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z
2-m
C
6-m

B
3-m

O
4-m

r = 4m
x
A
y

3-D FORCE & MOMENT - RIGID BODY

1. A steel rod is bent into a semicircular ring of radius 4 m. and is supported in parts by
cables AC and AB which are attached to the ring at A as shown in figure above. If it is
known that the tension in cable AC is 200 N,

A. Determine the components of force Fx, Fy and Fz developed in cable AC acting at A.

Solution:
- Firstly, AC = 200 N.
- Secondly, note first the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system. (The location of
alphabet or arrow indicates the +ve direction of axis system.
- Thirdly, note both cables are in tension, thus the direction of force developed in cable
AC is from point A to point C (In this question, the cable is appropriately named in
accordance to the direction of force). Vice versa, direction of force in cable AB is from
point A to point B.
- To answer this question, one must be able to identify that the only way to solve this
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
question is by using position method: FAC = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k = F u where u = r / r .
- We should recognize that the magnitude of tension in cable AC is F = 200N .
- Next, we must first find the position vector defined from point A to point C since the
direction of force AC is from point A to point C.
! ! ! !
rAC = −2 i − 4 j + 3k
!
- Then, we have to determine the magnitude of vector rAC :
!
rAC = rAC = −2 2 + (−4)2 + 32 = 5.385
- Once we have we found the position vector and its magnitude, we can determine
the unit vector:
! ! ! !
! rAC −2 i − 4 j + 3k ! ! !
u AC = ! = = −0.371i − 0.743 j + 0.557 k
rAC 5.385
- Finally, we can use the final formula where
! ! ! !
!
(
FAC = F u AC = 200 −0.371i − 0.743 j + 0.557 k )
! ! !
= −74.2 i − 148.6 j + 111.4 k
- Therefore, Fx = −74.2, Fy = −148.6, Fz = 111.4 .

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B. Determine the direction angles θ x , θ y and θ z defining the directions of the force AC
components acting on the support at O.
C.
Solution:
- To determine the direction angles, we use the following formula:
⎛F ⎞ ⎛ −74.2 ⎞
θ x = cos −1 ⎜ ACx ⎟ = cos −1 ⎜ = 111.8 0 ,
⎝ FAC ⎠ ⎝ 200 ⎟⎠
⎛F ⎞ ⎛ −148.6 ⎞
θ y = cos −1 ⎜ ACy ⎟ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟⎠ = 138 ,
0

⎝ FAC ⎠ ⎝ 200
⎛F ⎞ ⎛ 111.4 ⎞
θ z = cos −1 ⎜ ACz ⎟ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟⎠ = 56.2 ,
0

⎝ AC ⎠
F ⎝ 200

D. Determine the components of moment Mx, My, and Mz about point B of the force
components exerted by the cable AC acting on the support at A.
Solution:
- First, we must understand that the moment developed at point B, as asked by this
question, is due to tension developed in cable AC. Therefore, we must find the
position vector from point B to point A (not from point A to point B since the definition
! ! ! !
of r in the following formula M = r × F must be from the point where rotation of
moment is taken, which is point B, to the point of where the force is applied, which is
at point A)
- Thus, by noting the +ve direction of x-, y- and z- axis system, the position vector
!
from point B to point A, rBA :
! ! ! !
rBA = −6 i + 4 j − 4 k
- Next, by using cross product formula, we have:

i −j k
! ! !
M B = rBA × FAC = −6 4 −4
−74.2 −148.6 111.4
! ! !
= ( 4(111.4) − (−148.5)(−4)) i − ( −6(111.4) − (−74.2)(−4)) j + ( −6(−148.6) − (−74.2)4 ) k
! ! !
= −148.4 i + 965.2 j + 1188.4 k

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A. Determine the vector form of force F1, F2, F3 and F4.

Solution:
- First, we must note the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system.
- For force F1, since there are two right triangles defining the force F1, we should
recognize that only rectangular method can be used to get the vector form of force F1.
- For the first right triangle:

F1z 5
3
4

F*

F1z 3 3
= ⇒ F1z = ( 7 kN ) = 4.2 kN,
F1 = 7 kN 5 5
F* 4 4
= ⇒ F* = ( 7 kN ) = 5.6 kN.
F1 = 7 kN 5 5
- For the second right triangle:

60
0
F*
F1y

F1x

F1x
= sin 60 0 ⇒ F1x = 5.6 kN ( 0.866 ) = 4.85 kN,
F*
F1y
= cos 60 0 ⇒ F1y = 5.6 kN ( 0.5 ) = 2.8 kN.
F*
- Therefore, by noting the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system, we have
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! ! ! !
(
F1 = 4.85 i − 2.8 j + 4.2 k kN )
- For force F2, we use angle method to convert the force into vector form since there
are three angles with respect to the three axes given in defining the force F2.
- It must be noted that when defining the components of vector using angle
method, the +ve or -ve value of the components do not depend the +ve and -ve
direction of axis system but depends on the value of the angle defined from the
+ve direction of whatever axis system the force is referred to.
- Thus,
= cos(180 0 − 120 0 ) ⇒ F2 x = 6 kN ( cos 60 0 ) = 3kN,
F2 x
F2

F2 y
F2

= cos(45 0 ) ⇒ F2 z = 6 kN ( cos 45 0 ) = 4.24 kN.

F2 z
F2

- As such, we have
! ! ! !
( )
F2 = 3i − 3 j + 4.24 k kN
- For force F3, we use position vector method since the force is defined by dimensions
! !
from initial point to end point; as such, we will use the following formula: F = F u
!
! r
where u = ! .
r
- Noting the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system, we have position vector and
its magnitude as
! ! ! !
r = 4i + 7 j + 6k
!
r = 4 2 + 7 2 + 6 2 = 10.05
- And the unit vector,
! ! !
! 4i + 7 j + 6k ! ! !
u= = 0.4 i + 0.7 j + 0.6 k
10.05
- Therefore, we have
! ! ! ! ! ! !
!
( ) ( )
F3 = F u = 8 kN 0.4 i + 0.7 j + 0.6 k = 3.2 i + 5.6 j + 4.8 k kN
- Finally, for force F4, this is quite straight forward since the force is directed along z-
axis pointing to negative direction, meaning the x and y component of force F4 equals
zero, which we have
! ! !
( ) (
F4 = 10kN − k = −10 k kN )
B. Determine the resultant force vector acting at point O.
Solution:
- The summation of all force vector will give the resultant force vector acting at point O
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
FRo = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 = 11.05 i − 0.2 j + 3.24 k

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45 O
C
B

E F
5
4 30 O
k = 1000 N/m

A 500 N

mass D

3. The system shown below is in equilibrium.

A. Determine the spring force EF, force in cable ACE of the pulley system, cable AD and
mass of D.
Solution:
- Here, we must note that this is 2-D equilibrium particle analysis, which we only have 2
equations of equilibrium: ∑F x = 0, ∑ Fy = 0 .
- We also have two particles, which are particle E and particle F. Which particle should we
start first? The answer to this question is best to identify first how many unknowns we
need to find on each particle. For example, for particle A, we have three unknowns -
force in cable ACE, cable AB and weight of D (mass = weight/9,81), while for particle E,
we have two unknowns - spring force EF and force in cable ACE while 500-N of force is
given. Thus, we need to start on particle E. Why? Because we have equal number of
unknowns with equal number of equilibrium equations, thus we can solve the two
unknowns.
- For particle E, to solve for the unknowns,
- Firstly, assuming all forces are going out from the particle E, we draw the free body
diagram (FBD) of particle E.

