Mechanics of Applied Structures

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 78

Mechanics of Applied Structures

© All Rights Reserved

- CHAP6 mom
- Steelwork Design Guide to BS 5950-1-2000. Volume 2 - Gantry
- Chapter No 02
- Modeling Steel Set and Shotcrete Liners
- 3Lecture Conservation Eqs
- Ftool Descrizione e Aggiornamenti
- Hands on Pre Print
- RTN_V-2154-101-A-217_A_010
- Flat Slab Details
- After Crack Frc 3
- Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 1978 Rao 271 82
- Utjecaj Vertikalne Komponente Potresa Na AB Nosače Velikog Raspona
- Dnvgl Ru Ship Pt3ch5
- NC11-1100X500-(30TH-ROOF STY
- AS-AL_SOW_9702_v3_1
- Analysis and Design of Structural Steel Members and Component
- File
- Introduction to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Element Types Used in FEA
- Influence Line
- Ejemplo Pci Precast Ch9 7

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 50

z

2-m

C

6-m

B

3-m

O

4-m

r = 4m

x

A

y

1. A steel rod is bent into a semicircular ring of radius 4 m. and is supported in parts by

cables AC and AB which are attached to the ring at A as shown in figure above. If it is

known that the tension in cable AC is 200 N,

Solution:

- Firstly, AC = 200 N.

- Secondly, note first the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system. (The location of

alphabet or arrow indicates the +ve direction of axis system.

- Thirdly, note both cables are in tension, thus the direction of force developed in cable

AC is from point A to point C (In this question, the cable is appropriately named in

accordance to the direction of force). Vice versa, direction of force in cable AB is from

point A to point B.

- To answer this question, one must be able to identify that the only way to solve this

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

question is by using position method: FAC = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k = F u where u = r / r .

- We should recognize that the magnitude of tension in cable AC is F = 200N .

- Next, we must first find the position vector defined from point A to point C since the

direction of force AC is from point A to point C.

! ! ! !

rAC = −2 i − 4 j + 3k

!

- Then, we have to determine the magnitude of vector rAC :

!

rAC = rAC = −2 2 + (−4)2 + 32 = 5.385

- Once we have we found the position vector and its magnitude, we can determine

the unit vector:

! ! ! !

! rAC −2 i − 4 j + 3k ! ! !

u AC = ! = = −0.371i − 0.743 j + 0.557 k

rAC 5.385

- Finally, we can use the final formula where

! ! ! !

!

(

FAC = F u AC = 200 −0.371i − 0.743 j + 0.557 k )

! ! !

= −74.2 i − 148.6 j + 111.4 k

- Therefore, Fx = −74.2, Fy = −148.6, Fz = 111.4 .

Page 1 of 50

REVIEW

B. Determine the direction angles θ x , θ y and θ z defining the directions of the force AC

components acting on the support at O.

C.

Solution:

- To determine the direction angles, we use the following formula:

⎛F ⎞ ⎛ −74.2 ⎞

θ x = cos −1 ⎜ ACx ⎟ = cos −1 ⎜ = 111.8 0 ,

⎝ FAC ⎠ ⎝ 200 ⎟⎠

⎛F ⎞ ⎛ −148.6 ⎞

θ y = cos −1 ⎜ ACy ⎟ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟⎠ = 138 ,

0

⎝ FAC ⎠ ⎝ 200

⎛F ⎞ ⎛ 111.4 ⎞

θ z = cos −1 ⎜ ACz ⎟ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟⎠ = 56.2 ,

0

⎝ AC ⎠

F ⎝ 200

D. Determine the components of moment Mx, My, and Mz about point B of the force

components exerted by the cable AC acting on the support at A.

Solution:

- First, we must understand that the moment developed at point B, as asked by this

question, is due to tension developed in cable AC. Therefore, we must find the

position vector from point B to point A (not from point A to point B since the definition

! ! ! !

of r in the following formula M = r × F must be from the point where rotation of

moment is taken, which is point B, to the point of where the force is applied, which is

at point A)

- Thus, by noting the +ve direction of x-, y- and z- axis system, the position vector

!

from point B to point A, rBA :

! ! ! !

rBA = −6 i + 4 j − 4 k

- Next, by using cross product formula, we have:

i −j k

! ! !

M B = rBA × FAC = −6 4 −4

−74.2 −148.6 111.4

! ! !

= ( 4(111.4) − (−148.5)(−4)) i − ( −6(111.4) − (−74.2)(−4)) j + ( −6(−148.6) − (−74.2)4 ) k

! ! !

= −148.4 i + 965.2 j + 1188.4 k

Page 2 of 50

REVIEW

Solution:

- First, we must note the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system.

- For force F1, since there are two right triangles defining the force F1, we should

recognize that only rectangular method can be used to get the vector form of force F1.

- For the first right triangle:

F1z 5

3

4

F*

F1z 3 3

= ⇒ F1z = ( 7 kN ) = 4.2 kN,

F1 = 7 kN 5 5

F* 4 4

= ⇒ F* = ( 7 kN ) = 5.6 kN.

F1 = 7 kN 5 5

- For the second right triangle:

60

0

F*

F1y

F1x

F1x

= sin 60 0 ⇒ F1x = 5.6 kN ( 0.866 ) = 4.85 kN,

F*

F1y

= cos 60 0 ⇒ F1y = 5.6 kN ( 0.5 ) = 2.8 kN.

F*

- Therefore, by noting the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system, we have

Page 3 of 50

REVIEW

! ! ! !

(

F1 = 4.85 i − 2.8 j + 4.2 k kN )

- For force F2, we use angle method to convert the force into vector form since there

are three angles with respect to the three axes given in defining the force F2.

- It must be noted that when defining the components of vector using angle

method, the +ve or -ve value of the components do not depend the +ve and -ve

direction of axis system but depends on the value of the angle defined from the

+ve direction of whatever axis system the force is referred to.

- Thus,

= cos(180 0 − 120 0 ) ⇒ F2 x = 6 kN ( cos 60 0 ) = 3kN,

F2 x

F2

F2 y

F2

F2 z

F2

- As such, we have

! ! ! !

( )

F2 = 3i − 3 j + 4.24 k kN

- For force F3, we use position vector method since the force is defined by dimensions

! !

from initial point to end point; as such, we will use the following formula: F = F u

!

! r

where u = ! .

r

- Noting the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system, we have position vector and

its magnitude as

! ! ! !

r = 4i + 7 j + 6k

!

r = 4 2 + 7 2 + 6 2 = 10.05

- And the unit vector,

! ! !

! 4i + 7 j + 6k ! ! !

u= = 0.4 i + 0.7 j + 0.6 k

10.05

- Therefore, we have

! ! ! ! ! ! !

!

( ) ( )

F3 = F u = 8 kN 0.4 i + 0.7 j + 0.6 k = 3.2 i + 5.6 j + 4.8 k kN

- Finally, for force F4, this is quite straight forward since the force is directed along z-

axis pointing to negative direction, meaning the x and y component of force F4 equals

zero, which we have

! ! !

( ) (

F4 = 10kN − k = −10 k kN )

B. Determine the resultant force vector acting at point O.

Solution:

- The summation of all force vector will give the resultant force vector acting at point O

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

FRo = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 = 11.05 i − 0.2 j + 3.24 k

Page 4 of 50

REVIEW

45 O

C

B

E F

5

4 30 O

k = 1000 N/m

A 500 N

mass D

A. Determine the spring force EF, force in cable ACE of the pulley system, cable AD and

mass of D.

Solution:

- Here, we must note that this is 2-D equilibrium particle analysis, which we only have 2

equations of equilibrium: ∑F x = 0, ∑ Fy = 0 .

- We also have two particles, which are particle E and particle F. Which particle should we

start first? The answer to this question is best to identify first how many unknowns we

need to find on each particle. For example, for particle A, we have three unknowns -

force in cable ACE, cable AB and weight of D (mass = weight/9,81), while for particle E,

we have two unknowns - spring force EF and force in cable ACE while 500-N of force is

given. Thus, we need to start on particle E. Why? Because we have equal number of

unknowns with equal number of equilibrium equations, thus we can solve the two

unknowns.

- For particle E, to solve for the unknowns,

- Firstly, assuming all forces are going out from the particle E, we draw the free body

diagram (FBD) of particle E.

