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27th June to 25th July

Submitted By:- Avinit Saha

EE-3rd Year


A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth with
increasing global presence.

B- Business ethics
C-Customer focus
O-Organisational & professional pride
M-Mutual respect & trust
I-Innovation & speed
T-Total quality for excellence

NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of

India, public sector company. It was incorporated in the year 1975 to
accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned
company of the Government of India. At present, Government of India
holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the
balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others.
Within a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national
power company, with power generating facilities in all the major
regions of the country.

NTPC LimiteD


Founded 1975

Delhi, India
R S Sharma, Chairman & Managing

Industry Electricity


Products Electricity

INR 416.37 billion (2008) or USD

18.15 billion
INR 70.47 billion (2008) or USD


1.89 billion

Employees 23867 (2006)
Website http://www.ntpc.co.in



NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the

Government of India. In
the last 30 years, NTPC has grown
into the largest power utility in India.

Saxby and Farmer Limited founded in India for Railway Signalling

and Safety appliances.

NTPC became a listed company with majority Government

ownership of 89.5%.
NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalisation of listed

The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its
changing business portfolio and transform itself from a thermal
power utility to an integrated power utility.


NTPC is the largest power utility in India, accounting for about 20% of
Indias installed capacity.


A thermal power station consists of all the equipments and a
subsystem required to produce electricity by using a steam generating
boiler fired with fossil fuels or befouls to drive an electric generator.
Some prefer to use the term ENERGY CENTER because such
facilities convert form of energy like nuclear energy, gravitational
potential energy or heat energy (derived from the combustion of
fuel) into electrical energy. Typical diagram of a coal power thermal
power station1.
Cooling water pump
2. Three phase transmission line
3. Step up transformer
4. Electrical generator
5. Low pressure steam
6. Boiler feed water pump
7. Surface condenser
8. Intermediate pressure steam turbine
9. Steam control valve
10. High pressure steam turbine
11.Deaerator feed water heater
12.Coal conveyer
13.Coal hopper
14.Coal pulverizer
15.Boiler steam drum
16.Boiler ash hopper
17.Super heater
18.Force draught (draft) fan
20.Combustion air intake
24.Induced draught(draft) fan
25.Fuel gas stack
The description of some of the components above is as follows:
1. Cooling towersCooling towers are eveporative coolers used for cooling water. Cooling
tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as
cooling the circulaing water used in oil refineries, chemical plants,
power plants, etc. The tower vary in size from small roof top units to
very large hyperboloid structures that can be upto 200 meters tall and
100 meters in diameter, or rectangular structure that can be over 40

meters tall and 80 meters long. Smaller towers are normally factory
built while larger ones are constructed on site. The primary use of
large, industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed
in the circulating water system used in power plants, petroleum
refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants, natural gas processing
plants and other industrial facilities.
The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of
some of the cooling water in mechanical forced draft or induced draft
towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at
most nuclear power plants.
2. Three phase transmission lineThree phase electric power is a common method of electric power
transmission. It is a type of polyphase system mainly used for power
motors and many other devices. In a three phase system, three
circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. Taking
one conductor as reference, the other two conductor are delayed in
time by one-third and two-third of cycle of the electrical current. This
delay between phases has the effect of giving constant power over
each cycle of the current and also makes it impossible to produce a
rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. At the power station, an
electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric
currents one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the
generator. The currents are sinusoidal functions of time, all at the
same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. In a three
phase system, the phases are spaced equally giving a phase
separation of one-third of one cycle. Generators output at a voltage
that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30,000 volts. At the power
station. Transformers step-up this voltage for suitable transmission.
After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution
network, the power is finally transformed to standard mains voltage i.e.
the household voltage. The power may already have been split into
single phase at this point or it may be still three phase. Where the
step-down is three phase. The output of the transformer is usually star
connected with the standard mains voltage being the phase neutral
3. Electrical generatorAn electrical generator is a device that coverts mechanical energy to
electrical energy, using electromagnetic induction whereas electrical
energy is converted to mechanical energy with the help of electric
motor. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating turbine
steam engine. Turbines are made in variety of sizes ranging from small
1 hp(0.75 kW) used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and
other shaft driven equipment to 2,000,000 hp(1,500,000 kW) turbines
used to generate electricity.

