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to the lines x + 2y + 37 = 0 and

Ans. Let lines L1and L2be the bisector of the co-

3x 4y 53 = 0.

Ans. Let lines L 1and L 2 be the lines passing

to the lines x + 2y + 37 = 0 and 3x 4y 53 =

and 2 =

4

4

L1 bisects first and 3rd quadrant

1 =

L2

37 = 0 and 3x 4y 53 = 0 are

1

and

2

3

3

=

respectively.

4

4

L1

4

3

through the point (1, 2), their equations

arey 2 = 2 (x + 1) and y 2 =

4

(x + 1)

3

m1 = tan

= 1 m2 = tan

= 1

4

4

Since the lines are passing through origin

y 2 = 2x + 2 and 3y 6 = 4x 4

2 x y + 4 = 0 4x + 3 y 2 = 0

(2x y + 4) (4x + 3y 2) = 0

y = m1 x and y = m2 x

8=0

x y = 0 and x + y = 0

Combined equation is

(x y ) (x + y ) = 0 x

2

y =0

through the point (1, 2) and are parallel to

the the lines co-ordinate axes.

Ans. Equation of the coordinates axes are x = 0

and y = 0

the equations of the lines passing through

(1, 2) and parallel to the coordinate axes are

x = 1 and y = 2.

i.e., x 1 = 0 and y 2 = 0

their joint equation is (x 1) (y 2) = 0

through the origin, one of which is parallel

and other is perpendicular to the line x +

2y +1857 = 0.

Ans. The given equation of the line is

x + 2y + 1857 = 0

Let slopes of one line be m1 and other line be

m2

The slope line which is to the line

x + 2y + 1857 = 0 is

xy 2x y + 2 = 0

m1 =

1

2

1

2

line m2 = 2

The general equation of line passing

through origin is y = mx

2

The equation of line to the general line

is y =

through the origin having the inclinations

600 and 1200

1

x

2

x + 2y = 0

The equation of line to the general line is

y = 2x i.e. 2x y = 0

(2x y) = 0

2x 2 + 4xy xy 2y2 = 0

2x 2 + 3xy 2y2 = 0

tan .

Inclinations of the given lines are 600 and

1200

3 and

= tan 600 = 3 .

Q -1) Find the joint equation of lines x y = 0

and x + y = 0

(Ans. x2 y2 = 0)

Ans. The joint equation of the lines x y = 0 and

x + y = 0 is

(x y) (x + y) = 0

x2 y2 = 0

y=

and 2x y 1 = 0

(Ans. x2 + 3xy + y2 7x 4y + 3 = 0)

Ans. The joint equation of the lines x + y = 3 and

2x + y 1 = 0 is

(x + y 3) (2x + y 1) = 0

2x2 + x y x + 2x y + y2 y 6x 3y + 3 = 0

2x2 + 3x y + y2 7x 4y + 3 = 0.

Q -3) Find the joint equation of lines passing

through the origin having slopes 3 and 2

Ans. We know that the equation of the line

passing through the origin and having slope

m is y = mx.

Equation of the lines passing through the

origin and having slope 3 and 2 are y = 3x

and y = 2x respectively.

i.e., their equations are

3x y = 0 and 2x y = 0 respectively.

their joint equations is

(3x y)(2x y) = 0

2

6x 3x y 2x y + y = 0

6x 2 5x y + y2 = 0.

3x and y =

i.e.,

3x

3x y = 0 and

3x + y = 0

equations are

3x y

)(

3x + y = 0

3x2 y2 = 0.

Q -5) Find the joint equation of lines which pass

through the point (3,2) and are parallel to

the lines x = 2 and y = 3

Ans. Equations of the lines are x = 2 and y = 3

the equations of the lines passing through

(3, 2) and parallel to the lines x = 2 & y = 3

are x = 3 & y = 2.

The joint equation is

(x 3)(y 2) = 0

xy 2x 3y + 6 = 0

2x + 3y xy 6 = 0.

Q -6) Find the joint equation of lines passing

through the origin having slopes 1 + 3

and 1 3

Ans. The equation of the line passing through the

origin and having slope m is y = mx

Equations of the lines passing through the

origin and having slopes 1+ 3 and 1 3

are

y = 1 + 3 x and y = 1 3 x

respectively

i.e., The equation are

(1 + 3 ) x y = 0

and 1 3 x y = 0

1 3 x y 1+ 3 x y = 0

(x

2

x +

3x y

3x

)( x +

3x y = 0

2

xy 3x 3x + 3xy

xy

3xy + y 2 = 0

2x 2 2xy + y 2 = 0

i.e., x 3 = 0

Hence, the equations of the required lines

are

x 2y + 1 = 0 and x 3 = 0

their joint equation is

(x 2y + 1)(x 3) = 0

x 2 2xy + x 3x 6y 3 = 0

x 2 2xy 2x + 6y 3 = 0.

2x 2 + 2xy y 2 = 0

Q -7) Find the combined equation of lines which

are parallel to the Y-axis and at the

distance of 9 units from the Y-axis

Ans. Equations of the lines, which are parallel to

the Y-axis and at a distance of 9 units from

it are x = 9 and x = 9

i.e., x 9 = 0 and x + 9 = 0

through the origin, which are perpendicular

to the lines x + 2y = 9 and 3x + y = 8

Ans. Let L1 and L2 be the lines passing through

the origin and perpendicular to the lines

x + 2y = 9 and 3x + y = 8 respectively.

slope of given line are

1

3

and = 3 respectively.

2

1

O

X

9

x = 9

1

respectively.

3

X

9

Y

x=9

(x 9)(x + 9) = 0

x 2 81= 0.

through the point (3,2), one of which is

parallel to the lines x 2y = 29 and other

one is perpendicular to the line y = 3

Ans. Let L1 be the line passes through (3,2) and

parallel to the line x 2y = 29 whose slope is

1

x

3

i.e., 2x y = 0 and x 3y = 0

their combined equation is

(2x y)(x 3y) = 0

2x2 6xy xy + 3y2 = 0

2x2 7xy + 3y2 = 0.

the origin, which are parallel to lines

x + 3y = 27 and 2x = y 3

Ans. Let L1 and L2 be the lines passing through

the origin and parallel to the lines

1 1

= .

2 2

1

2

y2=

y = 2x and y =

1

(x 3)

2

2y 4 = x 3

x 2y + 1 = 0

perpendicular to the line y = 3.

equation of the line L2 is of the form x = a.

Since L2 passes through (3,2), 3 = a

x + 3y = 27 and 2x = y 3 respectively.

Slopes of the lines x + 3y = 27 and 2x = y 3

are

1

2

and

3

1

1

& 2 their

3

equations are

y=

1

x & y = 2x

3

i.e., 3y + x = 0 & 2x y = 0

The combined equation is

(2x y)(3y + x) = 0

2

6xy + 2x 3y + xy = 0

2x 2 + 7xy 3y2 = 0.

y = 2 + 3 x and y = 2 3 x

through (4, 3) and are parallel to the lines

x = 1 and y = 5

Ans. Equations of the lines are x = 1 and y = 5

the equations of the lines passing through

(4, 3) and parallel to the lines x = 1 and

a2x2 + bcy2 = a (b + c)xy may be coincident

and perpendicular

Ans. Given equation is

a 2 x 2 + bcy 2 = a (b + c ) xy (I)

2

2

Compare with Ax + 2Hxy + By = 0

y = 5 are x = 4 & y = 3

i.e., x 4 = 0 & y + 3 = 0

We get A = a 2 ; B = bc ; H =

(x 4)(y + 3) = 0

xy + 3x 4y 12 = 0

3x 4y + xy 12 = 0

coincident lines if H 2 AB = 0

2

2

2 (b + c ) a .bc = 0

a2

2

(b + c ) a 2bc = 0

4

3x2 + 2hxy + 3y2 = 0 are real?

(

(b

(b

a 2 b 2 + 2bc + c 2 4a 2bc = 0

3x2 + 2hxy + 3y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

a2

we get, a = 3, h = h, b = 3.

