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VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS
GIRLS

FOR

BY

WILLIAM
AUTHOR

OF

H.
"VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

"TEXTILES,"

D.

C.

BOSTON

DOOLEY

HEATH

"
NEW

ETC.

CO.,
YORK

PUBLISHERS
CHICAGO

COPYRIGHT,
1917,

BY

D.

C.

HEATH

IB?

"

Co.

PREFACE

author

THE

in

experience

he

give

to

teachers

Many
of

the

life.

often

Too

without

of

trade,

this

book

believe

in

but

mathematics,
to

The
few

the

problems
with

years

subject.
and
of
in

course

rule
day
every-

matics
mathe-

her

apply

or

to

matics
mathe-

the

"

as

time

the

meet

needs

life.

mathematics

the

the

way

difficulty that

regular

the

author

has

prepared

for

girls.

He

does

school

secondary

vocational

offers

regular

such

in

problems

commercialize

"

this

omitting

of

ondary
sec-

this

commercial

from

home

vocational

on

the

and

commerce,
overcome

with

to

in

knowledge

is to

It

able

and

teacher

average

girl graduates

intermediate

girls. During

and

the

considerable

years,

mathematical

solving

being

mathematical

of

familiar

not

of

ten

practical applications

pupils

methods

thumb

boys

inability

are

last

conducting

for

schools

noticed

has

and

organizing

technical

the

had, during

has

mathematics

as

not

in

course
an

tion
introduc-

course.

have

girls

used

been
of

by

school

high

the

author
The

age.

the

during
method

of

past
ing
teach-

has

showing
actual

the

its

value

experience

mind
A

consisted

before

she

discussion

arousing

in

daily

and

each

This

teacher

in

mathematics

subject

or

the

terms

life.

to

division

of

information

used.

to

by

based

upon

the

pupil's

the

problems.

the

subject usually precedes


provided

may

not

The

book

iii

recalled

are

is

who

facts,

Important

solve

mathematics

in

interest

an

observation,

attempts
of

problems.

in

be

for

familiar

contains

the

regular
with

samples

the

of

PREFACE

IV

from

problems
the

from

all

textile

mill

author

The

has

teachers

Green,
Bessie

Susan

Watson,

Boston

North

Adams,

High

School,

Institute,

Mass.

N.

Rochester,

Curtis

J.

Washington
Ellis,

Girls'

Industrial

High

School,

Machine

Industrial

the

preface

author's

valuable
the

and

the

N.

The

of

of

J.

Y.

Md.

Miss

Griselda

J.

W.

N.

Y.

C.

E.
;

Weaf

The

Agriculture,
of

Donoer,

roughs
Bur-

Educational

Women's

Conference

Consalus,

Mr.

; Mr.

dustrial
In-

H.

F.

City

of

Department

Reports

Director

; Mrs.

Buffalo,
;

Mechanics

Belt, Baltimore,

N.

Newark,

School,

Bushwick

Principal

York

Syracuse,

School,

New

ington,
Wash-

York

State

Teachers.

Vocational
This

Pa.

Miss

Hospital,

Normal

Eaton,

Mabel

New

Company

Union

C.

D.

Dr.

School,

High

Adding

School,

Hutchinson-Central

and

Y.

J.

; Mrs.

City

Lattimer,

M.

J.

; Mr.

Philadelphia,

Irving High

Technical

hue,

Y.
N.

Lewis,

George

Miss

Mass.

Brigham

Rollins,

mer
for-

Baylies
Pa.

York

New

Principal

Frank

; Mr.

Brockton,

Bent

Murdock,

; Mr.

Brooklyn

enter,

his

Lilian

Philadelphia,

School,

Peter

Miss

College,
at

F.

Arts, Yonkers,
Mr.

High

Teachers

Prank

to

from

suggestions

Journal,

Instructor

Mr.

likely

are

following

Home

McGowan,

B.

the

Brockton

Kingman,

Ellen

valuable

from

Ladies'

women

home.

the

to

received

and

Editor

that

occupations

would

wife,

be

not

Ellen

Mrs.

and

suggestions

complete
V.

Dooley,

corrected

both

reference

without
has

who
the

offered

to

many

manuscript

and

proof.
The

author

corrections

from

will
any

be

pleased

teacher.

to

receive

any

suggestions

or

CONTENTS

PART

REVIEW

I"

ARITHMETIC

OF

PAGE

CHAPTER

I.

ESSENTIALS

Processes

Numbers

Involution

Decimals

and

Ratio

pound
Com-

Proportion

; Evolution.

64

MENSURATION
.

Circles

Triangles

; Cone

Pyramid
III.

Fractions

Percentage

...

Fundamental

II.

ARITHMETIC

OF

Quadrilaterals

; Similar

Sphere

INTERPRETATION

Polygons

Ellipses

Figures.

RESULTS

OF

80
......

of

Reading
Scale

THE

Estimating

Solving

Examples.

II

of

Home

and

Weight

Drawing

to

Methods

of

HOMEMAKING

IN
INCOME

OF

89

Families

American

Division

of

Income

FOOD

,100
Kinds

Cost
;

PROBLEMS

of

ON

of

Food

Meals

Kitchen

Recipes

CONSTRUCTION

THE

and

Weights

; Economical

OF

ures
Meas-

Marketing.
HOUSE

128
.

Advantages
Materials

VII.

Book.

Account

Different

VI.

Plans

PROBLEMS

"

of

Expense

Distances

DISTRIBUTION
Incomes

V.

Print

PART
IV.

Blue

COST

Different

Taxes

FURNISHING

OF

Different
Linen
of

of

Coal

Kinds

of

Living

Room

; How

Meters

to
;

United

States

Heating.

Houses

Building

Revenue.

HOUSE

146

Furniture

Read

of

Types

; Bedroom

Gas

Meters

Hall
;

Floor

Dining
;

How

Coverings
Value
;

Room
to

Read

tric
Elec-

CONTENTS

VI

CHAPTER

VIII.

THRIFT

INVESTMENT

AND

Different

178

Institutions

of

; Bonds

Savings

; Stocks

change
; Ex-

; Insurance.

PART
IX.

III

DRESSMAKING

"

PROBLEMS
Fractions

X.

MILLINERY

DRESSMAKING

IN

of

Finished

AND

Yard

Garments

198
; Tucks

; Hem

; Ruffles

; Cost

Millinery Problems.

CLOTHING
.

of Cloth

Parts

PART
XL

XII.

IV"

; Materials

THE

ARITHMETIC

FOR

Sheets

and

CIVIL

.217

STORE
233

....

; Profit

and

Loss

; Time

Pay Rolls.
FOR

SALESGIRLS
;

CASHIERS

AND

268

ARITHMETIC

"

ARITHMETIC

FOR

276

Apothecary's Weights and


Approximate
and

Weights

NURSES

NURSES

FOR

260

Making Change.

SERVICE

PART
XIV.

Weight.

THE

ASSISTANTS

; Invoices

Saleslips; Extensions
XIII.

; Kinds

AND

OFFICE

Calculations

ARITHMETIC

of Yarn

OFFICE

Rapid

of

Measures

; Household

Equivalents of

Measures

; Doses

and

Metric

ures
Meas-

English

Strength of Solutions

Prescription Reading.

PART
XV.

PROBLEMS

VI
ON

PROBLEMS

"

ON

THE

FARM

FARM

THE

304

APPENDIX

317
Metric

System

Graphs

; Formulas

; Useful

Mechanical

Information.

INDEX

365

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

GIRLS

FOR
PART

REVIEW

"

ARITHMETIC

OF

CHAPTER
Notation
is

unit

number

thing ;

one

is made

and

as,

book,

one

units

of

up

Numeration

and

inch.

pencil,one

one

tells how

units

many

are

taken.

integer is

An
A
the

number.

singlefigureexpresses
column.

units

column

; 53

column

and

represents
shown

as

whole

is

of

number

the

figure

certain

example,

For
a

in

the
of

number

or

is

has

the

the

column

Each

tens.

is said

figure 3

for

column,

tens

and

units

single figure in

figures and

two

of

number

has

in

to

the
the

second
its

own

be

in

units
units

figure
name,

below.

Sp3

00

r-

"9s

I
| |
JjlJjsJjJJjl
138,

Reading
numbers
commas,

695,

Numbers.

they

are

"

at

| | |

4O

7,
in

convenience

For

separated

beginning

"

by

certain

the

into

reading

of

groups

125

three

right:

138,695,407,125.
The

first group

The

second

The

third

The

fourth

group
group
group

is 125

units.

is 407
is 695
is 138

thousands.
millions.

billions.

and

writing

figures each

FOR
A\K7^d"TION;A^.MA*fPSEMATICS
GIRLS

The

preceding

billion,

six

is

number

hundred

thousand, one hundred


407 thousand, 125.

read

thirty-eight

hundred

one

seven
ninety-fivemillion,four hundred
695 million,
twenty-five
; or 138 billion,

Roman

important. Dates
and amounts
in buildings
on
are
prescriptions
usuallyexpressed
for numbering
in Roman
numerals.
also
used
They are
in
chapters and dials. The following capitalletters,seven
A

knowledge

used

all,are

to

of Roman

Numerals
is very

numerals

Roman

express

numerals

IIIVXLCD

One

Five

Two

All

numbers

other

1.
II

When

letter is

represents2
2.

When

value, the

XXX,

When

repeated. Thus,

lesser is added

to the

is

placed after

greater.

one

of

Thus, VII,

greater
7

two

"

letter of less value


from

is

the

placed before
greater.

one

of

Thus, IX,

greater
9

"

ten

one.

Read
rules

letters

30.

letter of less value

value,the lesser is taken


less

is

value

the

to five.

added
3.

are

repeated,the

1000

500

100

Fifty

expressedby combining
:
followingprinciples

the

according to

Ten

the

followingRoman

numerals

accordingto

the

above

REVIEW

Express

the

ARITHMETIC

OF

followingnumbers

numerals

in Roman

1.

14

4.

81

7.

281

10.

314

13.

1837

2.

42

5.

73

8.

509

11.

573

14.

1789

3.

69

6.

67

9.

812

12.

874

15.

80,003

Mathematics

Standard

should

work

the

it easy
11

by

to

in.,should

set down

show
answer

check

each

the

in such

be done
the

answer

be

used.

example

different

obtained

Sheet.

way

Rule

each

its proper

with

sheet
number

the

pupil should write


problem is finished,and

or

the

proof

in the

solution.

should

follow

number

and

name

of

the

to

make

size,8"

in.

followingdiagram,
margin, and clearly
To

that

show

the

example.

SHEET

MATHEMATICS

print her

step and

of standard

in the

as

solving problems

each

Paper

steps required for the

is correct,

in

errors

to show

as

found.

when

STANDARD

The

avoid

To

"

the

class,the

problem

on

date
the

when

the

Standard

Mathematics

the

margin

(a), (/"),etc.

"

line.

line should

GIRLS

several

contains

question

be tabulated

should

they
to

If the

Sheet.

inside

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

"

be

divisions

drawn

lems,
prob-

or

left of the

the

at

between

lems
prob-

problems

separate them.

Addition
is the

Addition

The

sign of

is

addition

9 inches

Thus,

Thus, the
to

statement

(read nine

more

or

is called

that

8 feet +

the

EXAMPLE.

"

of barrels of flour

39, and

19,883 bbl.

inches

6 feet

of two

agent for

An

to be

added.

plus seven

14

inches).

parallellines,
=

that six feet

feet,means

feet.

numbers.

more

flour mill sold the

the

during

How

or

The

plus.

plus 6 feet)equals fourteen

feet

amount

or

sum

called

+-

short horizontal

two

equal to.

eightfeet (or 8

find the

numbers

is

equals or

means

To

7 inches

sign of equality is

The

added

two

process

upright cross,

an

the two

sign is placed between

and

this

by

of

sum

amount.

or

sum

finding the

obtained

result

The

numbers.

of

process

day

ber
followingnum1203, 2672, 31,118,480,
did he sell during the

barrels

many

day?
[The

for barrels

abbreviation

2$

The

sum

2 672

20

4-8 +

2 +

^1

9""

1 1k

The

39

19,883

and

+1+7

dreds

and

Place

23 hundreds
the 3 hundreds

to the next

and

; 23 hundreds

column.

5 thousands.

2 +

Add

are

9 +

the

1 +

2+

1 ten-thousand

in the

Place

15

and

the

2+8

add

thousands, or
to

the

the

8 +

3+8

equal

2 hun-

tens

under

hundreds
4 +

1+6

3 hundreds.

the 2 thousands
1 ten-thousand

ten-thousands

units

column.

tens

and

9 +
more

the

is 2 +

add

under

to 2 thousands

column
=

column.

equal

and

29 tens

and

column

is 3 +

20

column

29 tens.

9 tens.

the hundreds

under

the

the 2 tens

add

column

units, or

leave

so

the hundreds

to
2

tens

25

bbl.]

units

of the tens

sum

the

55,395 bbl.

^s tens,

column

*r

Sum

of the

1,203

is

column

REVIEW

and

the

is 1 +

sum

Hence, the
TEST.

is

sum

the

5.

55,395

Repeat

"

1 +

OF

ARITHMETIC

Write

the 5 in the

ten-thousands

column.

bbl.

beginning

process,

the

at

of the

top

right-hand

column.

is very

Exactness

correct

one

kind

be

should

estimate

the

numerical

made

calculations.

the

on

before

answer

in

the

work.

to be

The

solvingthe
the

solution,the

also necessary

arithmetic.

only

accurate

check

of

some

simplest check is
problem. If there
and

answer

is

to

is

the
It is

probably wrong.
reading the problem.

in

exact

to be

estimated

work

is

There

it is necessary

great discrepancy between

answer

in

Therefore

answer.

performing the

in

important

EXAMPLES

1.

Write

following numbers

the

thousand
Seventy-five

three

hundred

eight hundred

2.

five thousand

In

mines
3.

certain

Solve

the

386
4.

be

output of

total

5289
of

cost

53666

the Panama

many
6.

makes

successive

eggs
A

were

woman

the

$ 146.00

a.

b.

Add

million

two

from

copper

the

in words.

3001

Canal

received

weeks

received

the

291

-f 38

estimated

was

in

1912

to

in words.

following number

692, 712, 684, and

during

the four

705

weeks

eggs.

of

eggs
How

She
buys a two-family house for $6511.00.
ing,
following repairs: mason-work, $ 112.00 ; plumbting,
decora; carpenter work, $ 208.00 ; painting and

$ 319.00.
7.

wife

farmer's

four

them

following:

$ 375,000,000. Express this amount


5.

in

The

add

$ 58,638,277.86.Express this amount

worth

was

hundred

the

year

figuresand
eight; seven
forty-nine.

as

the

How

much

does

followingnumbers,

the house
left to

her ?

cost

right:

108, 219, 374, 876, 763, 489, 531, 681, 104


3846, 5811, 6014, 8911, 7900, 3842, 5879.

VOCATIONAL

8.

According

United
of

the

males

FOR

of

1910

lights was

run

the

population of the
of the outlyingpossessions,
consisted
What
the
44,639,989 females.
was

census

and

GIRLS

population?

9.

three
the

to

States,exclusive

47,332,277

total

MATHEMATICS

Wire

for

If the first

rooms.

second

18

and

long

electric

ft.

and

Remember
Find

10.

the

46 Ib. +

wide;

the

was

electric

four
and

long

total

9 ft. wide
third

the

and

length

of

sides

of

wire

lightsrequire two

12 ft.
quired?
re-

wires.

Ib. +

135

ft.

18

that

sum

13 ft.

was

long
wide, what

ft.

room

around

72 Ib. +

39 Ib. +

Ib. +

427

64 Ib. +

Ib.

139

Subtraction
is the

Subtraction

numbers,

two

from

findingwhat
equal a given sum.

to

which

subtracted

findingthe

of

or

given number

of

process

subtract

we

; and

the

number

between

added

is the

subtrahend

to

is the

minuend

ber
num-

number

is the result

remainder

or
difference

be

must

The

; the

difference

of the

subtraction.
The

sign

To

12

"

find the

EXAMPLE.

placed
4 is read

difference

five years

ago.

What

the

It

was

the

twelve

horizontal

short

before

of two

house

"

was

is

subtraction

is

minus, and
Thus,

of

number

minus

purchased
recentlysold at
was

the

greater, with

Subtrahend

$4869.00

the

Remainder

$3205.00

units, which

14

Since
from

6 leaves

units
1 ten

0.

$ 8074.00

auction

from

and

added
5 units

4'
the

was

remain.

was

changed

Write

0 under

from
the

units

twenty-

for $ 4869.00.

of

the

under

the

order

same

be

9 cannot

in

taken

1
*"
*ffrom
unif
7Tbe
7 tens
the

changed

units

makes

Write

the

7 tens, there
tens

number

line.

chan"e

so

that

to

smaller

vertical

same

ten

the

for

loss ?

$8074.00

from

subtracted.

(or less)eight equals four.

Minuend

10

numbers.

Write

makes

"

be

to

called

line,

column.

14

5 under
are

units.

the unit

6 tens

Next,

Take

9
umn.
col-

left,and

8 hundred

can-

REVIEW

from

taken

be

not

the thousands

from

Write
taken

been

the

4 thousand

the 8

from,

PROOF.

the

minuend,

leaves

10

column.

hundred
Since

Write

is

changed

leave

2 hundred.

1 thousand

left 7 thousand

are

3 thousand.

has

to subtract

3 under

the

the

thousand

is 83205.00.

of the

sum

there

(ten hundred)

from

hundreds

remainder

If the

"

hundred

thousand,

which

whole

The

column.

the

1 thousand

so

under

from

hundred,

column.

ARITHMETIC

OF

subtrahend

the remainder

and

equals

the

is correct.

answer

EXAMPLES

1.

Subtract

1001

2.

box

contained
used

were

screws

from

79,999.

one

on

job,how

(144)of

gross

wood

screws

many

If 48

screws.

left in the

were

box?

of

number

What

3.

be added

must

to 3001

produce

to

sum

98,322?

usuallymarked with the gross weight and tare


329
(weight of empty barrel). If a barrel of sugar is marked
Ib. gross weight and 19 Ib. tare, find the net weight of sugar.
4.

Barrels

5.

removed,
A

6.

1189

box

contains

how

many

much

How

cotton

while

No.

worsted

What

is the

spent

$ 189.00

10.

69,221

11.

The

and

in 1910

to 1910?

does

If

109

are

yarn
in

3008

saved

800.00

October

and

baby grand piano for

save

840

contains

yards
yards

560

to

the

to

the

pound,
pound.

length?
$453.00

trip.

sea

she

in

the difference ?

was

contains

yam

lady
on

quarts of milk

What

difference

young

(144) of pencils.

purchases a $

9.

1247

in November.

No.

8.

gross

remain?

housewife

$ 719.00.

received

farmer

quarts

7.

are

How

five years.
remained
?

during
much

She

populationof New York


was
4,766,883. What

City in
was

1900

was

the increase

3,437,202
from

1900

If

12.

there

cityhaving
the residents

the

In

13.

United

14.

1820

year

States.

many

arrived

The

first

How

in

8385

only

in 1842

than

in 1820

many

of

in

the

arrived.

How

in

settled

Lynn, Mass.,

is it since he arrived

years

many

how

arrived

immigrants

great shoemaker

certain

1842, 104,565 immigrants

In

more

1636.

wage-earningwomen

not

are

GIRLS

374,819 wage-earning women


populationof 3,366,416persons,

are

total

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

in

in

Lynn

Multiplication
of

Multiplicationis the process

the

rinding

of

product

two

numbers.

Thus, 8x3
8 added

read

be

may

to itself 3

times,

multiplied by 3,

8
8 +

or

8 +

and

24

8 times

or

8x3

3,

and

means

24.

numbers

multiplied together are called factors. The


multiplicand is the number
multiplied; the multiplieris the
number
multipliedby ; and the result is called the product.
The
which
oblique cross, x
sign of multiplication is an
The

multipliedby

means

7x4

Thus,

product

EXAMPLE.
the

"

weight of

be.read

may

find the

To

or

times.

of two

certain

set of books

24 Ib.

cand,

17

etc.

the

units

T7)"11

added

the

6 tens.

hundreds

1, proceed

is 4 of this
under
their

the
sum

Place

before, but

as

partialproduct,
hundreds
is the

What

whole

6 tens

1 is

as

under

column,

and

product,

is

or

the
so

408

8 units.

is

2 tens

tens
on.

Ib.

the

column,
Add

the

first

and

the

8 under
to

are

7 times
16

and

partialproduct.

To

tens,
the

be

tens
or

1 hundred

multiply by

number,

the

tens,

units, which

tens

are

column

tens

ten, write

product.

the

in the

28

multipli-

under

Place

The

tens

the

tens

equal

column.

to the

168

units,

4 units

and

tens

14 tens

the

column.

under

7 times

24

are

multiplier under

units

in the

the

are

1(58

and

Ib.

24

weighs

17 sets ?

Mvltiplicand
Multiplier

hundred

4.

numbers.

Write

7 times

multiplied by 4, or

next

which

number

partial products,and

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

EXAMPLES

ordered

milliner

100

yards.

How

shoe

box

1.

Each

2.

boxes

423

pairsin

many

contains

Multiply 839 by

4.

mechanic
Ib.

total

shoes.

pairs of

How

many

291.
in

sent

the

following

for

order

bolts

12

bolts,7 Ib. each; 11 bolts, 3 Ib. each; 6


the
What
was
each; and 20 bolts, 3 Ib. each.
9

each;

Ib.

weight of

the order

product of

the

Find

5.

12

3.

bolts,6
bolts,2

ing
spoolsof wire, each spool containyards did she order in all ?

58

?
1683

and

809.

as
ciphersto
multiply by 10, 100, 1000, etc.,annex
many
multiplicandas there are ciphersin the multiplier.

To
the

EXAMPLE.

864

"

100

86,400.

EXAMPLES

the

read

Multiply and

to the

answers

10

1.

869

2.

1011

3.

10,389 x

4.

11,298 X 30,000

5.

58,999

6.
7.

x
x

100
1000

following:

8.

100

9.

1000

500

x
x

900

10.

10,000 x

500

11.

10,000 x

6000

400

12.

1,000,000x

6000

681,719 x

10

13.

1,891,717x

400

801,369

100

14.

10,000,059 x 78,911

Division
Division

is the

is contained

process

of

in another.
is the

divided

; the

divisor

divided

; the

quotient is the

number

number,

is not
what

contained
is left

over

an

finding how
The

dividend

number

by

equal number
a

times

one

is the number

which

of the

result

is called

many

the

remainder.

to be

dividend

division.

of times

ber
num-

When
in another

is
a

10
The

of

sign

Thus,

56

divisor

with

In division

we

find the other

of

times

above

of the

one

his

among

$ 3.00

How

many

desires

employees
employees

to distribute

that

so

each

Employees

the

numbers

at

the left.

thousands

column.

thousand

in the

The

Write

in

the

dividend.

21

as

quotient

over

as

the

the

leave

~T

dred

quotient.

20 tens, and
7

figure in

quotient make

next
a

24

in 23 tens

the next

as

the

hundred.

the

times, or
the

of

Add

the 3 tens

quotient.

quotient.
Then

product

of

24
the

in the

or

20

units

subtract

in

25,

20

hun-

18 hundred

or

Write

dividend

the

to

3 is
Write

the 5 units
8

Write

8 times.

is 2678

or

20

of 2 tens.

subtracted

answer

8 in the

units,plus

in

first

to be divided.

remainder

tens,

gives

the

remainder.

dividend

3 is contained

1 unit.

groups

thousand,

times,

hundred

(thousand)

3 is contained

6 hundred

with

is in

nearest

and

is 2

and

21 tens

the

thousand

remainder

is the next

25 units.

figure in the

remainder

23 tens

Place

the

25

figurein

contained

from

under

manner

(thousand) times, which

thousand.

figure

or

How

into

."

hundred,

ceive
re-

8 thousand

divided

be

can

of 3 is 2

2Q

will

$ 3.00 ?

the

indicated

3)8035 Dividend

Remainder

surplus

one

will receive

Write

the next

factors to

over

2678

as

the

in another.

is contained

number

one

manufacturer

"

$ 8035.00

Divisor

dividend

8.

by

given a product and

are

many

is left

8.

factor.

find how

much

two
placed between
divided
by the second.

by writing the

56 divided

this is read

EXAMPLE.

by

GIRLS

line between.

Thus, 5/ ;

To

the first is to be

is also indicated

Division

when

-j-, and

56 divided

8 is read

-s-

is

division

that
signifies

numbers

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

from

25

units

employees

and

1 dollar left over.

PROOF.

"

Find

if any,

the
and

if the

sum

the

divisor

and

quotient,

equals the dividend,the

answer

add

the

mainder,
re-

is correct.

12

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

REVIEW

1.

farmer's

bu.

34

each

to

of

bu.,
sold

raised

29

the farm

on

bu., 43

12

four

GIRLS

EXAMPLES

daughter

containing38
respectively. She

FOR

bu.

bu.,

each

to

families.

5 loads

39

How

and

bu.,

of three

of

toes
pota-

29

bu.

families,and
bushels

many

were

left?
Five

pieces of cloth
piece contains 38 yards, what
2.

3.

bought

and

$4,

receive

in

gave

How

No.

of

30

total

3,

mat

each

length ?
for

bill.

$20

If

end.

$ 1,

What

table

for

did

change

cotton

The

How

ounces.

in

of yarn
of

25,200 yards
630,000 yards ?
in

water

115,819,729 gallons.

much

How

to

city during

116,891,213 gallons

was

teacup-

many

contains

yarn

consumption

December

4 fluid

ounces

pounds

many
6.

payment

teacupfulcontains

fuls in 64 fluid
5.

for

is the

to

?
A

4.

chair

end

placed

are

and

the

month

during January

the

was

pound.

decrease

in

sumption
con-

?
7.

An

machines
8.

the

order
each

If

of

weighing 75

one

Divide

11.

An

order

was

If each" mile

needed

?
How

one

4 Ib. per

16' 9" in

598

the total

foot of

sewing
weight

length,find

length.

319.
for

given

ties for

required3017 ties,how

uses

for

225.

gallons

many

if
hospitals,

gallons less

and

24,566 by

long.

two

shop called
pounds. What was

measuring

Multiply 641

10.

12.

machine

stripof carpet weighs

weight
9.

to

of

25

milk

are

railroad
many

used

gallonsper day

847

miles

ties would

every
and

be

day by

the other

REVIEW.

OF

13

ARITHMETIC

Factors
The

factors of

number

together produce that


Thus,

21 is the

product

number

plied
multi-

7 ;

3 and

hence,

the factors of 21.

are

into its factors is called

has

that

when

number.

of 3 and

number

Separatinga

integerswhich

the

are

factors

no

but

factoring.
1 is a prime
and

itself

number.
The

numbers

prime

prime

Thus,

find the

EXAMPLE.

factor

factors

of 15.

number

Find

2)84
^'

of

the

which

^"

prime

of 84.

PROOF.

The

"

2 divides

product

84

The

evenly.

So

factors.

5 ends

of the

with

1, 3, 7, or

9.

evenly,leavingthe quotient
next

The

2, 2, 3, and
factors

prime

quotient is

7 divided

7.

is indivisible.

which

prime factor.

factors of 84.

quotient

"

23.

number.

number

2 divides

quotient 1

1L

prime

divides,giving

ov"^

is

except 2 and

prime

The

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 and

are

as

prime factors
"

2)42

prime

are

Every prime
To

used

number

3 and

to 25

up

by

several

gives

the

last

divisors

are

the

the

are

21 which

prime

factors

givesthe number.

EXAMPLES

Find

the

prime

factors

1.

63

4.

636

7.

1155

2.

60

5.

1572

8.

7007

3.

250

6.

2800

9.

13104

Cancellation
To

rejecta factor
factor ; to reject
the
does

not

This

affect the
method

EXAMPLE.

can

"

from

number

factors

same

from

quotient. This
be used

Divide

12

to

divides

18 x 30

dividend

both

by

and

by

that

divisor

is called cancellation.

process

advantage

the number

in many

culation
everydaycal-

4.

14

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

1
2

}$

Dividend

J8

division

the

the divisor
1

with

dend
Since

9 of 9 and

12, and

and

divisor
divisor

it may

being

in the

from

of 30 in the

of the

product

The

Since

cancelled

be

factor

18, respectively,
they

dividend.

and

dividend,

is

line between.

factor

is cancelled
is 30.

of

both

from

of 4 in the

factor

the divi-

under

is

writing

by

Then

leaving2 in the divisor.

factors

uncancelled

locate

be cancelled

may

dividend

both,

be-

multiply

to

"UOft6n"' foredividing-

=3"

'

lj ^

it is not

method

necessary

"0

0X9X4

Divisor

By this

15

Jl

the

both, leaving15.

from

the

Therefore,

quotient

is 30.
PROOF.

If

"

the

dividend,

the

of

product

divisor

the

and

the

quotient equal

the

is correct.

answer

EXAMPLES

find

and

Indicate
1.

Divide

2.

What

27

36 x

is the

cancellation

quotientsby
49

38

quotient of

50

36

48

70 x

by
X

18

15.

16 divided

by

27

24

X8?
3.

How
in

given
pound
4.

There

Divide

pay

them

pound

butter

of

pounds

in

ounces

; 30

pound

horseshoes, if

many

each

40

at

pounds

weighs

product of 10, 75, 9, and

the

be

must
cents

96

by

of steel will
?

ounces

the

product

of

9.
16

in butter

receive
7.

sold

16

are

5, 12, 15, and


6.

15

cents

produce how
5.

for

exchange

at 50

of tea

pounds

many

dozen
at

40

at

eggs
cents

30

cents

pound

how

took

dozen

and

many

pounds

my

did

?
dealer

bought

16 cords

for $ 96 ; find the

gain

per

of wood
cord.

at

$ 4

cord

and

sold

REVIEW

Greatest
The

greatest

greatest number
find the

To

Find

"

of two

divisor of two

the

greatest

of the numbers.

each

numbers.

more

or

of

divisor

common

is the

numbers

more

or

exactlydivide

that will

greatest common

EXAMPLE.

Divisor

Common

divisor

common

15

ARITHMETIC

OF

and

90

150.
90

2x3x5x3

2x3x5x5

150

Ans.

30

2 x 3

2)90
5)45
3)9

150
75

both

the

90

and

2, 3,

are

factors

prime
to

mon

Ans.

30

The

15

~Q

Method

First

^eatest

visor of two

com-

aild 15"
Since

5.

di~

common
or

num-

is

go

their

common

7^\\QA/-i

is- tne

greatest

common

divisor

of 90 and

150.

90)150(1

the

more

hers

product

of

factors,30

60

Greatest Common

Second

30)60(2

Divisor

find

To

gQ

common

numbers

the
then

the

last divisor

last divisor

The

divisor

and

so

by

last

the

remainder

will be the greatest

is to

divisor

common

readily factored, divide

be

cannot

be

of two
The

on.

of

found
of

them,

two

is

there

greatest

divisor

when

the

smaller,

remainder.

no

If the greatest common

numbers,

of this divisor

will be the

the

largerby

divisor.

than

then

last divisor

until

common

more

the

Method

find

and

greatest

the greatest

the

third

ber,
num-

divisor

common

of

all of them.
EXAMPLES

Find

the

greatest

1.

270, 810.

3.

2.

264,312.

4.

each

product of
of

them

two

504, 560.
288,432,1152.

Common

Least
The

divisor

common

or

4, 6, 8,

more

12

are

5.

72, 153,315, 2187.

Multiple
numbers

is called

multiples of

2.

multiple of

The

common

16

VOCATIONAL

multiple of

two

MATHEMATICS

numbers

more

or

by each of the numbers


multipleof 4, 5, 6.
The

least

without

multiple of

common

find the least

EXAMPLE.

Find

"

the

least

the

28

2 X 2 X

the second

30

2 X

Tnus"

Take

"

Second

least

numbers.

Method
of the

factors

2 x

is the

is the

first

number, all of

already represented in

not

common

multiple of 21, 28,

common

all the

30

more

or

numbers

number;

two

is divisible

; 60 is

more

or

First

21

that

number

two

multipleof

common

GIRLS

remainder

common

common

To

is

multiple of
multiple of 3, 5, 6.

smallest

FOR

420

the

etc.
first,

L. C. M.

Method

2)21
3)21

28

30

14

15

7)7

14

125
2 x 3

7 x 1

Divide

any

two

like 2 in 28 and

quotient
which

2 x 5

Write

30.

together with

420

the

21

L. C. M.

by

numbers

more

or

14 and

gives a quotient of 7 and

prime factor contained


3

15.

them,

by
prime factor of 21 and 15
vided.
written in the quotient undi-

is

14

5 with

in

the 2 for the next

divided

is not

which

of 1, 2 ;
gives a remainder
420
these
all
of
The product
and 5 undivided
is written down
as before.
divisors and the last quotients is the least common
multipleof 21, 28,
7 is

prime factor of 7 and

14 which

and 30.
EXAMPLES

Find

the least

multiple:

common

1.

18, 27, 30.

4.

25,20,35,40.

6.

What

is the

pieces32',36',and

2.

15, 60, 140, 210.


5.

shortest
44'

lengthof

long?

3.

24, 42, 54, 360.

24,48,96,192.
rope

that

can

be cut

into

17

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

Fractions
A

fraction is

one

into

apple, and

is
with

1 is called
A

the

proper

improper

less

is

number

The

value

divided

by

its

apple

equal to

of

of

with
:

whose

the

its

and

merator
nu-

1 ; its

f, ", f, |^-. An
or

than

more

denominator,

and

the

f,

as

fraction

between

1;

is

whole

etc.
4T9g-,
3-J-,

fraction is

is less than

is 1

value

word

The

of the fraction.

terms

integer

an

numerator

below.

value

greater than

or

up

fraction

the

whose

divisor ;

the denominator.

denominator, as

fraction

Read
the

and

an

2 the

expressedby

called

fraction

is

and

denominator

a
are

made

number

number.

mixed

and

than

is

fraction

its numerator
A
-}-"-.

is

fraction

is

numerator

which

one

denominator

and
A

is

dividend

2 is called

and

line

is the

1, 1

numerator

above

written

In

fraction

common

If

unit.

two

division.

indicates

equal parts of

more

equal parts, each part is one-half of the


the
1 above
expressed by placing the number
short line between
:
a
|-. A fraction always

be divided

number

or

the denominator.

the

quotient of the

numerator

"

EXERCISE

Read

following:

the

1.

3.

121

5.

51

7.

9^

2.

"

4.

81

6.

6J

8.

12A

Reduction
of fractions

Reduction

without
To

fraction to

Multiplyingthe
fraction by
fraction.

the

of Fractions
process

of

changing

their form

higher terms.

denominator

and

number

does

same

value.

changing their

reduce

is the

9.

the numerator
not

change

of

the

the value

given
of

the

18

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

EXAMPLE.

Reduce

"

denominator

obtain

Ans.

"
_

GIRLS

""to thirty-seconds.
The

FOR

32

by

32 ;

the

the fraction

may

multiplied

be

must

in order

number

4 to

multiplied by

the numerator

so

same

be

must

of

value

the

that

changed.

not

be

6.

/-jto

75ths.

7.

""-to

144ths.

EXAMPLES

the

Change

to 27ths.

1.

2.

-i-l to

3.

to 40ths.

8.

fj

to 168ths.

4.

to 56ths.

9.

||

to 522ds.

5.

T9Qto

60ths.

50ths.

To

the denominator

reduce

in its lowest

Dividing
the

The

the

does

fraction by
are

EXAMPLE.

number

prime
"

to each

Reduce

16

the

value

If the

terms

(1)

"

Reduce

other.

of

of the fraction.

the value
and

both may

the

denominator

of

be continued

until

must

same

be

4 ; then
number

divided

by

the numerator
so

as

not

to

give

to
must

be

change

the

of the fraction.

fraction

are

divide

f"f" to

2166)2888(1

large numbers, find


both terms
by that.

fourths.
3

(2) 2166

=
"

2888

2166

G. C. D.

fraction

fourths.

denominator

by

tor
numera-

other.

divisor and

greatest common
EXAMPLE.

of

to

denominator

new

the

denominator

numerator

|-|to

divided

the

common

The

12

the

of dividing

process

when

terms

to each

change

not

to 9375ths.

terms.

and

numerator

number

same

the terms

prime

are

fraction to its lowest

"ff

10.

fraction is said to be
and

by

following:

722)2166(3
2166

their

20

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

FOR

GIRLS

EXAMPLES

Reduce

mixed

integersor

to

numbers

1-

tt

Aff"

7.

8J)f

1Q.

2.

\v9-

5-

-3""r6JL

8-

11-

3.

*"*

6.

A"

9.

aflftn

12.

When

have

fractions
is called

smallest

their least

denominator

same

their denominator

denominator.

common

Thus, |f, T%, y's have


The

the

||

denominator.

common

of two

denominator

common

or

fractions is

more

denominator.

common

Thus, |", T\, T2sbecome

f, f "

when

least

to their

changed

common

denominator.

The

multipleof

common

The

least

the least

of

denominator

common

Reduce

"

of

denominator

multipleof

EXAMPLE.

fractions

more

or

is

their denominators.

common

common

two

fractions

more

or

is

denominators.

their

and

two

to fractions

having

common

denominator.
3. x

6.

The

i_8.