4. Boiler Feed PumpA Boiler Feed Pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water
into steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning
condensation of steam produced by the boiler. These pumps are
normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return
system and can be of centrifugal pump type or positive displacement
type. Construction and Operation feed water pumps range in size upto
many horsepower and the electric motor is usually separated from the
pump body by some form of mechanical coupling. Large industrial
condensate pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. In either
case, to force water into the boiler, the pump must generate sufficient
pressure to overcome the steam pressure developed by the boiler.
This is usually accomplished through the use of centrifugal pump.
Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are controlled by a
float switch or other similar level-sensing device energizing the pump
when it detect a lowered liquid level in the boiler substantially
Some pumps contain a two stage switch. As liquid lowers to the trigger
point of the first stage, the pump is activated.
If the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump has failed,
its supply has been cut-off or exhausted, or its discharge is
blocked),the second stage will be triggered. This stage may switch off
the boiler equipment (preventing the boiler from running dry and
overheating), trigger an alarm or both.

5. Control valvesControl Valves are the valves used within industrial plants and
elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature,
pressure, flow and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in
response to signals received from controllers that compares a set
point to a process variable whose value is provided by sensors that
monitor changes in such conditions. The opening or closing of control
valves is done by means of electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic systems.
6. DeaeratorA Deaerator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved
gases from boiler feed water to make it non-corrosive. A deaerator
typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section as the
deaeration feed water tank. A steam generating boiler requires that
the circulating steam, condensate and feed water should be devoid of
dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or
suspended solids. The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal.
The solids will deposit on heating surfaces giving rise to localized
heating and tube ruptures due to overheating. Deaerator level and
pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valves-the level by
regulating condensate flow and pressure by regulating steam flow.

Most deaerators guarantee that if operated properly, oxygen in

deaerated water will not exceed 7ppb by weight.
7. Feed Water HeaterA feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre heat
water delivered to a steam generating boiler. Feed water heater
improves the efficiency of the system. This reduces plant operating
costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to boiler metal when the
feed water is introduced back into the steam cycle. Feed water
heaters allow the feed water to be brought upto the saturation
temperature very gradually. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibility
associated with heat transfer to the working fluid(water). A belt
conveyer consists of two pulleys, with a continuous loop of materialthe conveyer belt that rotates around them. The pulleys are powered,
moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. Conveyer belts
are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material,
such as grain, coal, ores, etc.
8. PulverizerA pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in
a fossil fuel power plant.
9. Boiler Steam DrumSteam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. It is reservoir
of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube
boiler. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a
phase separator for the steam/water mixture. The difference in
densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the
hotter-water/and saturated steam into steam drum. Made from
high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves
temperatures 390C and pressure well above 350psi (2.4MPa). The
separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum.
Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. The steam will reenter the furnace in through a super heater, while the saturated water
at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the mud- drum /feed water
drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve, water
level indicator and fuse plug. A steam drum is used in the company of
a mud-drum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. So that
it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency
to the bottom.
10. Super HeaterA Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam
generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and
decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. Super
heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine, and were widely

adopted. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as

superheated steam; non-superheated steam is called saturated steam
or wet steam; Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in
quantity from the early 20th century, to most steam vehicles, and so
stationary steam engines including power stations.
11. EconomizersEconomizer, or in the UK economizer, are mechanical devices
intended to reduce energy consumption, or to perform another useful
function like preheating a fluid. The term economizer is used for other
purposes as well. Boiler, power plant, and heating, ventilating and air
conditioning. In boilers, economizer are heat exchange devices that
heat fluids , usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling
point of the fluid. Economizers are so named because they can make
use of the enthalpy and improving the boilers efficiency. They are a
device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust
gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used the fill it (the feed
water). Modern day boilers, such as those in cold fired power stations,
are still fitted with economizer which is decedents of Greens original
design. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped to the
boilers. A common application of economizer is steam power plants is
to capture the waste hit from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer
thus it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input ,
in turn reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output .
Economizer lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation
of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage
if care is not taken in their design and material selection.
12. Air Preheater-

Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat

air before another process (for example, combustion in a boiler). The
purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue
gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the
useful heat lost in the fuel gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are
also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature
allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. It also
allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack.
13. PrecipitatorAn Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a
particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As
air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic
precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices, and can easily
remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air
steam. ESPs continue to be excellent devices for control of many
industrial particulate emissions, including smoke from electricity-

generating utilities (coal and oil fired), salt cake collection from black
liquor boilers in pump mills, and catalyst collection from fluidized bed
catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest
coal-fired boiler application. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire
design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust)
discharge electrode designs were developed, today focusing on rigid
discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached ,
maximizing corona production. Transformer rectifier systems apply
voltages of 50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. Modern
controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing, avoiding damage to the
components. Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation
systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing
ESPs to stay in operation for years at a time.
14. Fuel gas stackA Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or
similar structure through which combustion product gases called fuel
gases are exhausted to the outside air. Fuel gases are produced when
coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other large combustion device. Fuel
gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as
well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake
combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such
as particulates matter, carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur
oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 meters (1300
feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater
aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the
levels required by governmental environmental policies and


At NTPC (Badarpur) the man two paths are the flue gas or air cycle and steam or
condensate paths.
NTPC has been in news due to extensive load sheds in many areas in delhi and the main
cause behind these load sheds was the capital overhaul of one of 210 MW units. Unit IV
was under an extensive check , which has caused shut down of the plant and the plant,
was dismantled completely to change the old parts and cleaning up the whole unit. But
capital overhaul has no meaning because such a deep checking of the plant happens once
in five to seven years.

Thermal power station burns fuel and uses the resultant heat to raise steam which drives
the TURBO GENERATOR. The fuel may be fossil(coal,oil,natural gas) or it may be
fissionable, whichever fuel is used, the objective is same to convert the mechanical
energy into electricity by rotating a magnet inside a set of winding.
Its other raw materials are air and water. The coal brought to the station by trains or by
other means, travels handling plant by conveyer belts, travels from pulverizing mills,
which grind it as fine as the face powder of size upto 20 microns. The finely produced
coal mixed with preheated air is then blown into the boiler by a fan called primary air fan
where it burns more like a gas than as a solid, in the conventional domestic or industrial
grate, with additional amount of air, called secondary air supply, by forced draft fan.
As coal is ground so finally the resultant ash is also a fine powder. Some of it binds
together to form pumps, which falls into ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. The waterquenched ash from the bottom is conveyed to pits for subsequent disposal or sale. Most
of ash, still in fine partical form is carried out of boilers to the precipitator as dust, where
electrodes charged with high voltage electricity trap it. The dust is then conveyed to
water to disposal area or to bunker for sale while the clean flue gases are passed on
through IP fans to be discharged through chimneys.
The heat released from the coal has been absorbed by the many kilometers tubing which
line the boiler walls. Inside the tubes the boiler feed water, which is transformed by heat
into staemat high temperature and pressure.. The steam superheated in further tubes
(superheaters) passes to turbine where it is discharged through the nozzle on the turbine
blades. Just as the energy of wind turns the sail of the windmill, the energy of steam
striking the blade makes the turbine rotate.
Coupled to the end of the turbine is the rotor of the generator. The rotor is housed inside
the stator having heavy coils of the bars in which electricity is produced through the
movement of magnetic field created by the rotor. Electricity passes from stator windings
to step-up transformer which increases its voltage so that it can be transmited efficiently
over lines of grid.
The staem which has given up its heat energy is cahnged back into water in a condenser
so that it is ready for re-use. The condenser contains many kilometers of tubing through
which cold water is constantly pumped. The staem passing around the tubes looses
heat.Thus it is rapidly changed back into water.

But, the two lots of water, that is, the boiler feed and cooling water must never mix.
Cooling water is drawn from river- bed, but the boiler feed water must be absolutely pure,
far purer than the water we drink (de-mineralized water), otherwise it may damage the
boiler tubes.






This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of
any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant.

This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to
transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and
recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry, all fall under this.
Instrumentation can be well defined as a technology of using instruments to measure and
control the physical and chemical properties of a material.
Control and instrumentation has following labs:
1. Manometry lab
2. Protection and interlocks lab
3. Automation lab
4. Electronics lab
5. Water treatment plant
6. Furnaces Safety Supervisory System Lab

1. Manometry lab

Transmitters- Transmitter is used for pressure measurements of gases and liquids,

its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic
capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified. It gives an output of 420 ma DC. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall. For liquid or steam
measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas
measurement transmitter is placed above pipe.

