL ASSESSMENT

MA

VI

3.19

MA

3.37

MA

3.24

MA

3.45

MA

3.31

MA

Legend: MA Mean Assessment; VI Verbal Interpretation; 4.50 5.00, Highly Aware (HA); 3.50 4.49,
Aware (A); 2.50 3.49, Moderately Aware (MA); 1.50 2.49, Slightly Aware (SA); 1.00 1.49, Not Aware (NA)
As revealed in Table 2, the school community is moderately aware (3.31) of government agencies integrating
GAD plan to programs, projects and activities. This imply that there is a need to widen the GAD awareness programs of
the government. In spite of the efforts made by several government organizations, according to NCRFW (2002), the
information about specific roles of GAD mandated local agencies have not been adequately disseminated. It is therefore
imperative for the government to perform its role, as part of its duly mandated authority, to secure development for its
citizens and to ensure equitable distribution of resources in a society. It must protect peoples rights and create
opportunities so they can develop their capacities and individual strengths. It can also initiate change toward a gender
responsive development. For a public entity like a state higher education institution, administrative officials should provide
a monitoring and evaluation scheme to enforce its compliance with the mandated GAD provisions.
Gender Issues
It was also the intent of the investigation to establish the awareness level of the school community on gender
issues. Information on these matters can be seen in the table given below.

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72

Gender and Development (Gad) Awareness in a Higher Education Institution

81

Table 3: GAD Awareness of the School Community on Gender Issues


INDICATORS
1. Inadequate information on Gender Sensitivity and Unawareness on Gender and Development
2. Unidentified gaps or differences between men and women
3. Unequal status of men and women in national development and gender inequality
4. Unrecognized womens participation in development
5. Lack of structured/strategic mechanisms to support GAD program and policies of the government
GENERAL ASSESSMENT

MA
3.35
3.44
3.46
3.32
3.03
3.32

VI
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA

Legend: MA Mean Assessment; VI Verbal Interpretation; 4.50 5.00, Highly Aware (HA); 3.50 4.49,
Aware (A); 2.50 3.49, Moderately Aware (MA); 1.50 2.49, Slightly Aware (SA); 1.00 1.49, Not Aware (NA)
Table 3 demonstrates that the school community is moderately aware of gender issues (3.32). The members of the
community are not sufficiently informed of issues cropping on Gender and Development. This may be attributed to the
insufficiency of various capacity development or training programs on GAD, usually in the form of gender sensitivity
training, advocacy, dissemination of information and education, and agency-specific gender activities. In this regard,
Lantacon (2007) suggested that the education agency should provide necessary campaigns for the full awareness of the
definition and concepts of women empowerment to avoid wrong notions that this is an issue of competition between men
and women. Furthermore, the gender and development (GAD) checklist should be instituted. It was developed by the
government to ensure that development plans are not only aware of, or sensitive to gender issues faced by women and men,
but also address key, relevant gender-related issues or concerns (NEDA, 2011).
Gender Roles
Another concern of the study was to determine the level of awareness of school community on gender roles.
Results of the query done are presented in the following table.
Table 4: GAD Awareness of School Community on Gender Roles
INDICATORS
A. Productive Roles
1. Production or economic activity usually dominated by men
2. Men are expected to do physical labor, engineering and leadership as
compared to women
3. Breadwinner is mens primary role
Sub-Assessment
B. Reproductive Roles
1. Domestic activity such as housekeeping, care of the sick and children, done
mostly by women
2. Women are expected to do housework, teaching and nursing
3. Mother/housewife is womens primary work
Sub-Assessment
C. Community Managing Roles
1. Woman has the right to vote, run for election and hold public office
2. Woman has an equal right to education as man
3. Woman has the right to join leisure, sports and cultural activities
Sub-Assessment
GENERAL ASSESSMENT

MA

VI

3.61

3.89

4.01
3.84

A
A

4.10

4.06
4.28
4.15

A
A
A

4.22
4.46
4.44
4.37
4.12

A
A
A
A
A

Legend: MA Mean Assessment; VI Verbal Interpretation; 4.50 5.00, Highly Aware (HA); 3.50 4.49,
Aware (A); 2.50 3.49, Moderately Aware (MA); 1.50 2.49, Slightly Aware (SA); 1.00 1.49, Not Aware (NA)

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Concepcion R. Sumadsad & Ariel P. Tuazon