FACE
FACE y
45 0 E FEF
FACE x

F500

- Secondly, we then convert all forces into vector form (x- and y- axis system):
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! ! ! !
FEF = FEFx i + FEFy j = FEFx i
!
= FEF i
! ! !
FACE = −FACEx i + FACEy j =
! !
= −FACE cos 45 0 i + FACE sin 45 0 j =
! !
= −0.7071FACE i + 0.7071FACE j
! ! !
F500 = F500 x i + F500 y j
!
= −F500 y j
!
= −500 j
- Then, apply 2-D particle equilibrium equations:
∑F x = 0 → +ve :
FEF − 0.7071FACE = 0 …eq.1
∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
0.7071FACE − 500 = 0 …eq.2

- Solve those equations to get the spring force FEF and the force in cable ACE FACE
From eq.2 :
FACE = 500 / 0.7071 = 701.1N

(Positive answer indicates that the directional assumption of FACE in the FBD
is correct)
Substitude int o eq.1 :
FEF = 0.7071( 701.1N ) = 500 N.
- Now that we have found FACE , we can move to particle A since there are two unknowns
left, which are force AB FAB and weight D (which later will give us the mass of D).
- For particle A
- Again, assuming all forces are going out from the particle E, we draw the free body
diagram (FBD) of particle E.

FAB
FACE
5 FACE y
FAB y 4
3
600
FAB x A FACE x

WD

- Then convert all forces into vector form (x- and y- axis system):
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! ! !
WD = WDxi + WDy j
!
= −WD j
! ! !
FACE = FACEx i + FACEy j
! !
= FACE cos 60 0 i + FACE sin 60 0 j
! !
= 500(0.5)i + 500(0.866) j
! !
= 250 i + 433 j
! ! !
FAB = FABx i + FABy j
⎛ 3⎞ ! ⎛ 4⎞ !
= −FAB ⎜ ⎟ i + FAB ⎜ ⎟ j
⎝ 5⎠ ⎝ 5⎠
! !
= −0.6 FAB i + 0.8 FAB j

(Notice that the force cable ACE is 500 N, they are the same since it is one
single cable laid over a pulley)
- Next, apply equilibrium equations:
∑F x = 0 → +ve :
250 − 0.6 FAB = 0 …eq.1
∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
0.8 FAB − WD + 433 = 0 …eq.2

- Solve the equations in order to solve the unknowns.

From eq.1 :
FAB = 250 / 0.6 = 416.7 N
Substitude int o eq.2 :
WD = 0.8(416.7) + 433 = 766.3N
- Thus, to get mass D:
WD 766.3
mass D = = = 78.1kg
9.81 9.81

B. Determine the extended length of the spring if the original length of the spring is 0.2-
m.
Solution:
- It must be understood that the spring force is generated when the spring is stretched as
such
(
FEF = kΔx = k x f − xi )
FEF 500 N
xf = + xi = + 0.2 m = 0.4 m
k 1000 N / m

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2-D EQUILIBRIUM - PARTICLE

4. Determine the tensions developed in wires CD, CB, and BA and the angle θ required for
equilibrium of the 30-lb cylinder E and the 60-lb cylinder F.
SOLUTION:
- Here, we must note that this is 2-D equilibrium particle analysis, which we only have 2
equations of equilibrium: ∑F x = 0, ∑ Fy = 0 .
- We also have two particles, which are particle E and particle F. Which particle should we
start first? In this example, we can start either of the particle C or B since both particles
contain 3 unknowns. Wait? What? Three unknowns for each particle? Then, how do we
solve them? Don’t panic. Although we have three unknowns for each particle but in total,
meaning, total number of unknowns for both particles are still 4 unknowns, which we
have 4 equations of equilibrium for both particles (2 equations of equilibrium for each
particle). Don’t believe me? Let’s see. For particle B, we have three unknowns - force
BA, force BC and angle θ , and for particle C, still three unknowns - force CD, force CB,
which is the same force as force BC (BC=CB) and angle θ . So, total number of
unknowns are still four, which are BA, BC=BC, CD and θ .
- So let’s start with particle B.
- Draw FBD B with all forces are going out from particle B.

AB
BC ABy
BC y B 0
θ 45
BC x AB x

60

- Convert all forces into x- and y- axis system.

! ! !
F60 = F60 x i + F60 y j
!
= −60 j
!!!" " "
AB = ABx i + ABx j
! !
= AB cos 45 0 i + ABsin 45 0 j
! !
= 0.7071ABi + 0.7071ABj

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!!!" " "
BC = BC x i + BC x j
! !
= −BC cosθ i + BC sin θ j
- Apply equilibrium equations:
∑F x = 0 → +ve :
0.7071AB − BC cosθ = 0 …eq.1
∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
0.7071AB + BC sin θ − 60 = 0 …eq.2

(Notice that we cannot solve the unknowns since there are 3 unknowns here
with 2 equations only. So, we need to move to the second particle C)
- Now for particle C, doing the same thing
- FBD for particle C, we have

CD
CDy
30
0 E BC x
θ
CD x BC y
BC

30

- Convert all forces into x- and y-axis system, we have

! ! !
F30 = F30 x i + F30 y j
!
= −30 j
!!!" " "
CD = CDx i + CDx j
! !
= −CD cos 30 0 i + CD sin 30 0 j
! !
= −0.866CDi + 0.5CDj
!!!" !!!" " "
CB = BC = BC x i + BC x j
! !
= BC cosθ i − BC sin θ j
- Next, apply equations of equilibrium
∑F x = 0 → +ve :
−0.866CD + BC cosθ = 0 …eq.3
∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
0.5CD − BC sin θ − 30 = 0 …eq.4
- To have clear mind in solving the problem, let us rewrite all equations:
0.7071AB − BC cosθ = 0 …eq.1
0.7071AB + BC sin θ − 60 = 0 …eq.2
−0.866CD + BC cosθ = 0 …eq.3
0.5CD − BC sin θ − 30 = 0 …eq.4
- From eq. 1 and 3, we have
0.7071AB − 0.866CD = 0 …eq.5
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- From eq. 2 and 4, we also have
0.7071AB + 0.5CD = 90 …eq.6
- Then eq. 6 minus eq. 5,
1.366CD = 90
90
CD = = 65.9lb
1.366
- Substitute CD into eq. 5, we shall have
0.7071AB = 0.866(65.9)
AB = 80.7lb
- Therefore, from eq. 1, we now have
BC cosθ = 0.7071(80.7) = 57.06 …eq.7
- And from eq. 2, we also have
BC sin θ = 60 − 0.7071(80.7) = 2.94 …eq.8
- Let us now divide eq. 8 with eq. 7
BC sin θ 2.94
= = 0.0516
BC cosθ 57.06
tan θ = 0.0516
θ = tan −1 0.0516 = 2.95 0
- Finally, substitute θ into eq. 7, which we will get
BC cos 2.95 0 = 57.06
57.06
BC = = 57.14 lb
0.9987

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3D EQUILIBRIUM - PARTICLE

5. The 200-kg crate is supported by 2 cords of AC and AD with spring-cord AB as shown

above. Determine:

A. Tension force in cord AC and AD and in spring-cord AB.

SOLUTION:
- Since the question asks for the unknown forces of AD, AC and AB, such question is an
equilibrium problem and this is a three dimensional problem. Notice that all forces including
the weight of the crate coincides at one point, which is A. Thus, this is 3-D particle
equilibrium problem.
- We can solve this problem since in 3-D particle equilibrium, we have 3 equations of
equilibrium, which are ∑F x = 0, ∑ Fy = 0, ∑ F z = 0 to solve for the three unknowns — AC,
AD and spring force AB.
- As a start, we must convert all these forces into vector form to get their components in x, y
and z directions:
- For tension in cord AD:
- Looking at cord AD, the force will be in tension as such the direction of the force will be
going out from A to D. Furthermore, to get the vector form, we must use position method
!!!" !
where the following formula will used: AD = AD u AD where u AD = !
- Next, by observing the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system, we need to determine
! !
the position vector rAD and its magnitude rAD = rAD
! ! ! !
rAD = 5 i + 10 j − 3k
!
rAD = rAD = 5 2 + 10 2 + (−3)2 = 11.58
- Therefore, the vector form of tension AD:
! ! !
!!!" " ⎛ 5 i + 10 j − 3k ⎞
⎝ 11.58
! ! !