FACE

FACE y

45 0 E FEF

FACE x

F500

- Secondly, we then convert all forces into vector form (x- and y- axis system):

Page 5 of 50

REVIEW

! ! ! !

FEF = FEFx i + FEFy j = FEFx i

!

= FEF i

! ! !

FACE = −FACEx i + FACEy j =

! !

= −FACE cos 45 0 i + FACE sin 45 0 j =

! !

= −0.7071FACE i + 0.7071FACE j

! ! !

F500 = F500 x i + F500 y j

!

= −F500 y j

!

= −500 j

- Then, apply 2-D particle equilibrium equations:

∑F x = 0 → +ve :

FEF − 0.7071FACE = 0 …eq.1

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

0.7071FACE − 500 = 0 …eq.2

- Solve those equations to get the spring force FEF and the force in cable ACE FACE

From eq.2 :

FACE = 500 / 0.7071 = 701.1N

(Positive answer indicates that the directional assumption of FACE in the FBD

is correct)

Substitude int o eq.1 :

FEF = 0.7071( 701.1N ) = 500 N.

- Now that we have found FACE , we can move to particle A since there are two unknowns

left, which are force AB FAB and weight D (which later will give us the mass of D).

- For particle A

- Again, assuming all forces are going out from the particle E, we draw the free body

diagram (FBD) of particle E.

FAB

FACE

5 FACE y

FAB y 4

3

600

FAB x A FACE x

WD

- Then convert all forces into vector form (x- and y- axis system):

Page 6 of 50

REVIEW

! ! !

WD = WDxi + WDy j

!

= −WD j

! ! !

FACE = FACEx i + FACEy j

! !

= FACE cos 60 0 i + FACE sin 60 0 j

! !

= 500(0.5)i + 500(0.866) j

! !

= 250 i + 433 j

! ! !

FAB = FABx i + FABy j

⎛ 3⎞ ! ⎛ 4⎞ !

= −FAB ⎜ ⎟ i + FAB ⎜ ⎟ j

⎝ 5⎠ ⎝ 5⎠

! !

= −0.6 FAB i + 0.8 FAB j

(Notice that the force cable ACE is 500 N, they are the same since it is one

single cable laid over a pulley)

- Next, apply equilibrium equations:

∑F x = 0 → +ve :

250 − 0.6 FAB = 0 …eq.1

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

0.8 FAB − WD + 433 = 0 …eq.2

From eq.1 :

FAB = 250 / 0.6 = 416.7 N

Substitude int o eq.2 :

WD = 0.8(416.7) + 433 = 766.3N

- Thus, to get mass D:

WD 766.3

mass D = = = 78.1kg

9.81 9.81

B. Determine the extended length of the spring if the original length of the spring is 0.2-

m.

Solution:

- It must be understood that the spring force is generated when the spring is stretched as

such

(

FEF = kΔx = k x f − xi )

FEF 500 N

xf = + xi = + 0.2 m = 0.4 m

k 1000 N / m

Page 7 of 50

REVIEW

4. Determine the tensions developed in wires CD, CB, and BA and the angle θ required for

equilibrium of the 30-lb cylinder E and the 60-lb cylinder F.

SOLUTION:

- Here, we must note that this is 2-D equilibrium particle analysis, which we only have 2

equations of equilibrium: ∑F x = 0, ∑ Fy = 0 .

- We also have two particles, which are particle E and particle F. Which particle should we

start first? In this example, we can start either of the particle C or B since both particles

contain 3 unknowns. Wait? What? Three unknowns for each particle? Then, how do we

solve them? Don’t panic. Although we have three unknowns for each particle but in total,

meaning, total number of unknowns for both particles are still 4 unknowns, which we

have 4 equations of equilibrium for both particles (2 equations of equilibrium for each

particle). Don’t believe me? Let’s see. For particle B, we have three unknowns - force

BA, force BC and angle θ , and for particle C, still three unknowns - force CD, force CB,

which is the same force as force BC (BC=CB) and angle θ . So, total number of

unknowns are still four, which are BA, BC=BC, CD and θ .

- So let’s start with particle B.

- Draw FBD B with all forces are going out from particle B.

AB

BC ABy

BC y B 0

θ 45

BC x AB x

60

! ! !

F60 = F60 x i + F60 y j

!

= −60 j

!!!" " "

AB = ABx i + ABx j

! !

= AB cos 45 0 i + ABsin 45 0 j

! !

= 0.7071ABi + 0.7071ABj

Page 8 of 50

REVIEW

!!!" " "

BC = BC x i + BC x j

! !

= −BC cosθ i + BC sin θ j

- Apply equilibrium equations:

∑F x = 0 → +ve :

0.7071AB − BC cosθ = 0 …eq.1

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

0.7071AB + BC sin θ − 60 = 0 …eq.2

(Notice that we cannot solve the unknowns since there are 3 unknowns here

with 2 equations only. So, we need to move to the second particle C)

- Now for particle C, doing the same thing

- FBD for particle C, we have

CD

CDy

30

0 E BC x

θ

CD x BC y

BC

30

! ! !

F30 = F30 x i + F30 y j

!

= −30 j

!!!" " "

CD = CDx i + CDx j

! !

= −CD cos 30 0 i + CD sin 30 0 j

! !

= −0.866CDi + 0.5CDj

!!!" !!!" " "

CB = BC = BC x i + BC x j

! !

= BC cosθ i − BC sin θ j

- Next, apply equations of equilibrium

∑F x = 0 → +ve :

−0.866CD + BC cosθ = 0 …eq.3

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

0.5CD − BC sin θ − 30 = 0 …eq.4

- To have clear mind in solving the problem, let us rewrite all equations:

0.7071AB − BC cosθ = 0 …eq.1

0.7071AB + BC sin θ − 60 = 0 …eq.2

−0.866CD + BC cosθ = 0 …eq.3

0.5CD − BC sin θ − 30 = 0 …eq.4

- From eq. 1 and 3, we have

0.7071AB − 0.866CD = 0 …eq.5

Page 9 of 50

REVIEW

- From eq. 2 and 4, we also have

0.7071AB + 0.5CD = 90 …eq.6

- Then eq. 6 minus eq. 5,

1.366CD = 90

90

CD = = 65.9lb

1.366

- Substitute CD into eq. 5, we shall have

0.7071AB = 0.866(65.9)

AB = 80.7lb

- Therefore, from eq. 1, we now have

BC cosθ = 0.7071(80.7) = 57.06 …eq.7

- And from eq. 2, we also have

BC sin θ = 60 − 0.7071(80.7) = 2.94 …eq.8

- Let us now divide eq. 8 with eq. 7

BC sin θ 2.94

= = 0.0516

BC cosθ 57.06

tan θ = 0.0516

θ = tan −1 0.0516 = 2.95 0

- Finally, substitute θ into eq. 7, which we will get

BC cos 2.95 0 = 57.06

57.06

BC = = 57.14 lb

0.9987

Page 10 of 50

REVIEW

3D EQUILIBRIUM - PARTICLE

above. Determine:

SOLUTION:

- Since the question asks for the unknown forces of AD, AC and AB, such question is an

equilibrium problem and this is a three dimensional problem. Notice that all forces including

the weight of the crate coincides at one point, which is A. Thus, this is 3-D particle

equilibrium problem.

- We can solve this problem since in 3-D particle equilibrium, we have 3 equations of

equilibrium, which are ∑F x = 0, ∑ Fy = 0, ∑ F z = 0 to solve for the three unknowns — AC,

AD and spring force AB.

- As a start, we must convert all these forces into vector form to get their components in x, y

and z directions:

- For tension in cord AD:

- Looking at cord AD, the force will be in tension as such the direction of the force will be

going out from A to D. Furthermore, to get the vector form, we must use position method

!!!" !

" ! rAD

where the following formula will used: AD = AD u AD where u AD = !

rAD

- Next, by observing the +ve direction of x-, y- and z-axis system, we need to determine

! !

the position vector rAD and its magnitude rAD = rAD

! ! ! !

rAD = 5 i + 10 j − 3k

!

rAD = rAD = 5 2 + 10 2 + (−3)2 = 11.58

- Therefore, the vector form of tension AD:

! ! !