Manometer- Its a tube which is bent, in U shape. It is filled with a liquid. This
device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs.

Bourden Pressure Gauge- Its an oval section tube. Its one end is fixed. It is
provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale. It is of two
types : (a) Spiral type : for low pressure measurement and (b) Helical type : for
high pressure measurement

2. Protection and Interlock Lab

Interlocking- It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one

equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. This type of interdependence is
also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in
the specific sequence to avoid damage. For protection of equipments tripping are

provided for all the equipments. Tripping can be considered as the series of
instructions connected through OR GATE. When The main equipments of this lab
are relay and circuit breakers. Some of the instrument uses for protection are: 1.
RELAY It is a protective device. It can detect wrong condition in electrical
circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal
and faulty conditions. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage, current, phase
angle and velocity. 2. FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit,
which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit.
Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion
of silver is very small. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the
continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time. b)
The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that
produces temperatures just near the melting point. c) Silver fusible elements can
be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any
other material because of its comparatively low specific heat.

Miniature Circuit Breaker- They are used with combination of the control circuits
to. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. b) Protect the circuit in case of a
fault. In consists of current carrying contacts, one movable and other fixed. When
a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them. There are three

Protection and Interlock System- 1. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT

For high tension system the control system are excited by separate D.C supply.
For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the
equipment to energize it. Because if even a single condition is not true then
system will not start. 2. LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For low tension
system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0.415 KV A.C supply.
The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping. Hence the tripping coil is
provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails.

3. Automation Lab
This lab deals in automating the existing equipment and feeding routes. Earlier,

the old technology dealt with only (DAS) Data Acquisition System and came to be
known as primary systems. The modern technology or the secondary systems are coupled
with (MIS) Management Information System. But this lab universally applies the
pressure measuring instruments as the controlling force. However, the relays are also
provided but they are used only for protection and interlocks.

4. Pyrometry Lab

Liquid in glass thermometer - Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340

degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. It is L
shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places.

Ultra violet censor- This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of
ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly
indicates the temperature in the furnace.

Thermocouples - This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. It

comprises of two junctions at different temperature. Then the emf is induced in
the circuit due to the flow of electrons. This is an important part in the plant.

RTD(Resistance temperature detector) - It performs the function of thermocouple

basically but the difference is of a resistance. In this due to the change in the
resistance the temperature difference is measured. In this lab, also the measuring
devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just boiling water (for low range
devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices).

Furnace Safety and Supervisory System Lab

This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal.
For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and
third stage corner firing is employed. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or
induced draft fan. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height
is 18 to 40 m. It is made up of mild steel. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to
measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in
the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the
furnace. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a
spray of diesel fuel and pre-heater air along each of the feeder-mills. The furnace has six

feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. In first stage
indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed
from three feeders but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. The furnace can operate on
the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left
out under operation, to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace, which
threatens to blast it.

6. Electronics Lab
This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards. It houses various types of
analytical instruments like oscilloscopes, integrated circuits, cards auto analyzers
etc.Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. Transmitter converts mV to mA. 2.
Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes. It extracts the magnetic



The word automation is widely used today in relation to various types of applications,
such as office automation, plant or process automation.

This subsection presents the application of a control system for the automation of a
process / plant, such as a power station. In this last application, the automation actively
controls the plant during the three main phases of operation: plant start-up, power
generation in stable or put During plant start-up and shut-down, sequence controllers as
well as long range modulating controllers in or out of operation every piece of the plant,
at the correct time and in coordinated modes, taking into account safety as well as
overstressing limits.

During stable generation of power, the modulating portion of the automation system
keeps the actual generated power value within the limits of the desired load demand.

During major load changes, the automation system automatically redefines new set points
and switches ON or OFF process pieces, to automatically bring the individual processes
in an optimally coordinated way to the new desired load demand. This load transfer is
executed according to pre- programmed adaptively controlled load gradients and in a safe


The main benefits of plant automation are to increase overall plant availability and
efficiency. The increase of these two factors is achieved through a series of features
summarized as follows:

Optimisation of house load consumption during plant start- up, shut-down and
operation, via:

Faster plant start-up through elimination of control errors creating delays.

Faster sequence of control actions compared to manual ones. Figures 1 shows
the sequence of a rapid restart using automation for a typical coal-fired
station. Even a well- trained operator crew would probably not be able to
bring the plant to full load in the same time without considerable risks.
Co-ordination of house load to the generated power output.