==

"

and

anc*-

1TT

"

Therefore,

them.
To

EXAMPLE.

least

Since

denominators,

"2T

24

is

24

it is

denominator

common

Reduce

"

6' and

-|,^,

having
and

is the

Product

and

the least common

12

of

having

least

nominator
least

112

the

2 x

J^.; I

of the

denominator.

fractions

^e

multiple

common

of

-"% to

^)^

the

denominator.

common

2"" S

be

must

denominators

the

20

fractions to fractions

reduce

of

multiple

common

2 o
_

denominator

common

12

|f

L.C.M.
.

_?_

_L.

fraction,and

multiply both

terms

by

3, 6, 12,

is 12.

multiple
of each

the

multiple of

denominators

Divide

^ws"

be

must

common

which

de*

common

the

the least
12

by

common

the

quotient.

inator
denomIf the

denominators

should

least

denominator.

common

be

prime

21

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

other, their product would

to each

be their

EXAMPLES

to fractions

Reduce

having

denominator

common

I-

i,f

5.

f f f

|,|

6.

|, f,|-

3.

f i

7.

4-

T4"

8-

to fractions

having

least

i" A. *, i
denominator:

common

1-

t,1,-h

*,f A,

2-

i i A

6.

f f J,|

7.

Which

3-

AJ

2T"

fractions have

If the
a

their

with

fractions

reduced

the

over

sum

common

not

the

denominator,

common

fraction,it should
EXAMPLE.

Add

"

be

their

add

If
to

an

the

be

can

denominator,

same

terms.

reduced

fraction is larger,

denominator

added.

reduce

them

numerators, and

denominator.

common

its lowest

to

"

of Fractions

Addition

Only

f f, f

Reduce

to

The

result should

result is

integeror

place

improper

an

mixed

number.

J,^, and T9g.


The

1.

2)4
2)2

16
multi-

common

pie of the
48 L. C. M.

of each

give ff, |f,||

adding

least

^a

a
6

13

nominator

be

fraction

fractions

The

their numerators

Hence, the

and

sum

and
is

are

de-

nominators

is

multiplying both terms by the quotient


like fractions,
and
added
now
are
by

placing the

-W/-,or 2?7^.

sum

over

the

common

nator.
denomi-

22

VOCATIONAL

EXAMPLE.

MATHEMATICS

Add

"

FOR

GIRLS

5f 7T^, and 6T7^.


,

find

First

which

is

of

sum

f""

the

of

sum

the

fractions,

Add

this

integers, 18.

18 +

iff-

or

the

to

If"

19M-

^4rcs.

19|f

the

EXAMPLES

Find

1.

the

"

separate parts

over-all

"

dimension

of

Find

the

sum

of

|", and f 1.
|, }, -J-,

3.

Find

the

sum

of

3f 4f

and

inch

wide

piece of
seams

cloth

27

made

are

bought

5.

T3gof

seam

the

T%",f", |", and f",respectively.

measure

2.

4.

if

drawing

an

is made

wide.

inches

What

valued

cloth

cotton

2TV

for

$2J,

and

hose

ribbon

was

cut

into two

at

for

on

both

is the

width

$ 6 J, silk at $

$2J.

What

sides of

after the

kerchiefs
13J,handthe

was

whole

cost?
A

6.

If

5-fa"long.
the

length

7.

of the ribbon

piecesof

Three

Add:

9.

Add

101
:

reduce

them

contain

cloth

should

was

and 53|-yards
38^, 12-J-,
length in yards ?

spectively
re-

1361, 184 j,416J,125|.

with

to

denominator

have

not

denominator

common

be reduced

of Fractions

common

fractions

the

of their numerators
result

cutting,what

other

7f 11, if.

fractions
If

in

the

Subtraction

Only

for waste

is their total

What
8.

allowed

Jg-"was

8f" and

pieces,one

over

the

the

same

and

terms.

tracted.
sub-

denominator,
write

the

denominator.

common

to its lowest

be

can

ence
differThe

REVIEW

EXAMPLE.

Subtract

"

from

J.
least

The
5

Ans.

|- J.
=

and

is

"MI

least

their

4TT

==

6f
sixths,and

n|

6J-

added

^ns-

to the

Their

from

1 is taken

makes

lOf

11

4|

"

are

f,

units, changed

6|

to

from

subtracted

be

cannot

changed

are

denominator, they

common

45

hence

f, which

fractions

the

When

"

4B~

and
,

jQ_g

11| subtract 5f

From

"

f
".

of

denominator

common

is 6.

difference

EXAMPLE.

23

ARITHMETIC

OF

to

6^.

EXAMPLES

1.

jacketand

3|

3.

4.

of

The

5.

The

How

How

yards

many

is

One

of the

and

left ?

were

containing271 lb. there


pounds remained?
many

fractions

for

were

fractions is

$ 1\ and

gave

away

2^

3J.

How

?
is 371

of 2 numbers

sum

Find

coat.

cut

were

other.
had

Laura

cloth, If yards

butter

of two

sum

the

11^ lb.

remained

much

28f

firkin

lb. and

Find

^.

for

of

yards

3J yards

From

2.

sold

eleven

From

and

is

of the numbers

one

number.

the other

6.

for $

By sellinggoods

431, I lost $ 271.

What

was

the

cost?
7.

man

How

yds.

34

8.

did

9.

much
10.

much

yards
sold

from

remain

goods

for

piece of

cloth

containing

12.

What

92| tons.

How

gaining $
56y3",

cost ?

dealer

remained
If I
do

9| yards

many

Brown

Mr.

they

sells

had

208

tons

of coal

and

sold

buy a
gain ?

ton

of

coal

for

6J

and

sell for

$ 71, how

24

VOCATIONAL

There

14.

MATHEMATICS

used, then

were

J gallons in

48

were

FOR

the

last

5^ gallons,and

GIRLS

tank.

First

41

2f gallons.

How

were

left in the tank

15.

What

is the difference

between

T9Tand if ?

16.

What

is the difference

between

32

17.

gallons

of

remains

many

and

3"J ?

piece of dress goods contains 60 yd.


101
L, 9 1, 18f, and
yd. respectivelyare

12

gallons

If

four

made,

cuts

what

Multiplication of Fractions
To
neiv

multiplyfractions,multiplythe numerators
and
numerator
multiply the denominators

together
for
togetherfor

the
the

denominator.

new

when

equivalentto

possible. The word of between


the sign of multiplication.

To

mixed

Cancel
is

the

and

fractions

multiplythe whole
integer,
fraction separatelyby the integerthen add the

multiplya

number

number

two

products.
To multiplytwo

mixed

by

an

each

numbers, change

to

an

improper

fractionand multiply.
EXAMPLE.

Multiply | by f

"

\ multipliedby f
is f
that answer

so

This

same

as

method

together for

numerators

EXAMPLE.

the

Find

"

new

Cancellation

denominator.

new

| of f

3 and

of solution

the
a

is the

product of

are

is the
and

numerator

shortens

prime
as

same

to each

other

multiplying

the denominators

for

the process.

124

and

5.

124f
If the

~^T

6t

620

623f

Ans.

is

fraction

and

integer are

mul-

tipliedseparately by 5, the result is 5

QS

times

620.

620

-V
3f, and
+ 3f =623f
=

5 times

124

25

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

EXAMPLES

William

1.

in five weeks

earn

One

2.

barrels

From

taken.

At

holds

barrel

of flour

barrel

time

another

pounds

many

flour costs

A
a

cents

will

much

How

day.

he

of

bag

cost ?

3.

831

earns

75

cents.

bags.

containing196 lb.,241-

of the

remainder

lb.

taken.

was

three

will

much

How

were

How

left ?

were

of

Multiply J

5.

Multiply 26f by

6.

Find

7.

At

the cost

of

f by f

4.

of

91.

19| yd. of

each, how

$ 121

cloth

at 161

tables

many

cents

be

can

yard.

bought

for

$280?
8.

paid $

9.

for

barrel

is the cost of 18

What

If coal cost

11.

Multiply : 32| by

mixed

numbers

EXAMPLE.

^X-X^X^
5

cloth at

much

will

15J cents
8J

tons

yard ?

cost ?

of Fractions

by another, invert the divisor and


of fractions.
Change integersand
multiplication
to improper fractions.
Divide

"

/?

T97more.

fraction

one

in

proceed as

sold it for $

8 j.

Division
divide

yards of

a ton, how
$7-J-

10.

To

of flour and

I sell it for ?

did

much

How

3
=

?"

-.

Ans.

f by f

The

divisor

result

obtained

5
lation.

by

f
the

is inverted
process

and

the

of cancel-

26

EXAMPLE.

Divide

"

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

5.

3156f by

Ans.
*

divided

1J

15

631

|-

(^

If.

EXAMPLE.

Divide

"

3682

visor

'

by the

Ans.

Yj

with

called
To

whole

having a fraction
complex fraction.

fraction
a

reduce

EXAMPLE.

fraction

complex

Reduce

"

_I

to

to

is

of

divided

by
at

for

this
and

number,

it is useful

does

example
divisor

one

by
The

numbers.

both

or

and

large number

number

same

footh dividend
as

3156f

remainder

multiplying both dividend

In

quotient.
boy

mixed

that

member

2
\-oflyi

be

may

5 in

remainder

This

dividend

the

divisor

the

1) 3682

TT

times, with

mixed

by 5J.

When

follows

as

is placed
gives 270,which
the right of the quotient.

If

is

number

15

integerof
large, it

the

When

30

not

we

can

2 and

to

and

re-

di-

change the
multiply
then

divide

quotient is 669T5T.
of its terms

is

simple fraction.

simple fraction.

Change 4f and
the
be

7f

to

improper fractions,J/ and

indicated

division

form
4/,respectively.Per-

with the aid of cancellation

and

the result will

|f.
EXAMPLES

1.

Divide^

by f

2.

Divide

TV by f.

3.

Divide

|f by i.

7.

296-=-10i

8.

28,769^7|=?

7i_?
'

4.

Divide

5.

Dividef by f.

6.

384|

--

$ by \.
5

ft

iofi
1

28

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

REVIEW

OF

ARITHMETIC

29

30

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

is the

power

10 x 10

10

1000.

the third power


A

decimal

is 10

or

number
have

second

is the

100

power

fraction

power

or

is

decimal

of 10.

fraction

common

10, or

decimal

power

may

of 10.

have

must

-25 ;

T^

.07 ;

T^

.016.

any

always

decimal

called the decimal


right of a period(.),
the right of a decimal
point is called a

TVo

is

denominator-

fraction

at the

.5 ;

100.

1000

of 10.

fraction whose

figure.

10

of 10.

for its denominator

figureat

10

equal factors,as

for its denominator, but

written
A

of

product

GIRLS

Fractions

Decimal
A

FOR

is

point.
decimal

A
To

is

decimal

mixed

read

an

decimal,

integerand
the

read

31

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

; as, 16.04.

decimal

decimal

as

integer,and

an

right-hand figure. To
write the numerator, prefixingciphers when
the denominator, and
place the point
express
it the

There
are

of the

denomination

be

must

ciphers in

as

places in

decimal

many

the

write,

give
mal,
deci-

to

necessary
at

the

decimal

as

left.
there

denominator.

the

EXAMPLES

Read

the following numbers

Express decimally :
tenths.

1.

Four

2.

Three

3.

Seventeen

thousand

4.

Seventeen

hundredths.

5.

Fifteen

8.

Eighteen and

9.

One

hundred

thousandths.
twenty-five
two

thousandths.

hundred

two

hundred

twelve

10

12.

Twenty-nine

13.

324

14.

7846

and

one

sandths.
hundred-thou-

hundredths.

6.

Five

7.

Six ten-thousandths.

sixteen

hundred-thousandths.

hundred-thousandths.

millionths.

10.

eleven

hundred

11.

824

ten-thousandths.

hundredths.
hundred

hundred-millionths.

twenty-sixmillionths.

32

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

-nnnnnnnrj

5 4

2123

2 86

TO"O"

nnnnr"

TTF"

r^nnnnnr-

563

1C
16-

17.

One

and

one

tenth.

18.

One

and

one

hundred-thousandth.

19.

One

thousand

four

twenty-nine hundred

and

decimal

do

ciphers are called decimal


cipher prefixed to a decimal, the value is

each

always

of

denominator

The

1 with

as

decimal

ciphers as

many

the

change

not

there

fold.
ten-

expressed

decimal

are

.of
For

diminished

when

"

value

ciphers.

these

decimal;

the

to

ths.

of Decimals

Reduction

Ciphers annexed

GIRLS

FOR

is

"

places

in

decimal.

the

reduce

To

Write

decimal

to

the numerator

ciphers annexed
to lowest

Tfien reduce
EXAMPLE.

the denominator
are

.25 and

.125 to

1
~~

~~

100

places

with

as

in the decimal.

1 for

fractions.

common

Write

2$

25

0~

decimal

write

terms.

Reduce

"

there

as

omitting the point for the

the decimal

of

of the fraction. For

numerator

many

fraction.

common

for

25

the

and

numerator

the denominator

with

O's,

two

"

^00
4

which

makes

lowest

terms

^
is

T^

reduced

to

\.

1
125
H

fflfi

OK
_

~~

~~

1000

EXAMPLE.

tion in the

.371

Reduce

"

.125 is reduced

*
'

to

x-

100

way.

fraction.

common

37

100

same

frac-

to a common

has

for

its denominator

Ans

"

^[00
4

This
which

is

reduced

complex
to

lowest

fraction
terms

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

EXAMPLES

Reduce

To

to

reduce

Annex

fractions

common

fraction to

common

decimal

ciphersto

Point

places
enough

as

there

in the

are

EXAMPLE.

decimal.

the numerator

and

divide

by

the denominator.

offfrom the right of the quotient as many


ciphers annexed.
If there are not figures

quotient,prefix ciphers.

division will not

The

Reduce

"

be

always

to

exact, i.e. -f
=

.142for

.142+.

decimal.

.75

4)3.00
28
20

.75

EXAMPLES

Reduce

to decimals

1.

JQ

6.

-I

11.

irhr

ti

12

3.

8.

If

13.

4.

9.

5.

T^

10.

""

fi

21.

17-

16i

22-

25.12^

18.

66|

23.

331

14-

12i

19-

if

24-

15.

T6T

20.

25.

Addition
To
a

add

column.

decimals, write them


Add

directlyunder

the

as

in

"L
2To

of Decimals
so

that their decimal

integers,and

points above

it.

place

the

in

points are

point

in the

sum

34

EXAMPLE.

the

Find

"

3,87,2.0983, 5.00831, .029,

of

sum

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

.831.
3.87
Place

2 Q983

numbers,

these

under

one

the

other, with

as

in addition

'

points in

decimal

of

.831

The

integers.
that

numbers

of

sum

add

and

column,

point

the decimal

have

these

in the

should

numbers
column

same

as

the

added.

were

Ans.

11.83661

EXAMPLES

Find

sum

1.

5.83,7.016,15.0081,and

2.

12.031,0.0894,12.0084,and

3.

.0765,.002478,.004967,.0007862,.17896.

4.

24.36,1.358,.004,and

5.

.175,1.75,17.5,175.,1750.

6.

1.,.1,.01,.001,100, 10.,10.1,100.001.

18.3184.

13.984.

1632.1.

25 hundred-thousandths
tenths;8063 millionths;
thousandths; 17 millionths; 95 ten-millionths ; 5, and

7.

48

the

Add

171

8.

Add

9.

32.58,28963.1,287.531,76398.9341.

10.

.0058,71, 9Ty

145.,14.5,1.45,.145,.0145.
of Decimals

Subtraction
To

; 17 ten-thousandths.

hundred-thousandths

24f

subtract

number

decimals, write, the smaller

under

the

under
the
largertvith the decimal point of the subtrahend directly
and place
Subtract as in integers,
decimal point of the minuend.
the point directly
under the points above.

EXAMPLE.

"

Subtract

2.17857
Write

4.32570

Minuend

with

2.17857

Subtrahend

Add

2.14713

Remainder

same,

with

decimal

the

lesser number

0 to the

4.3257.

denominator
as

point under

under
under

the

greater,

other.
points
minuend, 4.3257, to give it the

decimal

the

subtract
the remainder

from

as

the

in subtraction

the other

two

each

subtrahend.
of

integers.

points.

Then
Write

36

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

5.

11.11x100

6.

.5625

7.

.326 x 2.78

6.28125

8.

.325xl2|

9.

.001542

10.

1.001

each

rightfor

to the

This

1.625

multiplyby 200, remove

To

the

point

one

place

100.

100

1.01

writingthe multiplier.

Multiply1.625 by

EXAMPLE."

.0052

multiplier.

performed without

be

can

the

cipher in

x
x

multiplyby 10, 100, 1000, etc.,remove

To

GIRLS

the

162.5

point

to

the

rightand multiply

2.

by

EXAMPLE.

200.

Multiply86.44 by

"

86.44.
2

17,288

EXAMPLES

product of

the

Find
1.

1 thousand

2.

1 million

3.

700

4.

3.894

by
by

thousandth.

one

millionth.

one

thousands

by

7 hundred-thousandths.

3000

5.

Division
To

divide
as

decimals
decimal

many

proceed

1.892

2000.

of Decimals
in

as

and give to
integers,

the number

figuresas

the quotient

in the dividend

ceeds
ex-

those in the divisor.

EXAMPLE.

"

Divide

12.685

.5.

by

The

Divisor

.5)12.685Dividend
25.37

Quotient

the

quotient.

figuresin

of decimal

quotient,12.685,exceeds

her of decimal

by

figuresin the

number

two.

So

figuresin
there

must

the
be

the

num-

divisor,.5,
two

mal
deci-

EXAMPLE.

399.552

Divide

"

37

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

by

192.
When

2.081
Divisor

Quotient

tjie

192)399.552Dividend

divisor

the

the

dividend, and
in

as

1555

division

the

integers.

be
in

point

the

placed directly over

384

integer,

an

quotient should

jn the

point

is

formed
per-

This

may

proved by multiplying divisor


would
give the
by quotient, which
be

1536
192

dividend.

192

EXAMPLE.

28.78884

Divide

"

1.25.

by

When

23.031+
Divisor

Quotient

Dividend
1.25.)28.78.884

places

many
there

378
375
388
375

divisor

multiplying

both

dividend

the

by

does

134
the

125

were

Remainder

quotient
an

dividend

and

divisor is 100.

the

quotients

the

In

tient.
quo-

point

the

if the

as

and

number

same

integer.
the

in the

divisor

place

Then

as

equivalent to

change

not

as

right

places

is

and

the

to

divisor,which

point

dividend

and

decimal

are

contains
the

move
figures,

in both

250

divisor

the

decimal

in

divisor
this

multiplierof

ample,
ex-

both

EXAMPLES

Find

.125

1.

.0625

2.

315.432

3.

.75 -.0125

4.

125-^121

To
the

divide

left
for
To

divide

"

2.

.132

1000

6.

2.496

7.

28000-16.8

-.136

cipherin the
by 200, remove

8.

1.225-4.9

9.

3.1416-27

10.

the

by 10, 100, 1000, etc.,remove

each

divide

by

.001

5.

8.33-5

point one

place to

divisor.

the

point

two

placesto

the

and
left,

38

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

EXAMPLES

Find

the

1.

38.64

2.

quotients
:

10

6.

865.45-=-

398.42-1000

7.

38.28-400

3.

1684.32-1000

8.

2.5-500

4.

1.155-100

9.

.5-10

5.

386.54-2000

"

.001-1000

10.

REVIEW

EXAMPLES

1.

Add

2.

Subtract

3.

Multiply 83.74

4.

Divide

5.

Perform

the

followingcalculations

6.

Perform

the

followingcalculations

28.03,.1674,.08309,7.00091, .1895.
1.00894

from

3.1416

13.0194.

3.1416.

8.5.

by

65.3

3.1416

600
7.

Change

00 2V
8.

5000

the

the

Change

(a) .331

00 eV

7.5.

to decimals

yiu" 00 TV, (/) A,

following decimals

to

(?) A-

fractions

common

(6) .25, (c).125, (d) .375, (e).437J, (/)


Parts

of 100

or

1000

1.

What

part of 100 is 12" ? 25 ? 33| ?

2.

What

part of 1000

3.

How

much

is

of 100?

Of 1000?

4.

How

much

is

of 100 ?

Of

5.

What

EXAMPLE.

35

8.3

followingfractions

(") A,

.7854

3.5 x

.7854

is

"

is 125?

of 100 ?
How

much

100 times

24

25 times

24

250?

1000

333|?
?

Of 1000?
is 25

times

24 ?

2400.
1

as

much

as

100 times

24

600.

Ans.

.875.

REVIEW

Short

OF

of

Method

39

ARITHMETIC

Multiplication

multiplyby

To

25, multiplyby

100

and

divide

331, multiplyby

100

and

divide

16},multiplyby

100

and

divide

121, multiply by

100

and

divide

by
by
by
by

4 ;

3 ;
6 ;
8 ;

9, multiplyby 10 and subtract the multiplicand;


than
two
11, if more
figures,multiplyby 10 and

11,

if

multiplicandto the product ;


two figures,
place the figurethat

is their

add

the

between

sum

them.
11

63 x
Note
tens

that

place is

when

the

carried

693

74

of the two

sum

to the

figureat

11

814

nine, the

figuresexceeds

in the

one

the left.

EXAMPLES

the short

Multiply by
1.

81

by

11

2.

75

by

331

3.

128

4.

87

by

11

5.

19

by

6.

846

7.

88

by

11

8.

19

by

11

9.

846

10.

68

11.

112

12.

37

13.

4183

14.

364

15.

8712

16.

984

17.

18.

11

by 16}

Aliquot
The

aliquot parts of

exactly contained
121, 16},331, etc.
The

monetary
one

by 12J

by

process

in it.

unit

hundred

Parts

of

number
The

of the

are

by 16f
by
by

cents, which

are

11

by
by

11

33i

by

?
=

121

36

by 16}
?
by 25

30

by

3331

$1.00
the

numbers

aliquotparts
United

11

States
written

of

100

is the

that
are

are

5, 20,

taining
dollar,con-

decimally.

40

6 J cents
81 cents

12| cents
16

cents

$ -^

25

$ T^

33

-J-

50

10 dimes

dollar,$

10 dollars

eagle,E.

d.

69

quarter dollar

half dollar

$ .01

$ .05

$ .10

$ 1.00

"

nickel

will

What

69

cost

$ 0.01

or

$ 10.00

of

pairs

stockings cost

at

16

pecks.

32

pipe

on

salt each
A

pecks

of

potatoes

has

13.75,a

woman

14.21, and

fourth

total amount
inside

an

of

receives

woman

one

3.428

of

diameter
inches.

?
and

an

thickness

is the

of

pipe ?

receives

gives $
She
on

12.25

also pays
the

automobile
will

second
woman

inches

3.067

What

$ 121.50

make

for the work

paid

dressmaker

of 26.51

$ 11.50.

of Decimals

will be

long

many

4| cts. a pound, what


weighing 29 Ib. ?

to another.
she

third

is the

of the

She

work.

-\9- $ llf

Ans.

job

diameter

At

how

peck,

$ \

for $ 8.00 ?

What

69

16f cts., or

25^

At

12.45,a

the metal

How

$ 1

1 dime,

work

An

"

For

outside

5.

cents

10 cents

8x^

$ 21.85.

does

"

"

woman

4.

Review

3.

bought

8-5-^

2.

cents

5 cents

pairs will

1.

GIRLS

pair?

be

cent, ct.

EXAMPLE.
can

==

EXAMPLE.

69

cents

10 mills

cents

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

miles

of

one

$ 75.75

for

of 108

doing

boxes

of

piece

of

$ 10.50

helpers and

her
for

cost

material.

How

much

job ?
runs

it take

to

the

at

it to go

the

rate

from

of

Lowell

miles

91
to

hour.

an

Boston,

tance
dis-

6.

If

hour

take

woman

17| cents

hour

an

hours

13^

who

woman

much,

how
on

have

to

13J

piece of work,

do it in

can

mile ?

of fuel per

is the cost

cents, what

cheaper,and

is

Which

7.

miles.

gallon of gasolinein traveling16

23

galloncosts

an

uses

man

41

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

9^ hours

cents

hire

or

Monday 1725.25 Ib. of coal are used, on Tuesday


2134.43
Ib.,on Wednesday 1651.21 Ib.,on Thursday 1821.42
Ib.,on Friday 1958.82 Ib.,and on Saturday 658.32 Ib. How
pounds of coal are used during the week ?
many
8.

On

9.

If, in the example above,

coal

at the
10.

end

of the week

The

distance

instrument

called

An

An

12.

.34

and

mi.

will

train leaves
4.15

the average

per

the

rate

The

weight

weight of

15.

stroke
many
16.

if the

the

gallons of
At

121

days

travels

man

in

by

week

an

the

mi., 89.7 mi.,

mi., 112.60

traveled ?

is the total distance

copper

be

there

zinc.

and
of

pounds

are

York

New

The

P.M.

hour

of

21-foot

steam

and

is measured

in

zinc

If .66 is copper
and

how

casting of

many

the

alloy

Ib. ?

Philadelphiaat
14.

left

was

correspondingto our fivea


pound sterlingand is worth
$4.866|.
five-dollar bill than a pound ?

copper

of

currency

alloyis made of
is zinc,how
many

pounds of
weighing 98
13.

is

more

much

how

automobile

an

What

English piece of

much

How

week,

mi., 49.75

87.5

bill is called

dollar

in

speedometer.

10,433.91 Ib.

were

traveled

followingdistances:
119.3 mi.,and 93.75
11.

the

beginning of

at the

hand

on

there

at

2.10

distance

foot

of

Ty

steel bar

is

What

is 1.08 Ib.

Find

bar.
3.38

gallons of

pump

makes

51.1

strokes

water

will it pump

10 hours

in

of the train ?

pumps

per

arrives

is 90 miles.

pump

cents

and

P.M.

hour, what
each

in

an

water

minute.

per
hour

to

each
How

will be the pay

for

23^ days

42

number

is

related

are

is

denomination

called

number

weight.

Changing
:

to

given

name

to

of

pk.

88

is also

in

from

to

lines

measuring

ing
descend-

nation
higher denomi-

2 bu. 3

distance

or

Table
12 inches

(in.)

3 feet

5| yards,
320
320

rd.

yd.

is used

Measure

Square

rods, or

1760

161

or

feet

5280

feet

5280

ft. =

in

foot,ft.

yard, yd.

rod, rd.

mile, mi.

03,360 in.

measuring

surfaces.

Table
144

square

9 square

1 sq. mi.

Cubic

1 square

foot,sq.

feet

1 square

yard,

yards

square

feet

160

square

rods

640

acres

640

inches

square

30^
272"

Measure

A.

102,400

is used

in

1 acre, A.

1 square

sq. rd.

ft.

yd.

sq.

pd

rod

mile, sq.

mi.

3,097,600 sq. yd.

measuring

volumes

or

solids.

Table
inches

1 cubic

foot,cu.

27 cubic

feet

1 cubic

yard,

16 cubic

feet

1 cord

1728

cubic

8 cord
1

cu.

yd.

27

feet,or
cu.

ft.

128
=

cu.

ft.

46,656

cu.

in.

cu.

foot,cd.

cord, cd.

one

its value.

is called reduction

Changing

qt.

number

changing a
changing

ascending ; as, 88 qt.

is used

Measure

of

without

is called reduction

1 mi.

of

or

measure

denominations

more

or

that

pk. 1 qt.

unit

denomination

lower

as, 2 bu. 3

Linear

one

process

to another

denomination

as, 3 bu. 2

units

number.

is the

Reduction

having

denominate

number

compound

of concrete

of different kinds

composed

GIRLS

Numbers

Compound
A

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

ft.

yd.
ft.

pk.

44

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

FOR

GIRLS

Counting.
Table
12

things

12 dozen
12 gross

dozen, doz.

1 gross,

1 great gross, G. gr.

gr.

Paper Measure.
Table
24 sheets

quire

20

ream

quires

Reduce

"

17

yd. 2

ft. 9 in. to inches.

yd.

3 ft.

17

yd.

17

53 ft.

1 ft.

12

in.

53 ft.

53

645

636

1 bale

Descending

51 +

1 bundle

5 bundles

Reduction
EXAMPLE.

reams

51 ft.

12

636

in.

in.

Am.

EXAMPLES

to lower

Reduce

denominations

1.

46 rd. 4

2.

4 A. 15 sq. rd. 4 sq. ft. to square

3.

16

cu.

4.

15

gal.3 qt. 1 pt. to pints.

5.

27 da. 18 hr. 49 min.

yd. 2

yd. 25

ft. to feet.

cu.

ft. 900

EXAMPLE.

"

Reduce

2)326 pt.

gi.

4)163 qt.
40

3 qt.

gal. +

gal.3 qt.

gi. Ans.

Ascending
gillsto higher denominations.

1306

in 1 pt. there

there

are

times

in 1306

In the
found.

2gi.

inches.

to seconds.

Since

4)1306 gi.

inches.

in. to cubic

cu.

Reduction

40

as

gi.,or

same

So

pints as

many

gi.,in

gi. are

326

pt. and

the

quarts and

way

there

are

are

in 1306

1306

gi.

contained

gi. remainder.

gi.,40

gallons are

gal. 3 qt.

45

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

EXAMPLES

Reduce

higher denominations

to

in. to

miles,etc.

1.

Reduce

225,932

2.

Change

1384

3.

In

4.

How

many

cords

5.

How

many

bales in 24,000 sheets of paper

denominate

dry pintsto higher denominations.

139,843 sq.

in. how

of wood

is

fraction

miles,rods,etc.

square

many

in 3692

ft. ?

cu.

fraction

of

unit of

weight

or

measure.

integersof lower denominations.

fraction to the next


fractionalpart of the product
to the requireddenomination.

EXAMPLE.

"

Reduce

of 320

rd.

f
f
\
f
f
The
To

lower

the

Change
the

fractions to

denominate

reduce

To

same

reduce

of

of

of

rd.
228f
-i-6^-03^ yd.
# yd.
V yd.
3 ft.
Of ft.
in.
12
-3/in.
5} in.
=

mile

decimals

Reduce
.84

rd. 3

yd.

0 ft.

5| in.
decimals.

denominate
to denominate

.87 bu. to

numbers.

pecks,quarts, etc.

qt.
Change

1.68

pk.
.48

pt.

pk.

OA

the next

same

pk. 3 qt. 1.68 pt.

way,

quired

OJ.

Ans.

the

iower

the decimal

rd.

4
3.48

ceed
pro-

228

denominate

.87 bu.

so

appliesto

"

and

way,

of

same

rods,yards,feet,etc.

to

process

EXAMPLE.

mile

of

the

in

Treat

denomination.

decimal

denomination.

part of
and

fraction

so

denomination.

the

Treat

product

proceed

to

in the

to the

re-

46

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

FOR

GIRLS

EXAMPLES

Reduce

integersof

to

of

1.

2.

.3125

5.

Change f

6.

.2364

7.

What

8.

Reduce

9.

.375 of

an

of

of

gallon.
of

is the value

-|^bu.

"

hr.

of

how

of
the

mile.

days.

mile ?

denominations.

lower

of

rods, etc.

square

many

Numbers

7 hr. 30

min.

45

sec., 10 hr. 27

The

45

25

30

2 min.

15

33

the

10

27

46

the min.

50

39

34

in the

34

sec.

From

of the

sum

20

3 pt. 3

of

sec., 12 hr.
46

mm.

sec.

sec.

30

"

of

1^

12

EXAMPLE.

and

Compound

sum

34

sec.

seconds

sec.

Write

column

and

column.

same

154

the 34
add

sec.

under

sec.

the

min.

to

the other columns

Add

way.

Ans.

Subtraction

of

Compound

Numbers

gal.2 qt. 2 pt. 1 gi.take 16 gal.2 qt.

39

gi.
As

or

in

gal. 6 qt. 2 gi.

Ans.

gi. and

the

same

be

to

the

from

gi.

the remainder
way

from

taken

borrowed

are

added

the 5

"

gi.cannot

1 pt.

and

22

of

sec., 20 hr. 15 inin. 33

50 hr. 39 min.

"

.51625

integersof

to

equal to

Find

min.

4.

ton.

month.

are

EXAMPLE.
30

ton.

of

3.

to months

year

Addition

25 min.

denominations

acre.

T9?acre

10.

lower

until
22

pt. column

the

Subtract
is 2
all

gal

are

gi.,4 gi.

gi.

gi. from
Continue

subtracted.

3 qt

Q pt

gi"

47

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

Numbers

Multiplicationof Compound
EXAMPLE.

428

39

in. under

8_

the

Add

yd.

64

the

product of
7

ft. 8 in.

8 in.

8 times

in.

ft.

yd.

Multiply 4 yd. 2

"

in.

in.

Place

5 ft. 4 in.

column, and

2 ft. by

to the

8.

by

5 ft. to

the

equals 21 ft.

8, which

product of

add

yd.
yd.

yd. by 8

39

the

39 yd. 4 in. Ans.

of

Division
EXAMPLE.
rd.

Find

"

ft.

yd.
4

35)42

of 42 rd. 4

Numbers

Compound

yd. 2

ft. 8 in.

in.

8(1

rd.

35
7

-faof

6J

add

12

35

yd.

re-

38| yd.;
42" yd. ^ of
=

+8

in.
35JI2| yd. (1 yd. 35)3T)2(8f"
280
35_

in. ; add

=294

~22

~7"

1 rd. ;

rd.

yd. ; remainder,
42J yd.
7" yd., 22| ft.
24" ft.
^ of 24" ft. 0 ft. 24" ft.

294

38"
+

mainder,

35)24|(0ft.

3"

rd.

42

-s\of

302

in.

8 in. =302

in.

8|| in.

22"

1 rd. 1

ft.

yd. 8f|

in.

Ans.

12

Difference
EXAMPLE.

Find

"

the

time

between
from

Dates
Jan.

25, 1842, to July 4,

1896.
1896

74

1842

54 yr.

It is customary
25
mo.

9 da.

Ans.

to consider

30

to a month.

July 4, 1896, is the

yr., 7th mo.,

4th

is the

1842d

da.,and

yr.,

1st.

Jan.

1896th

25, 1842,
25th

mo.,

Subtract, taking 30 da. for

days

month.

da.

48

EXAMPLE.

Do

Dec.

15

Jan.

31

are

Feb.

29

uary

Mar.

12

and

87

days.

number

exact

12, 1896

March

16, 1895, and

Dec.

is the

What

"

not

15

in

days

12

between

days

first day mentioned.

the

December,

29

in March

Jan-

(leap year),
87

making

There

16th.

after the

days, February

31

has

of

count

days

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

days.

Ans.

EXAMPLES

time

much

How

1.

11, 1620,

Dec.

Washington
How

1799.

Mr.

3.

Smith

did

the exact

until June
Find

6.

How
To

To

continued

much

How

did he
of

number

exact

John

goes

many

minutes

bed

to

multiply by
the

it

its date

between

day
Wednes-

working
?

earn

days

week

every

between

Jan.

10, 1896,

he

spend

compound

and

P.M.

gets up

at

7.10

A.M.

in bed ?

number

by

fraction.

fraction, multiply by the numerator,

and

product by the denominator.

To divide

by a fraction,multiply by the denominator,

product by
When

at 9.15

does

multiply or divide

divide

an

days

paid

May 5, 1896.

and

the

14,

payment.

6.

the

Dec.

25, 1896, and

carpenter earning $ 2.50 per day commenced

5.

of

number

morning, April 1,1896, and

day

Feb.

dated

note

gave

of

died

he live?

Find

the time

4.

grims,
Pil-

Independence,

22, 1732, and

Feb.

born

was

long

July 12, 1896.


and

of

the

of

landing

Declaration

the

to

the

1776?

July 4,
2.

elapsed from

the

and

divide

the numerator.

multiplier or

divisor

is

improper fraction,and proceed as

mixed

above.

number,

reduce

to

REVIEW

49

ARITHMETIC

OF

EXAMPLES
1.

How

2.

will it

of 16 hr. 17 min.

If

train

at the

12f hr.

in

run

4.

Divide

14 bu. 3

5.

Divide

5 yr. 1

rate of

same

15 minutes

30 minutes

oz.,

How

3.

on

work

skirt,1

minutes

45

on

jacket. What
parts of

many

from

feet

many
8'

counter

and

by 3f

sec.

minutes

12

1 hour

and
petticoat,

the number

of hours

and
a

on

and

spent

weighing 14
nothing is allowed

sewing machine,

Ib. of metal

860

long

bench

6", a

furniture

and

many

gross

4.

How

5.

Find

must

14'

4",

the

between

if

each

train

in

is

mi. 30 rd. 10 ft. per

33
run

dry goods

desk

3"

min.

sec., 10 hr. 27
8 hr. at

hour, how

2",

and

and

the

buttons
45

counter

between

the

counters

sec., 12

min.
the

be to hold

store

allowed

are

lot of 968

for

4'

the walls

of 7 hr. 30

sum

30 sec., 20 hr. 15 min.


If

that 2 hours

states

hour

was

5", placed side by side, if 3'

6.

speed ?

How

piecesof

far

be obtained

can

for waste

7'

all the work


2.

on

EXAMPLES

piece of

on

and

hour, how

one

1 da. 1 hr. 1 min.

1 wk.

mo.

spent

were

hours

waist,2

on

card

time

is

pk. 6 qt. 1 pt. by }.

REVIEW

1.

land, which

of

ft. in

mi. 35 rd. 16

60

runs

sec.

the size of the farm.

Find

farm.

14

sq. rd.

12

A.

10

field contains

of the whole
3.

is

much

46

hr. 25

min.

sec.

average

rate

of 50

great is the distance covered ?

telephonepole is 31 ft. long. If 4 ft. 7 in. are under


ground, how high (in inches)is the top of the pole above the
7.

street ?
8.