The lines represented by 3x2 + 2hxy + 3y2 = 0

a2

+ 2bc + c 2 4bc = 0

2bc + c 2 = 0

are

real, if h2 ab 0

i.e., if h2 3(3) 0

i.e., if h2 9

a 2 (b c ) = 0

a (b c ) = 0

Either a = 0 or b c = 0

i.e., if h 3 or h 3

Hence, the values of h are all real numbers

Either a = 0 or b = c

equal to 3, i.e., ( , 3] [3, ] = R ( 3,3).

lines if a = 0 or b = c

represented by x2 4xy + y2 = 0

Ans. Join equation x 2 4xy + y 2 = 0

2

i.e., x 4xy + y = 0

m 2 4m +1 = 0 x = m

m=

( 4)

4 (1)(1)

4 12

=2 3

2

= 2 3

x

y = 2 3 x

a

(b + c )

2

4 16 4

2

ii) Equation (i) will represent a pair of

lines if A + B = 0

a 2 + bc = 0

Q -4) Find the joint equation of a pair of lines

through the origin and perpendicular to

pair of lines 2x 2 3xy 9y 2 = 0

Ans. Joint equation of lines is,

2x 2 3xy 9y 2 = 0

So,

Separate equation is, 2

9m 2 + 3m 2 = 0

3y 9y 2

2 =0

x

x

x = m

9m 2 + 6m 3m 2 = 0

3m ( 3m + 2) 1 ( 3m + 2) = 0

3m + 2 = 0 and 3m 1 = 0

m=

2

1

m=

3

3

k 2 = 36 k = 6

y 2 y 1

=

=

x

3 x 3

2x + 3y = 0

(i)

x + 3y = 0

(ii)

2

Slope of equation (i) =

3

1

3

m1 =

2x + y = 0

y = 2x

3x + 2y = 0

y

= 3 = 3x + y = 0

x

( 3x + 2y ) ( 3x y ) = 0

9x 2 3xy + 6xy 2y 2 = 0

2

9x + 3xy 2y = 0

Q -5) Find k if the slope of one of the lines given

by 5x 2 + kxy + y 2 = 0 is 5 times the slope

of the other

Ans. Given eqn is 5x 2 + kxy + y 2 = 0

Dividing by x2

2kx 2 = 0

2k = 0

k =0

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 is perpendicular to

the line x + my + n = 0 then show that

al 2 + 2h m + bm 2 = 0

Ans. al 2 + 2h m + bm 2 = 0

is

l

m

r

slope of to

lx + my + n = 0 is

a =5 ,2h = k, b = 1

Eqn.of line

2h

k

=

b

1

a 5

=

b 1

... (i)

m1m2 = 5

... (ii)

But m1 = 5m2

... (iii)

m

x

m2 =

k

2

and m2 =1

6

... (ii)

2

m

m

ax 2 + 2hx + + b x = 0

x

l

ax 2 +

2hx 2 bm 2

x + 2 =0

l

l

a +

2hm bm 2

+ 2 =0

l

l

5m2 + m2 = k and 5m 2 .m 2 = 5

6m2 = k and 5m22 = 5

m

l

lx + my + n = 0

y=

m1 + m 2 = k

... (i)

Slope of lx + my + n = 0

m1 m 2 =

... (ii)

4x 2 2kx 2 4x 2 =0

m1 + m 2 =

... (i)

4x 2 + kxy y 2 = 0

Now,

4 x 2 + kxy y 2 = 0 is 2x + y = 0

4x 2 + kx (2x ) ( 2x ) = 0

3

m2 = 3

2

y 3

=

x

2

k2

k

=

1,

=1

36

6

al 2 +2hlm + bm 2 =0

6

Q -8) Find if the sum of the squares of slopes

of the lines repersented by

(x + y = 0)

x 3xy + y = 0 is 5.

2

2

x + 2y

1+ 4

we get, a = a, 2h = 3, b = 1.

Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

represented by ax 2 3xy + y 2 = 0

m1 + m2 =

2h

=

b

and m1 + m 2 =

( 3 )

1

x +y

( x + 2y )

1 +1

(x + y )

2

2 ( x + 2y ) = 5 ( x + y )

2 x 2 + 4xy + 4y 2 = 5 x 2 + 2xy + y 2

=3

2x 2 + 8xy + 8y 2 = 5x 2 +10xy + 5y 2

3x 2 + 2xy 3y 2 = 0.

a a

= =a

b 1

m12 + m22 + 2m1m2 = 9

lines represented by x 2 + 3xy 2y 2 = 0

m12 + m22 + 2a = 9

m12 + m22 = 9 2a

Q-10 )S how

9 2a = 5

th at

the

lin es

given

by

2

triangle.

2a = 4

a = 2.

Q-9) Find the joint equation of lines which bisect

angles between lines represented by

3x 2 9xy + xy 3y 2 = 0

3x ( x 3y ) + y ( x 3y ) = 0

x 2 + 3xy + 2y 2 = 0

( x 3y )( 3x + y ) = 0

Ans. x 2 + 3xy + 2y 2 = 0

x 2 + 2xy + xy + 2y 2 = 0

x (x + 2y) + y (x + 2y) = 0

(x + 2y) (x + y) = 0

s e pe rate e quation s

equations are

( x 3y ) = 0

of

the

lin e s

x + 2y = 0 and x + y = 0.

Angle

bisector

Y

P(x,y)

& ( 3x + y ) = 0

m1 =

1

& m2 = 3

3

Product of Slopes =

m1m2 =

1

3 = 1

3

are to each other.

Slopes are m1 =

. (i)

1

and m2 = 3

3

1

2

Let P (x, y) be any point on one angle bisector.

x + 2y = 3 & x 3y = 0

equi - distant from both the lines, the

(x + 2y = 0)

(ii)

Q-11 ) OAB

is

formed

by

th e

lines

2

median passing through O.

3y =

y=

(x1,y1)

Ans.

16

37

3y = 1

21

37

7

8 7

D

,

37

37 37

slope of OD,

A

m=

7 / 37

8 / 37

m=

7

8

(x2,y2)

B

O

y = mx

Let A ( x1 , y1 ) , B ( x 2 , y2 )

Since,

(x,y )

through origin is x 2 4xy + y 2 = 0

The equation of line AB is,

1 2x

3

...(iii)

(1 2x )

3

(1 2x )

=0

9x 2 12x (1 2x ) + (1 2x ) = 0

9x 2 12x + 24x +1 4x + 4x 2 = 0

2

37x 16x +1 = 0

Let, x1 and x 2 be the roots of the equation

x1 + x 2 =

the area of the triangle.

Ans. Let slope of OA be m

and slope OB be 1

lines passing through origin and line AB

substituting (iii) in (i)

x 2 4x

tan =

2x + 3y = 1

y=

7x

8

7x 8y = 0

D is the mid-point of AB

By mid-point formula

x + x 2 y1 + y2

D 1

,

2

2

y=

16

37

m1 m2

1+ m1m2

3=

m 1

1+m

squaring

3 (1 + m)2 = m2 2m + 1

3(m2 + 2m + 1) = m2 2m + 1

3m2 + 6m + 3 = m2 2m + 1

2m2 + 8m + 2 = 0

m2 + 4m + 1 = 0

2

y + 4 y +1 = 0

x

x

y2 + 4xy + x2 = 0

is the joint equation of lines passing

through (0,0) and making 600 with

xy4=0

x1 + x 2

8

=

2

37

A

8 y1 + y2 8

D

,

37 , y

37

2

M

C

16

+ 3y = 1

37

OM =

=2 2

P2

A(

OAB) =

sq units

by following equations :

i) x 2 + 2xy y 2 = 0

ii) 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = 0

iii) x 2 + y 2 = 0

iv) x 2 + 7xy + 2y 2 = 0

the line x + 2y 1 = 0

numbers.

Ans. i) Comparing the equation x 2 + 2xy y 2 = 0

with ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,

30

30

x + 2 y 1= 0

a = 1, 2h = 2, i.e., h = 1 and b = 1

h 2 ab = 12 1 ( 1) = 1 +1 = 2 > 0

makes an angle of 300 with x + 2y 1 = 0

Let slope of OA/OB be m1 (say) (m)

slope of AB = m2 =

1

2

m m2

tan = 1

1+ m1m2

ii) Comparing the equation

4x 2 + 4xy + y 2 = 0 with,

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 we get,

a = 4, 2h = 4, i.e. h = 2 and b = 1

2

1

2

=

1

3 1+ m

2

m+

1

3

2m +1

2m

2

( 2m +1)

y

=

2

x

(2 m )

4 4m + m2 = 3(4m2 + 4m + 1)

12m2 m2 + 12m + 4m + 3 1 = 0

11m2 + 16m 1 = 0

Lines pass through origin

y = mx is the equation is

h 2 ab = ( 2) 4 (1) = 4 4 = 0

iii) Comparing the equation x 2 y 2 = 0 with

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get, a = 1, 2h = 0,

i.e. h = 0 and b = 1

2

h 2 ab = ( 0 ) 1 ( 1) = 0 +1 = 1 > 0

real and distinct.

iv) Comparing the equation

x 2 + 7xy + 2y 2 = 0 with

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,

a = 1, 2h = 7, b = 2, i.e. h =

11 y +16 y 1 = 0

x

x

11y 2

y

+ 16 1 = 0

x

x

11y2 + 16xy x2 = 0

x2 16xy 11y2 = 0

is the required joint equation.