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- For tension in cord AC:
- As before, where the tension of force will be directed from point A to point C.
- To get the vector form, we use angle method where the angle must be read from +ve
axis system; thus, the +ve or -ve of the components of vector form of force AC will be
determined solely from the angle without referring to the where the force is directed to
with respect to the coordinate system.
- As such,
!!!" " " "
AC = AC x i + AC y j + ACz k
where
AC x
= cosθ x ⇒ AC x = AC cosθ x = AC cos140 0 = −0.766 AC
AC
AC y
= cosθ y ⇒ AC y = AC cosθ y = AC cos 60 0 = 0.5 AC
AC
ACz
= cosθ z ⇒ ACz = AC cosθ z = AC cos110 0 = −0.342 AC
AC
- which, we have
!!!" ! ! !
AC = −0.766AC i + 0.5AC j − 0.342AC k
- For spring tension force AB:
- There are no x and y components since the spring is directed along z-axis only. As such,
we have
!!!" " " " "
AB = ABx i + ABy j + ABz k = ABz k
"
= AB k
- Finally, vector form for the weight of 200-kg crate:
!"
! " " " "
W = W x i + W y j + Wz k = W y j
"
= −W j
where
W = mg = 200(9.81) = 1962
- Once we have all the forces converted into their vector form, we can use the summation
!
∑ F = 0 , from which, we can have the three
rule of all forces and equate it to zero

x y z

∑F = 0:
x

0.432AD − 0.766AC = 0 …eq.1

∑F y =0:
0.864AD + 0.5AC − 1962 = 0 …eq.2
∑ F = 0"
z

−0.259AD − 0.342AC + AB = 0 …eq.3

- Finally, we solve these simultaneous equations to get the three unknown forces.

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From eq.2 :
−0.864 AD + 1962
AC = = −1.729AD + 3924
0.5
Substitude int o eq.1
0.432AD − 0.766 ( −1.729AD + 3924 ) = 0
3005.78
AD = = 1711.72 N
1.756
Substitude AD back int o prior equation
AC = −1.729(1711.72) + 3924 = 964.44 N
Finally, substitude AD & AC int o eq.3
−0.259(1711.72) − 0.342(964.44) + AB = 0
AB = 443.34 + 329.84 = 773.18 N

B. Determine also the final spring’s length if the initial length is 0.75m.
- To get the final spring’s length, we use the following formula
(
FAB = kΔx = k x f − xi )
FAB 773.18 N
xf = + xi = + 0.75 m
k 3350 kN / m
= 0.98m

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STRUCTURE ANALYSIS - TRUSS (METHOD OF JOINT)

6. By using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the truss as
shown above.
SOLUTION:
- The force in each member is actually an internal force; thus, it is necessary first find the
support reactions at A and E since they are both external forces (Remember, before we
can find any internal forces, we must determine all the possible external forces first and
support reaction is one of the examples of external forces).
- To find the support reactions, we should recognize that the truss structure is supported
by pin-joint at A (2 unknown support reactions preventing the motion in x- and y-direction)
and roller support at B (one unknown support reaction acting perpendicularly to the
surface where the motion in being prevented, which in this case the reaction is
preventing the motion in y-direction).
- First, we need to draw the free body diagram to the truss structure showing all the
external forces acting on the body

Ay

Ax

Ey

- Next, we resolve all forces into x- and y-axis system.

(We skip this procedure since all forces including the support reactions are acting in
accordance with the x and y coordinate system)

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- Then, we apply rigid body equilibrium equations (Remember! for rigid body equilibrium
equations, we have 3 equations which are ∑ M = 0, ∑ F y = 0, ∑F
x = 0 ). Thus, we
have:
∑M A = 0 c.c.w + ve :
Ey (1m) − 10 kN(2 m) − 8 kN(4 m) − 9kN(3m) = 0

Ey =
( 20 + 32 + 27 ) kN = 79 kN
1m

- (Notice that always start with summation of moment, then summation of

force in y and last summation force in x-direction)
- (The formula for moment in 2D: M = Fd where F is the magnitude of a
force and d is the perpendicular distance from the line of action of a force to
the point where the moment is referred to rotate)
- (Counter clockwise (ccw) is +ve and clockwise (cw) is -ve)
- (To determine whether the force will have cow or cw moment, always use
your RIGHT-hand rule, where the four fingers are pointing to the direction of
force and while your palm is facing the point of where moment is taken, the
natural curve of your four fingers will determine whether it will have +ve or -
ve negative moment)
- (When line of action of a force passes through point of reference, meaning
the point where moment is taken or referred to, the moment due to that force
equals zero. Always take summation of moment where it will eliminates most
unknowns).
∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
Ay = ( −79 + 10 + 8 + 9 ) kN
= −52 kN
= 52 kN ↓

- (Notice that the calculated answer for Ay is -ve value. This means that the
direction assumption of Ay shown in the FBD is incorrect, thus, a correction
to it would indicate the support reaction Ay is going down)
∑F x =0
Ax = 0
- Now once support reactions are found, we need to choose which joint can we start first.
As a rule of thumb, always start with a joint that has at least one known external forces or
support reactions with a maximum number of 2 unknowns (internal forces) since in a
method of joint, the joint is treated as a particle, which when the joint is in equilibrium, it
only has 2 equations of equilibrium - ∑Fx = 0, ∑F
y =0.
- Let us start with joint C since it has one known external force of 8 kN and two unknown
internal forces of CB and CD.
- First, draw the FBD of particle/joint C. Always assume that unknown forces (internal
force of CD and CB) are going out from the joint.

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8 kN

CB C
CDx
CDy
CD

- Next, resolve forces if any into x- and y-axis system, which in this case, force CD.
- Using the ratio shown by the dimensions of the truss structure, we have

1
CDx
CDy 2
CD 12 + 2 2 = 2.24

1
CDx = CD = 0.446CD,
2.24
2
CDy = CD = 0.893CD
2.24
- Then, apply equations of equilibrium for joint/particle C
∑F x = 0 → +ve :
− CB − CDx = 0
−CB − 0.446CD = 0 …eq.1
∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
−0.893CD − 8 = 0 …eq.2

- Solve the simultaneous equations:

From eq.2 :
8
CD = − = −8,96 kN = 8.96 kN ↗ (C)
0.893
Substitude CD int o eq.1 :
CB = − ( 0.446(−8.96)) = 4 kN ← (T )
(Notice that when substituting the force CD value found from eq.2 into eq.1,
we use the negative calculated value and not the one that has been
corrected its direction. This is very important!)
- From joint C, we move to joint D since we will have a maximum 2 unknowns internal
forces of DE and DB. At the same time, we also have two known forces, which are
external force of 9 kN and the internal force CD.

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- Let us draw the FBD of joint D.

DB CD=DC
DBy
CDy
DBx
DE CDx
D
9 kN

(Notice that force CD is going toward joint D. This is because as we have

found earlier, internal force developed in truss member CD is compression.
Thus, the internal force CD is shown in such a manner. On the other hand,
since internal forces of DB and DE are still unknown, thus, the direction of
those forces are assumed going out from the particle D)
- Resolve forces that are not into x- and y- system, which in this case, force DB and
DC.
1
CDx = CD = 0.446CD, DBx = 0.446DB,
2.24
2
CDy = CD = 0.893CD, DBy = 0.893DB
2.24
- Apply 2D particle equilibrium equations and solve the equations:
∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
DBy − CDy − 9 = 0
0.893DB − 0.893(8.96) = 9
9 + 17
DB = = 29.12 kN ↖ (T )
0.893
∑ Fx = 0 → +ve :
− CDx − DEx − DBx = 0
−0.446CD − DE − 0.446DB = 0
−0.446(8.96) − DE − 0.446(29.12) = 0
DE = −0.446(8.96) − 0.446(29.12) = −17 kN = 17 kN → (C)

- Once finished, we move to joint E. Notice that you can also move to joint B but it will be
very messy calculation since at joint B, you will have 4 internal forces and 1 external
force, while at joint E, we just have 3 internal forces and 1 external support reaction.