If 100

the total

bars of

weight of

iron,each 2f long,weigh

2300

bars ?

70

Ib.,what

is

50

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

If

9.

cubic

it

does

ounces

10.

weigh

sold it at 41 cents
11.

peck

12.

quart is what

13.

I have

is what

lb.

many

bushel

each.

oz.

she

and

receive ?

?
? of

of salt which

oz.

of butter

ounces

did

much

bushel

part of

pounds

How
of

part

lb. 14

84

of

made

pound.

lb.,how

62^

weighs

water

wife

farmer's

packages

of

foot

GIRLS

FOR

How

peck

I wish

put into

to

will

packages

many

there be ?
If

14.

will be

What

are

65

pt. 3 gi.,how

allowed

is the

bottles

dozen

many

gal.2 qt. 1 pt.?

pieces51" long

many

long, if 5"

holds
hold

requiredto
How

15.

bottle

one

for waste

be cut

can

from

16' 8"

rod

entire

length of a .railwayconsistingof five


different lines measuring respectively160 mi. 185 rd. 2 yd.,
97 mi. 63 rd. 4 yd.,126 mi. 272 rd. 3 yd.,67 mi. 199 rd. 5 yd.,
and 48 ini. 266 rd. 5 yd. ?
16.

Percentage
Percentage is

process

of hundredths

means

or

of

per

solvingquestions of
cent (%).

Every question in percentage involves three


rate per cent, the base,and the percentage.
is the number

The

rate

The

base is the number

The

percentage is the result obtained

cent

of

Since
per

per

cent

elements

of hundredths

by
the

taken.

the hundredths

of which

relation

by taking a

are

taken.

certain

per

number.

tain
by taking a cerpercentage is the result obtained
that the percentage is the
cent of a number, it follows

the

and

The
rate
product of the base and the rate.
factors,the percentage is the product.
EXAMPLE.

"

How
8

much

of $200

is 8
=

%
200

of $ 200
x

.08

base

are

always

$ 16.

(1)

52
6.

What

7.

per cent of

technical

8.

Out

What

was

school

high

of

of

gross

the per

cent

contains

bottles

of

Trade

Discount

broken.

were

jobbers have a price list. From


they give specialdiscounts according to the credit of
of suppliespurchased, etc.
the amount
and
that
than
one
discount, it is understood
give more
while the second
the discount from the list price,
means
and

Merchants

the discount

from

of the

pupils; 476
school is girls
?

mucilage

broken

? 4 inches

896

of the

cent

per

GIRLS

? 11 inches

foot is 8 inches

girls. What

pupilsare

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

list

this
the

tomer
cus-

If

they

the

first

denotes

remainder.

the

EXAMPLES

Suppliesfrom

2.

121

price of

3.

allowed

Were

dealer

4.

was

If the

of 40
6.

and
7.

bill

15%,
to be

due
30.19

on

What

What

to

5%

and

10%,
paid ?

to

the

was

amounting

per

$ 58.75.

If

paid ?

amount

cessive
Suc-

$ 212.75.

allowed.

were

paid within
30 days, what

bills

within

$399.16

c.

d.

30

days.

will

be

$1369.99

e.

489.01

Millinerysuppliesamounted
% and 15 %. What was the

$ 36.68

at

2816.49

10

cotton

amounted

store

discount,what

% is usuallydiscounted
following are to be paid

b.
5.

for

of

the amount

the amounts
a.

dry goods

received

discounts

What

spoolsof

200

off ?

at 40

M.

is the

What

1.

918.69

/.

to

$ 127.79

net

price?

singlediscount

is

equivalentto

singlediscount

is

equivalentto

20

with

discount

discount

of 45

10

%,

and

53

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

Simple Interest
that

Money
The

is

paid for

for the

money

the

principal,and

the

of

use

which

of

sum

of

use

the

is called

money

interest

is

paid

is called

interest

principaland

interest.
the

is called

the amount.
Interest
months

at 6

of 30

each

days

interest.

There

of the

principalfor 1 year ; 12
puting
are
usuallyregarded as a year in comseveral
methods
of computing
are

means

interest.
EXAMPLE.

What

"

is the interest

$ 100 for 3 years at 6

on

$100
.06

$ 6.00 interest for

one

Or, ^fa

year.

$18.

Ans.

$ 18.00 interest for 3 years.

Ans.

$ 100 + $ 18
Rate

Principal x
EXAMPLE.
at 6

What

"

$ 118, amount.

Time

is the interest

Interest.

$ 297.62

on

for 5 yr. 3

mo.

$297.62
.06

yjL

$17.8572

21

$ 297.62

nr

"

TTT^

~~

~+

^7

"

"

100

$ 18750.06
_

~V

"

09

'1?vo"

7*
'

o"

200

5j
4.4643
89.2860

NOTE.

$93.7503

$93.75.

Ans.

mills.
and

"Final
Mills

called

results should

disregarded

are

another

cent

if 5

not

include

if less than

or

5,

more.

EXAMPLES
1.

What

is the interest

on

$ 586.24

for 3 months

at 6

2.

What

is the

on

$ 816.01

for 9 months

at 5

3.

What

is the interest

011

$ 314.72

for 1 year

4.

What

is the interest

on

$ 876.79

5.

What

at 51

is the

interest

interest

on

for 2 yr. 3

$ 2119.70

at 4
mo.

for 6 yr. -2

%
at

mo.

4" %

13 da.

54

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

The
the 6

By
of $

method

Per

What

"r

the

GIRLS

Method

Cent

it is convenient

1, then multiply it by

EXAMPLE,
8

Six

FOR

to find first the

interest

principal.

is the interest

$ 50.24

on

at 6

for 2 yr.

18 da. ?

mo.

Interest
Interest
Interest

on
on
on

1 for 2 yr.

$ .06

$ .OOJ

18

$ .000*

=2

1 for 8

1 for 18 da.
1 for 2 yr.

mo.

Interest

on

Interest

on

$ 50.24 is 50.24 times

Second

Method.

.04
.003

18 da.

mo.

Interest

"

$ 12

$ .163
on

.163

$ 8.19.

for

sum

any

Ans.

60

days

of that sum and may be expressed by moving the


"j-J-ginterest for 6 days may
two places to the left. The
by moving the decimal three placesto the left.
EXAMPLE.

is the

What

"

interest

at 6

decimal
be

is

point

expressed

$ 394.50 for 96 days at

on

6%?
$3.9450, interest

on

$394.50 for 60 days

at 6

%.

1.9725, interest

on

$394.50 for 30 days

at 6

"Jo.

.3945, interest

on

$ 394.50

$6.3120, interest

on

$394.50 for 96 days

EXAMPLE.

What

"

for 6

days

is the interest

at

"Jo.

at 6

Ans.

%.

$ 529.70

on

$ 6.31.
for 78

8%?
$5.297, interest

on

$529.70 for 60 days

1.589, interest

on

$ 529.70

interest

on

$ 529.70

$6.886,
8

% =6

% +"

of

$6.886 + $2.295

at 6

%.

for 18

days (6 days
for 78 days at 6 %.

3)

6%.
Ans.

$9.181.

$9.18.

EXAMPLES

Find

the interest and


for 1 yr. 3

amount

of the

6 da. at 6

following:

1.

$ 2350

2.

$ 125.75

for 2 yr. 5

mo.

17 da. at 7

3.

$ 950.63

for 3 yr. 7

mo.

21 da. at 5

4.

$ 625.57 for 2 yr. 8

mo.

28 da. at 8

mo.

%.
%.
%.
%.

days

at

55

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

Exact

Interest

days, interest computed by the 6%


of using only 30 days
method
is not strictly
exact, by reason
makes
the year only 360 days. The day is
for a month, which
When

the time

therefore

reckoned

To

compute
1

includes

in

year.

days, and

sider
con-

^-^ of 1 year'sinterest.

as

Find

"

time

exact

of

it is -^

year, whereas

interest,
find the

exact

day'sinterest

EXAMPLE.

of

-^

as

interest of $ 358 for 74

the exact

days at

7%.
$358
74

.07

$25.06,1 year's interest.

days' interest
of $ 25.06

$358

Qr

is

J74

_7_

year's interest.

Ans.

$ 5.08.

X100

-/^ of
,

365~
EXAMPLES

Find

interest of

the exact

1.

$324

for 15 da. at 5

2.

$253

for 98

3.

$624

for 117

4.

$ 620

5.

$ 153.26

6.

$ 540.25 from

from

da. at

on

for

21
3

Multiplyby

Multiply by

"

Multiply by

"

number

3* "l" Multiply by
"

number

number

%.

excellent rules for

to be

number

at 8

Interest

Computing

principalfor any
principalby 100 and

%.

"

Sept.14

12 to

June

the

"

12 at 6

5| %

of

number

any

%.

da. at

following will be found

Divide

4%.

15 to Nov.

Aug.

Rules
The

%.

da. at 7

for 256

as

days to
of

of

est
inter-

days.

proceed
of

findingthe

follows:

run,

days, and

days, and

of

days,and

and

divide

divide
divide

divide

by
by

by 180.
144.

120.

by

102.86.

56

VOCATIONAL

"

"

"

"

"

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

Multiplyby

number

of

days, and

divide

by

90.

Multiply by

number

of

days, and

divide

by

72.

Multiplyby

number

of

days, and

divide

by

60.

Multiply by

number

of

days, and

divide

by

51.43.

Multiply by

number

of

days, and

divide

by

45.

Savings
Showing the
interest added

amount

Bank

of " 1, from

semiannually,

Interest

Compound
1 year

at different

to

rates.

Table

15 years,

with

compound

REVIEW

57

ARITHMETIC

OF

EXAMPLES

the

Solve
1.

at 6

is the

years at 6
3.

How

long

How

long

long

it take

will

$ 400

will

$ 580

it take

to

5" %

%,

it take

$615

to

double

itself at

How

long

will

it take

$784

to

double

itself

7%,

8.

Find

the interest of $ 1217

9.

Find

the interest of $681.14

10.

Find

the interest

11.

Find

the interest of $384.79 for 115

is the

relation

by dividingone
of

The

between

the

days

for 74

two

%.

at 4

days

at

%.
4|-%.

at 5

days at

%.
%.

numbers

antecedent,and
ratio is

It is found

numbers.

ratio of 4 to 8 is 4

The
the two

are

ratio is the

sign of

for 37

at 3

Proportion

and

the other.

of the ratio

terms

first term

by

days

$414.50 for 65 days

of

Ratio
Ratio

at

the interest of $ 684 for 94

compared.

the

(:).(It is

^-

second
the

i.

The

the

sequent.
con-

division

sign

ally,
omitted.) Ratio may also be expressedfractionas
i" or 16 : 4 ; or T3Tor 3 : 17.
ratio formed
dent
by dividing the consequent by the antecethe line

is
The

will

Find

itself at

double

7.

with

itself at

double

to

interest?

simple interest

The

of 11

$ 1 at the end

of

interest

compound

interest ?

How

simple
6.

of

end

the

at

56

page

interest?

compound
5.

$1

on

?
"/0

compound
4.

tables

What

of

interest

compound

is the

What

81 years
2.

following problems by using the

an

two

inverse
terms

ratio

of the

12

6 is the inverse

ratio

taken

ratio of 6

together form

12.

couplet.

58

VOCATIONAL

Two

or

MATHEMATICS

couplets taken

more

compound

taking
and

together form

2:5

Thus,

the

ratio

of the

product

changed

antecedents

the

product of the consequents


12:55.
or
6x2:11x5,
Antecedent

To
number

does

for

Ratio

-+-

ratio.

by

antecedent,

new

consequent

; as,

Eatio

Consequent
Antecedent

of

terms

ratio

simple

new

both

ratio

by

the

same

the ratio.

change

not

for

Consequent

divide

multiply or

Antecedent
Ratio

to

Consequent

-+-

compound

6:11

be

may

GIRLS

FOR

Thus

12

3x12:3x6

2
2

EXAMPLES

Find

the ratio of

1.

20

300

2.

3 bu.

21-16

""

12:i

""

A:*f

5-

i'*

"

f:|,f:|,|:|

6.

16:

Fractions

nominator

pk.

with

ratio

as

de-

common

have

the

same

their numerators.

":*"**'**

(?)=!"
Proportion

An
A
read
A

equalityof

proportion.

proportion is usuallyexpressed thus


4 is to 2

as

first and
third

The

and

fourth

terms

are

product

: :

12

6, and

is

12 is to 6.

proportionhas

antecedents

means.

ratios is

the

second

terms

called

of

terms, of which

four

are

and

fourth

the first and

third

are

consequents.

The

the second

and

are

called extremes, and

means.

the

extremes

equals

the

product

of

the

60

VOCATIONAL

will

What

6.

FOR

MATHEMATICS

11

of cambric

1 yards

GIRLS

if 50

cost

yards

cost

$6.75?
If it takes

7.

suit,how

many

make

same

the

8.

If 21

9.

should

valued

If there

many
12.

are

valued

minims

in

16,843 minims

will 35

is taxed

$5700

at

7680

in

$ 52.50,what

property

on

are

there

There

11.

silk cost

yards of

farm

pintsare

to

suit ?

be the tax

10.

45

yards of cloth,1 yard wide, to make


7-Jyards of cloth,44 inches wide, will it take

at
a

for

yards cost
What

$38.19.

$ 28,500 ?

pint of water,

how

many

approximately
641 grains?

15

grains

in

How

gram.

grams

in

In

velocity diagram a line '3J in. long represents


would
be the length of a line representing30 ft.

ft.

What

velocity?
When

post 11.5 ft. high casts a


20.6 ft. long,a telephone pole nearby
long. How
high is the pole?
13.

of water
nitrate
A

15.

days

ditch

If in
the

on

47ft.
17.

will form

be used
is

of 10 hours

16.

what

should

casts

of silver nitrate dissolved

If 10 grams

14.

shadow

dug

each

drawing

14

days

it have

would
a

taken

ground

cubic

much

timeters
cen-

silver

of water

each.

ft.

59.2

How

?
many

high is representedby 1^",


represent the height of a house

38 ft.

tree

scale will

same

in 100

% solution,how
of 8 hours

level

shadow

cubic centimeters

in 1560
in

10

on

high?
What

will

be the

cost

of

21

motors

if 15 motors

cost

$887?
18.

If

at the
the list

goods

list

are

bought

price,what

price.)

per

at

cent

discount
is

of 25

gained?

% and are
(Assume $

sold
1

as

REVIEW

If

18.

goods,how
If

19.

much

is

girl spends

she

If

pole 8

it

cents

months

48 ft.

shadow

heavy

on

how
confectionery,

for

shadow

per minute
hour

an

week

ft. high casts

casts

in

sew

for it in three

spend

which

tree

28

inches

26

sews

yards will

many

does

20.

machine

sewing

61

ARITHMETIC

OF

4J

ft.

long,how

high

long ?

Involution
is

The

product of equal factors

The

is involution.
process of finding powers
product of two equal factors is the second

The

power.

equal factor.
product of three equal factors

power,

or

square, of the
The

is the third power,

or

cube,

of the factor.
42

23

2 x

4 is 4 to the second
2 x

2 is 2 to the third

34 =3x3x3x3

the cube

or

power,

is 3 to the fourth

of 4.

the square

or

power,

or

power,

of 2.

the fourth

of 4.

power

EXAMPLES

Find

the powers

1.

53

3.

I4

5.

(2i)2

7.

93

2.

1.1s

4.

252

6.

24

8.

.152

Evolution
One

of the

One

of two

One

of three

The

its root

radical

of 16

indicates the square


=

power

of

number

of

4.

The

3 is

The

is

root

before

root.

is the square root.

number

cube

sign (^/) placed

is to be found.

Thus, \/9

of

equal factors

root

square

The

equal factors
equal factors

is the
of 27
a

cube

indicates that

radical sign alone before

read, the square

root

of 9

3.

of it.

3.

number

root.

root

number

62

VOCATIONAL
A

small

called

MATHEMATICS

figureplaced in
index

the

the

FOR

opening

the root, and

of

of

shows

GIRLS

the

radical

what

sign is

is to

root

be

taken.

Thus, \/8

2 is read, the cube

of 8 is 2.

root

Square
The

of

square

the

number

composed of tens and units


tens,plus twice the product of the

of the

to the square

units,plus the

What

"

of the

square

tens'2+
EXAMPLE.

Root

2 x

tens

units +

root

2x3Q

units

tens

30 +

2 x

35

Separating
into

60[~325
65 1
325

900

units2

of 1225?

12'25(30+
2xtens

equal
tens by

units.

is the square

Tens2, 302

is

periods

figures

two

each

by

checkmark

beginning

there

power,
The

have

units,

at

we

be two

must

root

remainder

of

2 x

is 2

factor
2 x

The

in

(3 tens). Subtracting the square


consists of 2 x (tens x units) + units.
units

"

(2 x 30
(units),which

tens

Therefore

and

contained

units

being the
60). By
5,

two

But

trial

divide

if correct.

root

of every

factors,length,and

is 30 +

square

('),
in

the

of

is

the

being

900,

and

its

tens, 900, the

one

of

them,

the greater part of this factor

other.
we

units.

1225

factors,units
325

by

Completing

65, which, multiplied by

the square
area

is

of

periods

two

are

is 30

tens

tens

there

the root, tens

tens

even

325, therefore,is composed


and

Since

figuresin

greatest square

square

12'25.

of

the other

60 to find
the

the other

factor, we

have

factor,5, gives325.

35.

surface is the

product of

two

equal

width.

Finding the square root of a number, therefore,is equivalent


its area
to findingthe length of one
side of a square surface,
being given.
Area
1. Length x Width
Width
2. Area
Length
3. Area
Width
Length
=

-r-

-r-

EXAMPLE.

Find

"

13'06. 09'96

SHORT

METHOD

the square

root

ing whole

406

66)

into periods of two

number

396

the

721

numbers

period,

Subtract
and

7224)28896
28896

the

and

bring down
Divide

the

the

to

the

complete divisor by the last

root

annex

for

dividend,

When

twice

in the root,

occurs

is

to

figure,and

tillall the

manner

period, and

If there

from

the

to

in the leftthe

at

left-hand

period for

dividend, with

root, and

decimals

its

right.
period,

dividend.

right-hand

the root

already found,

the divisor.

Multiply this

bring down

the next

period

before.

as

in this

Proceed

the next

quotient

its root

the next

figureomitted, by
and

figureseach, point-

greatest square

write

the square

point,separate the

the left and

to

Find

right.

hand

721)1009

of 1306.0996.

at the decimal

Beginning

(36.14

63

ARITHMETIC

OF

REVIEW

divide

remainder

as

exhausted.

periods are
0 to

annex

trial

the

divisor,bring down

before.

after all the

periods are

exhausted,

mal
deci-

annex

periods.
If,after multiplying by any root figure,the product is larger than
Also
dividend,the root figure is too largeand must be diminished.
last

figurein

For

every

in the

the

complete divisor

must

period in the power, there


If the last decimal
period does

supply the deficiencyby annexing

the

be diminished.

decimal

root.

the

must
not

be

decimal

contain

two

figure
figures,

cipher.

EXAMPLES

Find

square

root

of

V3.532-6.28

1.

8836

5.

\7xn

2.

370881

6.

72.5

10.

V625

3.

29.0521

7.

.009^

11.

_LX

4.

46656

8.

1684.298431

12.

13.
an

the

area

What.is the length of

equal to

9.

one

side of

field 75 rd. long and

square

1296

"

field that has

45 rd. wide

CHAPTER

II

MENSURATION

The
A
the

is

circle

Circle

plane figure

circumference,

bounded

which

of

point

every

by

curved

is

line, called
from

equidistant

the

center.

The
from

straight

of

point

one

and

another

to

is

diameter

the

line drawn,

circumference

the

through

passing

center.

The
the

of

ratio

diameter

of

circle

any

which

3|,
Greek

letter

is
TT

is

always

mately
approxiby

(pi).

radius

to

represented

The

is

3.1416+,

number,

constant

the

circumference

the

Circumference

Diameter

straight

line

the

from

drawn

the

center

to

be

into

circumference.

Any

drawing

By
series
of

of

each

radius.
the
1

See

portion

of
a

the

is

sector

Therefore

product
Appendix

the

of the
for

of

one

equal

radii

of

number

figures,each

is

circumference

to
area

of

and

the

the

circle

and
directions
64

may

is called

half

circumference

explanation

circle

which

one

arc.

an

The

sector.

the

of

product
is

cut

equal

to

one

area

arc

and

half

radius.
concerning

the

use

of

formulas.

of

65

MENSURATION

In
radius

formula

this

equals

area,

3.1416, and

TT

R1

the

squared.
^
this

In

formula

iz"x|"7

diameter

equals the

3.1416

A=._V
is the

What

"

the

ference,
circum-

g=.7864ly

4
EXAMPLE.

and

of

area

circle whose

radius

is

3ft.?

EXAMPLE.

is the

What

"

area

of

ft

circle whose

ence
circumfer-

is 10 ft. ?

X^X
3.1416

Area

of

Ring.

the

area

of

the

area

of the
Let

d
A
a

(1)

-^"

7.1

sq.ft.

examining a flat iron ringit is clear that


be found
of the ring may
by subtracting

inside

On

"

side

one

10

3.1416

circle from

the

area

diameter

outside

inside

area

of outside

area

of inside circle

diameter

circle

of the outside circle.

66

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

FOR

GIRLS

(2)
A-a

(3)

Let

"

-c

ring

diameter

what

is the

of
area

"

.7854

If the outside

7",

^Dz-d

"

diameter

inside

the

of circular

area

EXAMPLE.

flat

of

D2

is 9" and

ring

side

one

of

the

ring?
#=.7854
B

(D2 -"f2)
49)
(81

.7854

.7854

32

25.1328

sq. in.

Ans.

Angles
make

We

two

common

and

movement,
circle contains

circle contain
the

(2) to

360",

as

of

uses

measure

and

measure

difference

as

cular
cir-

in direction.

angles at the center of


their corresponding arcs

the

degrees

many

angles : (1) to

the
on

circumference.

Angle
A

POE

has

as

degrees as

many

rightangle is measured

of the

PE.

by a quarter
which
circle,

of the

circumference

arc

is 90".
is

angle AOG

The

The

angle AC,

to each

they

are

other.

and

is
circle,

GOC,

When

said to be
of the other.

they

are

half

with

made

of the

angles,AOG

rightangle.

straightangle, and

which

the

sum

the circumference

it
of

two

angles

complementary angles, and


When

the

of two

sum

supplementary angles, and

of the other.

contains,are

one

the

right

two

supplementary
is
one

equal

to

is the

90",
plement
com-

angles equals180",

is said to be the supplement

68

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

diameter
7.

The

cloth
diameter
9.

of

that

side of

one

outside

length
much

of

area

wheel

How

8.

18"

and

is the

What

diameter
child's

of the rubber

carriageis
tire that

the

exactlycovers

flat iron

ring 14"

inside

is needed

ribbon

GIRLS

to bind

top

of

30"

in

diameter.

fits it ?
the

edge

center

of

table

lar
circu28"

in

If

hat

straw

the diameter
10.

is the

What

6.

FOR

30"

measures

around

the

rim.

What

is

of the hat ?
circular
what

dining room

is the

table

greatest distance

measures
across

12' 6"
the

in circumferen

table ?

Triangles

by three straightlines.
plane figurebounded
classified according to the relative lengths of
Triangles are
their sides and the size of their angles.
A
triangle having equal sides is called equilateral. One
having two sides equal is isosceles. A trianglehaving no
sides equal is called scalene.
If the angles of a triangleare
equal, the triangleis equiangular.
A

triangleis

angle
triangleis a rightangle,the triis a right triangle. In a righttrianglethe side opposite
the rightangle is called the hypotenuse and is the longestside.
the legs,and are
other two sides of the righttriangle
The
are
at right angles to each other,
If

one

EQUILATERAL

of

the

angles of

ISOSCELES

SCALENE

EIGHT

69

MENSURATION

KINDS

TRIANGLES

OF

Right Triangles
In

right trianglethe
of the hypotenuse

square

the

equals

of

sum

the

squares

of

sides

legs.
length of

or

If the

and

other

one

right triangle is
the

other

the

side

two

the

potenuse
hy-

leg of a
known,
be

may

found

by squaring the
hypotenuse and squaring
the leg,and extractingthe
square

EXAMPLE.

30" and

of

root

"

ference.
dif-

their

hypotenuse of a right angle triangleis


18", what is the altitude?

If the

the base is

302

30

182

18

900

30

900

18

324

324

"

V57U

576

24".

Ans.

J8"

Areas
The

of

Triangles

of a trianglemay be found when the length of the


three sides is given by adding the three sides together,dividing
each side separately.
by 2, and subtracting from this sum
area

Multiply the four


their product.

results

togetherand

find

the

square

root

of

70

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

EXAMPLE.

17

15, 16, and

measure

trianglewhose
?
inches,respectively

is the

What

"

GIRLS

FOR

of

area

sides

15
16
V24

17

9 x8

x7

V12096

2)48

x/12096

109.98

Am.

sq. in.

24-15=9
24

24

16

17

Area
EXAMPLE.

17" and

of a Triangle
is the

What

"

altitude

5ase
of

area

Altitude

trianglewhose

base

is

10"?

17

;0

Ans.

85 sq. in.

EXAMPLES

long standing on level ground reached to


that the
the ground. If it is assumed
12 ft. from
far is the foot of the ladder from
how
perpendicular,

1.

window

wall

is

of the wall ?

the base
Find

2.

base

with

Find

triangular piece of

length

the

length

area

the

from

height measured
of

the

of

hypotenuse

an

having

the

oppositeangle 56".
of

right triangle

sq. in.

of 280

area

side of

the

cloth

righttrianglewith equal

of 72 sq. in.

hypotenuse

of

right trianglewith

base

of

the altitude of 7".

What

19, and
8 ft.

an

Find

8" and

7.

the

equal legs and having

legsand

6.

of

area

the

Find

4.

5.

the

81" and

3.

17 ft.

ladder

21

What

is the

area

of

trianglewhose

sides

measure

12,

inches ?
is the altitude of

long and

base

6 ft.

an

long ?

isosceles

trianglehaving

sides

71

MENSURATION

Quadrilaterals
Four-sided
them

plane figuresare called quadrilaterals. Among


boid.
trapezoid,
trapezium,rectangle,
rhombus, and rhom-

the

are

SQUARE

RECTANGLE

RHOMBOID

TRAPEZIUM

TRAPEZOID

KINDS
A

rectangle is

paralleland

RHOMBUS

PARALLELOGRAM

QUADRILATERALS

OF

which
has
quadrilateral
its anglesrightangles. Its area

of its base

and

its

opposite sides
equals the product

altitude.
A=ba

A
Its

trapezoid is
area

is

quadrilateral
having only two sides parallel.
equal to the product of the altitude by one half the
a

of the bases.

sum

In this formula

trapezium is

length

of

longestside

length of shortest side


altitude

four-sided

figurewith no two sides parallel.


of a trapezium is found
The area
by dividing the trapezium
into trianglesby means
of a diagonal. Then
the area
be
may
found
if the diagonaland perpendicularheightsof the triangles
are

known.

72

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

FOR

GIRLS

if the diagonal is 43'


trapezium ABCD
what
the perpendiculars11' and 17', respectively,
is the
of the trapezium ?

EXAMPLE.
and
area

236i
V- =^p
-V- ^MH-=365|

43 X
43

In the

"

602

sq.

of ABC

ft.,area

of ADC
area
ft.,
total area
sq. ft.,

sq.

Ans.
To
draw

of irregularfigures,
find the areas
this
the longest diagonal and
upon

from
the vertices
diagonaldrop perpendiculars
of the figure. These
perpendicularswill form trapezoids
and righttriangleswhose
be determined
areas
by the premay
ceding
rules.
The sum
of the areas
of the separatefigureswill
give the area of the whole irregularfigure.

Polygons
A

plane figurebounded
by straight lines is a polygon. A
polygon which has equal sides and equal angles is a regular
polygon.
The
apothem of a regularpolygon is the line drawn from the
of the polygon perpencenter
dicular
to

of the

one

five-sided

sides.

polygon

is

is

pentagon.
six-sided

polygon

HEXAGON

PENTAGON

hexagon.
An

eight-sided
polygon

The

shortest

hexagon
is

equal to
of
The

is the

an

between

octagon.
the

opposite sides

perpendiculardistance

the diameter

diameter

The

distance

is

of the

of the inscribed
circumscribed

between

of

polygon

is the

and

circle.

circle is the

sum

lar
regu-

them,
long

regularhexagon.
perimeter of

of all its sides.

ter
diame-

73

MENSURATION

The
the

of

area

and

apothem

half the

regularpolygon equals one


the perimeter.

Formula

In this formula

\ aP
perimeter
apothem

"

product of

Ellipse
the

Only
The
the

approximate circumference

of two

diameters

If

C
then

C-

The

the

of an

area

and

major

minor

diameter

circumference

^"4,

is equal to
ellipse

minor

diameters

If

then

by

one

half the

be obtained.

product of

fourth

the

product

of

TT.

area

dl

major

diameter

d2

minor

diameter

w^

ellipsecan

TT.

diameter

d2

and

major

an

ellipse
equals one

circumferenceof an

sum

of

EXAMPLES

Find

1.

the

of

area

perpendicularsare

2.

What

18 ft. and
3.

the

What

diameter

is the
12

area

ft.,and
is the

is 14" and

trapezium

19' and
of

minor

diagonalis

93' and

33'.

trapezoidwhose

the altitude
distance

if the

are

8 ft. ?

around
diameter

parallelsides

an

8" ?

ellipsewhose

major

74

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

In the map

4.

of

country

is found

district

GIRLS

FOR

to

have

two

approximately paralleland equal to 276


is its area
?
the breadth is 100 miles,what

and

of its boundaries

miles.

216

If

door
Find

6.

2' 9" and

are

the

of

area

The

7.

and

greater diameter

Find

the

is its

area

if the

hole
manelliptical

an

?
78"

diagonal is

and

27".

and

of

funnel
elliptical

an

is 4 ft.

the lesser diameter

8.

6", what

trapezium

perpendiculars18"

the

2'

of

diameters

lesser

greater and

If the

5.

perimeter of

What

is its

area

hexagon having

is 4 ft. 6

in.,

?
each

side

15"

long.
What

9.

and

is the

whose

of

area

whose

pentagon

apothem

is

4y

side is 5" ?

Volumes
bar is found
by
rectangular-shaped
the area
of the base by the length. If the area
be in inches.
square inches,the length must
The
volume
of a cube is equal to the cube of an edge.
The
volume
contents
or
of a cylindricalsolid is equal
product of the area of the base by the height.

The

volume

If

S
R
H

contents

radius

of base

height

of

3.1416+

or

plying
multiis in

to

the

capacityof cylinder

TT

EXAMPLE.

of

cylinder
or
2f.(approx.)

"

inside diameter

Find

the contents

is 14" and

tank
cylindrical

height 6'.

6'

H=

of

72"

72

11,088 cu. in.

whose

76

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL
EXAMPLE.

height of

is the

What

"

in.,and

36

C
44

surface

diameter

36

the

and

base

lower
The

of

frustum

14

irD

792

sq. in.

of

is the

cone

plane

or

having

cone

slant

"

Ans.

Cone

part of

included

cone

which

base

upper

4.4tf

is

between

parallelto

the

base.
volume

third

of the

square

root

of

frustum of

and

altitude
of their

When

H
Bl
R

the

the

two

bases

and

the

==

altitude
upper

base

lower

base

surface of

of

slant

the

of

one

product.

lateral

product

equals the product of

cone
sum

V="H(B
The

of

of 14 in. ?

Frustum
The

GIRLS

FOR

VB")

1? +

frustum of

height

and

the

cone
sum

equals one half the


of the perimeters

of the bases.

The
The

where
The

volume

of a sphere is equal to

is the radius.

surfaceof a sphere is equal to

The
To
square

Sphere

find

the

of the

cubical

contents

largestdiameter

Barrel
of

barrel, (1) multiply the

by 2, (2) add

to

this

product

77

MENSURATION

the

square

of the

head

the

length

of the

barrel

EXAMPLE.

is

diameter

largest

length

Find

"

and

diameter,
and

that

the

cubical

21"

and

this

(3) multiply
.2618.

product by

of

contents

barrel

18",

diameter

head

by

sum

and

whose
whose

is 33".

212
182

441

324

V=

882

[(Z"2 x 2)

d2]

.2618

39798

324

.2618

120(3

10419-11

33

in.

cu.

3618
10419.11

3618

45.10

Similar
Similar
The

of their

squares

EXAMPLE.

"

boilers

If two

"!

JL
=

4'2

The
of their

T9^as large as

corresponding

EXAMPLE.

"

If

what
respectively,

weighs $7

of

the

length, what

is

ratio of surfaces

the

Ans.

other.

to each

iron

balls

ratio

|, ratio

8"

have

of their

other

as

much

as

of diameters

the

other.

12"

and

volumes

28T,ratio of their volumes.


as

20' in

lengths

figures are

is the
=

ball

as

the

cubes

dimensions.

tw"

r8^

One

ratio

same

16

of similar

volumes

shape.

same

is

the

15' and

are

|jj. f, ratio

boiler

exactly the

corresponding dimensions.

the ratio of their surfaces

One

have

figures have

of similar

areas

Figures

figures that

figures are

Ans.

gal.

231

39798

Ans.

diameters,

78

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

GIRLS

EXAMPLES

1.

inside

Find

dimensions

in cubic inches.

3.

6"

of

bucket

the

following

Find

is 4 in.
the

in.,and

Water

radius

the volume

of

the

of the water

of the water

the volume

in

gallons

gal.

7.48

of

is the volume

What

with

long.

of 9

(1)

Find

foot contains

cubic

end

depth

is 6 in.

(2)

4'

10" and

small

to

of the water

surface

rectangular box

by

of the

in the bucket

stands

if

8"

radius

The

2.

of

the volume

steel

2^" in

cone

diameter

and

high?
4.

Find

4"

What

6.

What
a

on

7.

8.

and

9.

11"

Find

high

the surface

height

Find

the volume

many

8 ft.

11.

deep ?

What

outside

diameter
"

12.

many
13.

its

area

at

of

wooden

cone

pyramid

with

the least radius

the

cubic

feet in

of

sphere has
?
(6) What

will

water

with

square

base,

6" diameter

perimeter of

18"

in.

of

one

hay

ton

of

round

tank

the

which

bottom,

cylindricalring having

inside

occupy

hay

of

diameter
area

cube

7'

5Ty,
1'

an

and

7', how

?
of 8.2467".

circumference
is its volume

at

hold

gal.)

is its outside

wild

height is 3^' and the


12",respectively.

ft. in diameter

top, 5

an
6-J-",

What

tons

whose

cask

volume

of

If 9

of

(231 cu.

is the

height of 3f

of

gallonsof

is 4 ft. in diameter
and

with

of 11".

slant

How

pyramid

height?

greatest radius 16", and


10.

in diameter

surface

is the

slant

is

largestdiameter

whose

sphere 8"

of

is the volume

What

14"

and

of

is the volume

side and

barrel

IS", and height 35".

22", head diameter


5.

of

the contents

(a) What

is

79

MENSURATION

to contain

diameter

is the

What

15.

much

inside

If the

17.

much

How

18.

4" in diameter

is the

weighs
A

cubic

.303 lb. per


is 19"

cube

of

weight

its

011

If

barrel

of

22.

base and

conical funnel

many

24.

6 in.
25.

by

if

in diameter

inch ?
its total

(a) Find

edge,

area.

has

an

about

barrel

inside

(a) Find

of

Find

the

deep, and
Find
on

2150.42

is

(1

ft.

water?

cu.

at the

of 19.25"

diameter
its total

(b) Find

area,

of

How

cone.

20' in diameter

in.

cu.

capacity of a rectangularbin
8 ft. 3 in. long.

6 ft.

wide,

5 ft.

and

the

the

capacity
deep.

6"

tons

many

8 ft. long if filled

weighs

ft.,what

capacityof a berry box with sloping sides 5.1"


top, 4.3" by 4.3" at the bottom, and 2.9" in depth.

Find

How

cu.

contents.

contains

diameter
27.

3""

pointed heap of corn is in the shape


bushels
in a heap 10' high, with
a base

5.1"
26.

ball

wooden

bushel

the

must

6.9 sq. in. ?

paint a

to

ball

brass

the

high inside,

is 43"

its cubical
23.

lb.,how

5 in. what
,

ring is

it take

contains

of water

approximate weight of
water
weighs 62.5 lb.)

the

weighs

one

ring is

in diameter

10"

diameters

with

paint will

one

the inside

volume.

(") Its
21.

than

What

20.

less

4"" ?

smaller

of the

area

3.5" in

base

ring if

material

same

of

diameter

be if the

diameter

outside

brass

balls of the

height be
flat

diameter

V, respectively.If the
does the larger one
weigh

4" and

of

side

one

with

can

the

must

the outside

two

are

of

area

'

There

16.

conical

pint,what

2"' and

is

diameter

19.

to make

If it is desired

14.