!!!" " ⎛ 5 i + 10 j − 3k ⎞

AD = AD u AD = AD ⎜ ⎟⎠

⎝ 11.58

! ! !

= 0.432AD i + 0.864AD j − 0.259AD k

Page 11 of 50

REVIEW

- For tension in cord AC:

- As before, where the tension of force will be directed from point A to point C.

- To get the vector form, we use angle method where the angle must be read from +ve

axis system; thus, the +ve or -ve of the components of vector form of force AC will be

determined solely from the angle without referring to the where the force is directed to

with respect to the coordinate system.

- As such,

!!!" " " "

AC = AC x i + AC y j + ACz k

where

AC x

= cosθ x ⇒ AC x = AC cosθ x = AC cos140 0 = −0.766 AC

AC

AC y

= cosθ y ⇒ AC y = AC cosθ y = AC cos 60 0 = 0.5 AC

AC

ACz

= cosθ z ⇒ ACz = AC cosθ z = AC cos110 0 = −0.342 AC

AC

- which, we have

!!!" ! ! !

AC = −0.766AC i + 0.5AC j − 0.342AC k

- For spring tension force AB:

- There are no x and y components since the spring is directed along z-axis only. As such,

we have

!!!" " " " "

AB = ABx i + ABy j + ABz k = ABz k

"

= AB k

- Finally, vector form for the weight of 200-kg crate:

!"

! " " " "

W = W x i + W y j + Wz k = W y j

"

= −W j

where

W = mg = 200(9.81) = 1962

- Once we have all the forces converted into their vector form, we can use the summation

!

∑ F = 0 , from which, we can have the three

rule of all forces and equate it to zero

x y z

∑F = 0:

x

∑F y =0:

0.864AD + 0.5AC − 1962 = 0 …eq.2

∑ F = 0"

z

- Finally, we solve these simultaneous equations to get the three unknown forces.

Page 12 of 50

REVIEW

From eq.2 :

−0.864 AD + 1962

AC = = −1.729AD + 3924

0.5

Substitude int o eq.1

0.432AD − 0.766 ( −1.729AD + 3924 ) = 0

1.756AD = 3005.78

3005.78

AD = = 1711.72 N

1.756

Substitude AD back int o prior equation

AC = −1.729(1711.72) + 3924 = 964.44 N

Finally, substitude AD & AC int o eq.3

−0.259(1711.72) − 0.342(964.44) + AB = 0

AB = 443.34 + 329.84 = 773.18 N

B. Determine also the final spring’s length if the initial length is 0.75m.

- To get the final spring’s length, we use the following formula

(

FAB = kΔx = k x f − xi )

FAB 773.18 N

xf = + xi = + 0.75 m

k 3350 kN / m

= 0.98m

Page 13 of 50

REVIEW

6. By using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the truss as

shown above.

SOLUTION:

- The force in each member is actually an internal force; thus, it is necessary first find the

support reactions at A and E since they are both external forces (Remember, before we

can find any internal forces, we must determine all the possible external forces first and

support reaction is one of the examples of external forces).

- To find the support reactions, we should recognize that the truss structure is supported

by pin-joint at A (2 unknown support reactions preventing the motion in x- and y-direction)

and roller support at B (one unknown support reaction acting perpendicularly to the

surface where the motion in being prevented, which in this case the reaction is

preventing the motion in y-direction).

- First, we need to draw the free body diagram to the truss structure showing all the

external forces acting on the body

Ay

Ax

Ey

(We skip this procedure since all forces including the support reactions are acting in

accordance with the x and y coordinate system)

Page 14 of 50

REVIEW

- Then, we apply rigid body equilibrium equations (Remember! for rigid body equilibrium

equations, we have 3 equations which are ∑ M = 0, ∑ F y = 0, ∑F

x = 0 ). Thus, we

have:

∑M A = 0 c.c.w + ve :

Ey (1m) − 10 kN(2 m) − 8 kN(4 m) − 9kN(3m) = 0

Ey =

( 20 + 32 + 27 ) kN = 79 kN

1m

force in y and last summation force in x-direction)

- (The formula for moment in 2D: M = Fd where F is the magnitude of a

force and d is the perpendicular distance from the line of action of a force to

the point where the moment is referred to rotate)

- (Counter clockwise (ccw) is +ve and clockwise (cw) is -ve)

- (To determine whether the force will have cow or cw moment, always use

your RIGHT-hand rule, where the four fingers are pointing to the direction of

force and while your palm is facing the point of where moment is taken, the

natural curve of your four fingers will determine whether it will have +ve or -

ve negative moment)

- (When line of action of a force passes through point of reference, meaning

the point where moment is taken or referred to, the moment due to that force

equals zero. Always take summation of moment where it will eliminates most

unknowns).

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

Ay = ( −79 + 10 + 8 + 9 ) kN

= −52 kN

= 52 kN ↓

- (Notice that the calculated answer for Ay is -ve value. This means that the

direction assumption of Ay shown in the FBD is incorrect, thus, a correction

to it would indicate the support reaction Ay is going down)

∑F x =0

Ax = 0

- Now once support reactions are found, we need to choose which joint can we start first.

As a rule of thumb, always start with a joint that has at least one known external forces or

support reactions with a maximum number of 2 unknowns (internal forces) since in a

method of joint, the joint is treated as a particle, which when the joint is in equilibrium, it

only has 2 equations of equilibrium - ∑Fx = 0, ∑F

y =0.

- Let us start with joint C since it has one known external force of 8 kN and two unknown

internal forces of CB and CD.

- First, draw the FBD of particle/joint C. Always assume that unknown forces (internal

force of CD and CB) are going out from the joint.

Page 15 of 50

REVIEW

8 kN

CB C

CDx

CDy

CD

- Next, resolve forces if any into x- and y-axis system, which in this case, force CD.

- Using the ratio shown by the dimensions of the truss structure, we have

1

CDx

CDy 2

CD 12 + 2 2 = 2.24

1

CDx = CD = 0.446CD,

2.24

2

CDy = CD = 0.893CD

2.24

- Then, apply equations of equilibrium for joint/particle C

∑F x = 0 → +ve :

− CB − CDx = 0

−CB − 0.446CD = 0 …eq.1

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

−0.893CD − 8 = 0 …eq.2

From eq.2 :

8

CD = − = −8,96 kN = 8.96 kN ↗ (C)

0.893

Substitude CD int o eq.1 :

CB = − ( 0.446(−8.96)) = 4 kN ← (T )

(Notice that when substituting the force CD value found from eq.2 into eq.1,

we use the negative calculated value and not the one that has been

corrected its direction. This is very important!)

- From joint C, we move to joint D since we will have a maximum 2 unknowns internal

forces of DE and DB. At the same time, we also have two known forces, which are

external force of 9 kN and the internal force CD.

Page 16 of 50

REVIEW

- Let us draw the FBD of joint D.

DB CD=DC

DBy

CDy

DBx

DE CDx

D

9 kN

found earlier, internal force developed in truss member CD is compression.

Thus, the internal force CD is shown in such a manner. On the other hand,

since internal forces of DB and DE are still unknown, thus, the direction of

those forces are assumed going out from the particle D)

- Resolve forces that are not into x- and y- system, which in this case, force DB and

DC.

1

CDx = CD = 0.446CD, DBx = 0.446DB,

2.24

2

CDy = CD = 0.893CD, DBy = 0.893DB

2.24

- Apply 2D particle equilibrium equations and solve the equations:

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

DBy − CDy − 9 = 0

0.893DB − 0.893(8.96) = 9

9 + 17

DB = = 29.12 kN ↖ (T )

0.893

∑ Fx = 0 → +ve :

− CDx − DEx − DBx = 0

−0.446CD − DE − 0.446DB = 0

−0.446(8.96) − DE − 0.446(29.12) = 0

DE = −0.446(8.96) − 0.446(29.12) = −17 kN = 17 kN → (C)

- Once finished, we move to joint E. Notice that you can also move to joint B but it will be

very messy calculation since at joint B, you will have 4 internal forces and 1 external

force, while at joint E, we just have 3 internal forces and 1 external support reaction.

Page 17 of 50

REVIEW

- Draw the FBD of joint E

EA EB

EAy EBy

EAx EBx

E DE=ED

Ey=79 kN

- Resolve forces that are not into x- and y- system, which in this case, force EA and

EB.