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- Draw the FBD of joint E

EA EB
EAy EBy
EAx EBx
E DE=ED

Ey=79 kN

- Resolve forces that are not into x- and y- system, which in this case, force EA and
EB.
EAx = 0.446 EA, EBx = 0.446EB,
EAy = 0.893EA, EBy = 0.893EB.
- Apply 2D particle equilibrium equations and solve the equations:
∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
EAy + EBy + 79 = 0
0.893EA + 0.893EB + 79 = 0
−79 − 0.893EB
EA = = −88.47 − EB
0.893
∑ Fx = 0 → +ve :
− EAx − DEx + EBx = 0
−0.446EA − DE + 0.446EB = 0
−0.466(−88.47 − EB) − 17 + 0.466EB = 0
41.23 + 0.446EB − 17 + 0.446EB = 0
0.893EB = −24.23
EB = −27.13kN = 27.13kN ↙ (C)
Thus,
EA = −88.47 − (−27.13) = − 61.34 kN = 61.34 kN ↘ (C)

- Finally, we move to joint A to get the final internal force of truss member AB
- Draw the FBD of joint A, we have

Ay=52 kN

A AB

EAy EA
EAx

Page 18 of 50
REVIEW
- Resolve forces that are not into x- and y- system, which in this case, force EA
EAx = 0.446 EA,
EAy = 0.893EA.
- Since we want to solve for internal force of truss member AB, it is sufficient for us to
do the summation of force equilibrium in x-direction only; as such, we have
∑F x =0
−EAx + ABx = 0
−0.446(61.34) + AB = 0
AB = 76.37 kN → (T )

Page 19 of 50
REVIEW

STRUCTURE ANALYSIS - TRUSS (METHOD OF SECTION)

7. The Warren truss as shown in Figure 4 is used to support loads at point G and F. The
length of all members is 3 m each. Neglect the weight of the members compared with
the forces they support.
A. Draw the entire free-body diagram of the truss structure and determine the reaction
forces at A and E.
SOLUTION:
- Just like previous question, before we can determine the internal forces of truss members,
we must first determine all possible support reactions that maintain the structure in
equilibrium. In order to find the reaction forces, like always, we have to draw the FBD of the
truss structure by assuming them as rigid body; and the body is pin-supported at A - two
unknown reaction preventing the motion in x and y direction, and also at E, is rocker-
support - one unknown reaction acting perpendicular to the ground surface

Ax

Ay Ey

- Thus, to determine the support reactions, we use 2-D rigid body equilibrium equations:
∑M A = 0 ccw + ve :
−6 kN(3m) − 8 kN(6 m) + Ey (9 m) = 0
18 + 48
Ey = = 7.33kN
9

Page 20 of 50
REVIEW

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
Ay − 6 kN − 8 kN + Ey = 0
Ay = 14 − 7.33 = 6.67 kN

∑F x = 0 → + ve :
Ax = 0

B. Using the method of section, determine the forces in members CD, CF and GF.
Indicate the members whether in tension (T) or compression (C).
SOLUTION:
- In order to solve the internal forces in truss members CD, CF and GF, we have to imaginary
cut through those section and the internal forces of those forces will be revealed. Since, we
do not know yet the state of those internal forces whether they are in tension or
compression, we will assume those internal forces will be in tension as such force coming
out from the truss members will be shown (See figure below).

CD

CF

GF
Ax

Ay Ey

- In this example, we will approach the problem from the right-hand side (Please note that
you can also approach the problem from the left-hand side) and treat the sectionalized
structure as the new FBD of rigid body structure such as shown below.

CD

CF

GF

Ey

- Once the FBD is confirmed, we need to transform forces that are not in the x- and y-axis
system into their respective coordinate system, which in this case, is the force CF.
Page 21 of 50
REVIEW

CF
3
CFy 32 -1.52 = 2.6

CFx 1.5

1.5 2.6
CFx = CF = 0.5CF, CFy = CF = 0.886CF
3 3
- Now, let us apply rigid body equilibrium equations to solve for CF, CD and GF.
∑M F = 0 ccw + ve :
CD(2.6 m) + Ey (3m) = 0
7.33(3)
CD = − = −8.46 kN
2.6
= 8.46 kN → (C)

(Notice that forces of 8 kN, GF and CF produced zero moment since their
lines of action passed through point of reference where moment is taken)
∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
CFy − 8 kN + Ey = 0
0.866CF = 8 − 7.33 = 0.67
CF = 0.774 kN ↖ (T )

∑F x = 0 → + ve :
−CD − GF − CFx = 0
−CD − GF − 0.5CF = 0
GF = −(−8.46 kN ) − 0.5(0.774 kN ) = 8.07 kN ← (T )

(Notice that when the value of CD is substituted, the negative value is used
since that value is calculated based on the directional assumption given in
the FBD).

Page 22 of 50
REVIEW
10 20
2000

STRUCTURE ANALYSIS - SHEAR AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM

8. Draw a shear force diagram and also a bending moment diagram for the supported
beam with two point loads and also a uniformly distributed load as shown above.
SOLUTION
- First, we need to determine the reaction forces at B and D. Draw FBD of the FBD with pin-
support reactions at B and roller support at D. Note also that the distributed load of 2000 N/
m acting on beam section from point D and E is reduced to a single point load first in order
to find the reaction forces at these supports. As we have learnt before, the area of curve
represent the magnitudes of the single resultant load where
FR = 2000 N / m(1.6 m) = 3.2 kN . Furthermore, point or location where the single force
resultant is acting is also important when calculating the moment produced by that force; as
such the located is actually defined by the centroid (geometrical center) of the shape of
distributed loading, which in this case, is half of the length span, x = 12 L = 12 (1.6 m) = 0.8 m.

10 20
2000

Bx

By Dy

∑M B = 0 ccw + ve :
10 kN(1m) − 20 kN(1.2 m) + Dy (2.4 m) − FR x = 0
N 1.6
10 kN(1m) − 20 kN(1.2 m) + Dy (2.4 m) − (2000 (1.6 m))(2.4 m + m) = 0
m 2
Dy =
( −10 + 24 − 10.24 ) kNm = 1.57 kN
2.4 m

Page 23 of 50
REVIEW

∑F y = 0 ↑ + ve :
−10 kN + By − 20 kN + Dy − (2 kN )(1.6 m) = 0
By = ( 32.2 − 1.57 ) kN = 31.63kN

∑F x = 0 → + ve :
Bx = 0
- To solve for shear and bending moment diagram, we identify points and regions of interest,
which are as follows:
x = xA ,
xA < x < xB ,
x = xB ,
x B < x < xC ,
x = xC ,
xC < x < x D ,
x = xD ,
x D < x < xE ,
x = xE .

- Notice that these points of interest as well as their respective regions or intervals are
chosen based on the external loadings acting on the beams.
- Let us evaluate the shear and bending moment at these points and regions by approaching
the problem from left to right and using method of section when cutting at points and
regions. The shear equation is obtained by doing summation of force in y-direction with
pointing up is the +ve direction while the moment equation is obtained by taking summation
of moment with c.c.w. is the +ve positive direction. When we sectionalized the beam, the
internal forces will be revealed in accordance with the standard sign convention where see
below:

x V

- At x = xA : Initially, the beam is sectioned into a point because it is the starting point
when we approach the beam from the left hand side, thus the problem at first,
becomes particle equilibrium analysis where the moment is always equal to zero
unless there is a built-in moment at point A.