52 lb. to

of nut

evenly to
cubic

of

cylindricalmeasure

coal

depth

foot.

are

in

of 4 ft. ?

bin

13"

5 ft. wide

Average

nut

in

and

coal

CHAPTER

III

INTERPRETATION

Reading
a

blue

print,

is

print

the

Print.

which

with

drawings

the

Blue

is

to

the

the

VIEW

of

construction,

following
worker,

by

the

Print

of

house,
views

finished

of

and
a

are

his

House.

the

to

produce

j views

show
of

the
each

appearance

the

the

to

blue

builder,
foreman

the

Through
metal

carpenter,
the

in

wanted

object

of

the
the

the

drawing

following

floor, including
80

The

and

draftsman.

architect,
the

plans

workman.

able

usually represents
to

the

print

An

read

to

HOUSE

blue

or

to

engineer

the

designer
"

to

working

uses

COMPLETED

OF

how

background.

the

maker,

know

to

architect

designer
of

mechanic

employer

Blue

the

directions

the

and

and

blue

upon

pattern

EXTERIOR

should

given

name

which

language

RESULTS

Everyone

"

lines

white

machinist

OF

views

house

the

terior
ex-

it

when

basement,

plans

to

show

is

WEST

ELEVATION

OF

j.

EAST

the

location

plans
method

of

of

sections

rooms,
are

of construction.

HOUSE

-___

ELEVATION

windows, doors, and


drawn

81

RESULTS

OF

INTERPRETATION

for

the

stairs.

contractors

to

Detailed
show

the

82

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

NORTH

FOR

GIRLS

ELEVATION

''
"

!
"*'"-*[
"

A"

-""'

"

"-.--""

"

"

SOUTH

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

-"

_;_

"a

rt ft fro

rn

ELEVATION

Pupils should be able to form


of a building constructed
before them.
They should have
of the house and in computing
from
the blue print.

pictureof the appearance


from
any blue print plan set
practicein reading the plans
the size of the rooms
directly

mental

84

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

1.

What

is the

frontage of

2.

What

is the

depth

3.

What

is the

length and

4.

What

of the house

? the kitchen

dining room

with

size of

aid of ground floor

2.

What

3.

How

Two
one

is the

What

the

large is

are

plan

object,and

or

the

the

FLOOR

each

of

the

of

the

porch ?

livingroom

the

PLAN

the

bedrooms

of the bathroom
room

usuallynecessary
other

of the front

(Compute

plan.)

storage

top view

width

the dimensions

are

views

width

GIRLS

SECOND

1.

the house

length and

is the

FOR

obtained
elevation

in

every

working drawing,

by looking down
or

front

view.

upon
When

the
an

INTERPRETATION

OF

third

object is very complicated,a


profileview is shown.
All

information,

the

whatever

represented by

is

If the

called

the

and

shape,
these

building
number

Drawing
full

size

of

Scale.

to

the

on

it is

This

smaller.

of the

the

places.
drawing

information

to

as

interior

are

draw

impossibleto
to make

is done

drawing a certain
object. A drawing made

of

be

all

show

to

This

is

for

each

the

size,

sections,

drawings.

it is necessary

paper,

the drawing.

on

is necessary
proper

or

construct

to

supplied

if there

Then

pieces.

As

"

must

machine, giving

the

or

there

Then

end

an

necessary

be

print must

representedin section

be

must

dimensions, etc.,

the blue

assembly drawing.

an

of the

part

as

called

view,

print represents a machine, it


machine
put together in their

blue

parts of

the

such

85

RESULTS

the

sions
all the dimen-

by making

fraction of the

objects
drawings proportionat
most

dimensions

true

is said to be drawn

in this way

to scale.

SCALE

TRIANGULAR

dimensions

The

the
an

object
iron

the actual
half

or

length would
In making
be

read
a

to

scales
use

the

actual

size of
made

were

be inconvenient

of

to represent

door, and the drawing might be made


of the door, but on
the drawing the

inches.

25

drawing

this work

the different

able

size

calculate

obliged to

obviate

be

size of the

quarter the

would

long, it

inches

25

door

drawing designate the


drawing. If a drawing

of the

not

"

the

on

"

scale,"it

to

all the

small

scale

it.

on

with

as

very

dimensions.
is used.

triangularscale
marked

becomes

It is

ease

to

order

to

In

By practicethe
much

tedious

as

rule with

student
the

will

ordinary

rule.

QUESTIONS
1.

each

Tell what
of the

is the

following:

AND

scale and

EXAMPLES

the

length of

the

drawing

of

86

b.

An

c.

An

d.

An

If

2.

object14"
object2.6"
object34"
object41"

An

a.

drawing

3.

half

long

drawn

quarter size.

long

drawn

one

third

long

drawn

one

twelfth

the

"

size.
size.
ft. is reduced

scale be ?

new

-^size.

foot will the

to the

TJg"scale,how

the

scale of

size.

doubled, how

is

If the scale
scale be ?

new

feet

in 18 inches

there

4.

On

5.

On. the

y scale,how

many

feet

are

there

in 26

inches

6.

On

the

\" scale,how

many

feet

are

there

in 27 inches

7.

If the

the

drawing of a
drawing is 8^", what

many

are

is made

door
will

it

size and

to scale

if made

measure

length of

the

3"

1 f t. ?

will be the dimensions

What

8.

hall 582'

195'

by

it is of

life when
be

should
Few

have

that
asked

yard,
actual

six

view

estimate

to

of

power

on

feet
The

Pupils
openings

in

daily
weight

or

and

to

up

feet

ten

the

average

if the

distances

unknown

Pupils

is

streets, or

obtained, and

be

should
so

that

one
a

inch,

then

so

pupils are

able

to estimate

be

one

classroom

will estimate

should

never

after

noticed

distances,they

between

the proper

streets,may

the distance

as

with

within

feet, and

feet, three hundred


distance

marked

between

developed by laying

be

on

plan applies to heights of buildings,etc.


thus

has

yard.

hundred

one

of

off in

measured

are

person

will be

distances

of

standards

common

Improvement

illustrate

To

of standard

sections,with

same

may

them.

to

feet,and

straightroad

banquet

1 ft.?

distance

our

estimatinglonger distances,such

buildings,across
off

occasions

that

even

to the fact that

accuracy.

distance

any

The

'

Ty

meets

of

conception

is due

other

greater degree of
inch

of

drawing

scale of

importance

clear

of drill.

amount

an

attention

the proper

foot, one

to

Everyone

"

utmost

This

measurements.

small

of the

correctlyestimated.

people

given

if it is made

Distances.

Estimating

drawn

is made

drawing

inches

many

long

to

will the

size,what

in

made

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

five hundred

each.
of altitude

Standards

established.
measure

they

may

in

their

develop

homes
an

eye

pieces
for

of

furniture

and

estimating distances.

wall

INTERPRETATION

this estimate

by

estimate

of your

Estimate

2.

by

Estimate

the width

measurement

in per

cent.

actual

the

and

In

width

the

on

not

Regular

blocks

spheres

only
of

their

estimate

the

of

wood

is true
distances

also

but

the accuracy

window

panes

tage
concerning the advanappliesequallywell to

the

on

excellent

are

of

Verify

sill.

largelyeliminated.

be

volume

on

door.

express

to

of different

little mental

pupil will usually produce

Select blocks

1.

length

What

rectangularblocks

and

and

the window

"

may

part of the

depends

and

to estimate

this,guesswork

the accuracy

express

of the school

Verify

cent.

Estimating Weights.

being able
weights.

and

measurement

length of

of

of the schoolroom.

width

height and

in per

of the estimate
3.

actual

the

this estimate

width

lengthand

the

Estimate

1.

87

RESULTS

OF

clear

density

begin with,
metals

afford

results.
of

the

and

Weight
material.

small

later

good

wood, coal,iron,lead,tin,or

ing
figur-

material.

and

copper,

weights.
respective

2.

Estimate

the

weight

of

3.

Estimate

the

weight

of different persons.

chair.

Every commercial, household,


mechanical
or
problem or operationhas two distinct sides : the
of data, and the solvingof the problem.
collecting
The
first part, the collecting
of data, demands
a knowledge
of the materials
and
conditions
under
which
the problem is
sary
given,and calls for the exercise of judgment as to the necesof

Methods

accuracy
There
1.

Exact

method.

2.

Rule

of thumb

3.

By

The

"

of the work.

three ways

are

committed

one

Solving Examples.

by

which

method, by

problem

the

use

of

may

be

formula

solved

or

rule

to memory.
means

exact

of tables.
method

usuallytaught

of

solving a problem

in school

and

is the

in arithmetic

method

is the

obtained

by

88

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

should

analysis. Everyone
The

Method.

of Thumb

Rule

and

solve

to

of

Many

"

industrial

and
arise in home, office,

As

able

GIRLS

problem by

the

life have

problems

been

that

before,

met

judgment has been exercised in solvingthem.


the result of this experienceand the tendency to abbreviate
that give sufficiently
devise
shorter
methods
accurate
sults,
recareful

very

'

find many

we

require

considerable
in

whereas
based

of thumb

rule

storekeeper,the

the

that

cases

etc.

nurse,

time

the

and
not

are

methods

too

experience or rule,give a

on

used

The

method

exact

wife,
housewould

pencil and paper,


complicated the estimates,
result.
quick and accurate
use

of

and
solving problems involving the addition
fractions,use the yardstick or tape to carry on
illustrate

the

by

In
of

the

method.

exact

and

be

FOR

In

this
The

is to

Use
do
To

way.

work,
hand

the

case

result

of Tables.

In

"

so, whenever

labor.

we

is 21

everything in
illustrate

if

the

hand

to add

the

tation.
compu-

J-of a yard,
1 of a
over
place the thumb
yard divisions,then slide (move) the
thumb
along the divisions corresponding to J-of a yard, and
then
read
the number
of divisions passed over
by the thumb.
To

desire

subtraction

inches.
the

commercial

quickest and
labor

is

more

world
the

most

the

tendency

economical

costlythan

work
possible,machine
same
tendency appliesto

The

and

machine

is substituted
calculations

for
in the

of doing
dressmaking shop or the office. The exact methods
stood
easilyunderexamples are not the quickest,nor are they more
and
performed by the ordinary girl than the shorter
methods.
Since a great many
of the problems in calculation
that arise in the daily experiencesof the office assistant,the
housewife, the dressmaker, the nurse, etc. are about ordinary
to work
things and repeat themselves
often, it is not necessary
them

kept
See

each

anew
on

time, if,when

file in the
pages

form

220, 222,

they

are

once

solved,results

of tables.
and

254

for tables

used

in this book.

are

PART

II

IN

PROBLEMS

"

HOMEMAKING

CHAPTER
THE

THE

economic

depends

upon

DISTRIBUTION

three

of

in

person

the

community

second
is

amount

determines
; the

earned

the

third

purchasing
the

paves

way

independence.

to

The

welfare

depends
these

or

salary, if

or

save

each

young

man

he

or

order

to

items

as
or

home.

know

to

do

wife

The

ordinary

woman

young

usually has

this, she

is

Therefore,

how

to

get

know

must

how

The

make

with

and

it becomes
cents

the

the

for

spent

of
of

life.

money

husband

of

out

due

expenses

proportion

earnings,

for

necessary

distribute

to

his

spending

spender

each

carefully,

success

the

hundred

one

incidental

rent, food, clothing,

self-improvement.

really the

and

of

cent

per

do

to

more

of

his wages

small

or

wisely

money

likely to

married,

or

regulation

large

certain

is not

woman

man.

the

month

or

how
his

spend

single

careful

and

matter

not

week

young

No

does

whether

person,

systematic

items.

woman

in

earner

every

the

three

young

than

of

upon

of

the

the

every

INCOME

ing
(1) earning capacity, (2) spendThe
first regulates the
saving habit.

the

income

after

power

things

(3)

OF

of

standing

ability,and
amount

IV

the
every

dollar.

income

In

such

over

ure,
sickness, pleas-

to

each

item

should

be

carefully regulated.
of

Incomes
The

$ 725

about

$ 800.

The
on

daily
the
The

year,

family

average

about

Not

wages

from

either

.$450

the
be

of

than

more

of adult

family,
must

; that

year

average

income

head

men

American

of

foreign

families

with

one-fourth
from

range

to

$1500

of

which

contented

both

Families

native

native

have

$ 1.50

born

incomes

only

exceeding

few

comparatively
89

heads

$ 5.00.

to

born

This

heads

is

alone

is

$ 1000.
amounts

year.

earns

with

and

low

hundred

standards

dollars
of

liv-

90
ing

boarders

from

of children
is

course

families

income, either

additional

obtain

or

or

and

lodgers.

mothers

do

than

more

than

considerably greater

earnings

the average

second

The

of

income

or

labor

the

to

resort

Americans.

the average

that

so

of children

labor

workers

native

the

GIRLS

the

through

foreign-born

The

quite often adopted

is

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

workingmen's
of the heads

of

the families.

INCOMES
Based

EXPENDITURES

Statistics

on

of

Twenty-five

Income

Yearly

of Seven

Thousand

Families

Hundred

and

with

Fifty

Average

an

Dollars

EXAMPLES

1.

The

workingman's family spends

average

fifths of its income


2.

If the income

One-fifth of the

for rent.
4.

What

for

rent?

Is

What
6.

What

this

per

$
cent

income

an

What

food ?
the

spent for food ?


families

is

of

cent

per

of

$ 800

of

the

12.50

spends $

income

spent for

is

much?

too

family

contributes

is

per cent

expenditureof workingmen's

with

rent.

cent

spent for

workingman's family is $ 800, and

family'sincome
per

is

per cent

two-

per cent ?

family

month

5.

of

What

spent for food is $ 350, what

amount
3.

for food.

least

at

is $ 760.

the income

of

592,

six

has

mother

The

father

is contributed
an

income

$ 112, and

is contributed

by

the

contributes

by

the father

of

$ 840.

one

child

mother

$ 601.

The
the

and

father
balance.

child?

92

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

The
The

Cost

High

GIRLS

FOR

of

Living

of

that must
livingrepresents the amount
be expended during a given period by the average
family
The
maximum
minimum
or
depending on an average income.
cost, however, is another
phase of the problem. It no longer
of dollars
and
involves the amount
cents
to buy
necessary
and pay for life's necessaries,but involves
questionsof home
be standand
ardized.
housekeeping skill,which cannot
management
About
of life began
1907 food and other necessities
in cost
and this has continued
to increase
to the present day.
cost

average

"

EXAMPLES
1.

What
2.

cost

In

suit

of

$ 8.25.

cost

was

the per

What

Division
A
and

girlshould
divide

always

it with

some

consider

5.75,and

in the

clothes

of flour cost

barrel

flour cost in 1914

coal cost $

of increase

What

$ 19.75.

1908

of stove
cent

per

1907

In

ton

the

was

1912
3.

1906

In

The

$15.

$ 6.10.

suit in

same

of increase ?
The

the per

was

$ 8.75.

of coal ?

cost

cent

in 1915

barrel

same

cent

of

of

increase ?

of Income
her

income

idea of time

and

for the entire


relative

year

proportion.

of,the year,
good salary for only ten months
she must
the
to tide her over
save
enough during those months
for
other two.
For
$ 60 a month
instance,if a teacher earns
is $ 50.
10 months
of the year, her actual monthly income
If she

The

earns

milliner,the

trained

nurse,

the

actress,and sometimes

even

girlworking in the mill have the same


problem to confront.
No girlhas a right to spend nearlyall she earns
on
clothing,
find
she spend too much
for amusement.
neither should
We
that have been made
that girlsearning $ 8
from
investigations
board
$ 10 a week usuallyspend about half their income
or
on
and
laundry. Girls earning a larger income may pay more
for board, but not quite so great a fractional part. In these
the

THE

93

INCOME

OF

DISTRIBUTION

days, when the cost of living is so' high,a girlshould consider


carefullya positionthat includes her board and laundry,for in
such
at the end
a
positionshe will be better off financially
her higher salaried
of the year
than
sister,who has to pay
for the cost of her own
living. The housegirlcan save about
twice as much
the average
as
stenographer.
find that the average
We
girlneeds to spend about one-fifth
of her income
for clothing. A poor manager
will often spend
much

as

one-third

as

because

and

be

not

well

very

dressed

that,

at

she

buys cheap materials,that have to be frequently


replaced,and follows every passing fad and style. Choose
medium,
styles and good materials and you will look more
richlydressed.
Keep the shoes shined, straightat the heel,
and the stringsfresh.
Keep gloves mended, and as clean as
on
possible. If you spend more
clothingthan the allotted onefifth,you will have to go without
something else. It may be
spending money, or it may be giftor charitymoney, and quite
often

it is the bank

Every

knows

never

may

should

person

that suffers.

account

when

sickness,lack
is a
Saving money

come.

acquired the

very

first year

of

income.

employment,

habit

that

of his

part

some

save

and

should

his

earns

person

ill health

or

that

one

One

be

living.

own

EXAMPLES

1.

girl earns
144

spends $
of her

clothes.
A

3.

She

week

for 42

week

clothing.

that

should

be

she

Is

spent

weeks,

for

pays

she

car

as

fares and

spend

Which
a

week

on

lunch

14-cent

clothing each

money

each

girl is

the

housemaid

She

and

week
better

or

one

year
Should

off

in this

time

the

cent

per

clothing?

girlearns

$ 5

and

livingwithin

income

spending

4.

$ 8 a week.
earns
salesgirl
Is she livingwithin
her

has two

should
for

for

income
A

2.

$ 12

spends $

98

year

for

half of it to her home.


each
?

How
she

How

day.
save

one
financially,
earning $ 7 a week

much
any

much
has

she
?

money

earning $
in

store

94

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

Christmas

Buying
displayof
merchant

of the

Think
have

the

will

like

when

tastes

rather

give
be

collar cannot

soiled,so
that

dark

25

would

you

be

glad

to

and
She

buying.

the

light.

may

not

give something

that

she

like.

For

of

to

stance,
in-

light hair-ribbons

be much

Over-trimmed
the

Choose

wear

handkerchief,

linen

is too

any

displayed with

of handkerchiefs
A

than

cents

jabotseasilyrip apart.

decorations

that

the

more

sensible,

supply of fancy neckwear.


three days without
ing
becommuch
to pay for something

extra

an

cleansed.

be

these

on

ought

would

tempted by

light ones.

more

worn

even

cannot

the

it is

fond

very

ones

show

always

stores

be

so

she

something

that

know

have,

be

not

are

you

you

girl may

at Christmas

The

as

than

certain

you

but

person

same

for whom

GIRLS

Gifts

giftbe something useful. Do


for
articles,
fancy Christmas
his profitfor extra
makes

the

Let

FOR

collars

and
that

plain ordinary ones

day. You see whole counters


embroidery, lace,and ruffles.

of

even

Dutch

coarse

very

texture, is

more

suitable.
Be

careful
is

store

you

so

bright colors,for everything about

also about

dull, but when


ordinary things appear
againstthe white snow, they will be bright

that

gay

get them

the

out

enough.
EXAMPLES
1.

for $ 1.50.
of handkerchiefs
cent
2.

did

save

I also

One

the

on

bought

in the fall I

much

did

I lose

What

per

cent

bought

$ 1.50 per

month

16|

at

Early

3.

Christmas

Shortly before

saw

by

cents

second
chiffon
similar
not

I lose ?

at

Christmas
If

I had

each

or

6 for $ 1.00.

What

per

purchase?
scarf
scarfs

making

did

pair.

chiefs
purchased -J-doz. handkerkind
later I purchased the same
I

my

for

which

sellingfor $

purchase

at

paid $2.25.
1.50.

How

that

time?

pairs of silk stockings at


purchased the stockings in October
two

DISTRIBUTION

THE

they would

have

saved

I have

cost

What

An

Every
account

showing
A

similar
At

sample

the end

Expense

pair.

would

I have

each
form

is shown

such

of the

summary

should

form

as

YEARLY

similar

sheets

would

of

keep an
receiptsand
96.

Rule

problems
be made

of

expense

tures.
expendi-

sheets

that

in

receiptsand

SUMMARY

for the solution

of the

follow.

following:

the

Receipts

Rule

saved

should

in page

solution

much

How

Book

Account

family
year's record

of the year

in some

per

every

for the

manner

cent

per

and

person

$ 1.121

me

95

INCOME

OF

Disbursements

followingproblems.

bursement
dis-

96

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

97

INCOME

OF

DISTRIBUTION

THE

EXAMPLES

1.

and

man

have

of October

Repair

coat, 5.80

on

Milk,

.60

Fares,

.90

Rubbers,

.50

.10

Soap,

.06

.25

Church,

.25

Church,

.50

Shampoo,

.30

Papers,

(1 year),3.00

Assistance, .60.

Groceries, 10.35
Theater,

.56

Milk,

.71

Ice, .40

Ice, .45

Papers, .11

1.00
Electricity,
Laundry, .50

Vase

Find

D., .75

disbursements

.25

in the expense

book.

account

the total amount.

What

cent

per

housekeeping?
2.

for

Peroxide,

the above

Enter

7.50

Outlook

1.60

.85

Fruit,

follows

The

paste, $.18

Coal,

Stationery, 2.51
Fares,

year.

insurance, 7.40

Life

.75

Dinner,

as

Provisions, 5.85

1.45

Telephone,

$ 1000

are

Tooth

$ 15

Rent,

of

income

an

for the month

disbursements

Gas,

wife

The

rent

and

food

items

spent for food ?

was

luxuries

water, $ 15

clothing?

savings?

of expense

house

for the month

operatingexpense

meats, groceries,$ 30

; labor

or

of

January, 1915, are


lightand heat, $ 11

services,$

16.65 ; clothing,

$ 15 ; physician, $ 1 ; carfares, $ 2.85 ; books, $ 1.00 ;


$ 4 ; cigars, $ 1.00 ; gifts, $ 1.00 ; sundry expenses,
amusements,
Treat as in Ex. 1.
$ 1.50.
3.

family

of two

receives

$ 6.93
They spend per week
for operating expenses,
$ 5.81
amount

for

(52 weeks)?

each
What

item

per

is the per

an

for

income

food, $

of
3.51

$ 1200
for

for

rent, $ 3.49

contingency. What
month
(4 weeks) ? per
cent

of each

item

year.

is the

year

98

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

4.

$ 100

"

married

young

The

month.

income

spends her

has

woman

month

located

and

Help,

and

supplies,2.00

much

How

in the expense

improve
Clothing?
A

equal to

this?

on

Food, $

is

What

girl 14 years of age


the followingitems :

has

597. 16

Clothing, 339.66
Furniture, 88.65

6.
"

The

family of
lived

in

expenses

House

each

cent

seven

for each

southern
month

were

per

cent

70.00

amount

an

11 .00

school, $

Doctor,

Can

food?

for

cent

parents

to

as

people

grown

$ 600

follows

"

and

$ 50

four
per

dren
chil-

month.

Bread, $2.50

Beef,

2.50

Vegetables,2.00

5.00

is the

expense

per

Carfare

city on

Groceries, 12.00

What

the

cost her

item

three

"

rent, $ 12.00

Washing,

month's

Dentist, 10.00

is the per

What

book.

account

the next

left toward

was

you

5.

insurance, .09

.50
replenishing,

the above

Enter

.75

Remembrances,
Fire

and

charity, .80

and

Church

4.00

Repairs

3.00

Literature, .50

light,5.00

Laundry

is

country), 2.70

in the

Avocation,

Clothing, 12.00
Heat

she

way

Recreation, 3.00

fish,11.15

2.79

year

(setaside in the winter months


for the summer), $0.23
Necessary carfares (the house

Groceries,4.70
Milk,

the

Ice

Insurance, 5.00
and

$ 1200

25.00

Meat

of

income

an

following represents

Savings bank, $5.00


Kent,

GIRLS

FOR

balance

of income

pointsof saving.

for

spent for

clothing and fuel


food ? Clothing ?

What

Rent

is the

Suggest

CHAPTER

FOOD

half

SINCE

of the

income

of the

it is

important that
intelligently. Experts of
that
Agriculture estimate
food,

homes

American

is

family is spent for


expenditure should be made
United
States
Department of

this
the
the

average

food

in

waste

of

great many

The
of waste
causes
high as 20 %
be classified as follows : Needlessly expensive material,
may
providing little nutrition ; failure to select according to season
;
thrown
amounts
structed
preparation; badly congreat
away
; poor
the

as

ovens.

this

If

waste

it would

checked,

were

afford

an

increase

in

the

which
would
purchasing power of the income
appreciably
lift the family to a higher plane of efficiency.The
efficiency
of every
repair
depends upon the energy and constant
person
of the body.
A woman
should
ize
know
the cost of food and realwhat
food value
she is receivingfor her money.
It may

Delmonico

fast,a
contain

The

the

which

"

nutritive

all

the

always
value

the

of

wayside beggar

appetite

in

this, the

which

and

the

the

food, is influenced

it is

an

income

foods

freshness

served,

to

power

limited

by

nutritious

but

common

than

in

way

considered

be

the

Further

food, the

affect

of the

of nutrition."

transform

can

lunch

Lenten

feast,a

Roman

"a

digest.
in

and

the

roundings
sur-

Cost,

relation

to

equally important factor

waste.

The
and

of

the

elements

appetizing dishes.

most

must

few

cooking

attractiveness
"

true, that

dinner, and

same

of

art

the

into

the

it is

strange, but

seem

problem

demand.

of
Of

feeding
course,

our

the

bodies
element
100

is
of

primarily

pleasure

in

question of supply
eating is

properly

FOOD

normal

one, for

This

tissues.

objects

two

of the

motion

Every

We

digestion.

must, however,

to live

eat

live to eat.

than

rather

aids

enjoyment

of

plus growth
should
shall know

material

eating

in

the

tissue

are

determine

be

As

repair
as

character

the food

from
the

in

adult

we

realize

of

the

intelligentinstead

of

importance

replaced

soon

the

in the brain

thought

every

must

child.

the

and

body

food

tain
cer-

The

eat.

we

and

that

of

destroy
tissue

these

repair

two

poses
pur-

eat, then

we

we

choice

haphazard

of

food.
To

repair the

tissues that
human

is

cent

Water

man

6 per

aids

digestion and

structure.

Fat

muscular

is

is necessary

muscle

and

important constituents,though
Ash
in

is

composed

forming

human
called

of

bone.

organism

must

the balanced

has

in which

thus

they

followingmanner

fat, 1

other

words,

per

cent

18

of carbohydrates,

and

essential
in

energy

proportions

phosphates

of

to

the

form

the

transformed

are

Protein

of life.

is necessary

supply

contain

proportionof these elements

correct

all the needs

are

body.

human

lime, and

heat

and

into fat
in the

body

of

diet best fitted to

of the

healthy
; it is

ration.

Nutritive
What

of

small

in

potash, soda,

The

ash.

solids,of which

in the economy

source

Carbohydrates

power.

of

of

tissues,and

other

important

an

of the

of ash.

cent

bone,

pounds

cent

per

In

body.

man's

80

only

protein, 15

and

of

and

of

the

renew

separate the elements

can

normal

of

composed

composed

is the basis

of

cent

per

to

water, protein, carbohydrates, fats,and

into

is

We

destroyed.

needed

the elements

supply

to

means

or

60

composes

200-pound

per

worn

are

body broadly

Water
a

body

Ingredients (or Nutrients) of Food

far been
used

are

said about
in

the

the

body

may

ingredientsof food and


be briefly summarized

the ways
in

the

Water
Protein
Edible
e.g.

and
Food

as

purchased

portion

flesh
white

of

Fats
.

meat,

of eggs,

yolk

wheat,

flour,etc.

contains
Refuse.

shells,
e.g.bones, entrails,
bran,

etc.

Nutrients

Carbohydrates
Mineral

ters.
mat-

.;

tissues

Repairs

white

g.

(albumen)
curd
(casein)

of eggs,

of

Body

tissue

Forms

Protein
e

in the

of Nutrients

Uses

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

OCATIONAL

milk,

gluten

lean

All

meat,

of wheat, etc.
stored

Are

Fats

body

fat

as

of

oil,oils

yield

to

in

I energy
forms

butter,

e.g. fat of meat,

olive

in the

as

serve

fuel

of

the
heat

muscular

and

corn

power.
and

etc.

wheat,

of

phosphates

is that

which,

in

digestion,etc.

lime,

lead

presented

taken

most

food

The

cheapest

body,

is that

is that

food

nutriment

at the least cost.

time

healthful

and

the

to

the

into

healthful

The

most

forming bone, assist

etc.

thus

views

The

in

Share

(ash)

potash, soda,

(2)
(3)

matters

e.g.

into fat

....

starch,etc.

e.g. sugar,

Mineral

transformed

Are

Carbohydrates

builds

The

tissue

furnishes
best food

the

(1)

yields

or

best fillsthe needs

which

which

(4)

following definitions

is that which

energy.

of the

largest

Food

man.

of

amount

is at the

same

cheapest.
EXAMPLES

Carbohydrates
potatoes, and

and

notion

that

that

the

potato
bread
to rye,

1.

white

or

to soda

pure

who

wish

to

larger quantities of

rice has

in all the

in sugar.

only

15 %

and

the

77 %

crackers

at

73 %

reduce

bread

or

cereals,bread,
is

There

fat-producingelement, is

potato contains

while

27 %,
at 49

is

people

many

rice

substitute

and

largeproportions

100 %

almost

are

starch, which

potatoes, and

in

in

present

are

mostly

range

potatoes
fact is

The

cereals.

the cereals

and

contained

flesh omit

and

carbohydrates
breads

widespread

the

from

whole

from

oats

sweet

wheat
at 69

78 %.

How

of

ounces

many

carbohydrates in J

Ib. of

white

potatoes ?
"2. Find

the

number

of

pounds

of

carbohydratesin

4 Ib. of

rice.
3.

whole

Find
wheat

the number
bread

of

ounces

(J Ib.)

of

carbohydratesin

loaf of

103

FOOD

How

4.

2 Ib.

package

of

Oats ?

Quaker

How

5.

carbohydratesin

of

ounces

many

crackers

carbohydrates in

of

ounces

many

soda

of

oz.

?
EXAMPLES

The

cent,

proportion
be

must

we

herring, and

beef, smoked

proteins, lean

the

beef

Let

note

us

contains

many,

cent, and

equal

cent

is found

Fat

63

contain
of

1.

in

his

2.

value

of

fish.

of

largest

ilated.
assim-

of

lamb,

and

fresh

cod

herring, despised by

fowl.

peanut

butter

29

in nuts,

18

average

and

21

salmon

canned

per

per cent.

especiallyin walnuts,

cent.

per

cent,

peanut has

The

which
67

contains

Bacon

per

85 per cent.

pounds, how many pounds of


How
pounds of solids ? How
many
protein? carbohydrates?
ounces

many

of protein

18 per cent.

cod

per

and

leg

are

range

best beef

57

cocoanuts

weighs

man

of fat ?

How

to the

and

in

Smoked

protein, salt

large proportion

butter

weight

pounds

fowl,

pound

per cent, and

fat,and

If

in

the

largestproportion

next

about

weight protein, and

of its

has

easily digested

the

cent, while

perch, halibut,mackerel,
per

has

with

protein

36 per cent

in food value

27 per

cent

the

cod

per

good quantities in butter, dried


most

one

beef

dried

30 per

beef, and

steak, roast

is the

meat

flesh meat,

Salt

food.

find it in

we

body requires6

the

as

bacon.

Curiously enough,
of any

small, and

is

it in the

supply

to

sure

per cent, and

proportion, 25
Of

in foods

of ash

189

of

protein in

pound

and

water

many

half dried

beef ?
3.

Give

the number

of

4.

Give

the number

of

5.

How

many

ounces

Kitchen
Correct
successful
Sift

in

ounces

proteinin

of

proteinin 1^

Weights

pound
Ib. of

and

fowl.

herring.

walnuts

Measures

absolutelynecessary

are

to

insure

cooking.

flour,meal, powdered

Many articles settle


and pulverizedbefore

of

of fat in li Ib. of shelled

measurements

results

ounces

hard

sugar
in

and

lumps
measuring.
or

soda

before

and

should

measuring.
be

stirred

104

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

all materials

Measure

level

GIRLS

FOR

full,levelingwith

knife.

Do

pack powdered articles. Butter, lard, etc., should


and leveled.
packed in measure

be

not

should

half

quarter spoonful should

third

spoonful

spoonful

be taken
be

is obtained

lengthwiseand

taken

by dividing a

by dividingtwice

EQUIVALENTS

equal

3 teaspoons

tablespoon.

tablespoons equal \
cups equal 1 pint.

pints equal

4 quarts

equal

4 cups

flour

2 cups

sugar

16

2"
2|

1 Ib.

equal

1 Ib.

tablespoons liquidequal

1 cup.

rolled oats.
rye meal.

cups

2 cups

rice.

2 cups

granulated

2f
2f
3J

ingredients

1 cup.

meal.

oatmeal.

4^

abbreviation

for

sugar.

cups

brown

cups

powdered

cups

confectioner's

sugar.

2 cups

butter.

2 cups

chopped

teaspoonful;and

sugar.
sugar.

meat.

coffee.

4| cups ground
t. is the

POUND

flour.

cups

equal

ONE

corn

6 cups

gallon.

crosswise.

cups

quart.

tablespoons dry
equal

12

4 cups

cup.

half crosswise.

MAKE

To

crosswise.

not

""., for tablespoonful.

EXAMPLES

of

in 4

tablespoons?

1.

How

many

teaspoons

2.

How

many

tablespoonsin j

3.

How

many

cups

4.

Give

the number

of

tablespoonsin

5.

Give

the number

of

teaspoons in 3 quarts and

6.

pound

of flour

cup

are

equivalentto

weighs

how

pints?
a

pint.

ounces

pint.

What

tablespoonsof baking

How

8.

pint of liquidcontains

9.

cup

Two

many

part

7.

10.

cup ?

many

cups

of sugar
cups

of

corn

will 56

weighs
meal

how

how

tablespoons?

many
many

is what

soda

ounces

part

of

pound

fill?

105

FOOD

weight in
:
followingquantities
Give

11.

the

the

and

ounces

fractions of

"

(a) 1
(b) 1
(c) 3
(d) 1
(e) 1

cup

of butter.

cup

of rice.

cups

chopped

(/) 1
(g) 1
(7i)1
(i) 1

meat.

cup

of coffee.

cup

of conf. sugar.
is the cost

What

12.

of each

of the

,cup of

powdered

cup

of brown

cup

of rye

cup

of oatmeal.

Cost
In

to calculate

order

the

Cost

results

the cost of food

tabulated

pound

per

or

following:

of

Cost

per

cupful.

Cost

per

tablespoonful.

Cost

per

teaspoonful.

day

cupfuls in pound

it is
in

once

it is necessary
even

to

to know

priceper teaspoonthree
decimal
places

quart.

Number

When

follows

as

sugar.

of Food

priceper pound, priceper cupful,and


ful.
The
price should be calculated
and

sugar.

meal.

(a) 1 cup of oatmeal at 5 cts. a pound ?


(b) 2 cups of sugar at 5 Ibs. for 33 cts.?
(c) 2i cups of rice at 5 cts. a pound ?
(d) i cup of milk at 8 cts. a quart ?
(e) J cup of butter at 35 cts. a pound ?
(/) 2 eggs at 38 cts. a dozen ?
(g) | peck of potatoes at 72 cts. a bushel ?
(h) 31 level teaspoons of sugar at 8 cts. a pound
(i) i cup of vinegar at 9 cts. a quart.

to

of

pound

or

calculated

quart.

the

data

may

be used

from

day

the cost of food.


calculating
EXAMPLES

1.

What

pound

is the

(4 cups

cost

in

teaspoonfulof
pound.)
per

cocoa

at

38

cents

106

VOCATIONAL

at 10

cents

3.

What

What

pound

cost

is the

cost

third

(2J

is the

walnuts

in

cups

of

of
a

of

cup

tablespoonfulof

powdered

sugar

at 23

cents

pound.)

in

pound

cream

(10 slices

(16 pats

What

at 10

cents

10.

What

cents

in

12 cents

pound

cents

tablespoonsof
in a pound.)
toast

coffee at 35

at

of

in

pound

pat

of butter

is the

pound

is the

cents

cents

loaf ?

cents

pound

pound.)
ordinary serving of
(15 servingsin a pound.)

cost

cost

of

an

of

serving of

cornflakes

(f of cup)

cream

is the
cents

of

of

cost

cost

an

serving

of

cheese

at

of

serving of cabbage

servingof stewed
cents a pound ?
(A half pound of sugar at 7
to the apricots. Nine
servingsin a pound.)
cost

at

20

at

cents

pound.)

is the

macaroni

ordinary serving of
(11 servings to the pound.)

cost

(9 servingsin

What

What

at 38

pound and two servings in


tablespoonfulof salad dressingof equal parts of
Oil is 25 cents a half pint. Vinegar is 10 cents
14.

(29

pound

pint?

is 3

at 20

3 slices of

of

cost

is the

nuts

loaf.)

is the

What

12.

is the

What

11.

of 6

cost

of coffee

of butter

9.

of 6

is the cost

What

8.

cents
6-J-

at

sugar

pound.)

(41 cups

What

7.

teaspoonfulsof
pound.)

cost

is the

of 2

in

cups

is the

What

6.

13.

(2

What

5.

24

pound

of

cost

GIRLS

FOR

pint?
4.

is the

What

2.

MATHEMATICS

of

salad

if cabbage

pound?

oil and
a

(A

vinegar

quart.)

apricotsat
cents

18

is added

108

VOCATIONAL

the

Compute
recipe:

5.

cost of

FOR

of white

cup

quart

t. flour

flour,5c

pound

t. butter

butter, 39c

dinner

salt Ic

consistingof

is served

for

portionsfrom

six.