EAx = 0.446 EA, EBx = 0.446EB,

EAy = 0.893EA, EBy = 0.893EB.

- Apply 2D particle equilibrium equations and solve the equations:

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

EAy + EBy + 79 = 0

0.893EA + 0.893EB + 79 = 0

−79 − 0.893EB

EA = = −88.47 − EB

0.893

∑ Fx = 0 → +ve :

− EAx − DEx + EBx = 0

−0.446EA − DE + 0.446EB = 0

−0.466(−88.47 − EB) − 17 + 0.466EB = 0

41.23 + 0.446EB − 17 + 0.446EB = 0

0.893EB = −24.23

EB = −27.13kN = 27.13kN ↙ (C)

Thus,

EA = −88.47 − (−27.13) = − 61.34 kN = 61.34 kN ↘ (C)

- Finally, we move to joint A to get the final internal force of truss member AB

- Draw the FBD of joint A, we have

Ay=52 kN

A AB

EAy EA

EAx

Page 18 of 50

REVIEW

- Resolve forces that are not into x- and y- system, which in this case, force EA

EAx = 0.446 EA,

EAy = 0.893EA.

- Since we want to solve for internal force of truss member AB, it is sufficient for us to

do the summation of force equilibrium in x-direction only; as such, we have

∑F x =0

−EAx + ABx = 0

−0.446(61.34) + AB = 0

AB = 76.37 kN → (T )

Page 19 of 50

REVIEW

7. The Warren truss as shown in Figure 4 is used to support loads at point G and F. The

length of all members is 3 m each. Neglect the weight of the members compared with

the forces they support.

A. Draw the entire free-body diagram of the truss structure and determine the reaction

forces at A and E.

SOLUTION:

- Just like previous question, before we can determine the internal forces of truss members,

we must first determine all possible support reactions that maintain the structure in

equilibrium. In order to find the reaction forces, like always, we have to draw the FBD of the

truss structure by assuming them as rigid body; and the body is pin-supported at A - two

unknown reaction preventing the motion in x and y direction, and also at E, is rocker-

support - one unknown reaction acting perpendicular to the ground surface

Ax

Ay Ey

- Thus, to determine the support reactions, we use 2-D rigid body equilibrium equations:

∑M A = 0 ccw + ve :

−6 kN(3m) − 8 kN(6 m) + Ey (9 m) = 0

18 + 48

Ey = = 7.33kN

9

Page 20 of 50

REVIEW

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

Ay − 6 kN − 8 kN + Ey = 0

Ay = 14 − 7.33 = 6.67 kN

∑F x = 0 → + ve :

Ax = 0

B. Using the method of section, determine the forces in members CD, CF and GF.

Indicate the members whether in tension (T) or compression (C).

SOLUTION:

- In order to solve the internal forces in truss members CD, CF and GF, we have to imaginary

cut through those section and the internal forces of those forces will be revealed. Since, we

do not know yet the state of those internal forces whether they are in tension or

compression, we will assume those internal forces will be in tension as such force coming

out from the truss members will be shown (See figure below).

CD

CF

GF

Ax

Ay Ey

- In this example, we will approach the problem from the right-hand side (Please note that

you can also approach the problem from the left-hand side) and treat the sectionalized

structure as the new FBD of rigid body structure such as shown below.

CD

CF

GF

Ey

- Once the FBD is confirmed, we need to transform forces that are not in the x- and y-axis

system into their respective coordinate system, which in this case, is the force CF.

Page 21 of 50

REVIEW

CF

3

CFy 32 -1.52 = 2.6

CFx 1.5

1.5 2.6

CFx = CF = 0.5CF, CFy = CF = 0.886CF

3 3

- Now, let us apply rigid body equilibrium equations to solve for CF, CD and GF.

∑M F = 0 ccw + ve :

CD(2.6 m) + Ey (3m) = 0

7.33(3)

CD = − = −8.46 kN

2.6

= 8.46 kN → (C)

(Notice that forces of 8 kN, GF and CF produced zero moment since their

lines of action passed through point of reference where moment is taken)

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

CFy − 8 kN + Ey = 0

0.866CF = 8 − 7.33 = 0.67

CF = 0.774 kN ↖ (T )

∑F x = 0 → + ve :

−CD − GF − CFx = 0

−CD − GF − 0.5CF = 0

GF = −(−8.46 kN ) − 0.5(0.774 kN ) = 8.07 kN ← (T )

(Notice that when the value of CD is substituted, the negative value is used

since that value is calculated based on the directional assumption given in

the FBD).

Page 22 of 50

REVIEW

10 20

2000

8. Draw a shear force diagram and also a bending moment diagram for the supported

beam with two point loads and also a uniformly distributed load as shown above.

SOLUTION

- First, we need to determine the reaction forces at B and D. Draw FBD of the FBD with pin-

support reactions at B and roller support at D. Note also that the distributed load of 2000 N/

m acting on beam section from point D and E is reduced to a single point load first in order

to find the reaction forces at these supports. As we have learnt before, the area of curve

represent the magnitudes of the single resultant load where

FR = 2000 N / m(1.6 m) = 3.2 kN . Furthermore, point or location where the single force

resultant is acting is also important when calculating the moment produced by that force; as

such the located is actually defined by the centroid (geometrical center) of the shape of

distributed loading, which in this case, is half of the length span, x = 12 L = 12 (1.6 m) = 0.8 m.

10 20

2000

Bx

By Dy

∑M B = 0 ccw + ve :

10 kN(1m) − 20 kN(1.2 m) + Dy (2.4 m) − FR x = 0

N 1.6

10 kN(1m) − 20 kN(1.2 m) + Dy (2.4 m) − (2000 (1.6 m))(2.4 m + m) = 0

m 2

Dy =

( −10 + 24 − 10.24 ) kNm = 1.57 kN

2.4 m

Page 23 of 50

REVIEW

∑F y = 0 ↑ + ve :

−10 kN + By − 20 kN + Dy − (2 kN )(1.6 m) = 0

By = ( 32.2 − 1.57 ) kN = 31.63kN

∑F x = 0 → + ve :

Bx = 0

- To solve for shear and bending moment diagram, we identify points and regions of interest,

which are as follows:

x = xA ,

xA < x < xB ,

x = xB ,

x B < x < xC ,

x = xC ,

xC < x < x D ,

x = xD ,

x D < x < xE ,

x = xE .

- Notice that these points of interest as well as their respective regions or intervals are

chosen based on the external loadings acting on the beams.

- Let us evaluate the shear and bending moment at these points and regions by approaching

the problem from left to right and using method of section when cutting at points and

regions. The shear equation is obtained by doing summation of force in y-direction with

pointing up is the +ve direction while the moment equation is obtained by taking summation

of moment with c.c.w. is the +ve positive direction. When we sectionalized the beam, the

internal forces will be revealed in accordance with the standard sign convention where see

below:

x V

- At x = xA : Initially, the beam is sectioned into a point because it is the starting point

when we approach the beam from the left hand side, thus the problem at first,

becomes particle equilibrium analysis where the moment is always equal to zero

unless there is a built-in moment at point A.

10 kN

M

N

Page 24 of 50

REVIEW

∑F y@x A =0: ∑M @x A =0

−VA − 10 kN = 0 MA = 0

VA = −10 kN

- At xA < x < xB : Here, the beam is sectioned at any point defined by x between xA

and x B . Remember! that the summation of moment especially is taken at the right-end

of your sectionalized beam, which of course, can be at any point between x A and x B .

10 kN

M

N

V

x

∑F y@x =0: ∑M @x =0

−V − 10 kN = 0 M x + 10 kN(x) = 0

V = −10 kN M x = −10x kN.m

- At x = xB : Here, the beam is sectioned at x = xB as shown as below.

10 kN

M

N

V

x = xb

31.63 kN

∑F y@x B =0: ∑M @x B =0

−VB − 10 kN + 31.63kN = 0 M B + 10 kN(1m) = 0

VB = 21.63kN M B = −10 kN.m

(Here although we evaluate at x = x B , we still consider the part of the beam from

point A to point B, as such the calculation above is based on the rigid body

equilibrium and not particle equilibrium such as the one that we did earlier for

at x = x A .