10 kN

M
N

Page 24 of 50
REVIEW

∑F y@x A =0: ∑M @x A =0
−VA − 10 kN = 0 MA = 0
VA = −10 kN
- At xA < x < xB : Here, the beam is sectioned at any point defined by x between xA
and x B . Remember! that the summation of moment especially is taken at the right-end
of your sectionalized beam, which of course, can be at any point between x A and x B .

10 kN

M
N

V
x

∑F y@x =0: ∑M @x =0
−V − 10 kN = 0 M x + 10 kN(x) = 0
V = −10 kN M x = −10x kN.m
- At x = xB : Here, the beam is sectioned at x = xB as shown as below.
10 kN

M
N

V
x = xb
31.63 kN

∑F y@x B =0: ∑M @x B =0
−VB − 10 kN + 31.63kN = 0 M B + 10 kN(1m) = 0
VB = 21.63kN M B = −10 kN.m
(Here although we evaluate at x = x B , we still consider the part of the beam from
point A to point B, as such the calculation above is based on the rigid body
equilibrium and not particle equilibrium such as the one that we did earlier for
at x = x A .
- At xB < x < xC : Here, the beam is sectioned at any point x between xB and xC .
However, it should be noted the analysis still consider the whole beam starting from
the left hand side at x A extending to any point x in between x B and xC such as
shown below.

Page 25 of 50
REVIEW
10 kN
1m
M
N

V
31.63 kN

∑F y@x =0: ∑M @x =0
−V − 10 kN + 31.63kN = 0 M x + 10 kN(x) − 31.63kN.(x − 1)m = 0
V = 21.63kN M x = ( 21.63x − 31.63) kN.m

10 kN 20 kN
1m 1.2 m
M
N

V
31.63 kN

x = xc

∑F y@xC =0: ∑M @xC =0

−VC − 10 + 31.63 − 20 = 0 M C + 10 kN(2.2 m) − 31.63kN(1.2 m) = 0
VC = 1.63kN M C = 15.96 kN.m
- At xC < x < xD : Similar as before, the beam is sectioned at any point x between xC
and x D .

10 kN 20 kN
1m 1.2 m
M
N

V
31.63 kN

∑F y@x =0: ∑M @x =0
−V − 10 + 31.63− 20 = 0 M x + 10 kN(x) − 31.63kN.(x − 1)m + 20 kN.(x − 2.2)m = 0
V = 1.63kN M x = (1.63x + 12.37 ) kN.m

Page 26 of 50
REVIEW
- At x = xD : Here, the beam is sectionalized at x = xD

10 kN 20 kN
1m 1.2 m 1.2 m
M
N

V
31.63 kN 1.57 kN
x = xD

∑F y@x D =0: ∑M @x D =0
−VD − 10 + 31.63 − 20 + 1.57 = 0 M D + 10 kN(3.4 m) − 31.63kN(2.4 m) + 20kN(1.2) = 0
VD = 3.2kN M B = 17.91kN.m
- At xD < x < xE : Similar as before, the beam is sectioned at any point x between xD
and xE .

10 kN 20 kN 2 kN/m
1m 1.2 m 1.2 m
M
N

V
31.63 kN 1.57 kN
x

∑F y@x =0:
−V − 10 + 31.63 − 20 + 1.57 − 2(x − 3.4) = 0
V = (10 − 2(x)) kN

∑M @x =0
x − 3.4
M x + 10 kN(x ) − 31.63kN(x − 1)m + 20kN(x − 2.2)m − 1.57 kN(x − 3.4)m + 2kN(x − 3.4)m( )m = 0
2
M x = −x 2 + 10x − 4.528

Page 27 of 50
REVIEW

- At x = xE :

10 kN 20 kN 2 kN/m
1m 1.2 m 1.2 m
M
N

1.6 m V
31.63 kN 1.57 kN

x=x E

∑F y@xE =0:
−V − 10 + 31.63 − 20 + 1.57 − 2(1.6) = 0
V = 0 kN

∑M @x =0
M x + 10 kN(5m ) − 31.63kN(4m ) + 20kN(2.8)m − 1.57 kN(1.6m) + 2kN(1.6m)(0.8m) = 0
M x = 20.47kN.m

- To plot the shear and moment diagram, we test the points (x values) in every intervals or
regions to get the shear and moment values at that particular points. For example, we need
to test some points in the interval of x A < x < x B , x B < x < xC , xC < x < x D and x D < x < xE .
- It should be noted, that the value of shear and moment at points, which are not in the
intervals or regions rather the points which separates the intervals or regions, have been
found. For example, the shear and moment values at x A , x B , xC , x D and xE have been found
earlier.
- Thus by, using the values of shear and moment found at the point, we can plot first these
values before we test the values at points in the intervals and regions. This is shown below:

x = xA = 0 m : VA = −10 kN, M A = 0 kN.m

x = x B = 1m : VB = 21.63kN, M B = −10 kN.m
x = xC = 2.2 m : VC = 1.63kN, M C = 15.96 kN.m :
- x = x D = 3.4 m : VD = 3.2 kN, M D = 17.91kN.m
x = xE = 5 m : VE = 0 kN, M C = 20.47 kN.m

Page 28 of 50
REVIEW

V(x) - kN
21.63

3.2
1.63 x-m
0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

M(x) - kN.m

20.47
17.91
15.96

1
0 x-m
2.2 3.4 5

-10

- Now we need to connect those points based on the values of shear and moment, which will
be obtained from the test point values (x-values) tested in the respective intervals or
regions.
- Let us work, on the shear diagram first so that you will not get confused by the moment.

Page 29 of 50
REVIEW
- First, we will evaluate the shear values in an interval or the region: xA < x < xB :
- Based on the shear formula obtained earlier, which is written again for the sake of
clarity, we have:
V = −10 kN
- The formula basically states that whatever values of x between 0 m < x < 1m , the
shear value is constant at −10 kN . Thus, we can plot straight horizontal line, which
indicates uniform values from 0 to 1. See below.

V(x) - kN
21.63

3.2
1.63 x-m
0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

- Since, the value of shear at x = 1m is V (1m) = 21.63kN , then we will have jump in
shear values from −10 kN to 21.63kN and we should plot that jump in the shear
diagram. See below.

V(x) - kN
21.63

3.2
1.63 x-m
0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

Page 30 of 50
REVIEW

- Secondly, let us evaluate the shear values in an interval or the region: xB < x < xC :
- The shear formula, which we obtained earlier indicates the values of shear in this
region is constant. See below
V = 21.63kN
- Thus, the same thing we can do here where the value of shear in an interval
1m < x < 2.2 m is constant at 21.63kN . See below

V(x) - kN
21.63

3.2
1.63 x-m
0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

- And again, due to jump in shear at x = 2.2 m , which the value of shear at that point is
1.63kN , we must plot that jump in the shear diagram. See below.

V(x) - kN
21.63

3.2
1.63 x-m
0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

Page 31 of 50
REVIEW

- Thirdly, we evaluate an interval xC < x < xD :

- The shear diagram can be drawn such as done earlier. The shear formula in this
region 2.2 m < x < 3.4 m is constant at V = 3.2 kN , and there is a jump at x = 3.4m .
See below.

V(x) - kN
21.63

3.2
1.63 x-m
0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

- Finally, we evaluate the final region of xD < x < xE :

- Here, the shear diagram will not be uniform or constant. The shear formula for this
interval or region 3.4 m < x < 5 m is shown below.
V = (10 − 2(x)) kN
- To get the shear values, we must evaluate certain points of x . For example, let us test
value at x = 4 , which from the shear formula, we will have V = (10 − 2(4)) = 2 kN
Now, we have three points of shear value at x ≈ 3.4 m, x = 4 m and x ≈ 5 m , which give
3.2 kN, 2 kN and 0 kN . Now we can plot the shear diagram for this region. See below.
NOTE: We can also just plot a straight line since the shear equation is a line equation.