7

2

49

7

h 2 ab = (1)( 2) =

2

4

2

49 8 41

=

=

>0

4

4

with ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get, a = p,

m2 + 2m + 2 = 0

m2 2m 2 = 0

2h = 0, i.e. h = 0 and b = q

2

h 2 ab = ( 0 ) p ( q ) = pq

m=

( 2)

are real and distinct.

If p and q have different signs, then

h 2 ab = pq < 0

4 (1) ( 2 )

2 1

h 2 ab = pq > 0

2 4+8

2

22 3

=1 3

2

slopes of the lines.

2

represent the lines.

i.e., y = 1 + 3 x and y = 1 3 x

by following equations

v) x 2 + 2xy cos ec + y 2 = 0

2

y

y

+ 2cos ec + 1 = 0

x

x

i) 6x 2 5xy 6y 2 = 0

ii) x 2 4y 2 = 0

iii) 3x 2 y 2 = 0

Put

iv) 2x 2 + 2xy y 2 = 0

v) x + 2xy ( cos ) + y = 0

2

y

=m

x

(m )2 + 2 cos ec (m ) + 1 = 0

Ans. i) 6x 2 5xy 6y 2 = 0

m=

2 cos ec 4 cos ec 2 4 1 1

2

m=

2 cos ec 2 cot

2

3x (2x 3y) + 2y(2x 3y) = 0

(2x 3y)(3x + 2y) = 0

the separate equations of the lines are

2x 3y = 0 and 3x + 2y = 0.

m = cos ec cot

m=

ii) x2 4y2 = 0

x2 (2y)2 = 0

m=

(x 2y) (x + 2y) = 0

the separate equations of the lines are

x 2y = 0 and x + 2y = 0.

3x

3x y

sin

y (1 cos )

=

x

sin

sin y = (1 + cos ) x

y2 = 0

)(

(1 cos )

y sin = (1 cos ) x

iii) 3x2 y2 = 0

1

cos

sin sin

3x + y = 0

3x y = 0 and

are the separate equations.

3x + y = 0

10

Q-3) If lines x2 + 2hxy + 4y2 = 0 are coincident

m1 . m2 =

Ans. Comparing the equation

a

= 1

b

we get, a = 1, h = h and b = 4.

these lines

x2 + 2hxy + 4y2 = 0 are coincident, h2 ab = 0

1

1

and

m

m1

2

h2 1 4 = 0

h2 = 4

h = + 2.

y=

1

1

x and y =

x

m1

m2

to the lines represented by

The combined equation is

i) x2 + 4xy + 5y2 = 0

ii) x2 + xy y2 = 0

(x + m1y) (x + m2y) = 0

x2 + (m1+ m2) xy + m1m2 y2 = 0

x2 + 4xy + 5y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

x2 + xy y2 = 0

we get, a = 1, 2h = 4, b = 5

Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines

by the equation 3x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 is 0.

3x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

2h 4

=

5

b

a 1

and m1m2 = =

b 5

m1 + m2 =

... (i)

these lines

their slopes are 1/m1 and 1/m2

Since these lines are passing through the

origin, their separate equations are

1

1

y=

x and y =

x

m1

m2

i.e., m1y = x and m2y = 0

their combined equations is

(x + m1y) (x + m2y) = 0

x2

4

1

xy + y 2 = 0

5

5

5x2 4xy + y2 = 0.

ii) Comparing the equation

x2 + xy y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

we get,

1

a = 1, h = , b = 1

2

represented by x2 + xy y2 = 0

m1 + m2 =

2h 1

=

=1

b

1

we get, a = 3, 2h = k, b = 1

Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

m1 + m2 =

2h k

=

= k

b

1

Now, m1 + m2 = 0

k=0

... (Given)

k = 0.

represented by the equation

2x2 + kxy + 3y2 = 0 is 0 is equal to their

product.

Ans. Comparing the equation

2x2 + kxy + 3y2 = 0, with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

we get, a = 2, 2h = k, b = 3

Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines

represented by 2x2 + kxy + 3y2 = 0.

m1 + m2 =

2h k

=

b

3

and m1m2 =

a 2

=

b 3

Now, m1 + m2 = m1m2

k 2

=

3 3

k=2

... (Given)

11

lines repersented by the equation

3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0 is 2.

Ans. The given equation is

3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0,

... (i)

we get, a = 3, 2h = 4, b = 1

45 3k

+3=0

25

5

45 15k + 75 = 0

15k = 120

k=8

Then m1 + m 2 =

and m1m 2 =

2h 4

=

= 4

b

1

a 3

= =3

b 1

= ( 4)2 4(3) = 16 12 = 4

m1 m2 = 2

the slopes of lines represented by

3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0, differ by 2.

Q-8) Find the value of k, if slope of one of the

lines given by 3x2 4xy + ky2 = 0 is 1.

Ans. The auxiliary equation of the lines given by

3x2 4xy + ky2 = 0 is

km2 4m + 3 = 0.

equation 3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0 is 3 times the

slope of the other line. Find .

Ans. Comparing the equation

3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

we get,

a = 3, 2h = 4, b =

Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines

represented by 3x2 + 4xy + y2 = 0.

m1 + m2 =

and m1m 2 =

2h 4

=

b

a 3

= .

b

m1 + 3m1 =

4

m1 =

1 is the root of the auxiliary equation

4m1 =

km2 4m + 3 = 0.

Also, m1 (3m1) =

k(1)2 4(1) + 3 = 0

k 4+3=0

m12 =

k = 1.

1

1

=

... (i)

by 3x2 kxy + 5y2 = 0 is perpendicular, to

the line 5x + 3y = 0

Ans. Th e au xili ary equatio n of the lin es

represented by

1 1

=

2

= 1, as 0.

5m2 km + 3 = 0.

differ by 1 then find the value of k.

kx2 + 5xy + y2 = 0 with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

5x + 3y = 0, whose slope is

3

5

3

5

3

is the root of the auxiliary equation

5

we get,

a = k, 2h = 5, b = 1.

Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines

represented by kx2 + 5xy + y2 = 0

m1 + m2 =

5m2 km + 3 = 0.

2

3

3

5 k + 3 = 0

5

5

and m1m2 =

2h 5

=

= 5

b

1

a k

= =k

b 1

12

(m1 m2)2 = (m1 + m2)2 4m1m2

= ( 5)2 4(k) = 25 4k

... (i)

But m1 m2 = 1

(m1 m2)2 = 1

From (i) and (ii), 25 4k = 1

4k = 24

(2x + y)(x + y) = 0

The se p arat e e quati on o f th e li ne s

represented by 2x2 + 3xy + y2 = 0 are

2x + y = 0 and x + y = 0

k = 6.

Angle

bisector

by 6x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 is 2x + y = 0

P(x,y)

represented by

6x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 is

m2 + km + 6 = 0.

Since one of the line is 2x + y = 0 whose slope

is m = 2

2 is the root of the auxiliary equation

m2 + km + 6 = 0.

( 2)2 + k ( 2) + 6 = 0

4 2k + 6 = 0

Angle X

bisector

Since the points on the angle bisectors are

equidistant from both the lines,

the distance of P (x, y) from the line 2x + y = 0

the distance of P (x, y) from the line

x + y =0

2k = 10 k = 5.

2x + y

4 +1

x +y

1 +1

by 2x2 + kxy 9y2 = 0 is equal to five times

their product, find the value of k.

Ans. Comparing the equation

2x2 + kxy 9y2 = 0, with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

we get,

a = 2, h =

k

2

2h

2 = k

m1 + m2 =

=

b

9

9

( x + y )2

2 ( 2x + y ) = 5 ( x + y )

2 4x 2 + 4xy + y 2 = 5 x 2 + 2xy + y 2

3x 2 2xy 3y 2 = 0

This is the required joint equation of the

lines which bisect the angle between the

lines represented by 2x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = 0

through origin and making an equilateral

triangle with the line x = 3

a 2

=

b

9

Now, m1 + m2 = 5m1m2

k

2

= 5

;

9

9

( 2x + y )2

8x 2 + 8xy + 2y 2 = 5x 2 +10xy + 5y 2

k

,b=9

2

m1m2 =

... (given)

making an angle of 600 with the line x = 3.

k = 10

Y

angles betweeen lines represented by

2x2 + 3xy + y2 = 0

Ans. 2x2 + 3xy + y2 = 0

A

1500

600

30 0

X'

30

600

2x2 + 2xy + xy + y2 = 0

2x (x + y) + y (x + y) = 0

B

x=3

Y'

13

with the positive direction of X-axis

slope of OA = tan 300 = 1

1

3

= tan300 = 1

3y = x

3y

1

3

x + 3y = 0

)( x +

3y = 0

i.e., x2 3y2 = 0.