- At xB < x < xC : Here, the beam is sectioned at any point x between xB and xC .

However, it should be noted the analysis still consider the whole beam starting from

the left hand side at x A extending to any point x in between x B and xC such as

shown below.

Page 25 of 50

REVIEW

10 kN

1m

M

N

V

31.63 kN

∑F y@x =0: ∑M @x =0

−V − 10 kN + 31.63kN = 0 M x + 10 kN(x) − 31.63kN.(x − 1)m = 0

V = 21.63kN M x = ( 21.63x − 31.63) kN.m

10 kN 20 kN

1m 1.2 m

M

N

V

31.63 kN

x = xc

−VC − 10 + 31.63 − 20 = 0 M C + 10 kN(2.2 m) − 31.63kN(1.2 m) = 0

VC = 1.63kN M C = 15.96 kN.m

- At xC < x < xD : Similar as before, the beam is sectioned at any point x between xC

and x D .

10 kN 20 kN

1m 1.2 m

M

N

V

31.63 kN

∑F y@x =0: ∑M @x =0

−V − 10 + 31.63− 20 = 0 M x + 10 kN(x) − 31.63kN.(x − 1)m + 20 kN.(x − 2.2)m = 0

V = 1.63kN M x = (1.63x + 12.37 ) kN.m

Page 26 of 50

REVIEW

- At x = xD : Here, the beam is sectionalized at x = xD

10 kN 20 kN

1m 1.2 m 1.2 m

M

N

V

31.63 kN 1.57 kN

x = xD

∑F y@x D =0: ∑M @x D =0

−VD − 10 + 31.63 − 20 + 1.57 = 0 M D + 10 kN(3.4 m) − 31.63kN(2.4 m) + 20kN(1.2) = 0

VD = 3.2kN M B = 17.91kN.m

- At xD < x < xE : Similar as before, the beam is sectioned at any point x between xD

and xE .

10 kN 20 kN 2 kN/m

1m 1.2 m 1.2 m

M

N

V

31.63 kN 1.57 kN

x

∑F y@x =0:

−V − 10 + 31.63 − 20 + 1.57 − 2(x − 3.4) = 0

V = (10 − 2(x)) kN

∑M @x =0

x − 3.4

M x + 10 kN(x ) − 31.63kN(x − 1)m + 20kN(x − 2.2)m − 1.57 kN(x − 3.4)m + 2kN(x − 3.4)m( )m = 0

2

M x = −x 2 + 10x − 4.528

Page 27 of 50

REVIEW

- At x = xE :

10 kN 20 kN 2 kN/m

1m 1.2 m 1.2 m

M

N

1.6 m V

31.63 kN 1.57 kN

x=x E

∑F y@xE =0:

−V − 10 + 31.63 − 20 + 1.57 − 2(1.6) = 0

V = 0 kN

∑M @x =0

M x + 10 kN(5m ) − 31.63kN(4m ) + 20kN(2.8)m − 1.57 kN(1.6m) + 2kN(1.6m)(0.8m) = 0

M x = 20.47kN.m

- To plot the shear and moment diagram, we test the points (x values) in every intervals or

regions to get the shear and moment values at that particular points. For example, we need

to test some points in the interval of x A < x < x B , x B < x < xC , xC < x < x D and x D < x < xE .

- It should be noted, that the value of shear and moment at points, which are not in the

intervals or regions rather the points which separates the intervals or regions, have been

found. For example, the shear and moment values at x A , x B , xC , x D and xE have been found

earlier.

- Thus by, using the values of shear and moment found at the point, we can plot first these

values before we test the values at points in the intervals and regions. This is shown below:

x = x B = 1m : VB = 21.63kN, M B = −10 kN.m

x = xC = 2.2 m : VC = 1.63kN, M C = 15.96 kN.m :

- x = x D = 3.4 m : VD = 3.2 kN, M D = 17.91kN.m

x = xE = 5 m : VE = 0 kN, M C = 20.47 kN.m

Page 28 of 50

REVIEW

V(x) - kN

21.63

3.2

1.63 x-m

0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

M(x) - kN.m

20.47

17.91

15.96

1

0 x-m

2.2 3.4 5

-10

- Now we need to connect those points based on the values of shear and moment, which will

be obtained from the test point values (x-values) tested in the respective intervals or

regions.

- Let us work, on the shear diagram first so that you will not get confused by the moment.

Page 29 of 50

REVIEW

- First, we will evaluate the shear values in an interval or the region: xA < x < xB :

- Based on the shear formula obtained earlier, which is written again for the sake of

clarity, we have:

V = −10 kN

- The formula basically states that whatever values of x between 0 m < x < 1m , the

shear value is constant at −10 kN . Thus, we can plot straight horizontal line, which

indicates uniform values from 0 to 1. See below.

V(x) - kN

21.63

3.2

1.63 x-m

0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

- Since, the value of shear at x = 1m is V (1m) = 21.63kN , then we will have jump in

shear values from −10 kN to 21.63kN and we should plot that jump in the shear

diagram. See below.

V(x) - kN

21.63

3.2

1.63 x-m

0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

Page 30 of 50

REVIEW

- Secondly, let us evaluate the shear values in an interval or the region: xB < x < xC :

- The shear formula, which we obtained earlier indicates the values of shear in this

region is constant. See below

V = 21.63kN

- Thus, the same thing we can do here where the value of shear in an interval

1m < x < 2.2 m is constant at 21.63kN . See below

V(x) - kN

21.63

3.2

1.63 x-m

0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

- And again, due to jump in shear at x = 2.2 m , which the value of shear at that point is

1.63kN , we must plot that jump in the shear diagram. See below.

V(x) - kN

21.63

3.2

1.63 x-m

0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

Page 31 of 50

REVIEW

- The shear diagram can be drawn such as done earlier. The shear formula in this

region 2.2 m < x < 3.4 m is constant at V = 3.2 kN , and there is a jump at x = 3.4m .

See below.

V(x) - kN

21.63

3.2

1.63 x-m

0 1 2.2 3.4 5

-10

- Here, the shear diagram will not be uniform or constant. The shear formula for this

interval or region 3.4 m < x < 5 m is shown below.

V = (10 − 2(x)) kN

- To get the shear values, we must evaluate certain points of x . For example, let us test

value at x = 4 , which from the shear formula, we will have V = (10 − 2(4)) = 2 kN

Now, we have three points of shear value at x ≈ 3.4 m, x = 4 m and x ≈ 5 m , which give

3.2 kN, 2 kN and 0 kN . Now we can plot the shear diagram for this region. See below.

NOTE: We can also just plot a straight line since the shear equation is a line equation.

V(x) - kN

21.63

3.2

2

x-m

0 1.63 1 2.2 3.4 4 5

-10

Page 32 of 50

REVIEW

- Now, let us work on the moment diagram, which we have drawn earlier based on points

that separating the region. For the sake of clarity, the moment diagram is shown again.

M(x) - kN.m

20.47

17.91

15.96

1

0 x-m

2.2 3.4 5

-10

- The moment equation is written here again, which we have

M x = −10x kN.m

- Notice that the moment equation is one-order equation, which represents straight line.

There are two ways of how to plot the diagram for this region. The first one, is by

testing few points of x value in that region, which this will give few moment values

based on the tested points. However, rather than doing that, which will waste our time,

we go for the second method. In the second method, we simply recognize that the

moment equation shown above is a straight line equation. Thus, rather than

interpolating the moment values based on certain x values in that region, we can just

connect the points at x = 0 with moment value of M x=0 = 0 kN.m and at x = 1m with a

moment value of M x=1 = −10 kN.m . In another word, we just connect points (0,0) and

(1,−10) , which shown in the diagram above. See below.

M(x) - kN.m

20.47

17.91

15.96

1

0 x-m

2.2 3.4 5

-10

Page 33 of 50

REVIEW

- Now, for the second region or interval of xB < x < xC :

- Notice that the moment equation obtained earlier and is shown below is actually a first

order equation, which indicates a straight line.

M x = ( 21.63x − 31.63) kN.m

- Thus, just like before, rather than interpolate moment values in that region, we use the

second approach where we just connect the two points of (1,−10) and (2.2, 15.96)

forming a straight line since as we have seen earlier, the moment equation is indeed a

straight line. Thus, we have

M(x) - kN.m

20.47

17.91

15.96

1

0 x-m

2.2 3.4 5

-10

- Again, the moment equation obtained earlier for this interval indicates the moment

diagram is still represented by a straight line. For the sake of clarity and as we have

done earlier, the moment equation is again shown below.