Ensure and maintain plant operation, even in case of disturbances in the

control system, via:

Coordinated ON / OFF and modulating control switchover capability from a

sub process to a redundant one.
Prevent sub-process and process tripping chain reaction following a process
component trip.

Reduce plant / process shutdown time for repair and maintenance as well
as repair costs, via:

Protection of individual process components against overstress (in a stable or

unstable plant operation).
Bringing processes in a safe stage of operation, where process components are
protected against overstress


Analysis of processes in Power Stations and Industry advocates the advisability of

dividing the complex overall process into individual sub-processes having distinctly
defined functions. This division of the process in clearly defined groups, termed as
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, results in a hierarchical process structure. While the
hierarchical structure is governed in the horizontal direction by the number of drives
(motorised valves, fans, dampers, pumps, etc.) in other words the size of the process; in
the vertical direction, there is a distinction made between three fundamental levels, these
being the: Drive Level
Function Group Level
Unit Level.
To the Drive Level, the lowest level, belong the individual process equipment and
associated electrical drives.

The Function Group is that part of the process that fulfils a particular defined task e.g.,
Induced Draft Control, Feed Water Control, Blooming Mill Control, etc. Thus at the time
of planning it is necessary to identify each function group in a clear manner by assigning
it to a particular process activity. Each function group contains a combination of its
associated individual equipment drives. The drive levels are subordinate to this level. The
function groups are combined to obtain the overall process control function at the Unit

The above three levels are defined with regard to the process and not from the control
point of view.


The primary requirement to be fulfilled by any control system architecture is that it be

capable of being organized and implemented on true process-oriented lines. In other
words, the control system structure should map on to the hierarchy process structure.

BHELs PROCONTROL P, a microprocessor based intelligent remote multiplexing

system, meets this requirement completely.

The control and automation system used here is a micro based intelligent multiplexing
system This system, designed on a modular basis, allows to tighten the scope of control
hardware to the particular control strategy and operating requirements of the process

Regardless of the type and extent of process to control provides system uniformity and
integrity for:

Signal conditioning and transmission

Modulating controls


There are basically two types of Problems faced in a Power Plant

Mechanical Problemcan be related to Turbines that is the max speed permissible for a
turbine is 3000 rpm , so speed should be monitored and maintained at that level
Metallurgical Problem can be view as the max Inlet Temperature for Turbile is 1060 oC so
temperature should be below the limit.

Monitoring of all the parameters is necessary for the safety of both:


So the Parameters to be monitored are :

Flow of Gases
Vaccum Pressure

Pressure can be monitored by three types of basic mechanisms

Transmitter type

For gauges we use Bourden tubes : The Bourdon Tube is a non liquid pressure
measurement device. It is widely used in applications where inexpensive static pressure
measurements are needed.
A typical Bourdon tube contains a curved tube that is open to external pressure input
on one end and is coupled mechanically to an indicating needle on the other end, as
shown schematically below.

Typical Bourdon Tube Pressure Gages

For Switches pressure swithes are used and they can be used for digital means of
monitoring as swith being ON is referred as high and being OFF is as low.
All the monitored data is converted to either Current or Voltage parameter.
The Plant standard for current and voltage are as under

Voltage : 0 10 Volts range

Current : 4 20 milliAmperes

We use 4mA as the lower value so as to check for disturbances and wire breaks.
Accuracy of such systems is very high .
ACCURACY : + - 0.1 %
The whole system used is SCADA baseD.
Programmable Logic Circuits ( PLCs) are used in the process as they are the heardt of
Instrumentation .


Level low
Level H

HL switch

Pressure in line

LL switch





High level



We can use Thernocouples or RTDs for temperature monitoring
Normally RTDs are used for low temperatures.

Thermocoupkle selection depends upon two factors:

Temperature Range
Accuracy Required

Normally used Thermocouple is K Type Thermocouple:

Chromel (Nickel-Chromium Alloy) / Alumel (Nickel-Aluminium Alloy)


This is the most commonly used general purpose thermocouple. It is inexpensive and,
owing to its popularity, available in a wide variety of probes. They are available in the
200 C to +1200 C range. Sensitivity is approximately 41 V/C.
RTDs are also used but not in protection systems due to vibrational errors.
We pass a constant curre t through the RTD. So that if R changes then the Voltage also

RTDs used in Industries are Pt100 and Pt1000

Pt100 : 0 0C 100 ( 1 = 2.5 0C )

Pt1000 : 0 0C - 1000
Pt1000 is used for higher accuracy

The gauges used for Temperature measurements are mercury filled Temperature gauges.
For Analog medium thermocouples are used
And for Digital medium Switches are used which are basically mercury switches.