Q-16) Find k, if the sum of the slopes of the lines

represented by the equation x2 + kxy 3y2

= 0 is twice their product

Ans. Given equation is x2 + kxy 3y2 = 0

Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

we get, a = 1 , 2h = k , b = 3

Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

represented by x2 + kxy 3y2 = 0

m1 + m2 =

2h k

=

b

3

a

1

and m1m2 = =

3

b

According to the given condition.

m1m2 = 2 (m1m2)

k

1

= 2

3

2

...(given)

k=4

k=2

other by 8, find k

Ans. Given equation is kx2 + 4xy y2 = 0

Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

we get, a = k , 2h = 4 , b = 1

Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

represented by kx2 + 4xy y2 = 0

m1 + m2 = 4 and m1m2 = k

According to the given condition

m2 = m1 + 8

m1 + (m1 + 8) = 4

2m1 = 4

m1 = 2

Now, m1 (m1 + 8 ) = k

( 2) (2 + 8 ) = k

(2) (6) = k

12 = k

k = 12

Q-19) Find the condition that the line 3x +y = 0

may be perpendicular to one of the lines

represented by ax2 + 2 hxy + by2 = 0

Ans. Th e au xili ary e quatio n of the lin e s

represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is

bm2 + 2hm + a = 0

Since one line is perpendicular to the line

3x + y = 0 whose slope is

k=3

Q-17) Find k , if th e s lo pes of th e lines

represented by the equation

3x2 + kxy y2 = 0 differ by 4

Ans. Given equation 3x2 + kxy y2 = 0

we get, a = 3 , 2h = k , b = 1

Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

represented by 3x2 + kxy y2 = 0

m1 + m2 =

(m1 m2)2 = 16

is

(x

...(i)

k2 + 12 = 16

x 3y = 0

3y = x

= k2 4(3)

= k2 + 12

a

2h

= k and m1 m2 = = 3

b

b

m=

3

= 3

1

1

3

1

is the root of the auxiliary equation

3

bm2 + 2hm + a = 0

2

1

1

b + 2h + a = 0

3

3

b + 6h + 9a = 0

9a + 6h + b = 0

This is the required condition

14

Q-20) Show that 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 and the lines

(3x +4y )2 3 (4x +3y)2 = 0 form the side an

equilateral triangle.

Find its area and perimeter

3

Ans. The slope of the line 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 is m1 =

4

Let m be the slope of one of the line making

an angle of 600 with the line 3x + 4y + 5 = 0

Ans. Le t O A

and OB be

slope m and m1 is 600

origin

Let M be

tan 600 =

m m1

1+ m.m1

B

0

60

the lines

th ro u g h

M x +y =

60

the slope

of OA or

A

O

OB which

3

m

4

3 =

3

1+ m

whose slope is

Its equation is y = mx

tan 600 =

4m + 3

3 =

4 3m

Squaring both sides, we get

2

( 4m + 3)

3=

2

( 4m 3)

48 72m + 27m2 = 16m2 + 24m + 9

11m2 96m + 39 = 0

Since, required lines pass through the origin,

their equations is of the form

y = mx i.e. m =

y

x

y

y

11 96 + 39 = 0

x

x

2

3=

m +1

;

1m

...(i)

3=

m +1

1m

m 2 + 2m +1

m 2 2m +1

3m2 6m + 3 = m2 + 2m + 1

2m2 8m 2 = 0

m2 4m 1 = 0

Joint equation of the pair of lines is given by

y

y2

4

+3 =0

x

x2

...[From (i)]

He nce, joint equation from e quilateral

triangle with x + y = 6

OM =

y

96y

11 2

+ 39 = 0

x

x

6

1+1

= 3

( OM)

( 3)

=

39x2 96xy + 11y2 = 0

Area of OAB =

written as 39x2 96xy + 11y2 = 0

i.e.

(9x2 48x2) + (24xy + 72xy) + (16y2 27y2) = 0

i.e.

(9x2 + 24xy + 16y2) (48x2 72xy + 27y2) = 0

i.e.

(9x2 + 24xy + 16y2) 3(16x2 24xy + 9y2) = 0

i.e. (3x + 4y)2 3(4x 3y) = 0

Hence, the line 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 and the lines

(3x + 4y)2 3(4x 3y2) from an equilateral

triangle.

= 3 sq units.

sin 600 =

OM

OA

3

3

=

OA = 2

2

OA

Length of the each side of the equilateral

triangle OAB = 2 units

perimeter of

OAB = 3 length of each side

= 3 2 = 6 units

15

origin, each of which makes angle of 30

with the line 3x + 2y + 66 = 0

given by x2 + y2 = 2xycosec

Ans. Comparing the equation

m1 =

3

2

we get a = 1 , b = 1 , h = cosec

angle between the lines having slopes m and

m1 is 300

tan =

tan 300 =

m m1

1

, where tan 300 =

1+ m.m1

3

3

m

2

=

3 1+ m 3

2

1

1

3

2m + 3

2 3m

tan =

tan =

2 h 2 ab

a +b

2 cosec 2 1

2

cot 2

tan = cot

tan = tan

2

2

1 ( 2m + 3)

=

3 ( 2 3m )2

4 12m + 9m2 = 3(4m2 + 12m + 9)

4 12m + 9m2 = 12m2 + 36m + 27

linesgiven by

3m2 + 48m + 23 = 0

This is the auxiliary equation of the two

putting m =

y

x

Ans. Combined equation of lines is,

(a

3b 2 x 2 + 8abxy + b 2 3a 2 y 2 = 0

So,

A = a 2 3b 2 ; H = 4a ; B = b 2 3a 2

y

y

3 + 48 + 23 = 0

x

x

tan =

3y 2 48y

+

+ 23 = 0

x

x2

2

tan =

2 h 2 ab

a +b

)(

2 16a 2b 2 a 2 3b 2 b 2 3a 2

2

a 3b + b 3a

coincides with one of the lines given by

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

tan =

2 16a 2b 2 10a 2b 2 + 3a 4 + 3b 4

2 a 2 + b 2

2

y

y

ax + 2h + b = 0

x

x

tan =

2 3a 4 + 6a 2b 2 + 3b 4

2 a 2 + b 2

4x +5y = 0 ; 5y = 4x

2

4

y

4

4

=

; a + 2h

+ b

=0

5

x

5

5

a

8h 16b

25

5

tan =

3 a2 + b2

= tan 1

(a

+b

( 3) ;

)

; tan = 3

)

=

16

Q -3) If the angle between the lines

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is equal to the angle

between the lines 2x2 5xy + 3y2 = 0 prove

2

2

tan 45 =

Ans. 1st combined equation is,

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0

... (i)

h 2 24

5=2

So,

tan =

h2

6

4

5

5 = h 2 24

2 h 2 ab

a +b

h 2 24 = 25

h 2 = 25 + 24

2x 2 5xy + 3y 2 = 0

h 2 = 49

A = 2, H =

h = 7

5

, B =3

2

by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 bisects an angle

25

2

6

4

tan =

5

(a + b)2 = 4h2

Ans. The equation of a straight line is given by,

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0

1

2

4

tan =

5

tan =

Divide by x 2 ,

2

y

y

a + 2h + b = 0

x

x

put y = mx

1

5

As per given,

The angle between these two lines is equal

2 h 2 ab 1

=

a +b

5

a + 2hm + bm 2 = 0

bm 2 + 2hm + a = 0

As the lines bisects an angle between coordinate axes.

10 h 2 ab = a + b

100 h 2 ab = (a + b )

y

x

m =

So,

is of measure 450, find h.

Ans. The combined equation is,

= 450

m = tan

m = tan 450

m =1

2

3x 2 + hxy + 2y 2 = 0

b (1) + 2h (1) + a = 0

comparing with,

b + 2h + a = 0

Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By 2 = 0

(a + b ) = 2h

h

A = 3, H = , B = 2

2

tan =

2 h 2 ab

a +b

(a + b )

= 4h 2

17

Q -1) Find the measure of the acute angle

between the lines represented by :

i) 3x 2 4 3xy + 3y 2 = 0

2

tan =

3

5

3

= tan1 .