M x = (1.63x + 12.37 ) kN.m

- Thus, as has been done earlier, we just connect these points of (2.2, 15.96) and

(3.4, − 17.91) to form a straight line of moment equation for that interval. See below.

M(x) - kN.m

20.47

17.91

15.96

1

0 x-m

2.2 3.4 5

-10

Page 34 of 50

REVIEW

- Finally, for the last interval of xD < x < xE :

- Here, based on the moment equation obtained earlier, we have a second order

equation:

M x = −x 2 + 10x − 4.528

- This indicates that we will not have a straight line like we have done earlier, instead we

will have a curve line. But what kind of curve we need to draw?

- The only way to draw such a curve, we need to interpolate the moment value based

on tested value of x in that region.

- Here, we will test two point to get the best curve:

- At x = 4 :

M x = −(4)2 + 10(4) − 4.528 = 19.472

- At x = 4.5 :

M x = −(4.5)2 + 10(4.5) − 4.528 = 20.222

- Now, having these points, we can connect all the following points

(3.5,17.91), (4, 19.47), (4.5, 20.22) and (5, 20.47) ; as such the moment diagram is

shown below:

M(x) - kN.m

20.22

19.47

1

0 x-m

2.2 3.4 4 4.5 5

-10

Page 35 of 50

REVIEW

STRUCTURE ANALYSIS - SHEAR AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM

9. Draw a shear force diagram and also a bending moment diagram for the supported

beam with three point loads and also a uniformly distributed load as shown below

SOLUTION

- The solution that is shown here is basically the same as before but the details or

explanation will be left out.

- As usual, before we can find any internal force such as shear and moment, we need to

solve for all the external forces, which in this problem, the support reactions need to be

defined first.

- To solve for the support reactions, we apply 2-D rigid body equilibrium analysis:

- Draw the FBD showing the pin-support at B (2 unknown reactions in x- and y-

direction) and roller support at E (1 unknown reaction acting perpendicular to the

ground surface). All unknown reactions are assumed in the their +ve directions.

- In drawing the FBD, we simplify the distributed load of 2500 N/m into single point load

and the centroid of the distributed loading is acting at the center such as shown below:

FR = (2.5 kN / m)(2 m) = 5 kN.

x = 2 m / 2 = 1m

_

x F R = 5kN

Bx

By Ey

- Convert all forces into x- and y- system if necessary, which in this case, this step is

omitted since all external loads and the support reactions follow x- and y- system.

- Apply 2-D rigid body equilibrium equations:

∑M B = 0 c.c.w : +ve

12 kN(1m) − FR (1m) − 9kN(3m) + Ey (4 m) − 16kN(5 m) = 0

Ey =

( 5(1) + 27 + 90 − 12 ) kN.m = 27.5 kN

4m

Notice that the summation of moment is taken at point B since it eliminates By and Bx.

Page 36 of 50

REVIEW

∑F y = 0 ↑ +ve :

−12 + By − 5 − 9 + Ey − 16 = 0

By = 12 + 5 + 9 + 16 − Ey = 42 − 27.5 = 14.5 kN

∑F x = 0 → +ve :

Bx = 0

- Once we have found the reaction forces, we identify the points and regions/interval, which

are shown below:

x = xA ,

xA < x < xB ,

x = xB ,

x B < x < xC ,

x = xC ,

xC < x < x D ,

x = xD ,

x D < x < xE ,

x = xE ,

xE < x < xF ,

x = xF ,

- In analyzing these points and intervals, we skip the FBD-method of section analysis and

straight away do the summation of forces in y-direction and moment to get the shear and

moment values and formulas. If you are not sure how the following shear and moment

equations are obtained, please refer previous exercise or you can fictitiously section the

respective points or intervals and always approach the problem from the left-hand side.

- At x = xA :

∑F y@x A =0: ∑M @x A =0

−VA − 12 kN = 0 MA = 0

VA = −12 kN

- At xA < x < xB :

∑F y@x =0: ∑M @x =0

−V − 12 kN = 0 M x + 12 kN(x) = 0

V = −12 kN M x = −12x kN.m

- At x = xB :

∑F y@x B =0: ∑M @x B =0

−VB − 12 kN + 14.5 = 0 M B + 12kN(1m) = 0

VB = 2.5 kN M B = −12 kN.m

Page 37 of 50

REVIEW

- At xB < x < xC :

∑F y@x =0:

−V − 12 kN + 14.5 kN − (2.5 kN / m)(x − 1)m = 0

V = (2.5 − 2.5x)kN

∑M @x =0:

x −1

M x + 12(x) − By (x − 1) + 2.5(x − 1)( )=0

2

M x = (−1.25x 2 + 5x − 15.75)kN.m

- At x = xC :

∑F y@xC =0:

−VC − 12 kN + 14.5 − 2.5(2) = 0

VC = −2.5 kN

∑M @xC =0:

M C + 12 kN (3m) − By (2 m) + FR (1m) = 0

M C = −12 kN.m

- At xC < x < xD :

∑F y@x =0:

−V − 12 kN + 14.5 kN − (2.5 kN / m)(2 m) = 0

V = −2.5 kN

∑M @x =0:

M x + 12(x) − By (x − 1) + (2.5 kN / m)(2 m)(x − (1+ x ) = 0

M x = −12x + 14.5x − 14.5 − 5x + 10 = 0

M x = (−2.5x − 4.5)kN.m

- At x = xD :

∑F y@x D =0:

−VD − 12 kN + 14.5 − 2.5(2) − 9 = 0

VD = −11.5 kN

∑M @x D =0:

M D + 12 kN (4 m) − By (3m) + FR (2 m) = 0

M D = −14.5 kN.m

- At xD < x < xE :

∑F y@x =0:

−V − 12 kN + 14.5 kN − (2.5 kN / m)(2 m) − 9 kN = 0

V = −11.5 kN

Page 38 of 50

REVIEW

∑M @x =0:

M x + 12(x) − By (x − 1) + (2.5 kN / m)(2 m)(x − (1+ x ) + 9(x − 4) = 0

M x = −12x + 14.5x − 14.5 − 5x + 10 − 9x + 36 = 0

M x = (−11.5x + 31.5)kN.m

- At x = xE :

∑F y@xE =0:

−VE − 12 kN + 14.5 − 2.5(2) − 9 + 27.5 = 0

VE = 16 kN

∑M @xE =0:

M E + 12 kN (5 m) − By (4 m) + FR (3m) + 9(1m) = 0

M E = −26 kN.m

- At xE < x < xF :

∑F y@x =0:

−V − 12 kN + 14.5 kN − (2.5 kN / m)(2 m) − 9 kN + 27.5 = 0

V = 16 kN

∑M @x =0:

M x + 12(x) − By (x − 1) + (2.5 kN / m)(2 m)(x − (1+ x ) + 9(x − 4) − Ey (x − 5) = 0

M x = −12x + 14.5x − 14.5 − 5x + 10 − 9x + 36 + 27.5x − 137.5 = 0

M x = (16x − 106)kN.m

- At x = xF :

∑F y@xE =0:

−VF − 12 kN + 14.5 − 2.5(2) − 9 + 27.5 − 16 = 0

VF = 0 kN

∑M @xE =0:

M E + 12 kN (6 m) − By (5 m) + FR (4 m) + 9(2 m) − 27.5(1m) = 0

M E = −10 kN.m

- Let us now draw the shear and moment diagrams based on points of interest before we

draw the diagrams based on regions or intervals. Rewrite again, we have:

x = xA = 0 m : VA = −12 kN, M A = 0 kN.m

x = x B = 1m : VB = 2.5 kN, M B = 12 kN.m

x = xC = 3m : VC = −2.5 kN, M C = −12 kN.m

x = xD = 4 m : VD = −11.5 kN, M D = −14.5 kN.m

x = xE = 5 m : VE = 16 kN, M E = −26 kN.m

x = xF = 6 m : VF = 0 kN, M F = −10 kN.m

Page 39 of 50

REVIEW

V(x) - kN

16

2.5 2 3 4

0 x-m

1 5 6

-2.5

-11.5

-12

M(x) - kN.m

1 3 4 5 6

0 x-m

2

-10

-12

-14.5

-26

- Now, let us evaluate the shear and moment formula in the intervals or regions in order to

draw the complete shear and moment diagrams.