Table 4 shows that the respondents, as a whole, are aware of gender roles (4.12). They are aware that the
productive roles (3.84) are primarily meant for men while the reproductive roles (4.15) are mainly designed for women
with an understanding that productive roles are concerned with work/activities that have economic value such as jobs,
trainings, opportunities, benefits and social security whereas reproductive roles pertain to womens activities related to
child birth, child rearing and other activities in the home that sustain human life. On the other hand, the respondents are
aware that, as men has the capacity to perform community managing roles, so are the women (4.37). They are involved in
activities related to community affairs which are geared towards the development of the whole community. Such findings
suggest that the school community generally accepts gender roles, i.e. being aware of roles performed by men and women
which are already gender-based in the Philippine society.
In this regard, the International Labor Organization (2000) explained that gender roles are learned behaviors in a
given society, community or other social group. They condition activities, tasks and responsibilities which are perceived as
male or female. Gender roles are affected by age, class, race, ethnicity and religion, and by the geographical, economic and
political environment.
The long history of colonialism, according to Anonuevo (2000), has embedded a patriarchal culture among
Filipinos. The conception of women as full-time homemakers, as subordinated to men, violence against them is private, as
reserve labor force, and as sexual objects is now being eroded by modern women asserting themselves in many aspects of
life. But on the other hand, some are either marginalized, discriminated, or even exploited by the harsh realities of global
economy and consumerism.
As cited by Losaria (2011), even if there has been an effort to correct cultural biases and role-stereotyping on
women, misconceptions and gender biases have not been corrected despite GAD trainings. Women are still seen as weak
and often relegated to domestic roles and reproductive providers. The same idea is elucidated in the Guidebook in using
Statistics for Gender-Responsive Local Development Planning (NCRFW, 2002). According to this book, women need to
have an equal share in power and decision making in economic affairs to be able to enjoy a fair share of the economic
resources and benefits, including equal pay for work of equal value. Moreover, there has not been a corresponding change
in the sharing of home responsibilities. Even when both spouses are employed, the wife is still expected to continue being
responsible for the house, resulting in multiple burdens for women.
According to ILO (2000), the evident need to change both women's and men's attitudes towards gender equality,
and the role of gender stereotypes in shaping these attitudes, is a key topic which is at the heart of women's empowerment
and gender equality endeavors. To change attitudes implies changing perceptions, understanding, expectations, beliefs and
language, all of which are deeply rooted in one's experience, inherited socio-cultural value systems, prevalent modes of
thinking, peer pressure, personal hopes and fears, and so much more, which is often difficult if not impossible to express.
Education, culture, communication and information obviously play an important part. All of these have an impact on the
individual's attitudes, and are by and large prominent in perpetuating sexist stereotypes, in practically all societies today. A
concerted, consolidated approach is necessary to deal with their root causes, and government agencies can mobilize the
necessary effort for this.

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72

Gender and Development (Gad) Awareness in a Higher Education Institution

83

Table 5: Overall GAD Awareness of the School Community


AREAS
1. National Mandates and Other Related Laws
2. Government Agencies Integrating GAD Plan to Programs, Projects and Activities
(PPAs)
3. Gender Issues
4. Gender Roles
OVERALL ASSESSMENT

GA
3.61

VI
A

3.31

MA

3.32
4.12
3.59

MA
A
A

Legend: GA General Assessment; VI Verbal Interpretation; 4.50 5.00, Highly Aware (HA); 3.50 4.49,
Aware (A); 2.50 3.49, Moderately Aware (MA); 1.50 2.49, Slightly Aware (SA); 1.00 1.49, Not Aware (NA)
Table 5 shows that the school community, as a whole, is aware of Gender and Development as suggested by an
overall assessment of 3.59. While they are moderately aware of government agencies integrating GAD plan to programs,
projects and activities (3.31) and gender issues (3.32), they are aware of national mandates and other related laws on GAD
(3.61) and gender roles (4.12). These findings reveal that the school community, in general, is cognizant of the
contemporary gender and development program of the government. These suggest that GAD, as a contemporary and
mandatory program, is being appreciated by the teaching and non-teaching personnel of the government, specifically, the
concerned state HEI, as well as its students. The observation of Harcourt (2011) could be helpful in understanding the
aforementioned findings. She noted that the process of building greater gender awareness among communities requires,
first and foremost, establishing a culture of accountability and responsibility to gender equality in line with international
human rights standards. Regular gender awareness capacity building should be provided for women and men, so that the
staff can develop increased consciousness and reflect this in institutional and program aspects.
Factors Affecting Gad Awareness
The last concern of the study was to determine the level of significance of the factors affecting GAD awareness.
Results of the query done are presented in the following table.
Table 6: Level of Significance of Factors Affecting GAD Awareness
INDICATORS
1. Information dissemination on GAD directives/ policies and guidelines
2. Issuance of necessary office orders, memoranda, circulars or guidelines pertaining to
GAD
3. Strengthening of orientation to school community members about gender responsive
program and other GAD related issues
4. Capacity to provide quality GAD trainings for the school community
5. Increased cooperation and participation of men and women (personnel & students) in
GAD related activities and programs
6. Appreciation of personnel and students for GAD activities and projects
7. Participation to Women Initiated Activities (e.g. Womens Month Celebration)
8.Implementation of specific policies/mechanisms for women protection (e.g. Antisexual harassment units)
9. Integration of GAD concerns in classroom and in programs and projects
10. Recognition of womens different perceptions and interests arising from their
different social positions and gender roles
11. Creation of monitoring bodies that promote GAD
12. Adequate resources for the implementation of GAD programs and projects for the
welfare of the personnel and students
13. Other mechanisms for GAD Promotion and Communication for GAD messages
(e.g. website, on-line)
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MA
3.86