Flow measurement does not signify much and is measured just for metering purposes and
for monitoring the processes

A Rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube. It is
occasionally misspelled as 'rotometer'.

It belongs to a class of meters called variable area meters, which measure flow rate by
allowing the cross sectional area the fluid travels through to vary, causing some
measurable effect.

A rotameter consists of a tapered tube, typically made of glass, with a float inside that is
pushed up by flow and pulled down by gravity. At a higher flow rate more area (between
the float and the tube) is needed to accommodate the flow, so the float rises. Floats are
made in many different shapes, with spheres and spherical ellipses being the most
common. The float is shaped so that it rotates axially as the fluid passes. This allows you
to tell if the float is stuck since it will only rotate if it is not.

For Digital measurements Flap system is used.

For Analog measurements we can use the following methods :

Venurimeters / Orifice meters
Massflow meters ( oil level )

Ultrasonic Flow meters

Magnetic Flowmeter ( water level )

Selection of flow meter depends upon the purpose , accuracy and liquid to be measured
so different types of meters used.
Turbine type are the simplest of all.
They work on the principle that on each rotation of the turbine a pulse is generated and
that pulse is counted to get the flow rate.


Referring to the diagram, using Bernoulli's equation in the special case of incompressible
fluids (such as the approximation of a water jet), the theoretical pressure drop at the
constriction would be given by (/2)(v22 - v12).

And we know that rate of flow is given by:

Flow = k (D.P)
Where DP is Differential Presure or the Pressure Drop.

A valve is a device that regulates the flow of substances (either gases, fluidized solids,
slurries, or liquids) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.
Valves are technically pipe fittings, but usually are discussed separately.

Valves are used in a variety of applications including industrial, military, commercial,

residential, transportation. Plumbing valves are the most obvious in everyday life, but
many more are used.

Some valves are driven by pressure only, they are mainly used for safety purposes in
steam engines and domestic heating or cooking appliances. Others are used in a
controlled way, like in Otto cycle engines driven by a camshaft, where they play a major
role in engine cycle control.

Many valves are controlled manually with a handle attached to the valve stem. If the
handle is turned a quarter of a full turn (90) between operating positions, the valve is
called a quarter-turn valve. Butterfly valves, ball valves, and plug valves are often
quarter-turn valves. Valves can also be controlled by devices called actuators attached to
the stem. They can be electromechanical actuators such as an electric motor or solenoid,
pneumatic actuators which are controlled by air pressure, or hydraulic actuators which
are controlled by the pressure of a liquid such as oil or water.

So there are basically three types of valves that are used in power industries besides the
handle valves. They are :

Pneumatic Valves they are air or gas controlled which is compressed to turn
or move them

Hydraulic valves they utilize oil in place of Air as oil has better

Motorised valves these valves are controlled by electric motors


FSSS is also called as Burner Management System (BMS). It is a microprocessor based
programmable logic controller of proven design incorporating all protection facilities
required for such system. Main objective of FSSS is to ensure safety of the boiler.
The 95 MW boilers are indirect type boilers. Fire takes place in front and in rear side.
Thats why its called front and rear type boiler.
The 210 MW boilers are direct type boilers (which means that HSD is in direct contact
with coal) firing takes place from the corner. Thus it is also known as corner type boiler.

Igniter system is an automatic system, it takes the charge from 110kv and this spark is
brought in front of the oil guns, which spray aerated HSD on the coal for coal
combustion. There is a 5 minute delay cycle before igniting, this is to evacuate or burn
the HSD. This method is known as PURGING.
Pressure switches are the devices that make or break a circuit. When pressure is applied ,
the switch under the switch gets pressed which is attached to a relay that makes or break
the circuit.
Time delay can also be included in sensing the pressure with the help of pressure valves.
Examples of pressure valves:
1. Manual valves (tap)
2. Motorized valves (actuator) works on motor action
3. Pneumatic valve (actuator) _ works due to pressure of compressed air
4. Hydraulic valve