xA < x < xB :

V = −12 kN, M = −12x kN.m

x B < x < xC :

V = (2.5 − 2.5x)kN, M x = (−1.25x 2 + 5x − 15.75)kN.m

xC < x < x D :

V = −2.5 kN, M x = (−2.5x − 4.5)kN.m

x D < x < xE :

V = −11.5 kN, M x = (−11.5x + 31.5)kN.m

xE < x < xF :

V = 16 kN, M x = (16x − 106)kN.m

Page 40 of 50

REVIEW

- Looking at the shear formulas shown in the interval above, all the values are constant or

straight horizontal lines with their respective jumps at all intervals except in the interval

x B < x < xC , where it is a first-order equations or in another word, it is a straight line

equation with slope. That sloping straight line is due to the distributed loading acting in that

interval. Using those data, the complete shear diagram as follows:

V(x) - kN

16

2.5 2 3 4 5

0 x-m

1 6

-2.5

-11.5

-12

- As for moment formula, we can see that all equations are first order equation, which

indicates they are straight lines with their own respective slopes except for interval

x B < x < xC where a distributed loading is acting. The curve for that region is not a straight

line since the moment equation is a second order equation. This requires interpolations,

however, notice that at x = 1m and at x = 3m , the moment values are the same, which is

−12 kN.m . Thus, how do we draw such curve? Previously we only need two points in

between such region; however, in this case, we need three points, which for example:

x = 1.5m : M (x = 1.5) = (−1.25(1.5 2 ) + 5(1.5) − 15.75) = −11.06 kN.m

x = 2m : M (x = 2) = (−1.25(2 2 ) + 5(2) − 15.75)= −10.75 kN.m

x = 2.5m : M (x = 2.5) = (−1.25(2.5 2 ) + 5(2.5) − 15.75) = −11.06 kN.m

- Thus, the complete moment diagram is as follows:

M(x) - kN.m

1 3 4 5 6

0 x-m

2

-10

-12

-14.5

-26

Page 41 of 50

REVIEW

FIRST MOMENT OF INERTIA AND CENTROID

10. For the shaded area shown above, answer the following questions.

a. Determine the first moment with respect to the x and y axes.

b. The location of the centroid

SOLUTION PART A:

- As we can see here, the composite shape is consisting of several simple shapes. Thus, we

need to divide the composite shape into several simple shapes before analysis can be

done. Note that it is up to you on how to divide the composite shape into simple shapes.

B

C

D

E

A

- Here, we have A - rectangular shape, B - square shape, C - triangle, D - small circle and E -

larger circle.

- It is best for us to use table in determining first moment of inertia:

Shape Area, A x y xA yA

(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

+45) = 14.5x103 72.5 100

1x103 = 250

2.25x103 115 ⅓(100) =

233.33

-0.314x103

-1.257x103

Page 42 of 50

REVIEW

- Notice that when getting the centroids of each simple shapes, the reference points are

always based on the given x- and y- axis system shown in the figure.

- Thus, the first moment of inertia with respect to x- axis:

Qx = ∑ y A = 1.910834 × 10 6 mm 3

- And the first moment of inertia with respect to y-axis:

Qy = ∑ x A = 1.20292 × 10 6 mm 3

- Notice the formula!!!

- To determine the centroid with respect to x-axis, we use the following formula:

X=

Qy

=

∑ xA

∑A ∑A

1.20292 × 10 6 mm 3

= = 74.35 mm

16.179 × 10 3 mm 2

- And the centroid with respect to y-axis, the following formula is used:

Y=

Qx

=

∑ yA

∑A ∑A

1.910834 × 10 6 mm 3

= = 118.11mm

16.179 × 10 3 mm 2

- Again, note the formula!!!!

Page 43 of 50

REVIEW

5.4 First Moments of Areas and Lines

225

Shape x y Area

h h bh

Triangular area C

y 3 2

b b

2 2

Quarter-circular 4r 4r !r 2

area 3! 3! 4

C C

r

y

Semicircular area O 4r !r 2

O 0

x 3! 2

Quarter-elliptical 4a 4b ! ab

area 3! 3! 4

C C b

y

O 4b ! ab

Semielliptical O

x a 0

area 3! 2

Semiparabolic a 3a 3h 2ah

area 8 5 3

C C h

y

Parabolic area O 3h 4ah

0

O 5 3

x a

a

y = kx2

Parabolic spandrel 3a 3h ah

h

C 4 10 3

y

O

x

General spandrel h a h

n+2 4n + 2 n+1

C y

O

x

r

2r sin α

Circular sector ! 0 αr 2

3α

O ! C

Page 44 of 50

REVIEW

FIRST MOMENT OF INERTIA AND CENTROID

(a) (b)

11. For the plane area as shown in(a) and (b) above, determine the first moments with

respect to x and y axes and also the location of centroid in the x and y directions.

SOLUTION FOR PART (A)

- The composite shape consists of 1 rectangular and semi-circle such as shown below (A-B):

- Now we construct the usual table shown below and fill in the necessary information:

Shape Area x y xA yA

(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

-14.14

- Note that the centroids of each simple shape is based on the given x- and y-axis system

- Thus, the first moment of inertia with respect to x- axis:

Qx = ∑ yA = 491.16 mm 3

- First moment of inertia with respect to y-axis:

Qy = ∑ xA = 366 mm 3

- The centroid with respect to x-axis:

Page 45 of 50

REVIEW

X=

∑ xA = 366 = 4.5 mm

∑ A 81.66

- And the centroid with respect to y-axis:

Y=

∑ yA = 491.16 = 6 mm

∑ A 81.66

SOLUTION FOR PART B)

- The composite shape consists of several simple shapes such as shown below

C B

- Basically, it is A+B+C-D.

- Constructing the table:

Shape Area x y xA yA

(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

2688 -24 -28

324 -24 6

108 -40 6

-904.8 -24 -45.8

- Note that the centroids of each simple shape is based on the given x- and y-axis system.

- Thus, the first moment of inertia with respect to x- axis:

Qx = ∑ yA = −31232.16 mm 3

- First moment of inertia with respect to y-axis:

Qy = ∑ xA = −54892.8 mm 3

- The centroid with respect to x-axis:

X=

∑ xA = −54892.8 = −24.8 mm

∑ A 2215.2

- And the centroid with respect to y-axis:

Y=

∑ yA = −31232.16 = −14.1mm

∑ A 2215.2

Page 46 of 50

REVIEW

CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA|

(IT IS ACTUALLY A SECOND MOMENT OF INERTIA AND NOT THE FIRST MOMENT OF

INERTIA)

12. Based on the cross-sectional plane area as shown below, determine the location of

centroid and also the moment of inertia with respect to x-axis only

(a) (b)

SOLUTION PART A

- FOR CENTROID:

- The composite shape is consisting of several simple shapes such as shown below or

A+B+C-D:

C D A

B

Shape Area x y xA yA

(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

72x103 -150 120

18x103 50 80

22.62x103 = -350.9

-17.671x103

- Note that the centroids of each simple shape is based on the given x- and y-axis system.

- The centroid with respect to x-axis:

X=

∑ xA = −12.536 × 10 6

= −132 mm

∑ A 94.95x10 3

Page 47 of 50

REVIEW

Y=

∑ yA = 10.674 × 10 6

= 112.4 mm

∑ A 94.95 × 10 3

- Based on the same figure showing all the simple shapes that made up the composite

shape, we construct the following table:

Shape Area dx dy Ix Iy I x = I x + Ad y2 I y = I y + Ad x2

(mm2) (mm) (mm)

(mm4) (mm4) (mm4) (mm4)

= 345.6x106 = 540x106

= 57.6x106 = 22.5x106

= 81.43x106 = 81.43x106

= 24.85x106 = 24.85x106

- Note that I x and I y is the moment of inertia of each simple shape about x- and y-axis

system when the x- and y-axis system passes through the centroid of each simple shape.