5

iii) Comparing the equation

ii) 4 x + 5xy + y = 0

2x 2 + 7xy + 3y 2 = 0 with

iii) 2x 2 + 7xy + 3y 2 = 0

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,

7

,b=3

2

3x 2 4 3xy + 3y 2 = 0 with

a = 2, h =

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,

a = 3, 2h = 4 3 , i.e., h = 2 3 and b = 3

Let be the acute angle between the lines.

tan =

2 h 2 ab

a +b

tan =

2

=

( 2 3 )

7

2 ( 2)( 3 )

2

=

2+3

3 (3)

3+3

2

2 h 2 ab

a +b

2 12 9

2 3

=

6

6

tan =

= tan 300

=

= 300

ii) Comparing the equation

4x 2 + 5xy + y 2 = 0 with

=

a = 4, 2h = 5, i.e., h =

5

and b = 1.

2

2 h 2 ab

a +b

tan =

5

2 4 (1)

2

=

4 +1

2 49 24

52

25

5

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0 , we get,

49

6

4

5

5

5

tan = 1

= 450

the lines given by 6x2 + xy + by2 = 0 is 450

Ans. Comparing the equation

6x2 + xy + by2 = 0 with

Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By 2 = 0 , we get,

A = 6, 2H = 1, i.e., H =

25

3

2

4

2

4

2

=

=

5

5

1

and B = b

2

tan 450 =

2 H 2 AB

A +B

18

2

1

2 6 (b )

2

1 =

6 +b

1 =

lx + my = 1, show that (3a + b) (a +3b)

4h2 = 0

Ans. Since the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 form an

equilateral triangle with the line

lx + my = 1, the angle between the lines

1

6b

4

6+b

2 h 2 ab

a +b

tan 600 =

(6 + b)2 = 4 6b

4

2

36 + 12b + b = 1 24b

b2 + 36b + 35 = 0

b2 + 35b + b + 35 = 0

b (b + 35) + 1(b + 35) = 0

(b + 1) + 1(b + 35) = 0

b + 1 = 0 or b + 35 = 0

b=1

or b = 35.

3a2 + 9ab + ab + 3b2 = 4h2

is 600

a 2 12b 2 x 2 +16abxy + 4b 2 3a 2 y 2 = 0

comparing with,

Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By 2 = 0

A = a 2 12b 2

B = 4b 2 3a 2

=

a 2 12b 2 + 4b 2 3a 2

2 24a 2b 2 + 3a 2 + b 2 + 48b 4

8b 2 2a 2

2 3 4b 2 + a 2

2 4b + a

(3a + b) (a + 3b) 4h2 =0

This is the required condition

y2 = 0 and x + y = 1 contain the sides of an

equilateral triangle. Also, find the area of

the triangle.

Ans. Since the lines x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 form an

equilateral triangle with the line

x + y = 1, the angle between the lines

H = 8ab

2 h 2 ab

a +b

3(a2 + 2ab + b2) = 4h2 4ab

3a2 + 6ab + 3b2 + 4ab = 4h2

3=

x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 is 600

Comparing the equation x2 + kxy + y2 = 0 with

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

a = 1, 2h = k, b = 1

tan 60 =

2 h 2 ab

a +b

2

tan 60 =

(k 2)

(1)(1)

1 +1

= 3

3=

tan = 3

= tan 1

k2

( 3)

3=

k2 4

2

12 = k2 4

k2 = 16

19

k = 4

Let the length of the perpendicular from the

given to the line x + y = 1 be p

Area of the equilateral triangle

=

p2

3

sq units =

1

2 3

1 1

3 2

sq units

angle between the line 3x2 + 4xy + by2 = 0

and tan =

we get A = 3, 2H = 4 i.e. H = 2 B = b

tan =

1

2

[gn]

2 H 2 AB

A+B

1

=

2

2 22 3b

3+b

1

=

2

2 4 3b

3 +b

1

=

4

4 ( 4 3b )

(3 + b )

the point of intersection is P( 1/4, 1/2)

through the point (2, -3) and perpendicular

to the lines given by x 2 + xy 2y 2= 0.

Ans. x 2 + xy 2y 2 = 0

x 2 + 2xy xy 2y 2 = 0

x ( x + 2y ) y ( x + 2y ) = 0

( x y )( x + 2y ) = 0

1

2

Now, tan =

Solving these equations simultaneously, we

9 + 6b + b2 = 64 48b

b2 + 54b 55 = 0

b2 + 55b b 55 = 0

(b + 55) (b 1) = 0

x y = 0 or x + 2y = 0

Slope of x y = 0 is 1.

Slope of line r to x y = 0 is 1

equation of line r to x y = 0

and passing through ( 2, 3 ) is,

y + 3 = 1 ( x 2)

y + 3 = x + 2

x + y +1 = 0

... (i)

Slope of x + 2y = 0 is

1

2

Slope of line r to x + 2y = 0 is 2

equation of line r to x + 2y = 0

and passing through ( 2, 3 ) is,

y + 3 = 2 ( x 2)

y + 3 = 2x 4

2x y 7 = 0

combined equations of lines is,

... (ii)

( x + y +1)( 2x y 7 ) = 0

from (i) and (ii)

b = 55 & b = 1

2

2x xy 7x + 2xy y 2 7y + 2x y 7 = 0

2x 2 + xy y 2 5x 8y 7 = 0

represented by 4x2 y2 + 2x y = 0. Also

find the point of intersection of these lines.

Ans. The combined equation of the lines is

4x 2 y2 + 2x y = 0

(2x + y)(2x y) + (2x + y) = 0

(2x + y)(2x y + 1) = 0

their separate equations are

2x + y = 0 and 2x y + 1 = 0

Let P (x1,y1) be their point of intersection.

Then (x1, y1) satisfies these equations

Q -3) Find k if

kx 2 xy + 2y 2 + 19x 6y 20 = 0

represents pairs of lines. Further find

wh ether th ese lines are parallel or

intersecting

Ans. Given equation is

kx 2 xy + 2y 2 +19x 6y 20 = 0

Comparing with

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2gx + 2 fy + c = 0

20

we get

a = k,h =

1

19

, b = 2, g =

, f = 3, c = 20

2

2

abc + 2 fgh af

bg ch = 0

57 361

+5 = 0

2

2

49k

304

+5 =0

2

Comparing it with

ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 +2gx + 2fy + c = 0, we get

a = p, h = 4 , b = 3, g = 7 f = 1 and c = q

19 1

k 9 2

2 2

361

1

+ 20 = 0

4

4

40k + ( 6 )

49k +

px2 8xy + 3y2 + 14x +2y + q = 0 represents

a pair of perpendicular lines

Ans. Given equation is

of line perpendicular to each other,

a+b=0

p+3=0

p = 3

Also the equation represents a pair of straight

lines

49k 152 + 5 = 0

a

h

49k = 147

k = 3

2

1

Consider h 2 ab = k 2

2

=

(x 1)2 (y 1)2 (x 1) 5 (y 1) + = 0.

represents two straight lines.

Ans. Given equation is

(x 1)2 (y 1)2 (x 1) 5 (y 1) + = 0.

...(i)

) (

2x +1 y 2 2y +1

x + 1 5y + 5 +

= 0

x2 2x + 1 y2 +2y 1 x + 1 5y + 5 +

=0

2

2

x 3x y 3y + 6 +

=0

x2 y2 3x 3y + 6 +

=0

Comparing with

...(ii)

3

3

,f=

, c = 6 +

2

2

2

2

abc + 2fgh af bg 2 ch = 0

1 1 (6 + ) + 0 1

9

9

6 +

+

=0

4

4

6 = 0

= 6

1 =0

25q 200 = 0

25(q + 8) = 0

q = 8

p = 3 and q = 8

by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 bisects an angle

between the co-ordinate axes if

(a + b)2 = 4h2

Ans. The equation of a straight line is given by,

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0

Divide by x 2 ,

a = 1, h = 0, b = 1, g =

9q + 3 16q 28 175 = 0

9

9

+1

0=0

4

4

y

y

a + 2h + b = 0

x

x

put y = mx

m =

y

x

a + 2hm + bm 2 = 0

bm 2 + 2hm + a = 0

As the lines bisects an angle between coordinate axes.

So,

= 450

g

f =0

c

3 4 7

1

25

+6=

0

4

4

(x

h

b

f

21

m = tan

tan = 1

m = tan 450

m =1

2

b (1) + 2h (1) + a = 0

b + 2h + a = 0

(a + b ) = 2h

squaring on both sides,

2

(a + b ) = 4h 2

Q -6) Show that 2x2 + 7xy +3y2 5x 5y + 2 = 0

represents a pair of lines and find the acute

angle between them.