What

cost

the

lowing
fol-

pound

cup

potatoes,peas,
torte,coffee,cream

is the

person?

per

rib
and

roast,
sugar

Estimate

given.

amounts

AMOUNTS

DISHES

potatoes

Peas
Rib

mashed

fruit salad,krummel
rolls,jelly,

Mashed

from

sauce

milk, 9c

t. salt

6.

GIRLS

milk

1 cup

4"
4"

MATHEMATICS

roast

" pk. potatoes at 45c per pk.


1^ cups milk at 2c per cup
3

tablespoons butter

tablespoons

of 4-lb. roast

"

or

can

3 cups

Rolls

cup

tablespoons sugar,

flour at
.

can

per Ib.

l|c per

at 2c

Ib.

per

at 13c per

at 28c

Gravy

milk

at 40c

cup

cup

per

tablespoons butter, f yeast cake

at2c

Jelly

" glassat
and

Apple
grape

salad

Saratoga flakes
Salad

dressing

apples

glass

lOc per

doz.

at 8c per

Ib. grapes

at lOc per Ib.


\
\ package at 15c per package
\ cup vinegar at 8c per qt.
1 egg

at 30c

per

doz.

tablespoons sugar
1 tablespoon butter

Krummel

Torte

\ package
f cup nuts

dates

at 7c per
at 40c

at lOc per

at 70c per

Ib.,3

\\ eggs at 30c per doz.


for
\ pt. whipping cream
Coffee

Sugar

3 teaspoons

Sugar total

tablespoons

Butter

tablespoons

total

at 34c

tablespoons

per

TV cup
f

cup

Ib.
Ib.

per

package
cups

torte

as

per

well

Ib.

at 7c per
at 40c

per

Ib.
Ib.

Ib.

as

for coffee at 15c

109

FOOD

7.

six.

What

the

was

luncheon

and

following breakfast

The

cost of each

meal

per

AMOUNT

DISHES

PERSON

PER

30c

medium-sized,

Toast

2 thin

Butter

Egg

ordinary pat, "c


medium-sized, 3c

ordinary serving, .2c

flakes

for

person

Orange

Corn

served

were

slices,ic

doz.

slice

f cup, 15c \ pt.


3| level teaspoons, 7c Ib.
2" tb. at 34c per Ib

Cream

Sugar
Coffee

Luncheon

Ordinary serving, 4c

Macaroni
and

in., .02c

dressing

tablespoon, .OO^c

apricots

serving,2c

Doughnut

large,Ic

Milk

1 cup,

Cooked
Stewed

cost

cu.

Large serving,.02c

salad

Cabbage

8.

cheese

following dinner

The
per

AMOUNT

DISHES

roasfc

Brown

gravy

for

potatoes

Ordinary pat, "c


Ordinary serving,"c

Jelly

Very small, Ic

Buns

and

buns,

Ic

apiece

" apple, Jc

salad

of grapes,

Ic

oz.

tablespoon, ^c

portions, lOc

Dates

dates,lOc

Nuts

6 nuts, 18c

Cooked

dressing
Saratoga flakes
Krummel

Whipping
Sugar
Cream

is the

Fairlylargeserving,9c

Very small, "c

grape

What

PERSON

PER

Peas

Apple

six.

Butter
Mashed

served

was

person

Rib

3c

pkg. (12 portions)

Torte

cream

a
a

Ib.
Ib.

(30 dates in a Ib.)


(22 nuts in a Ib.)

tablespoon, 15c \ pt.

teaspoons, 7c

tablespoon, 25c

Ib.
a

pt.

110

recipe for potato

The

9.

is

children

two

a.

largepotatoes

2 tb. flour

qt. milk

1|

dash

3 tb. butter

1 t.

is the

What

woman's

equal

man's)?

to

The

wife, and

diet

two

one-half

diet,and

man's

is the

three

and

women,
a

b. What

recipefor

recipe for

one

Beef, 1

Ib.

1^ qt. water

Bones,

1 Ib.

5 tb. butter

is

What
and

women,

wife, and
2"

the

salt
pepper

recipe

for

b. What

child ?

two

is

sour-milk

children

family of three men,


the recipefor a child ?

biscuits

is

1 t. salt

c.

sour

t. soda

"

water

"

What

is the

five children ?

recipe for

6. What

is the

Food

heating value

given off

when

is oxidized

burned.

slowly in

of food
The
order

for

family

two

of husband,

1 tb. fat

flour

c.

finelychopped parsley

1 tb.

recipe for

The

familyof husband,

is :

children

two

for

vegetablesoup

" cup carrot


\ cup turnip
\\ cups potato
\ onion

The

chopped parsley

?
(adult)

person

a.

pepper

five men,

recipe for
child's

11.

wife,and

man,

t. salt

2 slices onion

(considera

a.

family of

children

10.

for

soup

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

man,

(lardor butter)
milk, or \ c. sour

wife,

recipefor

two

one

milk

boarders, and

adult

Values
is measured
food

to

taken

give us

by

of heat

the amount

into the human


the

abilityto

system
do

work

111

FOOD

of heat

the number

units

represents the quantity of


There

English

The

metric

English
C while
small
All

experiments
the

be well to know

show

of flour ?

each

Since each
C.

Other

and

is

scale.
sary
neces-

scale.

Centigrade
the

The

large letter

represented by

of

1 gram

of fat

1 gram

of

the

of

of 10.6

composed

experiments

yields 9300

illustrate
the

essary
nec-

shown

Calories

It may
:

What

Department

% protein,

have

Calories

of foods.

To

experiments by

0.106

ounce

protein

0.011

ounce

fat

0.763

ounce

carbohydrates

of

ounce

carbohydrates

only

of

1.1 "/ofat, and

that

(C)

(C)
Calories

Calories

(C)

(C)

of flour contains

ounce

of

It is

yields255 Calories (C)


carbohydrates yields113 Calories (C)

of fat

1 ounce

11.98

fuel value

is determined.

protein yields 113

1 ounce

or

system, while

metric

in this book.

is used

carbohydrates yields 4100

of

ounce

in the

English system.

protein yields 4100

1 gram

Then

of heat

of heat

amount

represented by

givesthe

28

Careful

that flour is

% carbohydrates.

or

No.

the fuel value

how

value

Agriculture
76.5

quantity

unit.

Department of Agriculture

States

Bulletin

Department
fuel

is

calorie

in the

are

English unit, which

United

The

is the

the

on

metric

the Fahrenheit

on

is the

conducted

are

daily life

in

to know

The

and

c.

scientific

measurements

our

and

small

English

degrees

and

large Calorie

the

degree

unit is called

the metric

four

one

capable of giving a body


food will provide.

it represents the

calorie

of water

gram

is called

unit

letter

of water

unit is also called

to raise

heat

Calorie, and

pound

is
the

energy

measuring

for

unit is called

to raise

necessary
The

units

two

are

food

that

0.011

oz.

will

protein yields113 C,
of fat will

yield 0.763

yield
x

255

113, or

0.106oz.
x

will

0.011, or

86.22

yield113
2.81 C.

0.106,

0.763

oz.

C.

EXAMPLES
1.

0.7

Rice

"/0fat.

contains

What

protein, 79.5 %

is the fuel value

of 3

oz.

carbohydrates,and
rice ?

112

2.

Milk

contains

What

is the

fat.

fat.

of 7

chicken

oz.

%
7.

fuel value

of 7

eggs

fat.

What

9.2

is

32.8

fat.

?
is the

What

fat.

% protein,70.6 % carbohydrates,

contain

of 3 Ib. cornmeal

?
hydrates,
carbo-

"/0protein,63.4 %

16.6

What

fat.

16.1%

What

fuel

is the

of

value

Ib.

nuts

It is clear that
of

balanced

ration
the

heat

required by
approximately, dependent upon

amount

working
12,000

wife, and

man,

total

amount

vary,

provided

Some

authorities

required.

two

are

ration

nourishing
in its

total

the

expensive

an

from

2000

occupation, and
sixteen

under

protein,

for

four-twelfths

at

of the

meal

each

of

requires

25%

may

required.

the standard

reach

day

of age

10 to

taken

calories

family

years

The

one.

3500

to

sex.

from

or

of food

quantities each

breakfast, three-twelfths

for dinner.
diet.

American
think

we

its

be

not

varies

quantity

The

in

that

of

1800

to

and, second,
it is, and

body

children

five-twelfths
defects

need

age,

suggest about

luncheon, and

There

three

calories,1200

total

that

goodness

is in

fail to have

First, we
the

the

richer

proportion

food

the

anced
balmore

to the hours

spent

preparation.

The
and

10.5

is the fuel value

walnuts

English

fat.

Ib. butter

of

% proteinand

"/0protein,0.5 % carbohydrates,and

0.6

contains

beans

oz.

pork ?

14.9

oz.

% protein and

contain

and

for

16

of 2 Ib.

is the

Eggs

3.8

9.

of 5

Wrhat

Cornmeal

8.

oz.

fat.

fuel value

and

contains

Butter

milk

% protein and

24.4

is the fuel value

6.

GIRLS

"/0protein,57 % carbohydrates,and

(shoulder)contains

Pork

What

85

23.1

contains

the fuel value


5.

of 8

fuel value

is the fuel value

What

Chicken

4.

FOR

% protein,5 % carbohydrates,and

contain

Beans

3.

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

protein is the

it is wise

for the

have

list of

expensive.

more

generally

to

in

fish than

substitute;

valuable

most

and

proteinsso

Protein, of

in meat,

fat, of

expensive part

which

and
we

that

which
the

we

one

can

need

of the food

substitute
18

%,

the

is found

is

inexpensive peanut
be had
15%, can

need

supply

an

from

lesser
more

tizing
appethe

113

FOOD

from

than

which

have

enriched
cereals

and

for

the

breakfast

table

the

grains

butter, and

sugar,

from

fish,eggs, milk, cheese,


of
substances

the

and

which

they

be classed

beans, and

wholly such,

but

while

and

carbohydrates
more

are

less

or

breakfast

nitrogenous
of other

mixture

meat,

of the representatives

some

are

have

bread, potatoes,

carbohydrates,

as

to

foods

which

The

white

cabbage

These

group.

and

nations.

made,

are

indebted

are

housewife

busy

potatoes

partiallycooked

that of other

beyond

peas,

protein

not

are

of the

time

fats may

other

jellies. We

list of cooked

wide

economized

our

and

from

obtained

better

are

cakes, confectionery,

rich

inventions

modern

carbohydrates

and

of all meats,

fat

things.

In

making
evenly. One
starch

the

should

kind

of

The

balance

them

day, too much


for each
day should hold
(fishor eggs),one fat,one
laxative
one
vegetable or

menus

food, one

have

to

much

too

meat

vegetable,and

tonic

starch, one

have

not

etc.

next,

of each

part

it is necessary

menus

up

Menus

Up

Making

fat

one

fruit.
The

summer

much

too

fat

excessive
Of

different

the

otherwise

suited

of available
take

to

bushel

of the

actual

nutrients

the
most

is

they

and

The
least

for the

cheapest

and

contain

at

the

ways

of

food

The

money.
same

time

and

the

this it

do

demands

which

to the

materials

with

of

supplies the
food

is that

needs

of the

economical

adapted

or

of the

amounts

the

to meet

is that

most

best

To

cost.

kinds

fitness

cheapest

furnish

that

and

price per pound, quart,

also the

their

those

lowest

the

only

not

account

select

the

at

materials,but

different

nutriment

which

into

heat

palatable,nutritious,

are

should

we

nutrients

for nourishment.

body

which

materials

to

carefully,for
the body at an

most

be avoided.

therefore

for nourishment,

largest amounts
is necessary

food

compiled
tends

meat

should

and

rate

much

too

or

be

must

menus

user.

There
relative
way

of

various

are

cheapness
estimating

is found
which
This

can

be

in

or

expensiveness

the

relative

comparison

obtained

is illustrated

comparing

in the

for

of their nutritive

pecuniary
of the

given

table which

food

economy

ingredients.
of different

quantities of

sum,

10

say

follows

respect

nutrients

cents,

at

food
and

current

to the

The

best
rials
mate-

energy

prices.

114

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

COMPARATIVE

COST

or

DIFFERENT

[It is estimated
about

0.23

The

pounds

cost

of 1

to furnish

nutrients

to furnish

pound

in which

protein and

energy

other.

are

the cost

Calories, without
the

the

means

protein,without

Likewise

1000

protein

energy

thus

is

incorrect

moderate

Calories

3050

cost

regard

of energy

in that

ENERGY

AND

work

of energy

per

of

of the

enough
the

These

neither

cost

kinds

gives

credit

given

terial
ma-

of the other
of

and

estimates

requires

day.]

to the amounts

to the

IN

PRICES

muscular

means

reference

supplied.

GIRLS

AVERAGE

AT

lightto

at

protein and

of

NUTRIENTS

MATERIALS

man

of

of nutrients

of the

of

pound

present.

DIGESTIBLE

FOOD

that

FOR

of

terial
enough maproportions

the

cost

of

for the value

116

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

GIRLS

FOR

EXAMPLES

1.

What

is the most

economical

part of beef for

2.

What

is the most

economical

part of

mutton

3.

What

is the most

economical

part

of

pork

4.

Is fresh

5.

What

is the fuel value

of 3

oz.

oatmeal

6.

What

is the fuel value

of 3

oz.

rice ?

7.

What

is the fuel value

of 4

oz.

strawberries

8.

What

is the fuel value

of 6

oz.

milk

salt codfish

or

economical

more

soup ?

for
for

boiling?
roast ?

?
?

EXAMPLES
hundred

several

Since

100-Calorie

portions.

this

and

portion

100-C

2.

3J

100-C

of

of

of

If

4.

100

C,

5.

C,

6.

value

what
8.

What

to know

of

foods

our

how

to

in

compute

Calories.

What

is the

weight

Calories.

What

is the

weight

is the

weight

portion?
give

393.75

Calories.

What

portion?

of

of

of flaked

cup

is the food
a

breakfast

value

value

milk

of 1
fat

food

givesapproximately

of 1 Ib.?

of skimmed

cup

teaspoonfulof

think

person's

reference.

1610.5

give

is the food

what

7.

Ib. of flour

what

If

to

portion?

100-C

it for future

day for

each

meals

it is desirable

give 36,841

Ib. of dates

3.

tabulate

required

are

computing

Therefore

qt. of milk

42

1.

in

convenient

is most

diet, it

Calories

gives approximately

100

qt.?

gives 100

C.

What

is the

food

of 1 Ib. lard ?
If

J-of

medium-sized

is the food
4 thin

value

of

egg
an

slices of bacon

is the food

value

gives a

food

value

of

100

C,

food

value

of 100

C.

egg ?

(1 oz.)give

of 9 Ib. of bacon

117

FOOD

9.

If

oz.

is the food

what
10.
same

Ten

chocolate

of sweet
value

of

for 2 doz. raisins.

as

food

value

of 100

C,

lb.?

have

large pears

has

the

value

What

of 100

is the

food

C,

which

value

of

is the
a

single

raisin ?
11.

per

the individual

Find

and

week
per

per

day.

of

feedingthe followingfamilies

day. Find the


(Arrange results

No.

FAMILY

cost

FAMILY

IN

14

Economical

number
in

TOTAL

Use

of Calories

column

COST

TOTAL

as

per

vidual
indi-

suggested.)

CALORIES

of Meat

important to reduce waste by using as much as possible


of the bone, fat,and
trimmings, not usually served with the
be done with them, the bones and
If nothing better can
meat.
used
in the soup kettle,and the fat
trimmings are profitably
be saved for cooking to be used in place of more
expensive
can
It is

butter

and

lard.

The

bits of meat

not

served

with

the main

serving,may be seasoned and


be combined
Or they can
in many
recooked
palatableways.
with
vegetables,pie crust, or other materials,thus extending
flavor over
the meat
a large quantity of less expensive food.

dish,or remaining

after the first

118

VOCATIONAL

kinds

Different

cheaper

the

edible

more

Aside

of

the

extractives, which

as

it

lower

tends

more

to

the

in

more

connective

tender,

heat

change

the

texture

tissue.

For

of

tissues

but

carefully cooked

be

parts of the

at low

above

tough

this purpose

or

The

and

meat

bodies

of

in

or

of

measure

little

tough

order

more

heat

even

Hence

fireless cooker

the

depends

animal.

long applied in

heat

fibers arid

abundant

fibers.

of muscle

pensive
ex-

nutritive

Flavor

boiling point

the

more

nitrogenous

on

more

of the

cost

muscle

composed.

usually

tender

connective

the

of the

sive,
expen-

in the

than

the

more

of the

that

flavor,rather
is

Sometimes
the

actual

the

than

character

are

than

advantage,

meat

GIRLS

price.

tissues,but mainly

the fat present in the

makes

and
the

on

which

this

in

of refuse

really more

from

depends

agreeable flavor
cooking dissolves

must

is

cost

apparent

tissues

partlyon

considerably

vary

lies in the tenderness

connective

FOR

larger proportion

Tenderness

known

cuts

portion.

cuts

value.

and

contain

cuts

and

MATHEMATICS

meats

to soften

the

be used

may

to

great advantage.

Steers

Beef

and

bought from the farmer by the hundredweight


(cwt.). They are inspected and then weighed. After they
several times and
sent
killed and dressed, they are washed
are
Steers

the

to

days

are

cooler.

before

standard

The
it

and

cuts

be

can

is

It

cut.

left in the

be

must

carcass

divided

then

several

cooler
into

eight

pieceweighed separately.

each

Sixty per cent of the meat used in this country is produced


and packing houses, of
in the Federallyinspectedslaughtering
which there are nearly 900, located in 240 cities.
EXAMPLES

1.

What

cwt.
2.

weighing

steer

The

paid for

was

live

weight of

641

Ib.

beef

in the animal

3.

What

steer

is the

each

154

part

him

Ib.

for

$ 7.42 per

steer

is 1099

difference

dressed

weight

two

ribs

weighing

Ib.,and

suet

21 Ib.

to the

purchased

was

Ib. ; the dressed

What

is the

of 677

Ib.

weight

percentage of

with

followingparts :
2 rounds

1093

total amount

61

What

Ib.

was

each, 2

was

the

cut

into the

loins 103

Ib.,

percentage

of

119

FOOD

4.

with

steer

What

$ 10.51 per cwt.


If

5.

what

the

value

buys 8J

and

of meat
The

Ib.

dressed
live

weight 475
weight ? What

weight
8.

What

dressed

of

weight

the

What

live

weight?

What

did

live

weight

What

was

the difference
due

to the

sell

is the

low-

6^

to

live

cts.

1314

Ib. and

of "dressed

cent

per

dressed

weight
at

selling price

the latter have

of
at

cwt.

sell for

steer

the

for

Ib. and

947

was

cent

per

live

price between

in the

fact that

the

is the total

What

steer

sellingpriceper

Ib.

897

Ib.

steer

weighed

at

9f"

rounds

Monday, 9^

every

is the

the

high-grade steer
weight

meat

low-grade

What

j"

18

sold

was

3 ?

week

Ib.

644

Saturday.

on

did

was

Ib. of

in

of

18^, loins

problem

Ib.

10J

purchased

live

weight
paid ?
is

housewife

amount
7.

ribs

of

of cuts in

Wednesday,

on

was

is the value
A

6.

dressed

to

9 cts.

pound

cwt.

Note

per

and

high-gradesteers
greater proportionof the

higher priced cuts.


9.

$ 10.38
the

cut

cut

killed

was

cwt.

average

of each
each

steer

What

a.

the

was

price per pound


to

total value

Ib.

and

selling price?

b.

weighing

632

What

c.

d.

What

the

was
was

the

sold
What

for
was

percentage

total

value

of

?
CUTS

WEIGHT

PRICE

58 Ib.

2 Ribs

PER

POUND

$ .17

2 Loins

100

2 Rounds

150

.18"
.09f

2 Chucks

160

.08

2 Flanks

30

.05|

2 Shanks

26

.05

2 Briskets

32

.08"

Navel

46

.05

Neck
2

End
Piece

Kidneys
Suet

.Olf

.05

20

.08

632

Ib.

(Wholesale)

120

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

Cuts
The

of beef

cuts

The

house.

illustrated

differ

general
in the

method

localityand the packing


cutting up a side of beef is

of

BEEF

CUTS

"

CHICAGO

Beef

Hamburger
Dried

Steak

Beef

Shank

Soup

"

Bone

Loin

"

Steak

Sirloin

Porterhouse

Steak

Club

Steak

Beef

Tenderloin

Flank

3"

Steak

Flank

Hamburger
Corned

Steak

Beef

Ribs

"

Rib

"

Roasts

Navel

End

Short

Ribs

Corned

Soup

"

Soup
Pot

Fore

Shank

Soup

Bone

Meat

Brisket
Corned

"

Beef

8
6

STYLE

Steak

Corned

the

Roast

Round

with

Round

"

Rump

of Beef

followingfigure.

STANDARD

GIRLS

FOR

Beef
Meat

Roast

"

Chuck
Shoulder

Steak

Shoulder

Roast

Pot
Stews

Roast

121

FOOD

PORK

STANDARD
1

STYLE

CHICAGO

"

Ham

Short-cut

"

CUTS

Ham
2

Butt

Boston

"

Pork

Pickled

"

Pork

Shoulder

Pork

Steak

Clear

Plate

Dry Salt
5

Ham

California

or

Ham

Picnic

"

or

Barrel

Pork

Belly

"

Bacon
Ribs

Spare
Brisket
Salt
Loin

6"

Roast

Pork

Bacon

Pork

Pork

Chops

Pork

Tenderloin

Fat

"

Back

Paprika
Dry Salt
Barrel

Bacon
Backs

Fat

Pork

EXAMPLES

Hogs
is 75

to 80

differs

usually

are

carcass

the cuts

was

per
2.

When

of live

of
which

when

weight.

considerably from

of the

1.

killed

that

dressed

are

used

nine

method

The

employed
pig

of

with

consists

for salt

months

ten

or

pork

old.

cutting up

other

to live

per

purchase?

cwt.

nishes
fur-

When
was

he
the

weight ?

hog weighing 251 Ib. was sold for 81


he was
dressed, he weighed 204 Ib.

sell for

This

bacon.

249 Ib.
hog weighed at the end of 9 months
killed and
dressed, he weighed 203 Ib. What
of dressed

pork

largeportion

clear fat.

cent

weight

side of
A

meats.

of almost
and

The

(dressed)in

order

to

cents

live

What

cover

weight.

should
the

he

price of

122

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

G'IRLS

FOR

bacons
and
made
are
by rubbing salt
Sugar-cured hams
into the pieces and
placinga brine solution of the following
in a barrel, before
them
smoking them:
proportions over
in four gallons of
8 Ib. salt,21 Ib. brown
sugar, 2 oz. saltpeter
3.

100

for every

water

is salt ?

Ib. of meat.

What

tion
percentage of the solu-

(Consider a pint of

Sugar ?

equal

water

to

pound.)
Sausages

4.

ham

with

ham

are

by mixing pork trimmings from the


spices,and placing in casings. If 3 Ib. of
is the percentage of lean
1 Ib. fat pork, what
made

are

fat

and

added

to

pork?
STANDARD
I

"

CHICAGO

STYLE

"Leg
Leg

of Mutton

Mutton

"

Chops

Loin
Loiu

Roast

Mutton

Hotel

"

Rib

Chops

Mack

Chops

Crown

"

Roast

Breast
Mutton

'

CUTS

MUTTON

5"

Stew

Chuck
Shoulder

Roast

Stew
Shoulder

Chops
EXAMPLES

1.

them

A
so

does he

butcher
as

buys

to receive

gain ?

169
on

the

sheep

at

average

$5.75
$ 6.12i

head.
for

He

each.

sells

What

124

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

Fish
fresh

is
at

into

New

528,000,000

It

be obtained

can

towns.

seacoast

fish

What

7,000,000.

Ib. of fish

brought

were

the average

was

the

caught

were

1913,

year

of the entire

quarter of the catch


of the entire

for

during

England

food.

priceper pound
If

sold

and

of

1913, 170,000,000 Ib. of

the year

Boston,

2.

figurein

reasonable

During

1.

kind

economical

very

GIRLS

FOR

in the

it would

represent
is the

What

country.

waters

of
one-

catch

country ?

ham
at 24 cents contains 16 % protein,
pound of smoked
contains
18 % protein.
while
at 7 cents
a
pound of haddock
than in a pound
much
How
more
proteinin a pound of haddock
of ham
?
(In ounces.)
3.

4.

For

the

value, how

same

in the haddock
A

5.

of

pound

than

much

in the ham

pork chops at

proteincan

more

you

chase
pur-

contains

25 cents

17

% protein;

pound of herring at 8 cents contains 19 %. How much more


proteinis there in the pound of herringthan in the pork chops ?

the

For

6.

value, how

same

in the

of

pound

much

more

herring than

in

protein can
pork chops ?

be purchased

amount
pound of sirloin steak at 30 cents gives the same
value
of proteinas the pork chops in example 6. For the same
haddock
than
much
from
how
more
protein can be obtained
dock
What
from
the steak ?
per cent of protein per pound in hadUse data in Example 3.
?
7.

8.

If fish

per

pound, and

is the per

and

cent

If 5.3

9.

22

amount

be

can

of

purchased at

meats

of

spent for

less than

savingby buying

of the
the

at not

any

total

expenses

time

at not

20 cents

over

per

12 cents

pound, what

fish ?
for

family earnings goes


each ?
Family income

foodstuffs
for

food,

$ 894.

is for
what

fish,

is the

125

FOOD

Economical
The

economical

most

and

cooking

the

but the additional

be

must

paid

is to
for

buy
the

by

in bulk.

Fancy
All

consumer.

package goods, the saving in cost of preparation


with which
they are kept clean and wholesome,

of

convenience

realize the
and

labels

elaborate

with

packages

food

purchase

to

way

Marketing

ease

instances

in sonre

is enormous,

expense

300

high as

as

"/o
.

EXAMPLES

purchase
cent

per

do

more

Wheat

2.

I pay
the

costs

it costs

produce

to

Good

3.

would

save

in

joined me
4.

sent

60

pound

What

Print

butter in
the

butter
mold.

print butter

is the tub

rate

butter

per

cent

do

more

What

pound.
wharf

Ib.

group
she

and

much

How

of families

purchased for
was

saved

per

by placing

If the

butter

costs

pound, how
print butter?

much

cts.

I pay

If I

is molded

than

producer 11 cents per pound.


preparationweighing 5 oz. for
I pay for wheat
per pound than

to the

cent

42

cents

barrel ?

weighing

per

18

beef, when

purchase a peck
I paying for apples per barrel ?
am
contains
much
bushels.) How
2-Jfew
families
in the neighborhood
a

members

codfish

for

$ 2.75 per barrel.

apple barrel
a
peck, if
purchasing a

of their

cents

What

retails at 17 cents

Codfish
one

5.

it ?

apples cost

standard

(A

do

more

cents, at what

for 50

dried

for

pound,

or

of wheat

much

How

cents

?
farmer

purchase a package

10 cents.

is 50

retail

much

how

price of dried beef


more
per pound do I pay
package weighing 3|- oz.

the

If

1.

tub

Does

quantity of tub
34 cts. a pound and
cheaper (per cent)
a

it afford

the

same

nourishment?
6.

pint

the food

quart.

What

of

evaporated milk costs 10 cents


element
of 2 J quarts of fresh
milk at
is the saving per quart of milk ?

can

and

tains
con-

8 cents

126

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

housewife

Every
kitchen

so

should

to be able

as

the

possess

following articles

verifyeverything she buys

to

good

20-lb. scale

dry quart

peck

measure

liquid quart

half-peck measure

quarter peck
above

The

and

if

see

be

should

of

8-oz.

tested

and

Weights

and

measure

measure

"

sealed

"

by the Superintendent
the goods bought

Check
with

agree

graduate

Measures.

volume

weight and

in the

steel tape

00-inch

measure

GIRLS

FOR

what

ordered.

was

EXAMPLES

If

1.

in

there

are

If

2.

inches

5.

If

12

often

16

by

How

dry

quart of string beans

were

much

grocer

about

would

to

placed

in.,how

cu.

cubic

many

box, heaping

or

how

measure,

must

measure,

cubic

many

inches

when
cubic

many

full will

stricken
inches

in the box

to

sold

customer

by liquidmeasure.
for
by liquidmeasure
What

lose ?

liquidand dry quart

four

home

she

the

cent

loss

that

the

was

measure

apples in the
counted
24 apples.

measure

if she

had

not

not

As

What

called

his

"

would

heaping."
she
been

have

attention

to

measure

Stricken

measure

is

measure

that

is not

heaped,

but

even

he

called

When

measure.

more

15

is the difference

the fact

commodities

peck of apples to a housewife.


place the apples in the basket, the woman
sold

reached
per

the

between

cent

his attention
He

14

by

sells

dealer

inches

cubic

many

contain ?

heaping bushel.

in per

was

basket

basket

the

box

cts.,how

6.

dry quart

half-bushel

does

inches

hold

2150.42

bushel, stricken
five-eighths

contain

4.

contains
in

there

in.,how

cu.

quart ?

bushel

are

If

3.

231

gallon contains

full.

the

127

FOOD

7.

11

What

oz.

8.

and

lose

the

be

141

found

was

sold

for

12

much

How

ounces.

Ib.

customer

pound)

weigh

to

did

cents

the

of

quart

found

was

to

to

weigh

to

lard

lost

was

(supposed

found

consumer

of

pail

cent

per

package

was

9.

"

five-pound

"

be

to

ice

cream

121

cjc

bought

was

short.

for

40
did

much

How

The

cents.

the

box

consumer

lose?

10.

was

11.

weigh

girl

found

to

pound

14

bought

ounces.

contain

of

of

quart

54.5

print
How

cu.

butter

much

berries

in.

for

How

cost

did

39

the

ten

much

cents

consumer

'"

cents.

lost

was

and

The

was

lose

box

found
?

to

CHAPTER
PROBLEMS

MOST

live

people

its

and

advantages

floor ; there

one

to

These
home

to

when

is

one

kitchen

fire

of

some

dependent

be

The

stairs

small

mental

and

are

in

the

in

and

suburbs

and

and

escape

nearly

If
from

the

balances

has

his
in

city

is

the

the

and

on

walks
side-

look

after.

work

of

the

form
for

about

suburbs,

quite

traveling

savings

and

flat.
all

their

as

return.

Perfect

an

outdoor

the

lation,
venti-

in the

few

charm

furnace,
from

house,

flat

is

house

added

work

share

house, but

go out

it, where

has

In

not

The

healthful

If

with

land

the

not

are

petty restrictions

mind.

share.

wife's

ventilated,

more

the

ever,
How-

which

on

can

man

little house

share.

the

rent.

from

husband's

the

and

climb

the

healthful

of

house.

will

people

cultivated, it

be

can

in

price

constantly expected.

city,brings

freedom

some

small

lighted

many

are

than

is

moderate

services

exhausting

or

there

a
a

well

because

of the

country

all duties

lives

for

income
and

bear

one

though

body

cellar, for

to

must

the

its

by steam,

to

range

build

to

not

fees

to

grounds

garret

he

has

flat is all

is heated

reduce

for

janitor

tone

flowers

and

blessing in

cellar,

of

flats at

are

physical surroundings
vigorous

vegetables

Each

work

gas

they

rooms

account

on

house,

more

great drawback,

light,sunshine,
give

or

impossible

the

upon

they should,

as

The

comfortable

the

always pleasantly performed,


much

HOUSE

house.

building

and

to find

it would

where

long flightsof

or

simple proportions.

flats

in these

the

advantages

very

neighborhood

flat

OF

stairs,halls,cellars,furnaces, and

no

too, it is possible

Then,

and

are

the

are

in

disadvantages.

the

only

CONSTRUCTION

either

for, and

care

is

there

THE

ON

VI

In

an

item,

case

person

of

about

128

spent in going

money

cheaper

receives

person

deposit

and

the

but

expense.

bank

time

the

should
an

rent

usually

not

income

$ 1500,

it is

pay

over

of $ 1500

usually

and

to

than

more

25
or

of

over,

better

to

OF

CONSTRUCTION

purchase

than

house

cooperative bank
and

house

the

of

and

taxes

covers

land

house

approximately 10%

the

be at least

interest

In

depreciation.
than

be borrowed

may

should

year

% represents

more

129

HOUSE

from

either the

bank.

savings

the

or

total rent

The

Money

to rent.

on

flat the

first

the

investment,

middle

floor,and

of the value

10%

and

floor should

the

of
4

cost

less than

top 10%

the first floor.


EXAMPLES

1.

single house

considered

the rent
A

3.

per month

4.

house

Carolina
two

floor has

and

What

should

be

What

should

be

should

(a)

be the rent

$ 6500.

costs

What

of each
should

flat ?
be

the

floor ?

three

architect

build

rooms,

garnbrel roof
cottage-style,
bath, reception hall,cemented
a

It is finished

inside

with

North

has

fir doors, open


hard-pine floors,
ing,
plumbfurnace
of plaster,
heat,and electric light. The
three rooms
and
The
second
a reception hall.
the hall.
over
chambers, bath, and sewing room

pine and
coats

to

storage attic.

small

first floor has

The

(6)What

family desires
containing seven

cellar,and

$ 2800.

$ 5600.

cost

three-familyhouse

of each

rent

cost

per year ?

rent

two-family house

2.

the

land

and

finds

late fall varies

that
as

the

follows

cost

of materials

in the

AMOUNT
ITEM

SUMMER

BY
IN

work

Mason
Brick

and

$200

SAVED
BUILDING
THE

FALL

$1(5.00

90

7.20

Lumber

500

60.00

Finish

125

12.50

Plumbing
Heat
(furnace)

225

22.50

100

10.00

Paint

and

cement

paper

Plastering

200

20.00

200

16.00

Electric

wiring

40

3.20

Electric

lightfixtures

40

4.00

(carpenters)

450

Labor

Profit to contractor

213

27.52

summer

130

VOCATIONAL

(a) What

MATHEMATICS

is the

difference

total

in per cent

in each

cost

GIRLS

(6) What

case?

is the per cent

What

FOR

is the

difference in each

item?
of

Economy
persons

not

understand

do

in

space

the

will

fundamental

building

square

20' has 400

by

houses, barns,and
long

form

square

its size.

10'

one

40'

by

other

that

For

buildings

there

is

and

that

one,

the

more

the

their building

more

a building
instance,
and requires80 feet

feet of floor space

square

wall, while

of outside

fact
in

than

they depart from the


cost in proportionto

further

20'

build

who

Many

Space

will,with

the

floor

same

material
Accordingly more
require 100 feet of wall.
will be requiredfor the longer one.
and work
In many
objectionsto having a
cases, of course, there are
The
longer building,for instance,gives
building square.
wall space
and
be desired
more
more
light,and these may
space,

roof

The

items.

floor items

and

about

are

the

in either

same

case.

Preparation of Wood
winter

In
down

the rivers

thicknesses.
slabs

To

soon

from

the

out

Wood

of the sap

This

point

in

being

removed
and

excess

is to be

is sawed

into boards.

by

evenly

or

board

the

the kiln.
the boards

from

or

strips,one
would

center

strip,in
quickly

board

kiln-dried

atmosphere

lumber

in which

This

process

may

warp

of

and

piled

layer

is separated

order

to allow

and

upon

rot.

are

these

This

evenly.

If

another,

the

seasoning

or

months.

atmosphere

warm

After

logs,they
Each

it

dry

to

the

season.

requires several

subject to

of that of the

sawed
air to

the

off.

first sawed

are

of different

into boards

crosspiece,called

and

usually

are

open

each

dried
artificially

from

sawed

are

floated

spring the logs are

slabs

without

dry

in the

log, four

in the

of air about
up

they

planks

or

above

pile would

that

dried.

one

piled

were

of the

drying

remainder

foundations

free circulation
lumber

the

square

Building Purposes

and

cut

are

sawmills, where

the boards

as

prepared

ends

to

off,the

are

As
on

forest trees

the

for

has

to

be

artificially

has

to

be

dried

it is to be

drying must
then

placed

be done

be unmarketable.

to

after

ually
grad-

132

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

Frame
After

of the

called

sill are

front

side

held

-lap joint and

half

On

def.

First-floor

c.

Plates

g.

Girder

d.

Ceilingjoists

h.

Sills

studding

the

walls
four

building are

to this

studding.
When

plate, is placed
On

the top of the

the roof
that

on

are

the

is,form

the carpenter

uses

The

plate

is

the

by

corners

angles

placed
with

the steel square.

Sheathing

j. Partition

studs

k.

heads

Partition

posts there

timbers

Later

and

they

the

roof.

plate.

are

To

are

placed smaller

laths,4' long, are


mortised

into the

position,a timber,

called

spiked together.
The

the

often

are

all in

roofs have
the

posts 4" by 6"

by placing corner

uprights are

Different

sill

apart.

upright

these

i.

joists

corner

16"

the top of them

rafters.

different

large

/. Piers

framed

studding,2" by 4",

sillsat the bottom.

the

at

joists
cross

or

these

Between

corners.

called

timbers
nailed

of the

right angles to

at

joined

tion
construc-

foundation

the

running

sills are

The

Second-floor

The

top of

the

timbers

laid,the

together by spikes.

6. Rafters

sills.

foundation

the

de.

Outside

a.

on

and

The

placed.

sill is

Roof

and

building itself is begun.

called

timber

is finished

the excavation

GIRLS

FOR

of

principal timbers

different
obtain

pitch or slope
the

desired

"

pitch

OF

that

the

equal

to

CONSTRUCTION

roof with

roof above

half

one

level

the

pitch

of the

means

plate

is

133

HOUSE

of the

height

half

one

ridge of
width

the

of

the
the

building.
This

illustrates

roof

one-half

with

pitch.