V(x) - kN
21.63

3.2
2
x-m
0 1.63 1 2.2 3.4 4 5

-10
Page 32 of 50
REVIEW

- Now, let us work on the moment diagram, which we have drawn earlier based on points
that separating the region. For the sake of clarity, the moment diagram is shown again.

M(x) - kN.m

20.47
17.91
15.96

1
0 x-m
2.2 3.4 5

-10

- And we start with interval xA < x < xB .

- The moment equation is written here again, which we have
M x = −10x kN.m
- Notice that the moment equation is one-order equation, which represents straight line.
There are two ways of how to plot the diagram for this region. The first one, is by
testing few points of x value in that region, which this will give few moment values
based on the tested points. However, rather than doing that, which will waste our time,
we go for the second method. In the second method, we simply recognize that the
moment equation shown above is a straight line equation. Thus, rather than
interpolating the moment values based on certain x values in that region, we can just
connect the points at x = 0 with moment value of M x=0 = 0 kN.m and at x = 1m with a
moment value of M x=1 = −10 kN.m . In another word, we just connect points (0,0) and
(1,−10) , which shown in the diagram above. See below.

M(x) - kN.m

20.47
17.91
15.96

1
0 x-m
2.2 3.4 5

-10

Page 33 of 50
REVIEW
- Now, for the second region or interval of xB < x < xC :
- Notice that the moment equation obtained earlier and is shown below is actually a first
order equation, which indicates a straight line.
M x = ( 21.63x − 31.63) kN.m
- Thus, just like before, rather than interpolate moment values in that region, we use the
second approach where we just connect the two points of (1,−10) and (2.2, 15.96)
forming a straight line since as we have seen earlier, the moment equation is indeed a
straight line. Thus, we have

M(x) - kN.m

20.47
17.91
15.96

1
0 x-m
2.2 3.4 5

-10

- For the next interval or region of xC < x < xD :

- Again, the moment equation obtained earlier for this interval indicates the moment
diagram is still represented by a straight line. For the sake of clarity and as we have
done earlier, the moment equation is again shown below.
M x = (1.63x + 12.37 ) kN.m
- Thus, as has been done earlier, we just connect these points of (2.2, 15.96) and
(3.4, − 17.91) to form a straight line of moment equation for that interval. See below.

M(x) - kN.m

20.47
17.91
15.96

1
0 x-m
2.2 3.4 5

-10

Page 34 of 50
REVIEW
- Finally, for the last interval of xD < x < xE :
- Here, based on the moment equation obtained earlier, we have a second order
equation:
M x = −x 2 + 10x − 4.528
- This indicates that we will not have a straight line like we have done earlier, instead we
will have a curve line. But what kind of curve we need to draw?
- The only way to draw such a curve, we need to interpolate the moment value based
on tested value of x in that region.
- Here, we will test two point to get the best curve:
- At x = 4 :
M x = −(4)2 + 10(4) − 4.528 = 19.472
- At x = 4.5 :
M x = −(4.5)2 + 10(4.5) − 4.528 = 20.222
- Now, having these points, we can connect all the following points
(3.5,17.91), (4, 19.47), (4.5, 20.22) and (5, 20.47) ; as such the moment diagram is
shown below:

M(x) - kN.m
20.22
19.47

1
0 x-m
2.2 3.4 4 4.5 5

-10

- Well, that;s it.

Page 35 of 50
REVIEW
STRUCTURE ANALYSIS - SHEAR AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM

9. Draw a shear force diagram and also a bending moment diagram for the supported
beam with three point loads and also a uniformly distributed load as shown below

SOLUTION
- The solution that is shown here is basically the same as before but the details or
explanation will be left out.
- As usual, before we can find any internal force such as shear and moment, we need to
solve for all the external forces, which in this problem, the support reactions need to be
defined first.
- To solve for the support reactions, we apply 2-D rigid body equilibrium analysis:
- Draw the FBD showing the pin-support at B (2 unknown reactions in x- and y-
direction) and roller support at E (1 unknown reaction acting perpendicular to the
ground surface). All unknown reactions are assumed in the their +ve directions.
- In drawing the FBD, we simplify the distributed load of 2500 N/m into single point load
and the centroid of the distributed loading is acting at the center such as shown below:
FR = (2.5 kN / m)(2 m) = 5 kN.
x = 2 m / 2 = 1m

_
x F R = 5kN

Bx
By Ey

- Convert all forces into x- and y- system if necessary, which in this case, this step is
omitted since all external loads and the support reactions follow x- and y- system.
- Apply 2-D rigid body equilibrium equations:
∑M B = 0 c.c.w : +ve
12 kN(1m) − FR (1m) − 9kN(3m) + Ey (4 m) − 16kN(5 m) = 0

Ey =
( 5(1) + 27 + 90 − 12 ) kN.m = 27.5 kN
4m

Notice that the summation of moment is taken at point B since it eliminates By and Bx.

Page 36 of 50
REVIEW

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :
−12 + By − 5 − 9 + Ey − 16 = 0
By = 12 + 5 + 9 + 16 − Ey = 42 − 27.5 = 14.5 kN

∑F x = 0 → +ve :
Bx = 0

- Once we have found the reaction forces, we identify the points and regions/interval, which
are shown below:
x = xA ,
xA < x < xB ,
x = xB ,
x B < x < xC ,
x = xC ,
xC < x < x D ,
x = xD ,
x D < x < xE ,
x = xE ,
xE < x < xF ,
x = xF ,

- In analyzing these points and intervals, we skip the FBD-method of section analysis and
straight away do the summation of forces in y-direction and moment to get the shear and
moment values and formulas. If you are not sure how the following shear and moment
equations are obtained, please refer previous exercise or you can fictitiously section the
respective points or intervals and always approach the problem from the left-hand side.
- At x = xA :
∑F y@x A =0: ∑M @x A =0
−VA − 12 kN = 0 MA = 0
VA = −12 kN
- At xA < x < xB :
∑F y@x =0: ∑M @x =0
−V − 12 kN = 0 M x + 12 kN(x) = 0
V = −12 kN M x = −12x kN.m
- At x = xB :
∑F y@x B =0: ∑M @x B =0
−VB − 12 kN + 14.5 = 0 M B + 12kN(1m) = 0
VB = 2.5 kN M B = −12 kN.m

Page 37 of 50
REVIEW
- At xB < x < xC :
∑F y@x =0:
−V − 12 kN + 14.5 kN − (2.5 kN / m)(x − 1)m = 0
V = (2.5 − 2.5x)kN

∑M @x =0:
x −1
M x + 12(x) − By (x − 1) + 2.5(x − 1)( )=0
2
M x = (−1.25x 2 + 5x − 15.75)kN.m

- At x = xC :
∑F y@xC =0:
−VC − 12 kN + 14.5 − 2.5(2) = 0
VC = −2.5 kN

∑M @xC =0:
M C + 12 kN (3m) − By (2 m) + FR (1m) = 0
M C = −12 kN.m

- At xC < x < xD :
∑F y@x =0:
−V − 12 kN + 14.5 kN − (2.5 kN / m)(2 m) = 0
V = −2.5 kN

∑M @x =0:
M x + 12(x) − By (x − 1) + (2.5 kN / m)(2 m)(x − (1+ x ) = 0
M x = −12x + 14.5x − 14.5 − 5x + 10 = 0
M x = (−2.5x − 4.5)kN.m

- At x = xD :
∑F y@x D =0:
−VD − 12 kN + 14.5 − 2.5(2) − 9 = 0
VD = −11.5 kN

∑M @x D =0:
M D + 12 kN (4 m) − By (3m) + FR (2 m) = 0
M D = −14.5 kN.m

- At xD < x < xE :
∑F y@x =0:
−V − 12 kN + 14.5 kN − (2.5 kN / m)(2 m) − 9 kN = 0
V = −11.5 kN