Ans. Comparing

2x2 + 7xy +3y2 5x 5y + 2 = 0 with

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 +2gx + 2fy + c = 0

we get

a = 2 ,h =

7

5

5

, b = 3, g =

, f=

and c = 2

2

2

2

lines through (2,3) one of which is parallel

to 2x + 3y = 5 and other perpendicular to

x 4y =7.

Ans. Let L1 be the line throught (2,3) and parallel

to the line 2x + 3y = 5

The slope of the line 2x + 3y = 5 is

2

3

2

and it passes

3

through (2,3)

2

(x 2)

3

LHS = abc + 2fgh af 2 bg2 ch2

3y 9 = 2x + 4

2x + 3y 13 = 0

5

= 2 3 2 + (5)

7

2

perpendicular to the line x 4y = 7.

25

25

49

3

2

4

4

4

1 1

= .

4 4

the slope of the line L2 is 4 and it passes

through (2,3)

= 12 +

25 7 50 75 98

4

4

4

4

= 12 +

175 125

98

=

4

4

50

98

= 12 +

4

4

48

= 12

4

= 12 12

=0

y 3 = 4(x 2)

y 3 = 4x + 8

4x + y 11= 0

Hence, the equations of required lines are

2x + 3y 13 = 0 and 4x + y 11= 0.

(2x + 3y 13) (4x + y 11) = 0.

lines

If is the acute angle between the lines

then

tan =

2 h 2 ab

a +b

2

7

49

2 2 (3)

2

6

2

4

=

=

2+3

5

13y + 143 = 0

through ( 2, 2), one of which is parallel to

the linex + 2y 3 = 0 and other is

perpendicular to the line y = 3

Ans. Let L1 be the line passes throught ( 2,2) and

parallel to the line x + 2y 3 = 0 whose slope

is

1

2

22

Slope of line L1 is

1

2

Ans. x 2 + 3xy + 2y2 + x y + k = 0

(y 2) =

1

( x + 2)

2

a = 1, b = 2, h =

2y 4 = x 2

abc + 2fgh af 2 bg 2 ch2 = 0

x + 2 + 2y 4 = 0

x + 2y 2 = 0

Let L2 be the line passes throught ( 2, 2) and

perpendicular to the line y = 3

equation of the line L2 is of the form x = a

Since L2 passes throug ( 2, 2), 2 = a

equation of the line L2 is x = 2

i.e., x + 2 = 0

Hence the equation of the required line are

x + 2y 2 = 0 and x + 2 = 0

The joint equation is

(x + 2y 2) (x + 2) = 0

1

1

9

3

2k + 2 1 2 k = 0

4

4

4

8

2k

3 1 1 9k

=0

4 4 2 4

8k 3 1 2 9k = 0

k = 6

k =6

Q -5) Find the separate equations for each of the

following lines

10(x + 1)2 + (x + 1) (y 2) 3 (y 2)2 = 0

Ans. The given equation is

x + 2x + 2xy + 4y 2x 4 = 0

x 2 + 2xy + 4y 4 = 0

Let x + 1 = X and y 2 = Y

10X2 + XY 3Y 2

= 0

9x 2 6xy + y 2 + 18x 6y + 8 = 0

represents two lines parallel to each other.

Ans. Given equation is

2X(5X + 3Y) Y (5X + 3Y) = 0

(2X Y) (5X + 3Y) = 0

Either 2X Y = 0 2(x + 1) (y 2) = 0

9x 2 6xy + y 2 +18x 6y + 8 = 0

Comparing with

2x y + 4

OR, 5X + 3Y

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2gx + 2 fy + c = 0

a = 9, h = 3, b = 1, g = 9, f = 3, c = 8.

Consider

abc + 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch 2

= 9 1 8 + ( 6 ) 9 3 9 9 1 81 8 9

= 72 +162 81 81 72

= 0

= 0 5(x + 1)+ 3(y 2) = 0

5x + 3y 1 = 0

Th e g iven equation re presents two

straight lines

2x y + 4 = 0 and 5x + 3y 1 = 0

=0

The given equation represents a pair of

lines

(i)

represent a pair of perpendicular lines.

Ans. 12x2 + 7xy py2 18x + qy + 6 = 0

Now, h 2 ab = ( 3 ) 9 1 = 9 9 = 0

2

From (i) & (ii)

3

1

1

,g= ,f=

,c=k

2

2

2

a = 12, h =

(ii)

9x 2 6xy + y 2 +18x 6y + 8 = 0

represents a pair of parallel straight lines.

7

q

, b = p, c = 6, g = 9, f =

2

2

a+b

12 p

= 0

= 0

p = 12

Condition for pair of lines,

abc + 2fgh af 2 bg 2 ch2 = 0

23

240 + 2 2q 2 + 240 + 4q = 0

2

7

q

q

12 (p)(6) + 2 (9) 12

2

2

2

(p) 81 6

72 p

108

49

=0

4

147

63q

3q2 + 81p

=0

2

2

72 12

864

2q 2 4q + 2 = 0

147

63q

3q2 + 81 12

=0

2

2

147

63q

3q2 + 972

=0

2

2

q 2 2q + 1 = 0

(q 1) (q 1) = 0

i.e. q = 1

q 2 =1 ;

q =1 ;

p = 8, q = 1

equations represents a pair of lines :

i) 3x2 + 10xy +3y2 +16y +k = 0.

ii) kxy + 10x +6y +4 = 0

iii) x2 + 3xy +2y2 +x y +k = 0

Ans. i) Given equation is

147

63q

3q 2

=0

2

2

6q2 + 63q 69 = 0

2q2 + 21q 23 = 0

Comparing it with

2q2 + 23q 2q 23 = 0

q (2q + 23) 1 (2q + 23) = 0

we get, a = 3, h = 5 b = 3 , g = 0, f = 8 c = k

Since the equation represents a pair of

lines

23

or q = 1

2

q=

(3)(3)(k) + 2 (8) (0) (5) 3(8)2 3 (0)2 k (5)2

p = 12

represent a pair of parallel lines

2x 2 + 8xy + py2 + qx + 2y 15 = 0

Ans. The equation is,

comparing with

Comparing it with

ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2gx + 2 fy + c = 0

q

, f = 1, c = 15

2

we get, a = 0, h =

lines

h ab = 0

2

(4)

p=

k

b = 0 , g = 5, f = 3

2

c=4

( 4)

9k + 0 192 0 25k

16k 192 = 0

16k 192

Hence k = 12

ii) Given equation is kxy + 10x + 6y + 4 = 0

2x 2 + 8xy + py 2 + qx + 2y 15 = 0

a = 2, h = 4, b = p, g =

=0

2( p) = 0

= 2p

k

(0)(0)(4) + 2 (3) (5) 0 (3)2 0 (5)2

2

16

2

k

4 = 0

2

p=8

The above equation represents pair of line

abc + 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch 2 = 0

2

q

q

2 ( 8 ) ( 15 ) + 2 (1) ( 4 ) 2 (1) 8

2

2

2

( 15 ) ( 4 ) = 0

q

8 ( 30 ) + 2 (1) 4 2 2q 2 + 240 = 0

2

0 + 15k 0 0 k 2 = 0

15k k2 = 0

k (k 15) = 0

k = 0 or k = 15

If k = 0 then the given equation becomes

10x + 6y + 4 = 0 which does not represent a

pair of lines

k 0

24

Hence k = 15

iii)

Given equation is

x 2 + 3xy +2y2 +x y +k = 0

Comparing it with

ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

we get, a = 1, h =

3

1

1

b=2,g= ,f=

2

2

2

c=k

Since the equation represents a pair of

lines

a h

h b

g f

3

2

1

2

ac 2

bc 2

0+0

=0

4

4

ac 2 bc 2

=0

4

4

ac2 + bc2 = 0

c2 (a + b) = 0

a + b = 0 or c = 0

px2 8xy + 3y2 + 14x + 2y + q = 0 represent

two straight lines which are perpendicular.

1

2

1

=0

2

g

f =0

c

3

2

c2

c

bc

a 0

0 + 0

=0

4

2

2

intersection.