EXAMPLES

height of the ridge of the


plateof the followingbuilding:

the

roof

the

Give

WIDTH

PITCH

1.

One-half

2.

One-fourth

40'

3.

One-third

36'

4.

One-sixth

48'

buildings;

materials

many

these

among

into the

enter

mortar,

are

level of

Materials

Building
wood

the

BUILDING

OF

32'

Besides

above

construction

of

stone, bricks,

cement,

marble, slate,etc.
is

Mortar

to

when
the

5 parts of

stones

in

moisture

of the

absorption
by adding
there

sand, and
with
the

When
work
the

is

carbon

half

dioxide

the
and

gypsum

masons

done

much

as

"

with

from

it is used

to

lime

as

with

and
the

the

part of

placed together,

mixture

air.

"

Mortar

plaster a

house

is

sets

"

by

the

strengthened

; in

such

mortar

sand.
of

gypsum
with

crystals in

(calcium sulphate),
water,

the

forming

water

interlace

bines
com-

and

set."

plastera house, they estimate


by the square yard. Nearly

following rule

in the

bricks,etc., together, and

plaster is mixed
minute

sand
of

made

this paste and

cheap grade

the

and

water

generally

hold

to

evaporates

of

When

plaster to

to be

mortar

mixture

hair.
the

covered

are

hair when

cow's

is sometimes

Plaster

cause

the

is

mortar

It is used

sand.)

bricks

or

lime

by mixing

proportions. (Common

correct

lime

paste formed

Calculate

the

total

area

the
all

amount
masons

of walls

and

of
use

ceil-

134

VOCATIONAL

ings and

deduct

such

EXAMPLE.

this total

from

doors

as

about

cover

MATHEMATICS

3 sq.

and

the

bushel

of openings

area

of

will

mortar

coats.

yards of plasteringare
28' by 32' and
ceilingof a room

many

plasterwalls

to

two

GIRLS

one-half

area

windows.

yd. with

How

"

FOR

square

and

essary
nec-

12'

high?
Areas

of the front

Areas

of the

Area

of the

back

and
walls

side

walls

are

are

28

12

32

12

28

32

ceilingis

672

sq. ft.

768

sq. ft.

896

sq. ft.

"2336sq.
2336

sq. ft.

**-""sq. yd.

259f

260

ft.

yd.

sq.

yd. Ans.

sq.

EXAMPLES

1.

What

will

it cost

$ 0.30 per square


2.

What

will it cost

to

high, at 29 cents a
allowed
for openings and
three windows
6' by 3' 3" ?
9' 4"

What

will it cost

high,at

thicknesses

of 32

cost

of wall

1 brick

wall, or

in

2 bricks

21^-inch wall, or 2|

1.

in

How

the above

in

by

the

in

in

bricks

much

table

attic 22' 4"

square

ft. at

requiredis
bricks

thickness, 21

as

per

bricks

bricks

thickness, 35

area

is

by 3^'and

by

16' 8" and

per

bricks

and

for

follows

various

superficialfoot.
per

superficialfoot.

superficialfoot.
per

superficialfoot.

EXAMPLES

solve

brickwork

180' long by
thickness)

its

yard ?

thousand,

thickness,28
in

8'

32' 4" and

Building

thickness, 14

"

From

used

doors

two

are

the number

12f-inchwall, or \\ bricks
17-inch

there

cents

is estimated

8^-inch wall, or

13

by

28' 6" by
plastera room
yard, if one-half
square

plasteran

to

Bricks
Brickwork

ft.

10

yard ?

9' 6"

3.

wall

plastera

to

the
is in

6'

high

following examples :
a

17"

wall

(that is,2

bricks

CONSTRUCTION

many

bricks

in

an

3.

How

many

bricks

in

17"

4.

How

many

bricks

in

211"

wall, 36'

4"

long by

3' 6" ?

5.

How

many

bricks in

12f" wall,38'

3"

long by

4' 2"?

6.

At

$ 19 per thousand

find

which

the

How

the number

number

long,16'

bricks

How

build

At

10.

build

to build
A

12.

13.

one-brick

"

12f wall, 52'

house

is 45'
doors

and

requiredto
What

thousand

will

build

it cost

wall

cubic foot with


to build

will

be

There

mortar.

wall
partition

and

required for

12' 2"

wide

and

much

will

4"

28'

6"

be necessary

to

14' 8"

18', the

occupy

368

the house

cu.

walls

thick?

the bricks

will

much

long and

4"

long and

34' x

to

will

masonry

wall,28'

6"

wall

high?

8' 3"
the

high

cost

to

high ?
bricks

cost

?
1 foot

are

ft. ; how

many

thick,
bricks

lay 250,000 bricks,if

is $ 8.90 for the bricks ; $ 3 for mortar

staging,$

ing
build-

customary
multiply by 22,

then

necessary

for

it is

in

4' 8" ?

12f" thick.
81').

and

yards of

long

(4'x

$ 20.50 per thousand,how

the windows
will be

18' 4"

long by

6' 4" ?

thick ?

6' 5"

cubic

3"

long by

feet

$ 19 per thousand, how

At

11.

wide, and

8^",or

an

18"

bricks

many

wall

and

are

walls

bricks in

of bricks

many
8"

of

6"

of bricks

cost

4 doors

cubic

of

many

How

9.

wall,48'

find the

3')and

long,22' wide,
8.

and

(V

is the number

7.

8J" wall,164'

long, 31' wide, 23' high, with

estimate

To

36'

135

HOUSE

How

5 windows

to

2.

48'
are

OF

the cost

per

laying,$

8 ;

1.25 ?

Stonework

Stonework, like brickwork, is measured


by the cubic foot
or
by the perch (161'x !"' X 1')or cord. Practical men
ally
usuconsider
24 cubic feet to the perch and
120 cubic feet to
the cord.
The
cord and perch are not much
used,

136

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

usual

The

for the
extra

work

made

for

in

making

walls

includes

they

around

are

the cellar

twice, but

corners

as

is

is deducted.

with, the

wall

the

to

allowance

one-half

one

the outside

on

owing

No

proper.

large,when

very

considered

be

may

the

this is considered

corners

unless

openings

the distance

measure

This

length.

four

The

is to

way

GIRLS

FOR

same

height.
EXAMPLE.

31',10'

If

"

6"

the
8"

and

high

outside

dimensions

of

the number

thick,find

wall

44'

are

by

of cubic feet.

44
2r

?!

'5

m
ft.

150

4-

"

1050

ft.

cu.

Ans.

"

length.

Cement
Some

Wooden

concrete.

cement

to 2

of

mixture

this

has

"

Within
the
and

to

in

desired.

poured

water

it will not

and

parts

pounds

cubic

foot.

steel rods

around

forms

or

have

and

the

for walls

cement
pass.

waterproof

and

and

floors where

"sets," it forms
If the cement
and

water

pass

crete
con-

in the forms

reenforced

time

crete
con-

concrete.

for the

crete
con-

strength.
a

waterproof

layer

is inferior
will

the

the whole

long

tensile

part
weight

removed.

is called

It takes

arches.

After

placed

than

average

are

been

This

them.

cement,

proportion of
The

is

concrete

Portland

of

stone.

per

boxes

highest compressive

cannot

be

consists

concrete

the

and

up

of

made

beams

and

stronger and safer combination

is also used

When

first set

twisted

years

its

are

wooden

walls, sewers,

reach

Cement

which

set,"the

makes

columns

stone, usually in the


is 150

concrete

It is used

The

parts sand

few

their

forms

poured into them.


sand, and broken

and

have

buildings

or

surface

like stone,
not

through

is

through

properly made,
it and

time

in

destroy it.
EXAMPLES
1.

will
and

If

bag (cubic foot)of cement


cover
2-|sq. yd. one inch thick,how
of sand will be requiredto cover
30
one

and

one

many
sq.

bag

bags

yd. 2""

of

of

sand

cement

thick ?

OF

HOUSE

and

of

sand

CONSTRUCTION

How

2.

to

lay a

cover

many

bags

34'

f" thick,how
four

sand, and
floor 28'

of

parts cracked

32' and 8"

by

will

will it take

of

mixture

of sand

two

deep ?

20'
sand

6", I" thick


and

will

of

and

of each

much

much

How

5.

8'

sidewalk

on

cement

of

of cement

bag

one

by

cement

thick

walk,

If

4.

of

foundation

How

3.

bags

many

to

required

8' ?

will

it take

to

5^ sq. yd.

cover

sq. ft. ?

128

cover

will be

two

needed

to

parts
a

cover

of each will be used ?

much

How

by

be

part cement,

one

stone

137

Shingles
Shingles for roofs are
sold by the thousand.
They are put in bundles
the

on

roof

each is

of

The

widths

vary

each.

of 250

to the

16"

4"

by

from

When

building, they overlap so

exposed

being

figured as

and

2"

upward.

shinglesare
that

are

laid

only part

of

weather.

EXAMPLES

How

1.

50

much

will

it cost

for

shingles to

ft.

by 40 ft.,if 1000 shingles are


the shinglescost $ 1.18 per bundle

and

Find

2.

the
and

the

cost

weather, if
half

of

the

cut

of

nails

at

$ 1.47

6 cents

for

125

roof

sq. ft.

roof

shingling a

shinglescost

allowed

shingle a

38
a

ft.

by

74

bundle, and

pound

are

used

4" to
ft.,
a
pound
with

each

bundle.

shingleswould be needed for a roof having


four sides,
two in the shape of a trapezoidwith bases 30 ft. and
10 ft.,
and
altitude 15 ft.,and
two
(frontand back) in the
shape of a trianglewith base 20 ft. and altitude 15 ft.?
120 sq. ft.)
(1000 shingleswill cover
3.

How

many

Slate Roofing
In order

should

to make

be tile

or

the

slate.

exterior

of

Slates make

a
a

house

fireproofthe roof
good-lookingand durable

138

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

roof.

They are put on, like shingles,with nails. Estimates


for slate rootingare made
100 sq. ft. of the roof.1
on
The following are typicaldata for building a slate roof :
A

of No.

square

Two

pounds

Labor, $
Tar

of

10

20 Monson

slate costs

galvanizednails

cost

$0.16

$ 8.35.

about
per

pound.

3 per square.

paper,

at

2f

cents

per

pound, 1|

Ib. per square

yard.

EXAMPLES

Using the above


for the following :

data, give

the

of

cost

making

slate

roofs

1.

What

is the

cost

of

laying a

2.

What

is the

cost

of

laying slate

on

roof 112'

by

44' ?

3.

What

is the cost

of

laying slate

on

roof 156'

by

64'?

4.

What

is the

cost

of

laying slate

on

roof 118'

by

52' ?

5.

What

is the cost

of

laying slate

on

roof 284'

by

78' ?

of slate ?

square

Clapboards
used

Clapboards are
buildings. Most

to

cover

the

outside

walls

of frame

clapboards are 4' long and 6" wide.


They
bundles
will cover
of twenty-five. Three
sold in bundles
are
100 square feet if they are laid 4" to the weather.
of clapboards requiredto cover
To find the number
a given
in square
feet and divide by 1-J. Allowance
area, find the area
for openings by deducting from
be made
area.
may
EXAMPLES
1.

How

of 40 ft.
How

2.

of 38'
3.

if 10

by

many

by

clapboardswill

be

requiredto

cover

an

area

30 ft.?

many

clapboardswill

42' if 56 sq. ft.

are

be necessary

allowed

for doors

to

cover

and

an

windows

area

clapboardswill a barn 60 ft. by 50 ft. require


tion
% is allowed for openings and the distance from foundato the plateis 17 ft. and the gable 10 ft. high ?
How

many

Called

square.

140

VOCATIONAL

How

4.

MATHEMATICS

many

outside,including
and

the

top, of

how

In

many

50'

room

feet

3" and

long

sheathing are

and

20' wide

(board measure)
\

allowance

requiredfor the
34' long, 8' wide,

freight car

all allowances

high, if 37-^-%covers
7-J-'

5.

is

feet of

square

GIRLS

FOR

will

for waste

flooringis to be
be requiredif the

is made

laid ;
stock

Stairs

perpendiculardistance between
called the rise of a flightof stairs.

The

is

floors of

two

The

building

width

steps is called
The

the

steps is

the width

of risers.

is the

slight projection

on

the

front

The

board

each

step.

each

step is the
find

To

the

from

number

be
a

81- inches

nosing of

EXAMPLE.

will be the

or

to

more

this

for

rise

of

tread

by

The

riser for stairs.

allow

of
reach

to

the

Measure

comfortable

on

floor to another

one

Divide

of

tread.

stairs necessary

is the most

tance
dis-

between

Nosing

which

run.

perpendicular

called

STAIRS

all the

of

9|

first.

inches,
should

run

with

inches

inches.

"

How

riser,if

steps will

many
the

118

-f-

118

-r-

between

distance
8

15

be

required,and
floors is 118

14| or 15 steps.
inches each riser.
7-J-f

what

inches

Ans.

EXAMPLES

1.

How

many

riser,(a) if

steps will

the distance

is 9 feet ?

be

between

required,and
floors

what

is 8' ?

will

(6) If

be

the

tance
the dis-

CONSTRUCTION

How

2.

OF

steps will be

many

the distance

riser,(a) if

141

HOUSE

required,and

what

floors is 12' ?

between

will

(b) If

be the
the distance

is 8' 8"?

Lathing
Laths

thin

are

which

upon

put

the

in bundles

up

apart and

pieces of wood, 4
plasteringof a house

fiftywill

of

long

about

and

is laid.

hundred.

one

cover

ft.

They

in.

11

They

wide,

are

ally
usu-

nailed

are

in.

sq. ft.

30

EXAMPLES

At

1.

30 cents
wall

plastera

45

At

2.

plastera

wall

and

walls

at 411

a.

cents

c.

20'

per

15' xir

x 18' x 12'

28'

30'

ft. ?

to

lath

15'

will it cost

to lath

and

what

will it cost

to lath

and

40

to lath

yard

and

plastera room
(including
by 12 ft. high,allowing34 sq. ft.
cents per square
yard ?

ft. square

square

d. 28' x 32' x 16'


e.

16

doors, at

16' x 14' xir

6. 18'

by

will it cost

What

yard

square

16
ceiling)

what

15 ft. ?

by

it cost

and

yard

square

per

18 ft.

will

for windows
4.

12 ft.

cents

What

3.

per

and

plasterthe followingrooms

high

with

door

high

with

high with
high with
high with

8'

x2"'and

2 windows

door

10' X 3' and

4 windows

door

11' x 3' and

4 windows

2"'x
2|'X
2f x

door

10'

3' and

4 windows

3'

x5'.

door

10'

3' and

3 windows

3'

x5'.

5'.
5'.
4'.

Painting
of dry coloring matter
is composed
or
Paint, which
with
oil,drier, etc., is applied to the surface of wood
brush
which

to

will render

exterior
it is
wooden

preserve

of

the wood.
it

houses.

applied.
houses

The

impervious
It should

The

unit

of

two

coats

are

to

paint

must

water,

or

be

composed

rain would

thoroughly conceal
is

pigment
by means

one
painting
square
usually applied.

the

of

of materials
it from

wash
surface

yard.

mixed

In

to

the

which

painting

142

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

estimated

It is often
the first coat

and

for

openings

paint

of

pound

one

for the second

yd.

6 sq.

usually

for considerable

that

one-half

about
is used

in

GIRLS

FOR

paint

painting

of

area

around

4 sq.

cover

allowance

Some

coat.

the

will

yd.

for

is made

openings is deducted,

them.

TABLE

gallonof paint will cover


gallon oi' paint will cover

1
1

300

to 375

feet
superficial

190

to 225

feet
superficial

375

to 525

feet
superficial

concrete

on

stone

on

brick

or

work
1

gallon of paint

will

cover

on

wood

gallonof paint will

cover

on

face
well-painted sur-

iron

or

1
1

....

gallonof
gallonof

600

will

tar

tar will

cover

cover

on

first coat

on

second

superficialfeet

90

feet
superficial

160

superficialfeet

to

paint a fence
required for

...

coat

EXAMPLES

How

1.

6'

50'

high,and

16'

will be

What

2.

yards of

per

the

is

floor 22'

varnishing a

paint a ceiling36' by

will it cost to

square

yard

What

will

sq. ft. and

flat

of

cost

long

and

29' at 21 cents

?
be the

the

of

cost

long, 31' wide, 21' high, if


300

gallon of paint

one

if it

What

4.

if

tak^s a pint of varnish for every four square


flooringand the varnish costs $2.65 per gallon?

wide,

3.

long,

it take

sq. ft.?

350

every

gallons .of paint will

many

paint

it takes

costs

house

paintinga

is 52'

which

gallon of paint to

one

$ 1.65 per gallon?

cover

(House

has

roof.)
Papering

Wall

is 18"

paper

yards long or
price on paper,
single or
double

double

roll.

paper,

double
be

sure

roll.

There

hence

wide

and

may

rolls 16
that
It is

be

bought

yards long.

you

know

it is difficult to

waste

single rolls

When

whether

you

in

estimate

cutting and
the

get

it is

economical

usuallymore

is considerable

in

exact

by the
to buy a
ing
matchamount.

fraction of

roll is not

OF

CONSTRUCTION

there

sold,
"

143

HOUSE

various

are

frieze,is usuallysold

rules

vided.
pro-

the

yard.
this by
in feet,and divide
the perimeter of the room
Find
of the paper
the width
(which is 18" or li'). The quotient
of stripsof paper
obtained
required. Then
equals the number
in order
divide the length of the roll by the height of the room
border, called

The

the

obtain

to

stripsin the roll. The


by dividing the stripsin the

number

requiredis found
stripsin the roll.
rule

is

Find

perimeter of

the

multiply that by 2, and you have the


the length of each strip. How
many
from

double

for doors

roll ?

and

window

each

How

in

yards,
of strips. Find
stripscan you cut

number
whole

yard

the

by

room

room

rolls will it take ?

many

deduct

windows

the

of

number

of

rolls

Another

by

from

allow

To

perimeter for

the

each door.

and

EXAMPLES

1.

18' with

door

the windows
he

and

by

4'.

much

How

9'

will

be

The

door

18'

room

square

double

many

rooms

paper

to paper

windows.

three

(Considerall

How

2.

is 3'

rolls of

by

7' and

by

will

paper

high.)
required to

paper

18'

room

14' ?

by

How

3.

18' 6"
4.

16'
a

2'

use

is asked

hanger

paper

much
16' 4"

by
How

4"

roll to

with

much

with

will

paper

on

cost

and

doors

place it

it

the

required

and

2 doors

will

be

2 windows
to

windows.

room

paper

?
a

paper

to

room

The

paper

19'

6"

by

49^

costs

wall.

Taxes
Find

out

where

the

etc.
schools,police,library,

obtained
What
persons

is

What

in

is real estate

poll tax ?
and property
a

A
to

tax

from

comes

money

your
?

is the

defray the

city or
What
sum

is

to
town.

the

How

is it

personalproperty ?

of money

expenses

support

of the

assessed

on

community.

144

VOCATIONAL

The

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

is

dollars
usually expressed as so many
thousand
of valuation,generally between
$ 10 and
$ 20.
of mills on
some
placesit is expressedas a certain number
tax

cents

or

The

rate

tax

the

rate, or

of thousand
illustrate
In

amount

The

taxable

each

on

by dividing the
of taxable

dollars

$ 1

thousand
whole

dollars

of

ber
by the numcommunity.

tax

property in the

certain

In

$ 100.

on

property, is determined
To

per

is $

property

whole

the

community

is

tax

$1,942,409.73.

97,945,162.00.

$1,942,409.73

983

97,945
EXAMPLES

If the tax

1.

family of
2.

What

3.

is the

property worth

4.

rate

is the

tax

taxable

The

expenses
Obtain

property

(taxes)necessary
the tax

The

The

town

or

has

bill,if

personal

the

tax

rate

$ 8500

and

the

tax

rate

is the tax ?
valued

at

$ 3500, if the tax

United

cityis $ 97,945,162.00
; and the
the city are
$ 1,900,136.14.
run

rate.

States

cityderives

personal property.
revenue

of
to

United

their

city?

or

is $ 23.45 ?

6.

and

is $ 2 ?

at

house

town

$ 84,313,and

polltax

What
on

paid by

taxes

$ 16,000 ?

is his tax

is valued

thousand.

per

Wrhat

5.

and

house

worth

worth

$ 16,584. What

hundred

the

are

$ 34,697 in your

on

real estate

dwelling

is $ 17.52

tax

owns

is $ 1.75 per

21.85, what

owning property

women

man

is $

rate

from

States

tax

from

taxes

county and

state

revenue

The

Revenue

imposed

the

upon

government derives

levied
derive

towns

and

real

on

part

of

cities.

great part of its

rev-

from

enue

articles
free

the

on

duties

regard
the

value

to

article
When

goods

written

statement

Sometimes

be

must

the

goods

bottles
made

of

value

from

the

total

of

by

accompanied
manifest

the

case

value

the

examined

are

are

(called

in this

without

duty).

valorem

goods

to

ing
follow-

article

an

upon

they

said

are

weight

by

of

the

obtain

to

invoice).

or

weight

an

rel
barthe

imposed.

broken

before

ad

country,

and

subtracted
is

its
upon

of the

both

or

based

duty

The

and

liquid,

duty
are

this

into

are

or

one

quantity

or

called

and

quantity

be

must

which

on

cent

officer).

customs

of

(called tare)

case

weight

to

these

free;

country

subject

are

the

received

are

the

weight

others

in per

(expressed

(called

In

the

into

on

within

duties,imposed

customs

(called specific duty),

officer

net

The

duty placed

list.

sold

liquor

countries.

other

admitted

are

145

HOUSE

and

tobacco

on

tax, called

from

imported

Some
be

from

and

boundaries
articles

placed

tax

OF

CONSTRUCTION

and

have

liquids

is called

This

imposing duty.

allowance

due

escaped,

leakage

breakage.

or

EXAMPLES

1.

What

is the

duty

on

bronze

worth

2.

What

is the

duty

on

goods

valued

3.

What

$ 0.09

per

4.

What

5.

What

$ 834
6.

41

ad

is
45

per

What

valorem

duty
foot

is the

What

invoiced

the

square

at

cts.

7.

is

at

on

duty

jewelry
on

$ 3115

ft. of

at

35

plate glass, duty

valued

at

$ 8376

handkerchiefs

cotton

40

at

valued

?
at

is the

duty

on

pound

plus

50

"/0?

is the

duty

on

rugs

$ 1.80
?

sq.

at

45

at

duty

the

3843

on

$ 8760

yard,

woolen

at

knit

goods

(Brussels), 120
29

cts.

per

square

valued

yards,
yard

at

$ 1643,

27"

wide,

and

45

CHAPTER
COST

about

WHEN
consider
This

OF

FURNISHING

furnish

to

is the amount

depend

salary of $ 1000 a year


the
toward
equipment of

After
to

study

lived

the

opportunity,
needed.

this

articles may
There

way

kind

the

upon

it is neither
made

of

styles that

mahogany
only

of

least

$ 250

have

saved

one

at

before

purpose.

keeping.
starting house-

the

essentials

of

house.

for

short

of

can

time, it will be

each

add

of

and

room,

such

other

undesirable

time,

things

and

easy

as

as

are

inharmonious

other
or

wages

of inferior

willow,

or

the

which

expensive woods,

and

best

those

usually afford

so

grades

are

more

erally
genfound
of

made

are

consists

income

buy

the

little care

be

may

whose
to

it is put

grades

durable, and

cost

is not

with

medium

The

are

and

wood

satisfactory. The

salary cannot

with

care

The

inexpensive furniture

attractive.

nor

permanently

are

most

It is made

durable

grades of furniture.

used, and

The

birch, oak,

and

styles and

of wood

finished.

cheapest in the end.

in

with

necessities

purchase

different

many

together and
that

the

person

purchase

house

permit,

money

income.

be avoided.

are

depends

the

possibilitiesand
and

In

in

things to

the

small

or

first
the

home

to

the

to

on

his

apartment

has

one

of

to be devoted

should

is sufficient

furnished

simply

HOUSE

house, one

This

of money

should

amount

VII

than

few

pieces of this kind.


Furniture

that

is well

made, of good material, and

peculiaritiesof design and


and

taste

of

decoration

The

only furniture

walls

all

by

striking

from

people of good

good judgment.

Furnishing
The

is chosen

free

should

floor should

be

be

necessary

painted

tiled

or

with

covered

the

Hall

for the vestibule


oil

paint in

with

inlaid

146

is

some

rack

color, and

warm

linoleum

for umbrellas.

in

tile

or

the

mosaic

148

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

the

Compare

2.

of

cost

GIRLS

hall

furnishing a

with

mahogany

birch.

or

If

3.

lives in
be

family receives an income


singlecottage house, what

4.

did

should

What

selected?

furniture

the

hall

furnished

was

with

kind

What

it cost ?

chairs,$

much

stained

simplified.

If

wide

and

exceed

not

and

year

of furniture

should

for

the

hall

umbrella

Table

cover

have

must

stand, $

of

care

carpets, the colors should

yard.

is

matting
Next

It

house

are

neutral.

be

it is

satisfactory;

tary
sani-

the most

matting,

to

cheap, looselywoven

felt),-$1.15

2.20

carpet is good body Brussels.


it.

2.10

of

(one yard

furnishingand

Japanese

or

fiftycents

get under

not

What

probablypurchased ?

was

China

floors the

Canton

costs

economical

does

one

of

quality

and

kind

following articles.

Pole, $

or

yard

dust

7.40

hardwood

best

The

$ 1400

Rug, $9.85

Table, $2.20

With

the

of furniture

$ 2.15

Mirror,
Two

cost

of

Seat, $11.85

FOR

well,and

wears

matting

the

woolen

or

carpet is always unsatisfactory.


FLOOR

selectingfloor coverings

In

design

The

there

quality should

and

COVERINGS

be

several

are

governed by

important
the

considerations.
the

treatment

rug

will

necessarilyhave.
Hall
A

hall

should
color
a

be
or

carpet will receive

or

rug

good.

in several

Rag

small

harmonizing

would

plain surface

Hand-woven

rug, 3

by

wool

rug,

Hand-woven
East

made,

rag rug, 3

wool

India

hard

wear

therefore, the

symmetrical design

colors

will show

dust

in two
and

wear

tones

by

by

6 feet

6 feet

drugget, 3 by
6 feet

by

$2.18
7.50
4.00

6 feet
6 feet

6 feet

6.00

8.00
9.00

Saxony,

Brussels

rug,

by

6 feet

9.00

Oriental

rug, 3

by

6 feet

35.00

by

quality
of

one

less than

do.

rug, machine

Scotch

all-over

COST

Room

Living
In

Since
well

livingroom

there

is

and

center

always
darker

particularly if
the rug
rugs

used

color.

walls

If

in the

small

design,but they

they

room,

should

nearly

as

Good
Crex

Rag

or

rugs,

Scotch

rug, 9

grass

by

wool

HandEast

India

Saxony,

by

be selected

in

rug

by

in

perfectlyplain rug
spots

readily.

too

possiblein

as

12

by
12

hard

very
as

is

ingrainrug,

India

to 25.00

36.00

in spots.

wear

afford.

can

one

as

by

It

finished.

feet

12

plain surface
Inlaid

that receives

to

keep

day.

the space

Small

rugs

crumbs

very

hard

the

laid where

floor
an

usage.

$8.50

.......

$ 10.00

to 45.00

32.75

drugget,9 by

under

and

makes

also

12 feet

of the lint which

to have

dining-room

linoleum

12 feet

12 feet

36.00
50.00
200.00

Bedroom
account

well

shows

Saxony, 9 by 12 feet
Oriental,9 by 12 feet

On

up

should, therefore,

It is not

objection to having

no

floor is well

by
rug,
Brussels, 9 by
East

$14.50

Room

coveringfor a dining room


are
coveringsfor this room

to 45.00

43.00

floor

Rag

310.00

200.00

excellent

Crex

Rugs

feet

dining room,

There

in

tone.

same

12 feet

and

differ

course,

feet

if the

best

the

design

$ 8. 50

quite bare,
The

of

in

50.00

good quality

as

exactly alike

be

32.75

rug, 9

gets

plain

in this room,

12 feet

Dining
dining-room

with

12 feet

Oriental,9 by

should

12 feet

by

it is

are

Living-room

by

drugget,

rug

feet

12

wool

woven

is excellent

color

equally.

over

livingroom,

possible.

as

12 feet

rug, 9

Brussels, 9 by

in

used, they will,

are

rugs

be

all

worn

plain,
figured. If they are
small, indefinite figure. If several domestic

Oriental

be
forms

and

some

hangings

or

same

plain

as

of the

have

carpet may

or

are

covering
border

the

will

covering

variety of colors

the floor

keep

to

floor

the

149

HOUSE

FURNISHING

OF

and

beds
most

Room

Sewing

accumulates

bare,
needed

in
so

up

bedrooms,

that
are

more

it may

it is
be

good plan

dusted

hygienic

in

every

sleeping

150

VOCATIONAL

Plain

are

floor

clean

it is in

good

taste

to

use

lies among

preference
Small

rag rugs, 3

Oval

braided

East

India

Saxony,

or

in

not

Chinese

good

large

one

matting

condition.
in

rug

the

$1.75
6 feet

by

2.50

6 feet

by

8.00

6 feet

8.00

6 feet

Oriental, 3 by

Although

bedroom,

6 feet

by

rag rugs, 3

by

makes

following:

drugget,

carpet

the

GIRLS

FOR

large rugs and carpets.


coveringwhen the boards are

than

rooms

MATHEMATICS

35.00

EXAMPLES

1.

3'

rug

family has

Brussels
3.

rug

of

twice

the

braided

An

oval

as

long

as

rag

small

is

houses

usuallybut

one

the

or

large rug

in two

room.

with

kind

income

an

It is

of

of

will last

and

room.
$ 1.75 for the bedmuch

How

purchase?

use

of

room

one

or

wall

very

six

in

it should

covering

there

rooms

is

represent the

should

family have

that

room

itself in

tones

five

but

is that

room

to

in

Room

This

of the

members

gray

The

common.

be restful.
that

is inclined

plain in

is
to

be

bright livingroom.

color,preferablythe

It

same

dark

One
color

figuredrug for this room.


an
important part of the furnishing of a living
well to have
comfortable
armchairs, upholstered

walls,is
are

$ 2.50

costs

to

Living

apartments
living room.

gray-green

Chairs

that

rug

economical

requisiteof such
is,therefore,advisable
effect.
is good
Tan

the

What

49.75.

is it?

or

which

3' x 6' costs

rug

rag

more

first

as

cent

per

purchased for $
suitable
for a family

The

tastes

by 12 feet,than
cheaper ?

economical

In

Brussels

rug, 9

crex

is

rug

Is it

is it ?

What

size ?

same

Which
more

is

cheaper

dining-room

$ 2500
4.

much

of $ 1400.

They buy
they extravagant?

Are

6' for $ 9.

How

2.

income

an

better

than

FURNISHING

OF

COST

151

HOUSE

chintz,if
A roomy
table with a good
this material is used as curtains.
while
bookshelves, a writing
reading lamp is essential,
open
desk or table,a sofa,a sewing table,and a piano are all appropriate
in

furnishings for

The

of

Plain

used

low

use

in

FURNISHED

be of

scrim

warmth

and

to reduce

look

cozy

the

to the

LIVING

or

net

curtains
or

of

does

be

may

chintz

apparent heightof
room.

Plants

are

not

be allowed

Use

very

the

over

to

tains
cur-

give

the

Valances

room.

window

and

beauty

to

framed
interest,
to

little bric-a-brac.

actuallycontribute to
to find a place there.

used

or

give
always appropriateto
a

in sunny

attractive.

chintz

as

simply

color to the sides of the

windows, and picturesof common


polishedwood or dull giltframes, help

room

ROOM

figuredmaterials,such

material
plain-colored

necessary
are

may

of

room.

HARMONIOUSLY

curtains

cretonne.

this

cushions

chairs with

willow

plain material,or

make

the

Nothing

of the

room

living
which
should

152

/Gas,

PRICE

LIST

$5.00

Wood

Stoves{
Coal,
17.00
c.

LIVING-KOOM

OF

Wood

or

FURNITURE

$15.00

Franklin

25.50

wood

coal

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

grate

andirons,

or

coal

$35.00

livingroom

with

livingroom

with

or

EXAMPLES

much

How

1.

libraryfurniture
2.

oak

hand-made
3.

than

much

How

will it cost

more

Ascertain

Large

will it cost

to furnish

than

from

the
and

chairs

Bookcase

What

and
or

with

Curtains

?
a

designs in

couch,

cost ?

$ 51.15
9.85

Rug

and

oak

the

following

kind

of furniture

and

shades

for

windows, $6.15

shelves,$

is the

colonial

pricelist what

small

table, $7.95
Six

with

furnished

was

table

round

furniture

furniture

livingroom

willow

with

more

to furnish

draperies,$34.15

Incidentals,$

24.65

ture.
furniit is.
three

COST

stops

one

to think

in the

furnishingof

the

Unless
the
much
case

should

stand, a

toilet

small

table,a

is that

COMFORTABLE

BEDROOM

be used

daytime, the amount


as
possible. The
which

permit,a

and
room.

If

neither

dust

rug, and

woolen

odor.

fresh and

clean.

in

sittingroom

or

and

be

bed,

reduced

one

If space

as

dressing

wash-

mirror, a

easychairand
shades.

to

bare

the

be

attractiveness

the
floors,

carpet is

draperies should
nor

piecesare

requisite

plain one,
and

money

shelves,
Naturally,a writing desk, book-

add

have

first

should

in drawers

window

is desirable.

cannot

one

All

be generous

study

life is

of one's

the

it be

furniture

necessary

picturesall

good matting.
room.

of

as

set,towel-rack,one

couch

that

the bedroom

must

room

one-third

about

that

to understand

spent in sleep,it is easy

153

HOUSE

Bedroom

The
When

FURNISHING

OF

not

of

next

desirable

materials

of
best

for
that

such

thing

is

sleeping
will

hold

154

VOCATIONAL

The

bed

is the

springsand
of the body

should

when

it is in

should

be

article in

be firm

enough

horizontal

light in.

GIRLS

FOR

important

most

mattress

walls

The

MATHEMATICS

color

the

The

room.

support all parts

to

position.
and

the woodwork

white

if

possible. The furniture also may be white, although dullfinished


mahogany in colonial designs,with small rugs on
the floor,makes
One
set of draw
a
charming bedroom.
tains,
curof figured chintz if the walls are plain,and of plain-colored
if the walls have
material
small figure,is enough for each
a
window.
The

furnishingsof

in her

out

should
The

favorite

bedroom
girl's

young

color,and

be added

bedroom

for

the

to

should

usual

be

bedroom

desk, lamp, worktable, and

carried

furniture

bookshelves.

growing boy should be his own


sitting
and
room
study as well ; a place where he can entertain his
The
friends,do his studying,and develop his hobbies.
walls,
hangings, couch cover, etc., should be very plain,as a boy
need' the plainest
usuallyhas a collection of trophies which
of

sort

in order

background

cluttered.
framed

of

Instead

couch,which

plaindark

the

prevent
bed

daytime

the

he
may

be used

cushions,to

from

room

should
be
as

have

made
a

will

rugs

complete the furnishingsof

the

looking
iron-

an

up

couch.

armchair, bookshelves, writing table,and

an

small

the usual

in

with

cover

to

one

with
A

fonier,
chif-

or

two

boy's bedroom.

EXAMPLES

finished
inches
2.

for

be

should

Sheets

1.

sheets

should

of

be

ample length and breadth.


nearly three yards long. How

The
many

long ?
The

supply

small

12 sheets

house

is

as

follows

@ "0.85

12

pillow cases

24

towels

What

of bedroom

@$

is the

@ $

.40

0.50

total cost ?

linen,blankets,and

counterpanes

pairs blankets

counterpanes

@ $

$8.00
2.50

156

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

If

3.

hours

many

bedroom

4.

day

Enameled

one-third

spends

person

with

is furnished

bedstead

of

the

dressing case, $ 15.00

wooden

plain
used

small

Two

washstand, $ 1.00

as

table

Chair, $ 2.00

Shades

Mattress, $

Towel

5.00

washstand

windows, twenty-one
cloth for

washstand, $.55

pillows,$4.00

Toilet

$ 2.00

$ 3.15

Enameled

be

to

draping bed,

two

yards,

table

for

and

how

bedroom,

following furniture

Dimity

withsprings,

$7.50

"

life in

spent in the bedroom

are

GIRLS

FOR

set, $ 3.00
for two

windows, 1

rack,$

1.00

.75

Rug, $3.00
What

is the total cost ?

What

5.

will it cost

furniture

What

6.

grade

will

income

7.

