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CHAPTER III

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Brown Dog Ticks


According to Dantas-Torres, et al. (2016), Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown
dog tick (also known as kennel tick or pan-tropical dog tick), is probably the most widespread
ixodid tick. It can thrive in both human and canine dwellings and are found to be infesting in hot
or tropical climates. Brown dog ticks are of important significance in veterinary and
pharmaceutical research as it is known to be one of the known vectors of pathogens and diseases
such as babesiosis in dogs and Lyme disease in humans.
Ticks have a few natural enemies but a huge range of hosts. They typically take
one blood meal in each of the three parasitic stages: larva, nymph and adult. Both sexes are
blood feeders, the female becoming greatly distended with blood after mating and then
producing many eggs. Most ticks feed on a different host during each parasitic stage. After
exposure to ticks, the body should be carefully searched, including the scalp.

Hard ticks are so called


because of their sclerotized dorsal plate
and have some attributes that enhance
their capability of transmitting pathogens.
They feed for extended periods of time,
on a variety of vertebrate hosts, and
certain species present high affinity for humans. Also, their bite may be initially painless and go
unnoticed for hours or even days (Parola and Raoult, 2001).
Dogs exposed to successive infestations by R. sanguineus ticks fail to develop a
delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, which also indicates a deficient cell-mediated
immune response (Ferreira, et al., 2003). Recently, Cavassani et al. (2005) postulated that the
tick saliva inhibits the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells into functional antigenpresenting cells.
Applying topical tick medications to dogs, a commercial dog tick shampoo can
lead to overdose. The pores of the skin absorb the chemical in the shampoo. In fact, many pet
owners purchase commercial tick shampoos figuring that this would help save their pet. The
problem is many of these products contain pyrethrin, a toxic pesticide (Anadn, 2008).
Thousands of pets are hospitalized every year from poisoning. Even minor issues like hair loss
and skin irritation may require veterinary attention (Curtis and Cathy, 1998).
Atis
On the contrary, Annona squamosa, the sugar-apple or locally known as atis, is a
species in the Annonaceae family that is native to the West Indies (Tropical Americas).

Historically, the atis plant was introduced in the Philippines by the Spaniards and is widely
cultivated for its sweet, juicy and fragrant fruit. As a matter of
fact, it contains a higher content of Vitamin C than in oranges.
The atis is merely a small tree that grows of
about 3 to 5 meters in height. It is also notable for its young,
hairy, oblong-like leaves of about 8 to 15 cm in length. Most
parts of the atis plant have numerous medicinal properties from
the leaves, fruits, seeds, bark and roots. For instance, roots can be used as a purgative, bark
decoctions can be used as a tonic and stop diarrhea, and fresh leaves can be crushed and inhaled
in order to alleviate fainting or hysteria.
The atis ranges from a lot more variety of other special properties from antiinflammatory, anticancer (Joy and Reman, 2008), antidiabetic (Shirwaikar et al., 2003),
antibacterial (Kachhawa et al., 2012), anti-head lice activity (Ashok et al., 2009), analgesic
(Chavan et al., 2010) and with emphasis on the insecticidal capabilities (Arabit et al., 2010)
which was chosen to be the focus of this study.
From an experimental study done by Ashok kumar et al. (2010) the Annona s.
ethanolic leaf extracts exhibited potent activity against Sitophilus oryzae (Rice weevil) pests.
Additionally, extracts of A. squamosa seeds also varied in growth inhibitory effect against S.
litura and Trichoplusia ni larvae. (Leatemia and Isman, 2004).
This species is a potential candidate for the development of a botanical insecticide
for local use and for inhibiting and eradicating dog tick infestations. However, as

aforementioned, a few parts of the Annona s. were used for research. Thus, this paved a way for
exploring the usage and similar capabilities of other idle parts of the atis fruit such as the peel.
The finding of new insecticidal activity is of great economic importance
both from the agronomic and preventive medicine point of view. The reason for using new
natural insecticides is that these are active at highly acceptable levels, biodegradable and do not
leave toxic residues while the commonly used phosphorous and chlorinated insecticides
contaminate the environment (Ashok kumar et al., 2010) and can also help create an alternative
to commercial anti-tick dog shampoos which are chemical and hazardous to pet dogs.

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