VI
S

RANK
2

3.72

5.5

3.67

8.5

3.67

8.5

3.66

10

3.58
3.57

S
S

13
14

3.85

3.65

11.5

3.70

3.72

5.5

3.65

11.5

3.94

1
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Concepcion R. Sumadsad & Ariel P. Tuazon

14. Conscious effort for GAD Advocacy Campaign and Establishment of a network for
GAD resource persons and partners

3.79

Legend: MA Mean Assessment; VI Verbal Interpretation; 4.50 5.00, Highly Significant (HS); 3.50 4.49,
Significant (S); 2.50 3.49, Moderately Significant (MS); 1.50 2.49, Slightly Significant (SS); 1.00 1.49, Not
Significant (NS)
Table 6 shows the factors affecting awareness on GAD considered of significance by the respondents. The factors
taken in consideration are generally assessed significant. The highest mean assessment is on Other mechanisms for GAD
Promotion and Communication for GAD messages (e.g. website, on-line) with a mean of 3.94. It is followed by
Information dissemination on GAD directives/ policies and guidelines with a mean of 3.86. The next four equally
significant factors are: Implementation of specific policies/mechanisms for women protection (e.g. Anti-sexual
harassment units) with a mean of 3.85; Conscious effort for GAD Advocacy Campaign and Establishment of a network
for GAD resource persons and partners with a mean of 3.79; Issuance of necessary office orders, memoranda, circulars
or guidelines pertaining to GAD with a mean of 3.72; and Creation of monitoring bodies that promote GAD with a
mean of 3.72
The findings generally suggest that respondents have the impression that GAD awareness is a function of several
interrelated and interdependent factors which the government as an institution advocating the program must provide and
sustain. The respondents are very much aware of the factors that could lead the GAD program into reality. However, the
mechanisms that had been in place may not have been widely disseminated to the school community, thus, contributing to
its below-maximum level of awareness. In this regard, Losaria (2011) stated that awareness of facilitating and hindering
factors and problems to GAD programs is a step towards identifying those that constitute an enabling environment for
GAD. These factors may be included as action points in local and national GAD plans

CONCLUSIONS
The school community is fairly cognizant of existing legal bases in providing equal opportunities for both
genders. However, information on government agencies that are mandated to implement Gender and Development (GAD)
as well as concerns on gender equality and women empowerment still need to be disseminated more. Nonchalant attitudes
of an ordinary Filipino on gender issues is due to the fact that gender inequality, while it still exists in the society, is never
a serious problem in the country. In this regard, full awareness of the school community should be given more emphasis
inasmuch as it is in a viable position to stimulate wider discernment of Gender and Development through in-depth
academic discussions and may take an active participation in local and national gender-equality advocacy, seminars and
fora
The GAD programs, with the cooperation of concerned agencies, should be strengthened and involvement of
communities should be prioritized. A wider information dissemination can be attained through the use of print and nonprint forms. Classroom discussions as well student organizations participation in GAD activities could also facilitate
school community awareness. The government should be serious enough in carrying out the Harmonized Gender and
Development Guidelines for Project Development, Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation.
The establishment of network and linkages among constituents working on gender concerns to share information
and strategies, and creation of opportunities for collaboration through peer-peer exchanges and exposure visits are

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72

Gender and Development (Gad) Awareness in a Higher Education Institution

85

instruments that will further improved GAD awareness among the populace. Sustainability of the GAD program should be
ensured and the authorities should give full support to GAD-initiated activities. And within the school, a mechanism for
consultation with personnel, both teaching and non-teaching, and students, for decision-making should be established.
Monthly meetings with the concerned stakeholders pertaining to GAD programs, activities and issues would also lead to
raise their level of awareness and involvement as well
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Concepcion R. Sumadsad & Ariel P. Tuazon


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Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912

NAAS Rating: 2.72