What

will it cost
What

gloss

this furniture

The
The
but

dining room

what

there

Mahogany
should
will

does

oak

are

broad, stand

The
and

chairs

of

woods

well, with

should

floor is stained.

income

the

good

is the

least

this furniture

buy

real

with

should

one

any
mahoghave

in

Room

the
to

the

furniture,
kind.

preferred. The table


legs so placed that they

be

of

be

made,

well

of

substantial

most

comfort

high, straightbacks.

right kind of a sideboard


table in simple design.
of the dining room
center

to

What

requirea great deal


be

the

tage
cot-

not

the

bedroom

least

Dining

is should

interfere with

not

table.
seats

be

and

enamel

to furnish

with

bedroom

in order

is the

simple

furnish

have

with

bedroom

above

to

in

family should

buy

to

it cost

furniture

furniture
order

provided

as

of oak

furnish

to

Unless

any

one

seated

with
one

at the

broad, deep
can

afford

the

purchase a sideboard
A piece of Japanese matting in the
the
when
floor is quitesatisfactory
it is better

to

COST

The

day

in which

room

enjoy its

to

FURNISHING

OF

the

meals

family assembles

together

should

157

HOUSE

several

be

the

times

each

cheerful

most

in the house.

room

AN

Because
many

there

is

blue used

as

much

so

dining

want

persons

in

the

white,

dark

walls,with
has

one

landscapeand

hangings
delightfulrooms.
Plate

rails

It is better

inharmonious

to

of

or

wall

lightand

reduce

decorative

makes

market

which,

are

used

room

in blue

and

charming

many
without

pictures

the windowsills

on

material

apparent height of

simple flat molding than

china

There

plants blooming

the

use,

take,
usually a mis-

night. By using colonial yellow

rug, and

the

or

on

lamps

the
fringe or, better still,
fixtures in

the table at

the

is

in

most

over-highceiling.

an

to crowd

make

and

plate rail full of

objects.

Ugly glass domes


silk

This

arrangement.

on

bulbs

at

china

walls.

plain, semitransparent, colored

racks

use

blue-and-white

blue

days and

ideal

foliagepapers

against them, but with


with

with

hangings,

almost

an

attractive

rooms

ROOM

DINING

large quantitiesabsorbs

gloomy, particularlyon
on

ATTRACTIVE

all of

night, with

the
a

rooms.

are

center

being replaced by silk


light is abandoned

ones

in favor

Candles, prettilyshaded,

jar of flowers

or

fruit

as

with

are

centerpiece.

deep

of side
used

on

158

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

GIRLS

FOR

EXAMPLES

will

What

1.

the

(Includethe

cost ?

following cottage dining-room furniture


items

in the

given

pricelist below.)
furniture

2.

What

will the

following oak dining-room

3.

What

will the

niture
following real mahogany dining-room fur-

cost ?

cost ?
PRICE

Stoves

4.

with

^5-""

/ Gas'

\Coal, 17.00
What

china

I
\

of the
soup

dozen

dinner
lunch

Wood
"

or

"

"

coal

$15.50

followingamounts
plates (to be

used

Franklin

25.00

to furnish

wood

home
and

grate

on

for cereals

also)

plates (used also for breakfast

dessert plates

andirons,
.

moderate

kinds

or

coal

or

plates

salads)
\ dozen

FURNITURE

DINING-ROOM

OF

Wood

will it cost

dozen

1 dozen

LIST

$2.35
2.25

and

for
3.85

1.60

$35.00

scale

COST

"
\
^
\
1

dozen

bread-and-butter

dozen

coffee cups

dozen

tea

dozen

after-dinner

coffee cups

hot-milk

and

saucers

2.35

jug or

chocolate

2.60

pot

pitcher

platteror

.70

chop platter

2.50

plates for cheese, butter, etc

Covered

egg

with

glass,

kinds

2.80

1.50

cups

will

it cost

colonial

furnish,

to

period, of

dozen

tumblers

dozen

sherbet

glasses

dozen

dessert

plates

home

the

on

bowl

and

Dish

for lemons

Dish

for nuts

scale

moderate

and

following amounts

-$0.50
.35
1.25

ringer bowls

dozen

Sugar

.95

dish

dozen

What

\
\
\
\

2.80

saucers

2.00

largecream

3 odd

0. 70

3.30

saucers

pot

1 small

5.

"

1.90

1 covered

cups

159

HOUSE

plates

and

and

teapot

1 coffee

FURNISHING

OF

.75

pitcher

cream

.50
50

.25

Pitcher

50

Candlesticks
and

Vinegar
Berry

I
\
6.

.65
oil cruets

dish

25

dozen

iced-tea

dozen

individual

What

.50

glasses

.75

salt cellars

will it cost

to

.60

furnish

with

silver,pilgrim pattern, of

kinds

1 dozen

dozen

tablespoons

moderate

followingamounts

$14.00

dessert

dessert

spoons

(used for

dessert

soup

also)

9.50
9.50

forks

(used also

salad, pie, fruit,etc.)


dozen

the

on

teaspoons

1 dozen

home

knives

for

breakfast,lunch,
19.00
11.00

scale
and

160

VOCATIONAL

dozen

MATHEMATICS

table

knives

with

FOR

steel blades

and

GIRLS

ivoroid

handles

Carving
\

dozen

$2.00

set

to match

steel knives

4.00

table forks
for

12.00

fancy

spoons

fancy

forks

\
\
\

dozen

after-dinner

dozen

bouillon

dozen

butter

1 gravy

for

jellies,
bonbons,
olives,lemons,

($ 1.50 each)

etc.

etc.

($1.50 each)

3.00

3.00

coffee spoons

5.00
8.00

spoons

spreaders

1.50

ladle

4.75

Saltspoon

.20

....

Sugar tongs
7.

with

What

2.25

will

it cost

of

ware
silver-plated

Covered
dish

furnish,

to

the

home

on

following

vegetable dish (cover


by removing handle)

may

be

moderate
and

amounts

used

as

$10.00

Pitcher

12.00

pot

12.50

Toast

rack

4.50

Small

tray

6.50

plate

6.00

Silver bowl

9.00

Egg

8.00

steamer

Bread
Tea

fruit tray

or

5.50

strainer

1.00

Candlesticks, each

3.75

Linen

Household
quality of

linen

possibly afford.

by hand,

in every

household

breakfast

The

of unbleached

insets of imitation

11.50

Sandwich

can

kinds

Platter

Coffee

The

scale

linen

runners

such

filet lace these

as
are

one

very

should
and

buys

be

the

napkins
for dish

best
are

that

to be

towels.

attractive, durable, and

one

made
With
easy

to launder.

1.

table

What
and

% 1400, who

is the
bed
are

cost

linen
about

of

for
to

supplying the following


a
couple with an average
begin housekeeping ?

amount
income

of
of

Table
2 dozen

22-inch

napkins,

2 dozen

12-inch

luncheon

$3.00

at

dozen.

napkins,

asbestos

square

dozen

square

dozen

table

1 dozen

white

1 dozen

65

linen.)

coarse

for

pad

table,at $

1.00.

$1.20.

at

cts.

Linen

(extra long) for each bed,


for each pillow, at 20
pillow cases

4 sheets

protector for

mattress

each

$ 1.10.

at

cts.

bed,

with

for

each

extra

one

in the

one

house,

$1.50.

at

spreads

1 down

for each

pair

"

dozen

bed,

of blankets

comforter

for each

plain huckaback

3 bath

towels

dozen

for each

washcloths

1 bath

with

bed,
towels

bed,

$ 6.
the

house,

$ 8.

at

at 25 cts.

person,

30 cts.

person,

at 11

cts.

2 in reserve,

bathroom,

at

pairs in

2 extra

for each
at

person,

for each

in the

mat

$ 2.50.

at

lamb's-wool

or

"

of

yard.

flannel

Bed

hand

by

finger-bowldoilies,at $3.00.
platedoilies,at $ 3.00.

1 dozen

if made

breakfast, at $2.40.

for

fringed napkins,
at

dozen.

cloths,$12.00.

tea
runners

4 tray covers,

$4.50

at

cotton

or

161

HOUSE

Linen

(Luncheon napkins at $1.00 a dozen


two-yard square tablecloths, at $1.25

Two-yard

\
^

FURNISHING

OF

COST

$1.50.

at

"

Even

in

fitted up

as

small
a

practical,and
extra

bedroom.

be

furnished

so

house

sewing
at the

This
that

The

Sewing

there

is sometimes

room

same
room

it may

in such
time

so

should

Room

kept

easily be kept

to

as

way

attractive
be

extra

an

as

as

be

which

room

very

to serve

may

and

convenient

occasionallyas

lightas possibleand

be

an

should

clean.

EXAMPLE

What

1.

will it cost

to furnish

sewing

room

lowing
the fol-

with

articles ?
Sewing

machine

with

flat top to be Used

as

Chair
Box

dressing table

$ 20.00
1.25

couch
....

Chiffonier
.

13.25
9.00

162

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

against a

Mirror

$11.25

door

rocking-chair without

Low

1.50

arms

3.38

tree

The
The

in

room

the

time

is

visitingforeign kitchens
settingfor

The
with

woodwork
oil

color.
be

paint,

found

should

limited

as

to

their

style of livingand

the

number, size,and

kind

in all the

other

the essential

it may

that

the art of

"

room

by
a picturesque
cookery.
learn

we

"

should

walls

material,

this

large supply purchased


and

size of the

family
that

need

the

also

must

are

the beginner
furnishings,
demonstrates

to

required

Of

will do

in each

well

the need

to

utensils

extent

some

in

due

without

of them.

painted

be

well-made, carefully selected

of utensils

the

KITCHEN

real value

articles until time

attractive
and

"

be made

washable

with

of

than

made

light in color,the

be

number

useful

more

be

CONVENIENT

covered

or

least

usuallythe

of the finest arts

one

housekeeper spends

average

it should

whereas

house,

Kitchen

the

which

greater part of her


in

6.75

used

; tilt top to be

underneath

Cutting table, box


Clothes

GIRLS

FOR

course,

light
will
sideration
con-

the

control the
kitchen.

As

purchase only

of others.

164

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

EXAMPLES
Considerable

LAYING

IN

practiceshould

be

GIRLS

FOR

OUT

FURNITURE
furniture

giveu in laying out

according

to scale.

1.

bedroom

3' 6"

sidejand

wide,
door

is to contain

6' 6"

bed,

dresser, 3'

the

window, 3' 6", two

3' wide

the

10' 6" faces

12' x

two

4'
1'6"

feet from

feet from

followingfurniture

This

room

table,2'

chairs,1'

6"
6"

artistic

faces

the

the

15' x

room

6"

18'

has

wide

two

the

on

windows

side, 2

of

V.

-J-"

east, and
3'

north

2'

arrangement

dining

windows
east

Scale

furniture.
2.

3'

plan showing

most

the

dows,
2 winof west

corner

wall.

east

Draw

has

south, and

3' 6"

on

side,foldingdoors

wide

in

the

south

side.

center,
Draw

the

on

plan

and

"

place the followingfurniture

SOLUTION

artistic

it in the most
1

dining table,5'

buffet,4'
A

3.

and

wide

side,and

place the

2'

chairs,2'

Scale, \"

living room

3' 6"
west

in diameter

15'
the

on

18'

north

faces

side, 2

foldingdoors on the
followingfurniture in

the

1 table

2 rockers

1 desk

4.

3' 6"

and

chair

kitchen

wide

on

12'
the

i"

10' 6" faces the south

south

side, 1

on

side.

dows
has 2 win-

3' 6"

on

the

Draw

plan

artistic

manner

easy-chairs

Scale

and

most

1 settee

I'

windows

south

manner

1' 6"

north

the

in

the

I'

and
west

has

2 windows

side, two

feet

the north

from

FURNISHING

OF

COST

furniture

place the
1 kitchen

3'

in proper

wide,

dining

into the

that leads

corner

door

comer,

165

HOUSE

east
the north-

feet from

two

Draw

room.

plan and

places:
1 table

range

1 sink

2 chairs

2 set tubs

Scale

"

livingroom

below.

Large

What

kind

round

table

with the furniture

fitted out

was

of furniture

Curtains

table, $8.00
Six chairs
Bookcase

2.

and

hall

the total cost ?

was

10.00

furnished

was

Rug

draperies, $

with

the

of furniture

Rug, $10.00

Mirror, $2.00

Umbrella

Table, $ 2.00

Table

chairs,$7.50
A

3.

family
lived

"

expense
House

in

was

as

Washing, $
What

"

southern

follows

three

What

$ 1.00

$ 600

people
a

four

and
The

year.

dren
chil-

monthly

Bread, $

3.50

Beef, $3.50

5.00

Vegetables,$3.00
balance

from

the

monthly

income

of $ 50

fuel ?
is the cost

1 kitchen

chair, $

1.50

table,$

stand, $2.00

cover,

grown

cityon

12.00

is the

clothingand
4.

seven

rent, $ 12.00

Groceries, $

used

was

What

Pole, $3.00

of
a

34.00

followingarticles.

Seat, $12.00

Two

for three

" 6.30

Incidentals,$25.00

kind

What

and

in the list

is the cost ?
shades

and

windows,
couch, $ 50.00

shelves,$

or

What

is it ?

small

and

EXAMPLES

REVIEW

1.

\"

1.25

of the

followingkitchen
1

broom,

Kitchen

furniture ?

50 cents

utensils,$

8.50

for

166

What

5.

income

should

2 willow

chairs,$

1 willow

stool,$4.25

10

of cretonne,

35 cents

is the

What

6.

1 bed

should

mattress, $4.25

chiffonier,$6.50

dressingtable,$2.25

mirror, $2.75

armchair, $4.00

1 rag

pillows,75

cents

this furniture
iron

2 white
2

cotton

of

cost

the

should

beds, at $4.25

30

by

dressingtable,$

of

and

yards

of

50 cents

bed,

one

at 35 cents

cretonne,
bedroom

family have

to

each

$4.25

cents

1.00 each
5.50

of

yards

yd.

furniture

warrant

buying

4.25 each

of

sateen,

yards
a

yards
a

cream

Sheets
.50

of cretonne, at

chair, $

25

5 cents

6.00

cents

of net, at 25
and

blankets

cents

for two

$ 12.00
35 cents

at

yd.

yards

basket,

fringe,at

of cotton

$3.25

25

yd.

cushion, 75

mirror, $1.50

at

yd.

comfortables,at $
cents

15

yellow sateen,

yd.

for

blankets

mirror, $3.25
dressing-table

25 cents

comfortable, $4.25

yards

Swiss, at

yd.

1 willow

II

7.00

furniture?

pink linen, at

chiffonier,$6.50

wastepaper

yd.

this furniture ?

white

pillow, $1.00

following

desk, $6.75

1 rag rug,

inches, $

buy

to

yards

10

1 chiffonier

cents

bedroom

each

at

mattresses,

pillows,at $

1 white

yd.
fringe, at 5
cents

each.
2 bed

cents

$6.00

singlesprings,at $2.50

48

yards of
a yd.

each

income

much

How

of net, at 25

Sheets

is the

What

yd.

10

3
7.

cotton

yards

$3.25

rug,

of

following

50

1 bed

singlecotton

50

frame,

cents

family have

spring, $3.50

the

of

cost

income

much

How

this furniture

linen, at

yards

Table,

yard

of

yards

basket, $2.25

1 newspaper

shade

1 wire

6 each

buy

to

pottery lamp bowl, $ 3.00

1 green

9.50

1 rag rug,

yards

family receive

chair, $12.50

Overstuffed

12

GIRLS

following living-roomfurniture

of the

is the cost

much

How

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

dressing table chair, $4.50

yd.
beds,

AND

HEAT

is the

What

8.

should

income

What

following dining-room furniture

of the

cost

receive

one

this furniture

buy

to

dining-room chairs,$4.50

lOyardsof cretonne,

dining table, $6.75


serving table,$ 6.25

One

1 rag

of Coal

Value

give off

coal

same
a

coal may
the

determine
calorimeter

methods

result under

the

yd.

50 cents

in

than

ways

trial in

conditions

of

The

value

heating

analysis to
in

the rise in temperature

under

or

value

of the

definite amount

noting

stove

grades

chemical

(1) by

Some

others.

and

water)

theoretical

Heat

(2) by burning

actual

give

actual

8.00

for fuel.

used

are

burning

of carbon

(3) by

at 35 cents

frame,

linen,$

to Produce

in three

vessel immersed

(a

first two

in

heat

more

amount

of the water
The

of coal

kinds

determined

be

LIGHT

AND

HEAT

different

Silverware, $7.50
1 willow tray, $3.25

dishes, $ 9.75

Several

shade

wire

Table

$9.50

rug,

1 set of

of

167

LIGHT

third

; the

boiler.

steam

real

gives the

draft,heating surface,combustion,

etc.

The
comes

from

generally used

from

the

anthracite

the mines, is divided


standard

The
as

coal

follows

screening

square

last three

is used

reasonable

sizes

to

price

in the

and

the

that

the

This

Eastern

states

shipped

coal, as

grades according

to

size.

leading coal-mining districts

some

Pea, through

Buckwheat,

are

above

given

generating

one

fires,therefore,require

given

other

volume

fuel

of coke

occupying the

steam

in

through

for

less and

space

round

for household

it

use

as

This

in the stove

The

pea.

burns

up

is due

to

contains

therefore
or

at

grades

The

and

nut

and

boilers.

be obtained

can

purposes.

known

attention.

more

square

round

principalobjection. It

weighs
same

domestic
are

""

largepower-plant

in localities where

extent

has

small

too

are

for this purpose

household

square

Rice, through f
Barley, through \"

square

for

f"
"

in sizes suitable

generally used

of coke

than

round

Nut, through 1|"

usually purchased

coke

different

of the

one

in

square

Coke

purposes

Pennsylvania.

into several

Egg, through 2f"


Stove, through 2"

The

household

fields of

sizes of

Broken, through 4|"

are

for

furnace.

of

use

quickly
the

fact

less heat

168

VOCATIONAL

chief

The

qualitieswhich

percentage of ash
excessive

and

by

its behavior

inspection

depends entirely upon


and

vary

may

factor
which

will best

of grate

when

burned.
and

stone

as

supply.
of coal

from

quality
which
of

This

fire-box,and

be

may

an

easily

domestic

of

its

are

contain

it has

coke

been

made,

impurities contained.
coal, the

given

coal

may

slate,which

for

heater.

or

Coal

of domestic

selectingfuel

range

GIRLS

of domestic

"foin the amount

size of the

surface,the

value

The

grade

in

suit the

the

characteristics

consider

to

the

100

as

the chemical

from

Aside

much

as

of

the

FOR

determine

of impuritiessuch

amount

observed

MATHEMATICS

is the size

purpose

depends

the

on

portant
im-

most

amount

of draft.

the amount

EXAMPLES

1.

How
2.

hods
3.

Hard

coal of

much

carbon

A
in

January

is

cent

The

5.

housewife

of

carbon.

of coal.

How

many

the

live
in

it in

by

the

per

to

than
coal ?

buy

If the

cts.,what

price

is the per

barrel,what is the priceper


is gained over
cent
single

economical
is the most
gallonsat 13 cts. retail ? What
to buy kerosene
?
(A barrel contains 42 gallons.)
How
1.
on

Each

the

division

center

to

the

on

circle

Read

1000

right-hand circle
feet ; and

on

dial to

hand

the

Gas

is measured

denotes

the

feet.

way

Meter

Gas

10,000

in

lots ?

5-galloncan

What

January,

rather

gallon.

55

gallons cost

June
time

economical

sells for $4.60

barrel ?

for $ 9.00 in

and

kerosene

buys

13 cts. and

If kerosene

gallon by

pounds

in June

is the most

gained by buying

cent

30

coal ?

gained by buying

When

gallon is

per

holds

90

ton

per

at least

of hard

If coal sells for $ 8.25

what

4.

in 9 tons
coal hod

common

good quality has

feet ;

100

left-hand

circle
left-

from

Read

right,always

figureswhich

ing
tak-

the hands
The

above

have

passed, viz.

dials

register3, 4, 6, adding

in cubic

feet.

HEAT

ciphers for

two

AND

the

hundreds, making 34,600 feet registered.


of gas used in a given time, deduct
amount

To

ascertain

the

previousregisterfrom

the

above

Register by

16,400 feet @
If

2.

90

34,600
18,200

registered
1000

cts. per

at the

meter

gas

present, viz. :

statement

of feet

number

the

dials

Register by previous
Given

to-day the

what
3.

the

amount

vious
pre^

^^

dials read

is the

cost

of the gas at 95 cts. per

What

is the

of the

cost

gas used

1000?

during

the month

from

reading on this meter, if


previous reading was 6100

the

The

feet ?
1000

is $ 1.00

rate

ft. less ten

cu.

the

12th

Give

two

answers.

is the

What

4.

85 cts. per

1000

There
which

the

it is

ampere,

and

(1) The
pressure.
ampere

(2) The

subject of

or

volt is the

is the

through a
of

Meter

in
electricity

used
to

Electric

an

the

terms

the watt

unit

at

Read

to

important

It

gas

ft.?

cu.

three

are

of

meter

How
(See

cent,
of the

cost

this

registered by

per

per

paid before

month.

one

what

follows,

as

if

16,400

costs

reading registered82,700
feet,and

169

LIGHT

in

the

Appendix)
with

connection

understand

namely,

electricity

the

volt, the

kilowatt.

unit

of Electromotive

pressure

necessary

resistance of

electric current

one

to

Force
force

or
a

electrical
current

of

ohm.

strengthis

the ampere.

It

170

VOCATIONAL

is the amount
under

ohm

of

of

(3) The

volts

one

ampere.

if

which,

at

electrical

on

amperes,

have

we

line

is

consumed

(a kilowatt

345

as

1000

being equal to

hour

of

to 115

volt

115
3

and

device

volts,the
345

watts,

hour, will registeron

one

hours, or

watt

uct
prod-

electrical

an

voltage

equal

operated continuouslyfor
meter

one

(amperes)in

current

respectivelyone

are

say, if

; it is the

power

force)and

values

is to

current

electric

the

their

That

of

of

(of electromotive

circuit,when

resistance of

volt.

one

is the unit

the

amount

of

GIRLS

FOR

flowing through

current

pressure

watt

operated

MATHEMATICS

hours

kilowatt

.345

hours).

watt

All

and
are
operated devices
stamped with the ampere
electrically
voltagerating. This stamping may be found on the name-plate or bottom
of the device.
By multiplying the voltage of the circuit upon which the
device
we

is to be

quickly

can

under

voltage

determine

which

is most

the

devices

that

the device

below

110 volts

above

stamping
much

on

at 130

Again,

about

Company

125

the

with

to

circuit where
volts.

The

if the

device

same

voltage of

be

plained
ex-

line

be very
much

about

the

circuit,it is
doing

best

business

and

means

drop

not

with

the

would

be

be secured

used

heated
electrically

an

are

you

brought

device

it would

were

would

device

life of the

from

This

voltage does

the

By operating

the results desired

operate

which

device,

latter,as

above.

110-125.

V.

of 106 volts the

it would

from

attempting
doubt

volts,the life of the device

results desired

as

voltage thus:

on

circuit

longer,but

slowly.

more

for

rise above

or

shown

the

on

of the

consumption

of the watt, and

be used

may

stamped

panies
extensively supplied by Electric Lighting comis 115 volts,and where
this voltage is in operation,

stamped

are

found

as

amperes

the wattage

the definition

in this country

very

the

operated by

on

much

circuit

ating
oper-

short,although
quickly.

more

the
fore
Be-

lighted device, if

or

the Electric

to call upon

ask

voltage of

the

in

their

lines.
Incandescent

lamps

of

wattage

certain

sizes.

at

all

For

Mazda

watts

and

are

on

known
are

lamps,

lighting companies,
commercial

nitrogen-filledlamps
sizes of 200

while

"candle-power,"

consumption.

obtainable
watt

electric lamps,

are

use,

lamps

the

market.

upwards.

all

labeled

suitable
made
of 1000

the

to

for
in

user

average
with

their

household

watts

and

Nitrogen lamps

known
are

proper
use

15, 25, 40, 60,

as

and

and

100

as

the

made

in

172

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

with

if the

deducted

period of

15

SOLUTION.

from

days

"

First

bill

date

GIRLS

FOR

is

within

paid

the

discount

of issue ?

6120

kw.

hrs.

200

kw.

hrs.

hrs.

8?=

kw.

hrs.

kw.

hrs.

"t=

60.00

kw.

hrs. @

5/=

150.00

total amount

10^

used.

20.00

5920
Next

_300kw.

24.00

5620
500

Next

35.00

5120
1000

Next

4120

3000

Next

We

have
5000

over

figured

now

kw.

for 5000

hrs.,is figuredat
1120

kw.

kw.
4

hrs.

hrs., and

as

^ per kilowatt
4?

hours,

that

deduct

from

bill is

the

within

paid

that

states

all

have

we

44.80

$333.80

Assuming

rate

our

the

gross bill

discount

given

period,

we

the
gross

bill,which

16.69

equals I

$317. 11

bill

net

EXAMPLES

1.

customer

15

within

hr. of

kw.
An
In

meter

be consulted.

kw.

is read

hrs., as
passed

the

of

in the

kw.

hr. of

is deducted

bill,with

the

upon

the

which

pointer

advancing
first

same

way

that

pointer, the pointer


pointer

words, completed

division

revolution, thus
itself

of

amount

Unless

in other

the

300

electricity.

for

payment

deducted, for 15

?
electricity

electric

zero, or,

11

is the

deciding the reading

must

month

days ?

What

2.

one

of his bill if 5

is the amount

What

in

uses

to

the

digit on

right has

appear

its dial.

it

(to the right)


reached
or
passed

other

rest.

right

has

pointer to

the

extreme

second

to

is read.

meter

gas

before

revolution,the

it may
the

to the

made

has

not

Figure
one

pleted
com-

reads

complete

first digit and

has

FIG.

Fia.

1.

2.

"

READING

WHAT

"

173

LIGHT

AND

HEAT

11

is

THE

KW.

MRS.

READING?

Q/r^"\
f

3.

FIG.

4.

FIG.

5.

"

"

"

HOUC.S

ILOWATT-

FIG.

"

"

READING

424

KW.

HRS.

WHAT

is

THE

READING?

WHAT

is

THE

READING

174

VOCATIONAL

What

1.
on

on

What

is the

What

3.

cost

171, with

page

on

is the cost

FOR

GIRLS

of

in Fig. 1, using
electricity

the rates

of

in Fig. 2, using
electricity

the rates

171 ?

page
2.

MATHEMATICS

the discount

is the

171, with

page

in Fig. 3, using
electricity

of

cost

the discount

the rates

EXAMPLES

is the cost of

What

1.

30 hours

burning

What

2.

will

(50 watts) for


What
kw.

cents

it cost

to

15 hours

it cost

will

An

to

electric

2 amperes.
kw.

per

at 9 cents

use

machine

per

by

motor

hr. ?

kw.
110

V. and

the iron for

20

hours

machine

is

marked

will

electric

15

it cost

toaster

will

hours

of the

it 15

run

8J

for

is marked

to

amperes.

8 cents

at

110

hours

cents

prompt

115

it for

run

per

and

V.

at 81

cents

payment,

volts and

peres.
3J amfasts)
(thirtybreak-

month

kw.

per

hr. ?

If

discount

is the net

what

of

amount

bill ?

Methods
Houses
hot-water

heated

are

system

pipes from
The

rooms.

the
water

the fluid heated


colder

to

stove

it cost

at

is allowed

washing

What

What

and

hr. ?

sewing

run

lamps,

hr. ?

An

5.

of

kw.

per

Mazda

hr. ?

4.

at 10

ten 25-watt

6-lb. electric flatiron is marked

3.

maintaining

water.

the

hot

of

water

gives off its heat


the surrounding

Heating

air,hot water,

heating,hot

heater

in the

and

vertical
passes
to

the

air

in

is

passes

basement

to

radiators

the
coils

in the

portionof
pushed upward by the adjacent
the

of

room.

the

the

water

is set

boiler to the radiators

radiators,which
the

through

boiler,and

circulation
from

In

steam.

or

water

in the

is heated

expands
A

hot

by

of

The

in turn

give

convection

up
and

it off to
currents

HEAT

heat

carry

through

the

and

room

175

LIGHT

AND

at the

time

same

provide for

ventilation.
the

In

hot-air

method

through openings

in the

the

heat

from

passes

floor called

the

furnace

registers.This

method

frequently fails to heat


house
cause
a
uniformly bethere
the
to

is

no

air in certain
escape

so

fresh

air to

for

way
rooms

to

as

and

mit
per-

heated

enter.

Steam
in
a

heatingconsists
from
allowing steam

boiler

in the

to circulate
or

basement

through coils

radiators.

The

steam

gives off its heat

to

the
HOT

radiators,which

give

it off to

in

the

AIR

HEATING

SYSTEM

turn

surrounding air.
Room-heating

Calculations
In
and

order

health, every

should

be

efficient
or

the

able

this,it

to

HEATING

SYSTEM

room

select

an

be able to tell whether

in

to

the

most

In

determine

heating.

ical
econom-

order

is necessary

for
WATER

housewife

room-heating appliance,

manner.

HOT

comfort

existing heating apparatus


is performing the required

service

how

insure

to

to

to

do

know

the

quirements
re-

individual

176

Steam

For

80

ft. of volume

cu.

13 sq. ft. of

surface

of

room.

wall

exposed

for each

surface.

3 sq. ft. of

exposed glasssurface

6 sq. ft. of

exposed glass surface

For

Hot-water

Add

50

(singlewindow).
(double window).

Heating
cent

per

the

to

of

amount

radiator

obtained

surface

by the

calculation.
Gas

For
Allow

Heaters

having

ft. of volume

cu.

of

Connection

Flue

no

ft. of gas per hour

1 cu.

215

The

GIRLS

FOR

Heating

1 sq. ft. of radiator

Allow

above

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

for each

room.

35 sq. ft. of

exposed wall surface.

9 sq. ft. of

exposed glass surface

18 sq. ft. of

exposed glass surface

obtained

results

followingfactors

if the

Northern
Eastern

increased

correspondingconditions

Fair

frame

1.2
2.5
2.0

12-inch

or

brick

1.2

heated

in

Room

heated

only occasionally

How

to heat

is

bathroom

day time

cellar below

is necessary

present.

are

exposure

Room

"

on

of the

more

or

construction

frame

EXAMPLE.

one

1.3

western

or

frame

Cold

by

exposure

Poor

Good

further

be

must

(singlewindow).
(double window)

1.1

attic above

or

much
a

only

1.3-1.4
1.1
.

radiatingsurface,for

bathroom

the north

heating,

steam

containing 485

cu.

ft. ?

The

side of the house.

6^ sq. ft. of radiating surface


-4F8ff5ft x ft
6TV X 1.3
7tfi sq. ft.
6% + 7|ft 6TVo + 7 J|i 13}f" sq. ft. or
=

approx.

14 sq. ft.

Ans.

EXAMPLES

1.

How
for

2.

How

much

radiating surface, for

bathroom

much

requiredfor

12' X 6'

10'

on

steam
an

radiating surface, for

the bathroom

in

example

1 ?

heating,is

eastern

hot-water

exposure

quired
re-

heating,is

COST

How

3.

large
in

bathroom

windows

2'
How

much

(c)

How

much

heating
x

How

5y

(b)

How

(c)

How

example

'

should

surface

18'

room

The

used

is

for

heating

for

be

with

the

provided

single

north.

heating

water

heat

to

steam

three

the

to

hot-

for

required

10',

exposed

surface

should

is

16^'

room

radiating
gas

be

radiating

177

HOUSE

the

in

room

(a)

(a)

5.

2'

5^

(6)

example

living

heater

gas

much

in

heating,

example

How

(a)

4.

FURNISHING

OF

much

radiating

bedroom
The
much
much

(a)

19'
house

is

of

radiating
gas

should

17'

surface
11'

is
with

frame

poor
surface

be

for

for

required
single

two

steam

windows

construction.
hot-

provided

water

to

heating
heat

room

in

CHAPTER

is not

IT

also
A

only

dollar

dollar

necessary

to increase

is

while

day,

and

rests

the

higher by
lies in

success

object, such

be

people
time.

and

themselves

power

of

maintenance

in old

fortune's

The

fixed

higher
of

secret

of

portion

still,10 %
various

find

institutions

They

gone

"

; it rises

interest.

aside

friend
that

savings

; better

will

for

one's

definite

and

help people
fund

buy

to

for

use

which

agencies by
and

most

fully
success-

habits

promote

prudent

to accumulate

or

show

men

small

become

to

For

competency.

one

These

habit.

earned.

lost

systematically encouraged

promoted.
encourage

or

community

can

money

10

home

as

every

savings

instance

for

earnings,

is like

of

regularly setting

saving

friend, earning twenty-four

successful

added

the

dollars

two

dollar

foundation

on

of

regularly

faithful

earning capacity, but

your

than

spent

Histories

ladder

for

INVESTMENT

more

interest

at

put

In

AND

is much

saved

forever.

and

THRIFT

develop systematically

to

hours

VIII

wise

in

an

thrift,

the

build

or

in

of

of

use

homes

for
or

emergency

age.

Banks
Working
something
work.

for

This
and

should

people
old

of

time

deposited

is

money

for

or

age,

of

part

save

check

some

banks

of them

no

pay

book, which

require that

savings,

"

in

order

to

they

are

unable

National,

have
to

ative,
cooper-

Banks

National

sickness, when

banks

in

earnings

companies.

trust

National

their

fixed

charge

is
sum
a

interest

deposits, but
in

convenience

great
should

certain

small

on

be

amount

money.
178

left

on

each

business.

give the depositor


National

deposit, $ 100
month

for

or

taking

banks
and

more,
care

of

the

180
in

VOCATIONAL

trust

bank

$ 430

month

for all

and

he

he

so

company

pays

for

MATHEMATICS

$ 215

will receive

within

days.

few

much

of

April 1, 1910, a

which

each

succeeding quarter.

July

1.

is the

What

draws

He
At

the

checks

end

population of the
savings-bank accounts.

people have

many

of

Interest

Dividends

total amount

United
If the

savings bank

513

deposited $

interest.

The

interest ?

woman

bank

pays

check.

by

the entire

population is 92,818,726,how
deposits?
On

GIRLS

bills

$ 500.

States,including children,have

4.

his

pay

deposits over
how

Practically10 %

3.

can

FOR

in

savings

begins April 1
declared

are

of her

and

1 and

Jan.
the

depositat

at

present

date?
The
to

place

at

about
to

goes

It

The

"fo.
pay

to the needs

adapted
is

safety,earn

notice.

short

is not

interest.

at

absolute

with

bank

savings

place

modest

It pays

small

where

lends

sums

and

amount,

bank

savings

of those

may

used

be

by

large sums

be

deposited

the

depositor

its

depositor either 3" % or 4 %.


and
to provide a
surplus fund

expenses

and

mortgages

on

money

with

ceives
re-

The

ence
differ-

to

protect

depositors.
The

question

his money
the

1| "foin

risk.

When
for

return

"

asked,

mortgages

on

assume

be

may

Why

ordinary depositor lend

the

cannot
"

He

and

receive

"fo?

you

receive

% interest,you

absolute

safety

freedom

and

if he

can,

paying 1%

are

from

willing to

is

to

necessity of

the

selectingsecurities.

Mortgages
A

mortgage

Allen
to
to

Mr.

farm

Jones

and

give as surety

if he
to

owns

is the

does

cover

not

the

Under

compel
who

left

pay

wants

his farm.

on

the $

public
the

belongs to

law,

if

when

man

to Mr.

That

"

receives
owned

he

is,Mr.
such

Allen

part

He

goes

requires him

Jones

Mr.

Mr.

as

agrees

that

is necessary

Jones.

wishes

man

From

who

and

debt.

cattle for it.

buy

1000, the farm, or

due,

auction.

mortgage
the

to

him,

security for

as

money

from

1000

mortgage
back

some

debt, shall belong

present

holds

and

borrows

its payment

be sold at

pledging of property

to

cannot

the money
his

foreclose
take

the

received

full amount,

the property.

mortgage,

"

property, but
at the

and

that

sale the

anything

is,

it must
man

that

is

THRIFT

181

INVESTMENT

AND

Notes
promissory

borrowed

repay

time

and

the

specifiedtime.
of interest

rate

United

Individuals

make

to

the maker

this note.
end

to

the

indorser

of six months

is

man

for him.

clerk
then

in

just what

money

get

to 6

of

The

country.

pay

"fo

or

"fo.
the

secure,

borrower,

to indorse

friend

of property

sort

deal when
more

he

money

know

you

cannot

sign

or

and

if,at

pay

the note,

later,be

may,

asks

another

than

you

exactlywhat
If

responsibility attached.

office,
you

will often

be

to prove

name

own

of the

reading enough

insist upon

expiration

the

called

to

man

sign a

ness
busi-

it is better

need,

note

the favor.

that

sure

sign your

to

have

you

refuse

the
an

the maker
specified,
order,called a protest, and

asking a great

be

know

to

some

own

banks

from

the

has

the

and

the note.

policy to

you

loans

who

at

payable,

parts of the

Savings

good securitypay

must

written

Unless

Always

whom

due

are

different
2

promising to
received, date, the

to

the time

or

by

to repay

upon

in

about

one

borrower

value

state

Notes

of the note, often

The

he is notified

varies

on

the

face), the rate,

payment.

pay

borrowing

In order
called

has

States

should

Notes

of

place

signed by

paper

(called the

the

The

money.

borrowed

amount

is

note

are

you

called upon
that

you

signing

are

you

be

to

it.

that

sure

or

signature and

witnessed

have

that

stenographer

to witness

document

and

Always

you

know

signature means.

your

EXAMPLES

1.

is worth

house

My

2.

bank

is 5

pay

the
the

of $ 2500

mortgage

on

% payable semi-annually. How

man

mortgage
on

holds

at the

interest
3.

the bank

holds

mortgage

They charge 5 % interest,which


much
do I pay each time
paid semi-amiually. How

be

must

and

its value.

it for one-half

on

$4000

and

end

of three

years

buys property worth


% interest.
5-Jpays

mortgage

at the

interest,how

end

house.

much

is

The

terest
in-

paid

for

$ 3000.

he hold

He
will

What

of the year

long can

?
the

gives a $
be

Suppose

the

interest

he does

property ?