The formulas for each simple shape is shown in the table given at the end of this

manuscript.

- Note that d x and d y is the location of the centroid of each simple shape from the given x-

and y-axis system shown in the original figure. They are actually equal to the centroid of the

simple shape found earlier in previous table. For example, x = d x and y = d y .

- Note that I x and I y is the moment of inertia of each simple shape based on the given x-

and y-axis system shown in the original figure.

I x = ∑ I x = 1732.75 × 10 6 mm 4

- And the moment of inertia about y-axis system:

I y = ∑ I y = 3528.61× 10 6 mm 4

Page 48 of 50

REVIEW

SOLUTION PART A

- FOR CENTROID:

- The composite shape is consisting of several simple shapes such as shown below or

A-B:

A

- Constructing the table to calculate the centroid:

Shape Area x y xA yA

(mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm3) (mm3)

32.5x103

-15.708x103 87.56

- Note that the centroids of each simple shape is based on the given x- and y-axis system

- The centroid with respect to x-axis:

X=

∑ xA = 2.099 × 10 6

= 125 mm

∑ A 16.792x10 3

Y=

∑ yA = 0.736568 × 10 6

= 43.9 mm

∑ A 16.792 × 10 3

- Based on the same figure showing all the simple shapes that made up the composite

shape, we construct the following table:

Shape Area dx dy Ix Iy I x = I x + Ad y2 I y = I y + Ad x2

(mm2) (mm) (mm)

(mm4) (mm4) (mm4) (mm4)

= 45.771x106 = 169.271x106

= 39.270x106 = 39.270x106

- Note that I x and I y is the moment of inertia of each simple shape about x- and y-axis

system when the x- and y-axis system passes through the centroid of each simple shape.

The formulas for each simple shape is shown in the table given at the end of this

manuscript.

Page 49 of 50

REVIEW

- Note that d x and d y is the location of the centroid of each simple shape from the given x-

and y-axis system shown in the original figure. They are actually equal to the centroid of the

simple shape found earlier in previous table. For example, x = d x and y = d y .

- Note that I x and I y is the moment of inertia of each simple shape based on the given x-

and y-axis system shown in the original figure.

I x = ∑ I x = 225.424 × 10 6 mm 4

bee02286_ch09_468-555.indd Page 483 8/29/11 11:18 AM user-f494 /203/MHDQ294/bee02286_disk1of1/0077402286/bee0228

- And the moment of inertia about y-axis system:

I y = ∑ I y = 347.415 × 10 6 mm 4

y y' 1

I x' = 12 bh3

9.7 Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas

48

1

I y' = 12 b3h

1

Rectangle h Ix = 3

bh3

C x'

1 3

Iy = 3

bh

x 1

b JC = 12 bh(b2 + h2)

1

Triangle h C I x' = 36 bh3

h x' 1

I x = 12 bh3

3

x

b

1

r Ix = Iy = !r 4

Circle 4

1

O x JO =

2

!r 4

1

Ix = Iy = 8

!r 4

Semicircle C 1

JO = 4

!r 4

O x

r

1

Ix = Iy = 16

!r 4

Quarter circle C 1

JO = 8

!r 4

O x

r

y

1

I x = 4 !ab3

b

1

Ellipse

O x I y = 4 ! a3b

1

JO = 4 ! ab(a2 + b2)

a

analysis and design of structural members.

It should be noted that the radius of gyration of a composite area Page 50 of 50

is not equal to the sum of the radii of gyration of the component areas.

In order to determine the radius of gyration of a composite area, it is

first necessary to compute the moment of inertia of the area.

- CHAP6 momЗагружено:Vanithaa Ponnaiah
- Steelwork Design Guide to BS 5950-1-2000. Volume 2 - GantryЗагружено:Kawser Hossain
- Chapter No 02Загружено:faraz
- Modeling Steel Set and Shotcrete LinersЗагружено:Sérgio Bernardes
- 3Lecture Conservation EqsЗагружено:Sunit Swain
- Ftool Descrizione e AggiornamentiЗагружено:Anonymous 2xVaCZLU
- Hands on Pre PrintЗагружено:Vigneshwari Mahamuni
- RTN_V-2154-101-A-217_A_010Загружено:Lê Đức Thiện
- Flat Slab DetailsЗагружено:OO;
- After Crack Frc 3Загружено:Mani Kumar
- Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 1978 Rao 271 82Загружено:mehtabpathan
- Utjecaj Vertikalne Komponente Potresa Na AB Nosače Velikog RasponaЗагружено:Zarko Lazic
- Dnvgl Ru Ship Pt3ch5Загружено:Arturo
- NC11-1100X500-(30TH-ROOF STYЗагружено:JONHCENA13
- AS-AL_SOW_9702_v3_1Загружено:Subarna Lamsal
- Analysis and Design of Structural Steel Members and ComponentЗагружено:aboalhassan
- FileЗагружено:Aditya Gogna
- Introduction to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Element Types Used in FEAЗагружено:imran
- Influence LineЗагружено:Leonardo the
- Ejemplo Pci Precast Ch9 7Загружено:Neyd Ariel Calderón Castro
- vector lab reportЗагружено:api-327823961
- Statics 13esi Solutions-manual chapter 6Загружено:Kavinesh Ananthan
- (Matlock,H. & T.P.,Taylor,1968)-A Computer Program to Analyze Beam-Column Under Movable Load[56-4-CHR]Загружено:christos032
- may 14r.pdfЗагружено:Tayyaba Mumtaz Khan
- Choi 1992Загружено:wael qarmo
- Combined FoundationЗагружено:asghar
- Axis in EtabsЗагружено:Matiur Rahman Basum
- MEC291 Lab Manual Sheet Dynamics DecApr2016Загружено:HaFiy HaZim
- A4.Some Investigations Performed for the Bridge Over Jiu at AninoasaЗагружено:Stanescu Razvan
- Comparison between the direct displacement based desig and the forcé based desig methods in R.C. framed structures – El Attar - 2014Загружено:Henry Hoyos

- Me2351 2 MarksЗагружено:aadhithyarajasekaran
- Solution of Assignment 2Загружено:Mahmoud Abdelghfar
- PHY 2511 CLASSICAL MECHANICS MODULE EDITED 18-04-2017.pdfЗагружено:litebele litebele
- Homework 08Загружено:BasilLee
- ETD UNIT 2 & 3Загружено:Abubakkar Siddiq
- JL-05 January-February Flexural Strength of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete T-BeamsЗагружено:Roberto Ayerbe Otoya
- Tissue Engineering of Temporomandibular Joint CartilageЗагружено:smile4Dr
- Mech Sem3 113302nolЗагружено:Vinoth Rajaguru
- IIT JEE 2001Загружено:ssaurabh631718
- 9781891121920_HiroseЗагружено:Arjun Prayoga Aji
- Basic PhysicsЗагружено:Gen Huang
- Aerodynamic Drag of Engine-cooling Airflow With External InterferenceЗагружено:Vyssion
- Sankhya SutrasЗагружено:Mehul Acharya
- Variational Iteration Method for Vibration ProblemsЗагружено:Usama Perwez
- HE-B Steel BeamsЗагружено:Tejas Desai
- American Journal of Physics Volume 79 Issue 5 2011 [Doi 10.1119%2F1.3552142] Schmid, Christoph -- Newton’s Superb Theorem- An Elementary Geometric ProofЗагружено:lev76
- Two Phase FlowЗагружено:Med Samoud
- vigaЗагружено:Adan MenacHo
- CASE II1Загружено:123
- IJIRAE:: A Study of Thermoacoustic Refrigeration SystemЗагружено:IJIRAE- International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering
- Design of Stable Open ChannelsЗагружено:Uribe Fernandez Aldo
- 121ThiЗагружено:Ramamurthy Narshya
- SPE-14254-PAЗагружено:Julian Uribe
- WPE Quiz 1Загружено:PhoenixRobo
- 11 Laminar FlowЗагружено:Brahim Letaief
- strap_footing_eqns.pdfЗагружено:aldert_path
- Shear Force and Bending Moment DiagramЗагружено:freonxz
- SpaceЗагружено:Armin Gudzevic
- Lecture 1 Drude ModelЗагружено:Rolvideer Gonzalez
- FootingsЗагружено:Chowdhury Priodeep

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.