Page 38 of 50
REVIEW

∑M @x =0:
M x + 12(x) − By (x − 1) + (2.5 kN / m)(2 m)(x − (1+ x ) + 9(x − 4) = 0
M x = −12x + 14.5x − 14.5 − 5x + 10 − 9x + 36 = 0
M x = (−11.5x + 31.5)kN.m

- At x = xE :
∑F y@xE =0:
−VE − 12 kN + 14.5 − 2.5(2) − 9 + 27.5 = 0
VE = 16 kN

∑M @xE =0:
M E + 12 kN (5 m) − By (4 m) + FR (3m) + 9(1m) = 0
M E = −26 kN.m

- At xE < x < xF :
∑F y@x =0:
−V − 12 kN + 14.5 kN − (2.5 kN / m)(2 m) − 9 kN + 27.5 = 0
V = 16 kN

∑M @x =0:
M x + 12(x) − By (x − 1) + (2.5 kN / m)(2 m)(x − (1+ x ) + 9(x − 4) − Ey (x − 5) = 0
M x = −12x + 14.5x − 14.5 − 5x + 10 − 9x + 36 + 27.5x − 137.5 = 0
M x = (16x − 106)kN.m

- At x = xF :
∑F y@xE =0:
−VF − 12 kN + 14.5 − 2.5(2) − 9 + 27.5 − 16 = 0
VF = 0 kN

∑M @xE =0:
M E + 12 kN (6 m) − By (5 m) + FR (4 m) + 9(2 m) − 27.5(1m) = 0
M E = −10 kN.m
- Let us now draw the shear and moment diagrams based on points of interest before we
draw the diagrams based on regions or intervals. Rewrite again, we have:
x = xA = 0 m : VA = −12 kN, M A = 0 kN.m
x = x B = 1m : VB = 2.5 kN, M B = 12 kN.m
x = xC = 3m : VC = −2.5 kN, M C = −12 kN.m
x = xD = 4 m : VD = −11.5 kN, M D = −14.5 kN.m
x = xE = 5 m : VE = 16 kN, M E = −26 kN.m
x = xF = 6 m : VF = 0 kN, M F = −10 kN.m

Page 39 of 50
REVIEW

V(x) - kN
16

2.5 2 3 4
0 x-m
1 5 6
-2.5

-11.5
-12

M(x) - kN.m

1 3 4 5 6
0 x-m
2
-10
-12
-14.5

-26

- Now, let us evaluate the shear and moment formula in the intervals or regions in order to
draw the complete shear and moment diagrams.
xA < x < xB :
V = −12 kN, M = −12x kN.m
x B < x < xC :
V = (2.5 − 2.5x)kN, M x = (−1.25x 2 + 5x − 15.75)kN.m
xC < x < x D :
V = −2.5 kN, M x = (−2.5x − 4.5)kN.m
x D < x < xE :
V = −11.5 kN, M x = (−11.5x + 31.5)kN.m
xE < x < xF :
V = 16 kN, M x = (16x − 106)kN.m

Page 40 of 50
REVIEW

- Looking at the shear formulas shown in the interval above, all the values are constant or
straight horizontal lines with their respective jumps at all intervals except in the interval
x B < x < xC , where it is a first-order equations or in another word, it is a straight line
equation with slope. That sloping straight line is due to the distributed loading acting in that
interval. Using those data, the complete shear diagram as follows:

V(x) - kN
16

2.5 2 3 4 5
0 x-m
1 6
-2.5

-11.5
-12

- As for moment formula, we can see that all equations are first order equation, which
indicates they are straight lines with their own respective slopes except for interval
x B < x < xC where a distributed loading is acting. The curve for that region is not a straight
line since the moment equation is a second order equation. This requires interpolations,
however, notice that at x = 1m and at x = 3m , the moment values are the same, which is
−12 kN.m . Thus, how do we draw such curve? Previously we only need two points in
between such region; however, in this case, we need three points, which for example:
x = 1.5m : M (x = 1.5) = (−1.25(1.5 2 ) + 5(1.5) − 15.75) = −11.06 kN.m
x = 2m : M (x = 2) = (−1.25(2 2 ) + 5(2) − 15.75)= −10.75 kN.m
x = 2.5m : M (x = 2.5) = (−1.25(2.5 2 ) + 5(2.5) − 15.75) = −11.06 kN.m
- Thus, the complete moment diagram is as follows:

M(x) - kN.m

1 3 4 5 6
0 x-m
2
-10
-12
-14.5

-26

Page 41 of 50
REVIEW
FIRST MOMENT OF INERTIA AND CENTROID

10. For the shaded area shown above, answer the following questions.
a. Determine the first moment with respect to the x and y axes.
b. The location of the centroid
SOLUTION PART A:
- As we can see here, the composite shape is consisting of several simple shapes. Thus, we
need to divide the composite shape into several simple shapes before analysis can be
done. Note that it is up to you on how to divide the composite shape into simple shapes.

B
C
D

E
A

- Here, we have A - rectangular shape, B - square shape, C - triangle, D - small circle and E -
larger circle.
- It is best for us to use table in determining first moment of inertia:
Shape Area, A x y xA yA
(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

A (100+100)*(100 (100+45)/2 = (100+100)/2 = 1.05125x106 1.45x106

+45) = 14.5x103 72.5 100

1x103 = 250

C 0.5*45*100 = 100+⅓(45) = 100+100+ 0.25875x106 0.524993x106

2.25x103 115 ⅓(100) =
233.33

-0.314x103

-1.257x103

- Notice that for Area: A+B+C-D-E.

Page 42 of 50
REVIEW
- Notice that when getting the centroids of each simple shapes, the reference points are
always based on the given x- and y- axis system shown in the figure.
- Thus, the first moment of inertia with respect to x- axis:
Qx = ∑ y A = 1.910834 × 10 6 mm 3
- And the first moment of inertia with respect to y-axis:
Qy = ∑ x A = 1.20292 × 10 6 mm 3
- Notice the formula!!!

SOLUTION PART B):

- To determine the centroid with respect to x-axis, we use the following formula:

X=
Qy
=
∑ xA
∑A ∑A
1.20292 × 10 6 mm 3
= = 74.35 mm
16.179 × 10 3 mm 2
- And the centroid with respect to y-axis, the following formula is used:

Y=
Qx
=
∑ yA
∑A ∑A
1.910834 × 10 6 mm 3
= = 118.11mm
16.179 × 10 3 mm 2
- Again, note the formula!!!!

Page 43 of 50
REVIEW
5.4 First Moments of Areas and Lines
225

Shape x y Area

h h bh
Triangular area C
y 3 2

b b
2 2

Quarter-circular 4r 4r !r 2
area 3! 3! 4
C C
r
y
Semicircular area O 4r !r 2
O 0
x 3! 2

Quarter-elliptical 4a 4b ! ab
area 3! 3! 4
C C b
y
O 4b ! ab
Semielliptical O
x a 0
area 3! 2

Semiparabolic a 3a 3h 2ah
area 8 5 3
C C h
y
Parabolic area O 3h 4ah
0
O 5 3
x a

a
y = kx2
Parabolic spandrel 3a 3h ah
h
C 4 10 3
y
O
x

y = kxn n+1 n+1 ah

General spandrel h a h
n+2 4n + 2 n+1
C y
O
x

r
2r sin α
Circular sector ! 0 αr 2

O ! C

Fig. 5.8A Centroids of common shapes of areas.