Ans. Given equation is

px2 8xy + 3y2 + 14x +2y + q = 0

Comparing it with

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 +2gx + 2fy + c = 0, we get

2 3 1

1

3 4 1 = 0

2

1 1 2k

a = p, h = 4 , b = 3, g = 7 f = 1 and c = q

Since the given equation represents a pair

of line perpendicular to each other,

a+b=0

1 = 0

p+3=0

1 1 2k

p = 3

2 (8k 1) 3 (6k +1 ) + 1 (3 4) = 0

16k 2 18k 3 7 = 0

2k 12 = 0

lines

2k = 12

k = 6

a

h

g

ax2 +by +cx +cy = 0 may represent a l pair

of lines

Ans. Given equation is

ax 2 +by +cx +cy = 0 with

Ax 2 + 2Hxy + By2 + 2Gx + 2Fy + C = 0, we get

A = a, H = 0, B = b, g =

c

c

,f= ,C=0

2

2

a

F = 0 i.e, if 0 b

C

c c

2 2

c

2

c

=0

2

0

f =0

3 4 7

4 3 1 = 0

7 1 q

3 (3q 1) + 4 (4q 7) + 7 (4 21) = 0

9q + 3 16q 28 175 = 0

25q 200 = 0

25(q + 8) = 0

q = 8

p = 3 and q = 8

25

BA 1

x2 4xy = 0

of lines

x(x 4y) = 0

i) 2x + y = 0 and 3x 5y = 0

ii) Passing through (2, 3) and perpendicular

and x 4y = 0.

x 3y + 2 = 0

2x + y = 0 and 3x 5y = 0

Joint equation of the two lines u = 0 and

v = 0 is uv = 0

lines represented by 5x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0

Ans. Given equation is 5x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0.

Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we

is

get a = 5, h = 1, and b = 3

Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

6x2 10xy + 3xy 5y2 = 0

6x2 7xy 5y2 = 0 is the joint equation.

m1 + m2 =

m1.m2 =

y=

3

1

x+

2

2

Slope is

3

2

1

1

Slopes of the required lines are m and m

1

2

x

2

+

3

3

Slope is

therefore their equations are of the form

1

1

y = m x and y =

x

m2

1

1

3

The joint equation of the lines is given by

(2, 3) and perpendicular to the above lines

Slope of u is

a

5

=

b

3

to these lines

3y = x + 2

y=

2h

2

=

and

b

3

2

and v is 3

3

Equation of u is y 3 =

(x + m1y)(x + m2y) = 0

x2 + (m1 + m2) xy + m1m2y2 = 0

x2 +

2

5

xy y2 = 0

3

3

2

(x 2)

3

3y 9 = 2x 4

....(i)

2x 3y + 5 = 0

Equation of u is y 3 = 3(x 2)

y 3 = 3x + 6

3x + y 9 = 0

Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we

....(ii)

other by 8.

(2x 3y + 5)(3x + y 9) = 0

get a = k, 2h = 4, and b = 1

Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

5y 45 = 0

m1 + m2 = 4 and m1m2 = k

joint equation.

m2 = m1 + 8

m1+m1 + 8 = 4

26

2 m1 = 4

m1 = 2

Now, m1(m1 + 8) = k

b + 6h + 9a = 0

9b + b + 6h = 0

This is the required condition.

(2)(2 + 8) = k

2(6) = k

12 = k

k = 12

+ 2hxy + by2 = 0 is four times the other,

through the origin having inclinations 600

and 1200 with Xaxis

Ans. Slope of the line having inclination 600 is

m1 = tan 60 = 3

And Slope of the line having inclination 1200

0

= 3

Required lines pass through the origin,

therefore their equations are of the form

y = mx

Equations of the required lines are y = m1x

and y = m2x

i.e. y =

Ans. Let m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines

represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0.

m1 + m2 =

m2 = 4m1

m1 + 4m1 =

5m1 =

2h

b

m1 =

2h

5b

3x+y=0

Also, m1(4m1) =

2h

a

and m1m2 =

b

b

3 x and y = 3 x

3 x y = 0 and

i.e.

b 2h

+

+a=0

9

3

3x y

)(

4m12 =

3x + y = 0

3x2 y2 = 0

m 12 =

BA 2

2h

b

... (i)

a

b

a

b

a

4b

2

may be perpendicular to one of the lines

given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

Ans. Auxiliary equation of ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is

bm2 + 2hm + a = 0.

Slope of the lines 3x + y = 0 is 3

Now, one of the line s re pre se nte d by

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is perpendicular to the

line 3x + y = 0

m=

1

3

1

is a root of the auxiliary equation

3

bm2 + 2hm + a = 0.

2

a

2h

=

5

b

4b

a

4h 2

2 =

4b

25b

4h 2

a

=

, as b 0

25b

4

16h2 = 25ab

the lines represented by 2x2 + 7xy + 3y2 = 0

Ans. Given equation is 2x2 + 7xy + 3y2 = 0.

Comparing with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we get

a = 2, h =

7

and b = 3

2

tan

1

1

b + 2h + a = 0

3

3

2 h 2 ab

=

a +b

49

5

6

2

4

2 =1

=

2+3

5

27

tan = 1

= 450

represents a pair of lines, also find the

1

2 2 ( 3)

2

2 + ( 3)

Ans. Given equation of straight line is

2x2 xy 3y2 6x + 19y 20 = 0

Comparing with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy +

1

+6

4

1

2

=

c = 0, we get

a = 2, h =

f=

1

, b = 3, g = 3,

2

19

, c = 20

2

tan = 5;

25

4

5

2

= tan1(5)

a h

h b

g

f =0

D =

equations represents a pair of lines

3x2 + 10xy + 3y2 + 16y + k = 0

a h

1

2

1

2

19

2

19

2

20

2

=

Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy

361 1

57

= 2 60

10 +

4 2

2

19

+ ( 3)

9

4

+ c = 0, we get

a = 3, h = 5, g = 0, f = 8 and c = k

Since the euation represents a pair of lines

abc + 2fgh af2 bg2 ch2 = 0

3(3)(k) + 2(8)(0)(5) 3(8)2 3(0)2 k(5)2 = 0

9k + 0 192 0 25k = 0

16k 192 = 0

16k 192

Hence, k = 12

BA 3

= 2

240 361 1 20 + 57

+

4

2

2

19 36

3

4

121 77 165

+

+

2

4

4

242 + 242

= 0

4

Since, determinant of the given equation is

zero, it represents a pair of lines.

=

= 0 is perpendicular to the line 5x + 3y = 0

Ans. Given equations is 3x2 kxy + 5y2 = 0.

Its auxiliary equation is 5m2 km + 3 = 0

Slope of the line 5x + 3y = 0 is

is

lines.

tan =

2 h 2 ab

a +b

5

3

3

.

5

3

is a root of auxiliary equation

5

5m2 km + 3 = 0

2

3

3

5 k + 3 = 0

5

5

28

45 3k

+3=0

25

5

coordinate axes, then show that a = b.

45 15k + 75 = 0

15k = 120

k=8

coordinate axes.

through the origin and perpendicular to the

lines given by 2x2 3xy 9y2 = 0

Ans. Given equation is 2x2 3xy 9y2 = 0

i.e. 2x2 6xy + 3xy 9y2 = 0

i.e. 2x(x 3y) + 3y(x 3y) = 0

i.e. (x 3y)(2x + 3y) = 0

2

or and

2

X-axis.

Slope of the first line is m1 = tan and

2

are x 3y = 0 and 2x + 3y = 0

1

2

Slopes of these lines are

and

3

3

these lines, therefore their slopes are 3

and

3

.

2

2

tan +

2

m2 = cot or m2 = cot

m1m2 = tan cot = 1

or m1m2 = tan (cot ) = 1

m1 m2 = 1

origin, their equations are of the form

But m1m2 =

3

y = 3x and y = x

2

a

b

a

=1

b

a=b

i.e. 3x + y = 0 and 3x 2y = 0

The combined equation of the lines is

given by

(3x + y)(3x 2y) = 0

9x2 3xy 2y2 = 0

Q-3) Determine the nature of lines represented

by x2 + 7xy + 2y2 = 0

Ans. Given equation is x2 + 7xy + 2y2 = 0

Comparing with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

we get a = 1, 2h = 7

i.e. h =

7

and b = 2

2

49

49 8

41

2=

=

>0

4

4

4

The lines represented by x2 + 7xy + 2y2 = 0

are real and distinct.

Now, h2 ab =

through (2, 3) and parallel to

x2 + xy y2 = 0

Ans. Solution is attached at end

AA 1

Q-1) Find the joint equation of pair of lines

throu gh the origin an d making an

equilateral triangle with the line y = 3

Ans. Let OA and OB be the lines through the

origin making an angle of 600 with the line

y=3

OA and OB make an angle of 600 and

1200 with the positive direction of Xaxis.

Slope of OA = tan 600 =

Equation of line OA is y =

3xy=0

3x

29

(x 1)(x 6) = 0

The separate equations of x2 7x + 6 = 0

are

60

60

y=3

A

and

x1=0

x6=0

... (i)

... (ii)

equation of side CD be x 6 = 0.

120

60

Consider, y2 14y + 40 = 0.

(y 4)(y 10) = 0

600

X

are

and

= tan 600 = 3

... (iii)

... (iv)

equation of side AD be y 10 = 0.

Y

Equation of line OB is

y = 3 x i.e.

y4=0

y 10 = 0

A(1,10)

D(6,10)

B(1,4)

C(6,4)

y = 10

3x+y=0

3x y

)(

3x + y = 0

i.e. 3x2 y2 = 0

following lines

2

Ans. Given equation of line is

y=4

X

x=1

x=6

(x 2)2 2(x 2)(y + 1) (x 2)(y + 1)

vertices of the parallelogram are A (1,10),

+ 2(y + 1)2 = 0

(x 2) [(x 2) 2(y + 1)] (y + 1)[(x 2)

2(y + 1)] = 0

[(x 2) (y + 1)] [x 2) 2(y + 1)] = 0

Equation of the diagonal AC is

(x 2 y 1)(x 2 2y 2) = 0

(x y 3)(x 2y 4) = 0

5y + 50 = 6x 6

6x + 5y 56 = 0

x y 3 = 0 and x 2y 4 = 0

parallelogram are x2 7x + 6 = 0 and

y2 14y + 40 = 0. Find the joint equation of

its diagonals.

Ans. Let ABCD be the parallelogram such that the

combined equation of sides AB and CD is

x 2 7x + 6 = 0

And the combined equation of sides BC and

AD is y2 14y + 40 = 0.

Consider x2 7x + 6 = 0

y 10 10 4

6

=

=

x 1

1 6

5

Equation of diagonal BD is

y 4 4 10 6 6

=

=

=

1 6

5 5

x 1

5y 20 = 6x 6

6x 5y + 14 = 0

Equ atio ns o f th e di agon als of t he

parallelogram are 6x + 5y 56 = 0 and

6x 5y + 14 = 0 respectively.

Joint equation is

(6x + 5y 56)(6x 5y + 14) = 0

6x (6x 5y + 14) + 5y (6x 5y + 14)

56 (6x 5y + 14) = 0

30

36x2 30xy + 84x + 30xy 25y2 + 70y

336x + 280y 784 = 0

36x2 25y2 252x + 350y 784 = 0

3

m

4

=

3

3

1+ m

4m + 3

3 = 4 3m

lines through the origin and each making

an angle of with x + y = 0 is

x2 + 2sec 2axy + y2 = 0

Let m be the slope of OA or OB.

Its equation is y = mx

... (i)

it makes an angle with the line x + y = 0

whose slope is 1.

tan =

their equations are of the form y = mx i.e.

tan =

3(16 24m + 9m2) = 16m2 + 24m + 9

48 72m + 27m2 = 16m2 + 24m + 9

... (i)

11m2 96m + 39 = 0

m +1

1+ m ( 1)

2

3=

(m +1)

2

(1 m )

m=

tan2 (1 2m + m2) = m2 + 2m + 1

tan2 2m tan2 + m2 tan2 = m2 + 2m +

1

(tan2 1)m2 2(1 + tan2 ) m +

(tan2 1) = 0

y

y

11 96 + 39 = 0 ... [From (i)]

x

x

11y 2 96y

+ 39 = 0

x

x2

39x2 + 96xy 11y2 = 0

1+ tan

m2 + 2

m + 1 = 0

2

1 tan

2

+ (16y2 27y2) = 0

m2 + 2(sec 2) m + 1 = 0

y

y2

+1=

2 + 2(sec 2)

x

x

y + 2xy sec 2 + x = 0

x2 + 2xy sec 2 + y2 = 0 is the required

joint equation.

form an equilateral triangle.

Ans. Slope of the line 3x + 4y = 5 is m1 =

3(16x2 24xy + 9y2) = 0

i.e. (3x + 4y)2 3(4x 3y)2 = 0

Hence, the line 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 and the lines

AA 2

3

4

an angle of 600 with the line 3x + 4y = 5.

Since, the angle between the lines having

slope m and m1 is 600,

(48x2 72xy + 27y2) = 0

triangle.

m m1

tan 600 = 1+ m.m

1

y

x

39x2 96xy + 11y2 = 0 is the required joint.

1+ tan2

m2 2

m + 1 = 0

2

tan 1

( 4m + 3 )

2

( 4 3m )

+ ab2 + 8h3 = 6abh is square of the slope of

the other line, then show that a2b + ab2 +

8h3 = 6abh

Ans. Let m be the slope of one of the lines given by

ax2 + 2hxy + by3 = 0

Slope of the other line = m2

m + m2 =

and m.m2 =

31

Comparing the coefficients of (i) and (ii), we

2h

b

... (i)

get

a

a

i.e. m3 =

... (ii)

b

b

a b 2b 2c

= =

=

and 2a + c = 0

1 2

4

k

a=

3

a a 2 a 2h

2h

= + 2 +

b b

b b

b

3

a=

1=

8h

a a

6ah

= + 2 2

b b

b3

b

2c

and c = 2a

k

2 ( 2a )

k

4

k

k=4

3

3

8h = ab + a b 6abh

a2b + ab2 + 8h3 = 6abh

form an equilateral triangle with the line

lx + my = 1 then show that

(3a + b)(a + b) 4h2 = 0

Ans. Lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 form an equilateral

triangle with the line lx + my = 1

Angle between the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2

= 0 is 600

2 h 2 ab

tan 60 =

a +b

0

3 =

2 h ab

a +b

angles between the lines represented by

5x2 + 6xy y2 = 0

Ans. Given equation is 5x2 + 6xy y2 = 0

Comparing it with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we

get a = 5, 2h = 6 and b = 1

Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines

represented by 5x2 + 6xy y2 = 0.

m1 + m2 = 6 and m1.m2 = 5

...(i)

The separate equations of the lines are

m1x y = 0 and m2x y = 0

Let (x,y) be any point on one of the bisector

of the angles between the lines.

Distance of P from the line m1x y = 0 is

equal to the distance of P from line

m2x y = 0.

3(a2 + 2ab + b2) = 4h2 4ab

Y

Angle

bisector

3a2 + 10ab + 3b2 = 4h2

P(x,y)

3a (a + 3b) + b(a + 3b) = 4h2

(3a + b)(a + 3b) 4h2 = 0

the lines represented by the Equation

x2 + 2xy + 4y + k = 0 then prove that k = 4

Ans. Given equation is

X

Angle bisector

m1 x y

m2 x y

x2 + 2xy + 4y + k = 0

... (i)

One of the lines represented by given

equation is x + 2 = 0.

Let the other line be ax + by + c = 0

given by (x + 2) (ax + by + c) = 0

ax2 + bxy + cx + 2ax + 2by + 2c = 0

ax2 + bxy + (2a + c)x + 2by + 2c = 0 ...(ii)

m12 +1

(m1 x y )

m12 +1

m 22 +1

(m 2 x y )

m22 +1

32

[(m22 + 1)(m12x2 2m1xy + y2)

= (m12 + 1)(m22x2 2m2xy + y2)

2

2 2

m1 m2 x 2m1m22xy + m22y2 + m12x2

+ m22x2 2m2xy + y2

(m12 m22)x2 + 2m1m2(m1 m2)xy

2(m1 m2)xy (m12 m22)y2 = 0

(m1 + m2)x2 + 2m1m2xy 2xy (m1 m2)y2 = 0

6x2 10xy 2xy 6y2 = 0

6x2 12xy 6y2 = 0

...[By (i)]

equation.

between the lines represented by (a2 3b3)

x2 + 8abxy + (b2 3a2)y2 = 0

Ans. Given equation is

(a2 3b3) x2 + 8abxy + (b2 3a2)y2 = 0

Comparing with Ax2 + 2Hxy + By2 = 0, we

get A = a2 3b2, H = 4ab and B = b2 3a2

Now, H2 AB = 16a2b2 (a2 3b2)(b2 3a2)

= 16a2b2 (a2 3b2)(3a2 b2)

= 16a2b2 3a4 10a2b2 + 3b4

= 3(a2 + b2)2

3 (a2 + b2)

H 2 AB =

Also, A + B = (a2 3b2)(b2 3a2)

= 2(a2 + b2)

tan

2 3 a2 + b2

2 H2 AB

=

= 3

A + AB

2 a 2 + b 2

= 600

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