Page 44 of 50
REVIEW
FIRST MOMENT OF INERTIA AND CENTROID

(a) (b)
11. For the plane area as shown in(a) and (b) above, determine the first moments with
respect to x and y axes and also the location of centroid in the x and y directions.
SOLUTION FOR PART (A)
- The composite shape consists of 1 rectangular and semi-circle such as shown below (A-B):

- Now we construct the usual table shown below and fill in the necessary information:

Shape Area x y xA yA
(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

-14.14

Total 81.86 366 491.16

- Note that the centroids of each simple shape is based on the given x- and y-axis system
- Thus, the first moment of inertia with respect to x- axis:
Qx = ∑ yA = 491.16 mm 3
- First moment of inertia with respect to y-axis:
Qy = ∑ xA = 366 mm 3
- The centroid with respect to x-axis:

Page 45 of 50
REVIEW

X=
∑ xA = 366 = 4.5 mm
∑ A 81.66
- And the centroid with respect to y-axis:

Y=
∑ yA = 491.16 = 6 mm
∑ A 81.66
SOLUTION FOR PART B)
- The composite shape consists of several simple shapes such as shown below

C B

- Basically, it is A+B+C-D.
- Constructing the table:
Shape Area x y xA yA
(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

2688 -24 -28

324 -24 6

108 -40 6

-904.8 -24 -45.8

Total 2215.2 -54892.8 -31232.16

- Note that the centroids of each simple shape is based on the given x- and y-axis system.
- Thus, the first moment of inertia with respect to x- axis:
Qx = ∑ yA = −31232.16 mm 3
- First moment of inertia with respect to y-axis:
Qy = ∑ xA = −54892.8 mm 3
- The centroid with respect to x-axis:

X=
∑ xA = −54892.8 = −24.8 mm
∑ A 2215.2
- And the centroid with respect to y-axis:

Y=
∑ yA = −31232.16 = −14.1mm
∑ A 2215.2
Page 46 of 50
REVIEW
CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA|
(IT IS ACTUALLY A SECOND MOMENT OF INERTIA AND NOT THE FIRST MOMENT OF
INERTIA)

12. Based on the cross-sectional plane area as shown below, determine the location of
centroid and also the moment of inertia with respect to x-axis only

(a) (b)

SOLUTION PART A
- FOR CENTROID:
- The composite shape is consisting of several simple shapes such as shown below or
A+B+C-D:

C D A
B

- Constructing the table to determine the centroid of the composite shape:

Shape Area x y xA yA
(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

72x103 -150 120

18x103 50 80

C 0.5*pi*1202 = -(300+4/3*120/pi) 120 -7.937358x106 2.7144x106

22.62x103 = -350.9

-17.671x103

Total 94.95x103 -12.536x106 10.674x106

- Note that the centroids of each simple shape is based on the given x- and y-axis system.
- The centroid with respect to x-axis:

X=
∑ xA = −12.536 × 10 6
= −132 mm
∑ A 94.95x10 3

Page 47 of 50
REVIEW

- And the centroid with respect to y-axis:

Y=
∑ yA = 10.674 × 10 6
= 112.4 mm
∑ A 94.95 × 10 3

- FOR MOMENT OF INERTIA:

- Based on the same figure showing all the simple shapes that made up the composite
shape, we construct the following table:
Shape Area dx dy Ix Iy I x = I x + Ad y2 I y = I y + Ad x2
(mm2) (mm) (mm)
(mm4) (mm4) (mm4) (mm4)

A 72x103 -150 120 1/12*300*2403 1/12*240*3003 1382.4x106 2160x106

= 345.6x106 = 540x106

B 18x103 50 80 1/36*150*2403 1/36*240*1503 172.8x106 67.5x106

= 57.6x106 = 22.5x106

C 22.62x103 -350.9 120 1/8*pi*1204 1/8*pi*1204 407.158x106 2866.65x106

= 81.43x106 = 81.43x106

D -17.671x103 -300 120 1/4*pi*754 1/4*pi*754 -229.612x106 -1565.54x106

= 24.85x106 = 24.85x106

Total 1732.746x106 3528.61x106

- Note that I x and I y is the moment of inertia of each simple shape about x- and y-axis
system when the x- and y-axis system passes through the centroid of each simple shape.
The formulas for each simple shape is shown in the table given at the end of this
manuscript.
- Note that d x and d y is the location of the centroid of each simple shape from the given x-
and y-axis system shown in the original figure. They are actually equal to the centroid of the
simple shape found earlier in previous table. For example, x = d x and y = d y .

- Note that I x and I y is the moment of inertia of each simple shape based on the given x-
and y-axis system shown in the original figure.

- Therefore, the moment of inertia about x-axis system:

I x = ∑ I x = 1732.75 × 10 6 mm 4
- And the moment of inertia about y-axis system:
I y = ∑ I y = 3528.61× 10 6 mm 4

Page 48 of 50
REVIEW
SOLUTION PART A
- FOR CENTROID:
- The composite shape is consisting of several simple shapes such as shown below or
A-B:

A
- Constructing the table to calculate the centroid:

Shape Area x y xA yA
(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

32.5x103

B -0.5*pi*1002 = 125 130-(4/3*100/pi) = -1.9635x106 -1.375392x106

-15.708x103 87.56

Total 16.792x103 2.099x106 0.736568x106

- Note that the centroids of each simple shape is based on the given x- and y-axis system
- The centroid with respect to x-axis:

X=
∑ xA = 2.099 × 10 6
= 125 mm
∑ A 16.792x10 3

- And the centroid with respect to y-axis:

Y=
∑ yA = 0.736568 × 10 6
= 43.9 mm
∑ A 16.792 × 10 3

- FOR MOMENT OF INERTIA:

- Based on the same figure showing all the simple shapes that made up the composite
shape, we construct the following table:
Shape Area dx dy Ix Iy I x = I x + Ad y2 I y = I y + Ad x2
(mm2) (mm) (mm)
(mm4) (mm4) (mm4) (mm4)

A 32.5x103 125 65 1/12*250*1303 1/12*130*2503 306.583x106 553.583x106

= 45.771x106 = 169.271x106

B -15.708x103 125 87.56 1/8*pi*1004 1/8*pi*1004 -81.159x106 -206.168x106

= 39.270x106 = 39.270x106

Total 225.424x106 347.415x106

- Note that I x and I y is the moment of inertia of each simple shape about x- and y-axis
system when the x- and y-axis system passes through the centroid of each simple shape.
The formulas for each simple shape is shown in the table given at the end of this
manuscript.

Page 49 of 50
REVIEW
- Note that d x and d y is the location of the centroid of each simple shape from the given x-
and y-axis system shown in the original figure. They are actually equal to the centroid of the
simple shape found earlier in previous table. For example, x = d x and y = d y .

- Note that I x and I y is the moment of inertia of each simple shape based on the given x-
and y-axis system shown in the original figure.

- Therefore, the moment of inertia about x-axis system:

I x = ∑ I x = 225.424 × 10 6 mm 4
bee02286_ch09_468-555.indd Page 483 8/29/11 11:18 AM user-f494 /203/MHDQ294/bee02286_disk1of1/0077402286/bee0228
- And the moment of inertia about y-axis system:
I y = ∑ I y = 347.415 × 10 6 mm 4

y y' 1
I x' = 12 bh3
9.7 Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas
48
1
I y' = 12 b3h
1
Rectangle h Ix = 3
bh3
C x'
1 3
Iy = 3
bh
x 1
b JC = 12 bh(b2 + h2)

1
Triangle h C I x' = 36 bh3
h x' 1
I x = 12 bh3
3
x
b

1
r Ix = Iy = !r 4
Circle 4
1
O x JO =
2
!r 4

1
Ix = Iy = 8
!r 4
Semicircle C 1
JO = 4
!r 4
O x
r

1
Ix = Iy = 16
!r 4
Quarter circle C 1
JO = 8
!r 4
O x
r

y
1
I x = 4 !ab3
b
1
Ellipse
O x I y = 4 ! a3b
1
JO = 4 ! ab(a2 + b2)
a

determination of moments of inertia is thus a prerequisite to the

analysis and design of structural members.
It should be noted that the radius of gyration of a composite area Page 50 of 50
is not equal to the sum of the radii of gyration of the component areas.
In order to determine the radius of gyration of a composite area, it is
first necessary to compute the moment of inertia of the area.