2000

not

182

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

KINDS

DIFFERENT

$_

to the

to pay

NOTES

PROMISSORY

OF

Ala

Montgomery,

"

date

after

GIRLS

FOR

value

for

received

^promise

of

order

.Dollars
at

fHed)amc0 National

No
A

19

Minn

St. Paul,

for value

.afterdate

to the

to pay

severallypromise

NOTE

COMMON

received

order

jointly and

we

.Dollars
at

Bank.

$fledjamc0National
Due

No.
_

NOTE

JOINT

MASS.

RIVER,

FALL

191

after date for


promise

to the order

to pay

of

THE

MECHANICS

value

NATIONAL

received
of Fall

BANK

River,

DOLLARS,

Mass.
_

at said

Bank,

part thereof

and
shall

interest
remain

having deposited with


SECURITY,

for such

unpaid

the
for

said
the

payment
direct

Bank

due,

or

to become

due,

now

or

hereafter

contracted

following property,

and

property

hereby
or

any

viz.

authorize

part thereof

the

at

or
or

time

rate

Mechanics

firm,
the

further

as

of

any

Bank,

of

cent

at

as

per

the

or

any

annum,

GENERAL

liabilities

indirect, joint or

incurred,

principal sum
per

National
of

said

LATERAL
COLto

said

or
several, individual
of
said
Bank,
option

said

Bank

without

or

its

assigns to

sell and

notice, at public or

transfer

private sale,at

said
the

option of said Bank


aforesaid, and
all the

pledge
giving
assigns
as

all

damages,
credit

shall

an

hereby agree
deposited in
residence

due

of

(which

demand
and

business) such

Said

undersigned

be

may

its

or

made

by

to

sale.
the

assigns may

or

In

of any

case

exchange

provisions hereof

said

purchase
shall

of

collateral.

or

collateral

addition

to said

apply

COLLATERAL

On

4.

Jan.
Feb.

payable on
$ 600.

How

SOLUTION.

days

are

"

Jan.

In

the

due

case

of

; from

Jan.

2 to Feb.

at

2,

2, 1915

Mar.

Feb.

2 to March

the

of

its

2 is 31

thereof

at

collateral,

for

note

Feb.

$2400,

2, he paid

less than

year,

for 30

days

for

day

1
31

+ 12.40

$ 2412.40.

600

$ 1812.40.

days

2, 28 days,
"6.0413

20

days

1.8124

days

.6041

days

or

$8.46
1812.40

due

March

2,

such

collateral.

days.

$8.4578
Amount

may

security
officers,

2, 31 days,

$ 2400

pressed
ex-

for

running

notes

2 to Feb.

$ 2412.40
Interest

or

any

On

%.

.$12.40
Feb.

holders

described

his

gave

.40

due

elsewhere

or

part

above

$ 12.00

Amount

ing
fail-

NOTE

interest

was

known

be deemed

shall

sale of

additional

or

Lewis

Mr.

27, with

much

counted

Interest

2, 1915,

to the

new

writing

Upon

any

or

in

last

themselves
immediately reimburse
by public or private
and
is
it
or
aforesaid;
hereby agreed that said Bank

agents,

deposit

additional

notice

at

additional

its

or

to

assigns, and

security,the liabilities aforesaid

additional

Bank

aforesaid, approved

Bank

addressed

the

enforcing this
aforesaid,

liabilities

payable forthwith, anything hereinbefore


the
holder
contrary notwithstanding, and

the

to

said

the

remain.

may

require

to

of

charges
of

any

that

right

on

post office

the

of

the liabilities

security for

deposit

to

and

the

satisfactory to

to deposit such

be

have

and

costs

payment

balanqe

amount

place

or

the

any

at all times

to

of any of the liabilities


assigns, on the non-payment
the proceeds of said sale or sales,after deducting

to

for

collateral

general

securities

to

apply

thereof, interest, all

expenses
and

its

or

to

183

INVESTMENT

AND

THRIFT

$ 1820.86

Ans.

exact

184

VOCATIONAL

lenders

Money

before

money

deduct

and

the

At

interest.

interest

$6.09

much

The

much

their
ice,
serv-

legalrate

the

day

in three

the

note

on

of discount

months
at

at 6

bank

maturity, $ 609,

his

gives

and

and

the

legalrate 6%,

at

at

The

6%.

and

Feb.

for

note

Aug. 1,1914, $

$ 1200,

followingpay-

140 ; Oct.

1,1914,

1, 1914, $160.

How

amounting

paper

payable

amount,
desires

to

in

$ 945.

to

three

He

months

gives
6 %

at

the

turn

discounts

receive

he

does

obtain
for this

at

remaining time,

interest

buys

therefore

He

due

at

Smith

May 1, 1915

dealer

paper

between

presents

the

months,

the note

this

interest

amount

1, 1914, $100;

for

note

he

the

with

merchant

thus

$602.91.

on

due

month

1, 1914, Mr.

Dec.

banks,

note

for $ 600

note

and

in return

due.

between

6.09

made

was

6.

of

demand

on

are

$100;

has

man

at banks

the

remains

as

comes

for two

But
of the

time

note

end

June

payable
"ments

the

$609

On

5.

the

$609

on

or

such

difference

the

returns

his

when

day

comes

GIRLS

FOR

their notes
due.

full amount

the
for

illustrate

To

note

from

full amount

discount

may

the

the

MATHEMATICS

into

note

it at the

bank

cash

for

ately.
immedi-

How
.

Stocks
It often

that

business

in

which

they
that

is needed

stock

to

or

The

value

in the

market.
and

that

the

$ 131

are

stock

share.

of

of

is

of
a

share
The

quoted
of the

New

willingto

or

stock

to make

up

company,
and

the

then

capital

the business.
of persons,

number

empowered
of

of stock

of stock

in the

able

are

in

engage

organized

is the

company

equal parts

business

transact

to

under

amount

into which

the

a
as

named

capital

(generally$ 100).

share

market

to

they choose,

as

shares

more

of the

one

alone

shares

many

capital stock

share

they

desire

men

by organizing

enough

for

is divided

value

market

day,

The

company

par

than

as

of

group

by specialcharter, and

in its charter.
of

pay

consists

singleindividual.

stock

for

money

buy

authorized

or

company

law

general

more

themselves

others

or

money

obtain

They

they

induce

man

one

requires more

it.

in

invest

that

happens

is the

values

daily
York

is its

originalor

price for

of

leading

papers;

Central

which

face

the

stocks

value

share

vary

; the

will sell

from

day

131"

means

e.g.

"N.

Y.

C.,

R.

Co.

is

sellingto-day

R.

to

at

Dividends

consists

are

paid

at

of

fixed

kinds

CERTIFICATE

Stocks
for

the

certain
called
broker

of

owners

per

of the

cent

brokerage.
sells 10

stock.

the

The

shares

on

par
usual

sold

Brokers

value

dividends
of

the

profitsthere
the

maining
reare

preferred stock.

BANK

by brokers, who
receive

of the

stock

their

as

bought

act

as

agents

compensation
or

sold.

This

is

| % of the par value ; e.g. if a


his brokerage is | "/oof $ 1000, or

is

brokerage

of stock

preferred

STOCK

OF

and

generallybought

are

consists

whatever

NATIONAL

CAZENDV1A

which

on

stock, which

requireddividends

the

among

own.

stock, namely

of

apportioned

are

of the

they

of shares

number

common

which

divided

company

of stock

two

certain

after payment

remaining

issue

rate, and

shares, among

stock

the amount

to

often

companies

stock, which

profitsof

net

according

stockholders

Stock

the

are

185

INVESTMENT

AND

THRIFT

for me,

$1.25.
EXAMPLE.

$ 30^

is the cost of 20 shares

What

"

$ \i
X

20

$ 30|, cost of

1 share.

$600

i of 1 % of $ 100

$ 12"

"612.50,

1 of $1, broker's

of No.

Butte

total cost.

charge

per

share.

301 ?

186

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

GIRLS

FOR

EXAMPLES

The

1.

quoted
value

certain

stock

87|-..What

at

between

share

per

of

market

the

on

price

value

par

the

is

$ 100.

is the

market

is

It

difference

value

and

in

the

par

2.

What

3.

What

at 680

is the
is the

of

cost

50

shares

if I sell at 661
I

5.

shares

of

shares

53

at 53 ?

Copper Range
of

Calumet

and

Hecla

?
I have

4.

of 40

cost

buy

dividend

Anaconda.

much

How

shall

ceive
re-

60 shares

of

of

of Anaconda

$ 1.50.

What

It pays

quarterly
receiving on my

66J.

at

interest

am

and

town

money

Bonds
Corporations
need

to

When

years,
The

borrow

and

national, state, county,

corporation

order

wishes

it usually mortgages

sold to investors.

to

is divided
interest

corporation, while

are
are

bonds

the

of money

sum

bank

or

person

is at

bonds
of stock

called

trustee.

and

fixed rate

represent

of the

debts

the

these
and

is

property

corporation ;

corporation,while

of the

for several

parts called bonds,

into

represent

of the property

owners

Shares

generally payable semi-annually.


of

on

large

its property to

The

extraordinary expenditures.

meet

borrow

to

of the mortgage

amount

are

in

money

often

governments

holders
stock-

bondholders

its creditors.
Bonds

of

like

large corporations

railroads, street

steam

plants, whose

property

of the

of
ability

bonds

are

the

amount

in stock.

of

widow

must

the managers,

safer than
of the

For

whose

be

stocks, as

condition
who

capital,it is

and

railways,
employed

for

the

interest

electric

public

usually good

are

fairlystable

earnings are

on

and
and

power

gas

regardless

necessities

Well-secured

investments.
the bonds

lar,
regu-

must

be

gardless
paid re-

of the business.
is

obliged

better

to

to live on

invest

the

in bonds

income
and

farm

from

moderate

mortgages

than

188

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

GIRLS

FOR

EXAMPLES

1.

put $ 200 in the Postal

man

interest.

for

income

paid 3| %
A

What

would
if he

year

have

had

Savings Bank
been

taken

the

it to

widow

had

savings bank

his
that

in her

Two

income

for the two

left $

were

sons

placed it

15,000

paying 5^ %. The
WThat
was
averaged 41 %

class bonds
and

in

difference
3.

received

difference

principalof $ 18,000. She


of savings banks
that paid 3f %,. The
group
purchased farm mortgages and secured 51 %.
2.

and

each.

One

placed

the

year

What

was

she
the

years

other

next

in

placed it in
it in

difference

first-

savings banks
in income

per

year?
Fire

furniture,books, apparel.,etc., can

Household

it will make
the

make

it will not

While

family

him

will not

established,is
Insurance

year

be

left without

the

One

apply

"

at 28

cents

policy

a
a

at

of

rate.

from

that if fire should

thought

means

low

protecting his home

fire,
come,

clothing themselves

first duties

of the

issue

saving

then,

after

the

and

home

is

than

more

of about

worth

house
per

policy for 1, 3,

for

20

one

in

5 years.

or

year,

for

premiums.

There
the

on

Rules

is
3-

or

an

5-

of percentage

in insurance.

problems

to

EXAMPLE.

is

be insured

insurance.

to secure

buying

in

in the

house.

there

less careful

man

comfortable

companies
in

policy

value

more

refurnishing the

advantage

Insurance

$ 8400
WThat

$ 100.

is insured

is the

cost

of

for

its full

premium

SOLUTION.

$ 8400

is the value

28 cents
The
84

is the rate

premium
x

$0.28

or

of the
of

policy or

premium

interest

or

base.
rate.

is the amount

to be

found.

$23.52, premium.
EXAMPLES

1.

$ 3800

Find
at

the

insurance

$ 2.80 per $ 1000

of the house.

upon
if the

dwelling house valued at


policyis on 80 % of the value
a

THRIFT

What

"fc

takes

Jones

Mr.

2.

is the

of the

cost

The

valued

If

4.

furniture

in

$ 1000.

at

the rate

the

premium

in

in per

cent

for 5 years

the

on

industrious

and

age

sufficient amount

for the

This

is

corporation
policy

amount

insurance

policy, and

the

the

fund,

the

premiums
know

whole

period,

at

three

years.

upon,

per

to

say
cent

us

company.

is

amount

be made

the

is

the

by

member,

is called

death,

life

payable

is

member

to

the premium,

and

three

shall
per

to

for

cent.

compound

the

compute

of conducting
the

of

amount

long
of

amount

the

that the face of the


illustration,
live

justtwenty

without

rate

of interest

date
can

assume

one

will

amount

Let

years.

and

expense,

yearly payment

interest

it

large

certaintyjust how

interest from

kind,

of the insured.

at

therefore

is the

be

must

expense

sufficient to pay

could

is conducted

invested

which

premium,

known

were

simplest
of this

contract

policyholder will

business

we

into

the death

by

the

policies:

fund

suppose,

that the

certainty what

and

the

the necessary

live,anyone

Let

all to be

are

by

state, and

with

company

to

the

to meet

If it

"

would

the

do not

depend

of

to accumulate

premium.
that

the

policy,is termed

entering

amount

Premium.

$ 1000, and

from

of his

insurance

the latter matures

the

assume

of

the company

policy holder

policy is
us

fix the

and

insurance

an

provide

usually done

or
quarterly installments.
yearly,half-yearly,

Before

Making

necessary

contribution

policy.
to

the

whom

to

person

life

policy when

the

event

kinds

business

the

in the

different

to enable

enough

by

The

is

amount

to

officer.

is made

paid

certain

of death

This

charter

which

are

is necessary

obtain

to

stipulatedin the

as

in

usually payable

ordinary

case

corporation called

state

the

in

family.

proper

be

to

beneficiary.

common

There

aside

lays

person

of the

support

contract

or

fixing the
termed

two-family
rate, expressed

is the

necessities,or

from

obliged

regularly inspected by
The

in

Insurance

thrifty

future

or

life insurance

out

furniture

same

regularlyfor old
taking

at

Life
Every

is

city is $ 7.50,what

different

at

three-familyhouse
paid, if it is insured

is

premium

his automobile

on

of

tenement

one

What

of 1

house

is

premium

3.

insurance

$ 800

out

189

INVESTMENT

AND

that

of payment.

be earned
that

we

We

during
can

the

the

safely

of .$36.13 invested
to

$ 1000

in twenty

190

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

FOR

GIRLS

"213649

No.

$5000

gto* fjmrtfe # tar ptutttal gif* Iwstxmtxtje


Cfompaug
Consideration

In

is attached

made

and

hereto

application for

of the
a

this

Policy, a

in further

part hereof, and

of which

copy

consideration

of

of

the payment

ffiunflrrti
ffln'rtg^cight^

2^_

Dollars,

100

receipt whereof

the

of

like

jn every

Company,

before

or

on

payment

the

of this

Policy, promises

unto
_

2.

Beneficiar
_,

of

gofrn Boe"

jffloines

"cs

_the

jn t]ie state

of

day

__

Wisconsin,

Milwaukee,

"ttttuat

of the

during the continuance

year

at its office in

pay

hereby acknowledged, and

said

to the

sum

Januarg
to

is

insured, Of

of.

to flange the 33cncficiarg


of the gnstircfr,
rcscrbcfr,
frcrcfag
subjectto the rigfrt
or

iScncficiaricsthe

receipt and

upon

^tbj ^Ti)ousanU"

of_

sum

approval of proof of the death

Policy is in full force, the balance


indebtedness

other

on

such

Insured, then
or

of this

account

provided, however,
payment

of the

that

if

^Dollars,

of said Insured

while

if any,

year's premium,

Policy being first deducted


Beneficiary shall survive

no

shall be

and

made

to

this
any

from
there-

the

said

tors
executors, administra-

the

assigns of the said Insured.

In Witness

COMPANY,

at

Secretary,
thousand
S. A.

Whereof,

its office in

executed

nine

THE

Hawkins,

Milwaukee,

this contract,

hundred

STAR

NORTH

and

Wisconsin,
FirKt

this

LIFE
has

day

by
of

INSURANCE

its President

January

sixteen.
"

L. H.

Secretary.
ORDINARY

MUTUAL

LIFE

INSURANCE

Perkins, President.

POLICY

and

Qne

If it

his

that

and

certain

were

could

provided for

be

failure to
To
to the

these

Let

will make

the

The
for the

creation

policy in full
premium
and

of

fund

per cent

loading combined

be

paid each

make

Mortality Tables.
a

the

law

lifetime

predict in

cannot

determine

with

almost
life

us

for

suppose,

number

forty, and

the

deaths
and

the

number

many

of

of deaths

this

how

net

to

various
one

of

determine

may

We

of

it

may

given number
becomes
possibleto
a

the

ages,

of
several

Of

results

at the

The

variation

mortuary

number

same

would

not

observation, the
the

several

records

practicallythe

are

the

age

of

of life reached

limit

"

will find

these,you

conditions

lives under

by

just twenty years.


cover
a
period of time

years.

same

ages

any

extreme

hundred

The

at

largernumber

thirty,a

100,000 born.

the

life,there

given age.
will die,but we

out

to be

history of 100,000 lives.

number

we

of

charged

100,000. livingwhere

at

which

many

illustration

individual

of this law

assumed

was

at the age

in

age

larger the

to
In

the

premium

net

the

in

as

of persons

be

give approximately the

each

at

to

the total amount

or

any

example, that observations

the

at

on

groups

would

same,

the

pay

given age with


the length of
the example given, in which

in

as

by

race

means

should

being in the neighborhood of


of other

added

particularindividual

By

that

the

dying

so

length of

the

accuracy

to the individual

sufficient to include
certain

year

exactness

remaining

Let

what

premium

much

as

to

company

amount

premium,

large number

specifiedage.

the

compute

of

approximate

will die at any

the

impossible,

mortality of the

the

governing

average

it is

Although

"

predict in advance

to

thereto

by the insured.

year

given above,

of

sum

mathematically necessary

is

enable

the gross

up

the

added

amount

contingencies. The

and

$43.13, the originalpayment

loading is the

The

provide for expenses

to

which

amount

or

added

be

sufficient for this purpose

as

sufficient to

maturity.

at

funds,

of invested
interest.

yearly premium

gross

is the

premium

net

premium

contingencies something should

estimate

that

contingencies that should

($36.13) being the net premium, while the


the loading.
etc. ($7.00),is termed
expenses,

for

is

of three

years,

interest,and

the necessary

loss

just twenty

cent

per

other

example,

and

us

live

expense,

certain

are

for

as,

expenses

premium.
This

$7.

; such

without

the full amount

earn

meet

there

But

just three

earn

conducted

be

be $36.13.

would

would

premiums

business

the

policyholderwould

the

that

191

INVESTMENT

AND

THRIFT

be

great,

nearer

records

of

would

the
proach
ap-

uniformity.
manner

in any

mortality tables have

large number
thirty,how

will live to age

of

persons

many

to

been

born,

constructed

which

starting at
age forty, how
many
or

show
certain

to

any

how
age,
other

192

VOCATIONAL

age, and

likewise

lifetime

number

the

remaining

and

kind

of Policies.

Kinds

and

"

affords the

that

that

matures

at

experience,

better

policy also has

when

is uncertain

insurance
the

of

desire

be

to

relativelylarge and

pays

who

age

it and

certain

his insurance.
has

neglected

This
to

for it before

pay

is

annuity

designated

The

person.

dies,it is termed
or

company
to it of
a

so

draw

annuitant
the

long as

say

the young

attract

does

after middle

man

wish

not

life.

the

of

Out

but

who

wishes

to

buy

actually old.

Annuity
of money

be

to

the

paid yearly to some


is to be paid is termed

money
every

For

" 1000, will


sum,

annuitant

life,appeals

early productive years he


of middle
appeals to the man

is to be made

stated

comes
be-

only within

tant
until the annui-

year

example,

in consideration
institution,

specifiedamount,

designated

year

financial

other

him

life annuity.

long
This

of his

to whom

If the payment

the annuitant.

of

this sometimes

twenty-payment

purchase life insurance

one

saving, and

result

for life insurance

policy also

specificsum

insurance, but
for

given period, or who

who

persons

save.

the

income

The
An

to

upon

be becomes

as

other, and

policy should

burden

has,

out.

However, the chief advantage

to pay

after

of

amount

profitable investments.

any

as

This

income

an

premiums

for

make

policy, such

form

incentive

individual

person.

productive period of their life.


who

average

companies from

for
essentially

an

policy is its incentive

directlyto those who

most

woman

the

the young

payment

the

policyis taken

expensive

an

larger loan value than

of the endowment
limited

or

opportunities to

advantage to

an

time

man

the
is

policy

It is

save.

young

age, with

insurance

at which

age

endowment

to

The

GIRLS

premiums, varying according to the

the

An

force themselves

must

still alive.

tables of

of insurance

FOR

that will die at each

those

to

tables construct

these

one

MATHEMATICS

into

enter

$ 70, on

say

continues

to

of the

payment

contract

to pay

specifiedday

in every

The

live.

life insurance

latter may

live to

in aggregate
annuity for many
years, until he has received
several times the originalamount
paid by him, or he may die after having
collected but a singlepayment.
In either case, the contract
expires and
the

his

annuity terminates
The

with
sum

of the

amount

with

the

death

yearly income

$ 1000 will depend, of course,


will

buy

for
fifty-six,
shorter

time

larger income

the

yet

reason

to

live.

that
The

of the annuitant.

net

the age

upon

for the
the

annuity which

or

cost

has,
of

an

purchased

be

of the annuitant.

of seventy

man

former

can

on

the

than

for

average,

annuity,

that

That
of

one
a

much

is, the

net

AND

THRIFT

to be

amount

annuity, is

not

and

sum,

of

is

process

which

quite

is termed

based

computation,
simple

as

the

as

the

value

of the
premium,

life insurance

like the

estimate, but,

mathematical

by

The

one

matter

is determined
table.

in

paid

193

INVESTMENT

the

upon

mortality

of the

computation

single

premium.
who
insure
Many men
the beneficiary,instead

death

the

of the

equal
the

to the

of

is

of

policy under

of

annuity paid

that could

be

bought

for

of the

for

annuity

an

amount

The

amount

paid

form

the full amount

receiving

insured,

life.

throughout

their lives choose

in such

of

at
or

years
is

cases

equal

sum

insurance

period

which

to the

exactly
value

of

it falls due.

policy when

EXAMPLES

1.

26

at

man

young

of

years

policyof $ 1000, for which he pays


he lives,
receives
and
his estate
$
dies at 46

he has

than

more

Another

2.

he

of

Another

by

out

another

$ 41.94

pays

$ 1000
in ?

of

form

same

from

the

Where

At

year.

the end

of

then

takes

for

between

How

much

twenty-

out

twenty years.
he paid in ?

has
of

the

twenty

endowment,

an

How

much

these

two

At
Does

he

years

is taken

of age.

twenty years

company.

is the difference

paid in

age

If he

death.

twenty-six years

at

insurance

straightlife
year as long as
a

his

receive

insurance,called
man

young

at

he

policy and pays $ 24.85


the twenty years, how
much
anything in return at the end

receive
3.

has

the

at

man

1000

his estate

does

paid

young

much

out

$ 17.03

life

payment
the end

of age, how

years

takes

age

He

receives

has he

paid
?

amounts

Exchange
Exchange
the

risk

from

and

money

An

and

in

payment

money

the

at

itself.

country

same

distant

Funds
in

may
six

be

without

remitted

different

order,telegraphicmoney

money

place

ways

order,

bank

sight draft.

It is drawn

made

making

sending

another

for

largestamount

$ 100.

duly

to

of

order, express

draft,check,
The

of

expense

place

one

Postal

is the process

up

by

which
the

one

can

postmaster

obtain
after

a
an

postal money

order

application has

is

been

out.

express

money

order

is similar

to

postal money

order, but

may

be

194

for any

drawn

of dollars

number

is issued

This

at

order

office,instructingthe

any

in

addition

the

and

to distance

bank

to pay

like

is

order

an

at

by

other

some

of

cost

written

of money

is

the creditor

The

traveler

telegraph agent

office to

The

rates

the

sending

the

pay

person

high,

are

at

and

in

telegram according

by

to

third

bank

one

directinganother

party.

This

order

named

and

bank

looks

much

the

most

common

person

is a system for

credit

foreign countries
to the amount

is

to

of

sum

signs

to pay

the

to

circular

travel

countries

deduct

the

check.
bank

the

named

sum

may

pay

for

ordinary

an

by

banking

house

letter directs certain

The

the traveler

country.

their debts.

cheques.

letter issued

abroad.

another

to

foreign exchange

travelers'

or

furnish

to

such

sums

he

as

may

to

banks

in

require up

in the letter.

named

For

Money

Domestic

payable

who

transmittingmoney

of different

Fees

When

the

pay

debtor

methods

desires

who

to

the person
on

letters of credit

letter of

bank

signs the draft.


people

means

are

order

an

who

Foreign exchange
this

on

deposit of

the

sight draft

in

Bahamas,

Orders

Bates
British

Bermuda,

Guiana,

British

duras,
Hon-

Canal

Canada,

Zone, Cuba, Martinique, Mexico, Newfoundland,


United
States Postal Agency
at Shanghai
Philippine Islands, The

(China), and
money

drawn

specified.

sum

order

an

order

an

from

amount

The

the post office order.

as

of words.

specifiedsum

check

By

rate

same

GIRLS

check.

is

is

the actual

pay

number

draft

the

at

agent

the

message
must

one

FOR

offices.

express

telegraphic money

named

by

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

order
For

islands

certain

in the

West

Indies, listed

in the

registerof

offices.
Orders

from

$00.01

to

$2.50

Scents

From

$ 2.51

to

$ 5

5 cents

From

$ 5.01

to

$ 10

8 cents

From

$ 10.01

to

$ 20

10 cents

From

20.01

to

$ 30

12 cents

From

$ 30.01

to

40

15 cents

From

$ 40.01 to

$ 50

18 cents
20 cents

From

$ 50.01

to

$ 60

From

$ 60.01

to

$75

From

$ 75.01

to

$ 100

25 cents

30 cents

196

VOCATIONAL

needs

for

way

1000. miles

lives

3.

much

4.

$ 4.865

1 ?

"

the bank

brother

who

draft
for

of

$ 3480

exchange.

for
How

country

Christmas

her

most

in this

domestic
for

from

buys a bank
charges J of 1 %

bank

he pay

pounds

$ 275

quickest and

in Boston

The

must

is the

obtain

to

distant

merchant

Chicago.

her

GIRLS

FOR

What

immediately.

money

economical

MATHEMATICS

to her

sends

What

present.

commission

of

mother
will

of 1

in Ireland

it cost

her, if

"/0is charged.

Claims
If

accident

for

or

injured

the

The

employ,

and

once,

it is

agent tries
from

be

to

offers to pay
take
has

accident.

which

you

who

shaken

you

are

nothing

not
are

Now

did not

is necessary.

to, you

you

are

to go

You

think

sign

must

it may

you

at all in

also

asked

Do

not

time,
the

an

to

sign such

gain nothing by

internallyinjured.

and

paper
a

it,and

For

paper.

may

way

to

and

agent and
take

the

settle the

name

at

case

notoriety

relieves

to

the Company
collision

agent perhaps
get $ 25, so

you

states

that

the company

may

have

against it for

you

have

an

internal

injury

an

operation costing $

to

pay

whom

lose much

the

bill ?

the claim

relieving the
The

seriouslyhurt, the

claim

The

that you

that

claim

instance, in

easy

company

accident

sign

and

which

which

later that

prove

compel

hurt

paper

an

not

are

injured.

claim

claim

to

If

amount.

the newspaper

paper

after.

for any

you

that is

try

and

If you

not

up,

and

panies
large com-

to the decision

according

possible. They

court

sign

all

in your

railroad,a

a
as

to

to

you

realize at the

Can

responsibility.
you

soon

win

or

the

occurs,

certain

put

may

the accident

the company.

persuade

$ 25.

you

you

on

as

in

expensive

settled in full with

that

scene

person

only

in turn

it,but

occurs

for

of passengers

accident
whom

an

cial
finan-

to repair the

an

agent,

you

lose

may

responsibilityforever

any

seem

you

to

you

wreck

injuresthe reputation of
claim

claim

this amount,

to the

of each

because

by

When

he offers to settle with

brought

address

elements.

interviewed

When

jury.

it is bound

responsiblefor the carelessness

the

court, where

to

goes

are

of

satisfied with

not

case

doctor

action
are

of the

and

company

the

persons

are

is not

railway is injured by

steam

or

is the fault of the company,

which

loss.

you

travelingby boat, electric

person

company

People

agent offers

company
cannot

if it proves

500

from

all

compel
later

that

THRIFT

AND

197

INVESTMENT

EXAMPLES

1.

woman

another.

She

$24.50,

for

2.

man

The
bills
of

for

Did

$50.

for

in

working

weeks

3.

She

for

at

three

Would

was

week.

saleslady
out

Her
much

at

of

it

work

she

in

to

time

of

the

same

injury

and

better

medical

and
he

later

year

dent.
acci-

elevator

an

wages

been

hire

week.

have

to

did
for

was

not

him

out

receive
to

have

beginning?

tripped

medical
did

the

the

with

amounted

the

at

his

paid

obliged

bills

injured

was

per
for

gain

collided

was

settled

or

mill

$13.50

weeks

$100

lose

and

Doctor's

She

company

compensation.

settled

she

that

car

glass

$8.

at

$8.75.

etc.,

electric

an

flying

weeks

insurance

work

any

How

four

medicine,

accident

with

cut

was

for

servant

in

riding

was

on

for

two

supplies
gain

staircase
weeks
cost

and
and

$9.75.

her

sprained
days

two

She

at

settled

ankle.

$8.75

per

for

$45.

PART

III

DRESSMAKING

"

AND

CHAPTER

IX

IN

PROBLEMS

DRESSMAKING

and

used
yardstickis much
The
fabrics.
yardstick is

and

eighths.

THE

of
dollars

inches

and

the

fractional

equivalentsof

in cents.

It is wise
cost

in

for

measuring cloth,carpets,
divided
into halves,quarters,
should
know
the fractional equivalents

Dressmakers

yards

MILLINERY

per

to

yard

to the

buy

is

so

small

eighth of

nearest

that

an

eighth would

yard
cost

unless
as

the

much

as

quarter.
EXAMPLES

Give

1.

the

equivalentin

(a) 1 yd.
(b) 21 yd.
(c) 11 yd.

needed

piece of
piece of

needed

are

4.

dollar

Give

cloth

lawn

is 12

yd. long. How


requiring11 yd. each ?
cloth

for 20 aprons
the

(fc)1 yd.
(/)1 yd.
(m) TV yd.
(n) A yd.
00 A yd.

CO * yd.

for 16 aprons
A

3.

following:

(/) 4f yd.
(g) 61 yd.
(ft)li yd.
(0 1} yd.

(d) 21 yd.
00 3f yd.
2.

of the

inches

value

is 28

many

yd. long. How


requiring 1| yd. each ?

in cents

of the

piecesare

many

following fractions

(") if
P) i
W i
W ii

00 it
(n i
to) I
W T76

-CO A
oo t
(*) A
(0 A
198

pieces

"
A
" A
("0 i
00 t

of

ARITHMETIC

5.

If 16"

6.

If

what

of

much

how

8.

1| yd. of cloth,how

from

yard of lawn
yard is left ?

was

towel

used

is 33

inches

the

(a) Find
(b) Find

length

long

Find

the number

of inches

(d) Find
(e) Find
(/) Find

the number

of

cost

per

the cost

for

If it took

9.

for two

classes

72
of

dress.

and

and

yards used

much

If

used

long,

If yd. remained,

dishcloth
for each

by a
by a

13 inches.

hem.)

class of 24.
class of 24.

yard.

per

yard.

class of 24 at 6 cts. per

yards of material
find
24 (48 in all),

in.

for both.

yards used
pupil at 6 cts.

remains

piece 40

(Allow |"

of

the

of both.

the number

(c)

from

is cut

silk for

bought 9f yd. of

7.

of

part

is cut

199

DRESSMAKERS

FOR

for

dishcloth

the amount

and

used

towel

by

each

pupil.
If

10.

material

45f yards of

the amount

used

each

by

were

used

for

class of

42, find

pupil.

(a) Reduce 75 inches to yards, (b) Find the number


in 3^-yards, (c)From
2J yards cut 40 inches.

11.

inches

of

Tucks
A

tuck

for

the

garments
oration.
its

for

up

2"

the

of

purpose
or

in

fold

tuck

takes

that

cloth

shortening

trimming

depth ;

own

takes

is

or

up

is,a

dec~
twice
tuck

of cloth.
EXAMPLES

1.

goods

Before
was

tucking, a
I- yd. long

piece

after

of

tuckMEASURING

ing,
many

it

was

tucks

| yd. long.
were

made

How

FOR

FoLD

T0

TUCKS
FOLD

FROM

200

VOCATIONAL

much

How

2.

first group

returned

to

yr

muslin

29

the teacher

was

Before

4.

in 3

12

inches

How

% yd. long.

was

group

tucked

was

inches

tucking, a piece of goods

tucking,it

second

tucks, the
one-

one-eighth-inchtucks

wide

only 14

of

groups

tucks,the

group

GIRLS

and

wide.

when

How

many

in it ?

made

were

FOR

up

one-inch

the third

tucks,and

piece of

tucks

is taken

lawn

containing 6

half-inch
3.

MATHEMATICS

f yd. long ;

was

tucks

many

after

made

cloth

is

were

Hem
A

hem

on

turned

edge

an

border

piece of

to

over

finish.

form

making a
hem
an
edge must
always be
turned
to prevent fraying; except
for very
heavy or very
cloth this is usually
loosely woven
or

For

y.
HEM

TURNED

have

would

In

inch

an

hem

you

1-".

to allow

EXAMPLES

1.

I wish

long.

How

and

31"

2.

hem,
3.

cloth

and

five

take
5.

At

At

it take

1"

tucks.
hem

of

hem

the rate

of

to hem

skirt

be

ruffle is 10"

to hem

the rate

girlto

for

girl can

take

the

must

skirt- which

cut

to allow

in

is to be 40"
for

the tucks

My
If.

put three V' tucks

long

hem

will she
4.

to

How
21

deep.

long
inches

It is to

will it be when
in

five

have

finished

1^"
?

how

long

long

will it

minutes,

yards ?

f of an
yards ?
51 inches

3^ yards ?

inch
10

per

minute,

how

yards ?

per

ten

minutes, how

long

will

ARITHMETIC

6.

hour

an

How

8.

At

long

hem

will she

6 cents

inches

in

per

hour, how

will

long

inches

5|

to hem

take

90

inches

can

she

much

by hemming

earn

How

9.

much

How

7.

190

in five minutes.

3 inches

hem

girl can

201

DRESSMAKERS

FOR

it take

in ten

hem

girl to

minutes

if she

2J yards

can

Ruffle
A

ruffle is

edge

used

and

of

according
to

be

ruffle

at

is

strip of

for the
material
the

to

the

Once

half.

enough
a

allow

to

corset

and

of

cover

desirable.

one

Different

portions
pro-

it

and

once

is

quarter

on

ordinary
a
skirt,

drawers, apron, etc.,allow


a

folds

narrow

decoration.

or

which

the

bottom

in

allowed

to

use

gathered

trimming
are

For

put.

cloth

for

RUFFLE

for

trimming
for other places where
or
only a scant
plaitingrequiresthree times the amount.

ruffle is

EXAMPLES

1.
a

much

How

petticoatwhich

the width
2.

plaitedfor
the wrist
3.

upper
would

for fullness

much

lace

sleeve

finish,if

2^

allowing three

"

buy to
yd. around, if
you

inches
the

ruffle for

and

once

half

wide

sleeve

times

make

would
measures

the amount

you

buy

to

8 inches
for

have

around

plaiting?

skirt

ruffles of
skirt

measures

is necessary

How

would

hamburg

for

is to have
5-inch
two
measuring 3J yd. around
organdie flouncing. Allowing twice the width of
lower
and
three quarters for the
ruffle,and once

one,

be the

how
cost

much
at

flouncing
$

would

.87-J
per yard

for

you

buy,

organdie?

and

what

202
4.

VOCATIONAL

How

finished,if
i"

tucks
5.

deep

must

there

is to be

above

How

deep,if

MATHEMATICS

the hem

deep
a

2"

hem

is

How

cut

"

from

and

when

deep

bottom

and

stripof

above

it three

widths

many

from

ruffle is

6"

cut

NOTE.

the

6"

three

lawn

16"

\" tucks

yards of cloth 36" wide


for 3i yd. of ruffling
which
is
6" deep?

How

7.

tucks

on

be

many

needed

to be

J"

to

be made

can

the bottom

on

are

five

cut

1-J"hem

6.

and

be

ruffle

ruffle

GIRLS

FOR

for

yd. of lawn
finished,and

can
ruffling

36"

wide,

has

be

if the

J"

hem

Allowance

made

be

must

for

ruffle to

joining a

ally
skirt,usu-

y".
8.

How

deep

finished,if
five
9.

21

i"

yd.

there

around

the

What

of drawers

is the

of

of

What

of drawers

COST

needed

OF

and

hamburg
each

Hamburg
Insertion

at

is the

of

cost

the

for

petticoat

MATERIALS

insertion

for

one

pair

15

insertion for

one

pair

leg.
a yard.

cents
cents

yard.

and

hamburg

Hamburg
Insertion

What

on

deep when
bottom, and

5"

at 16

36 in. around

3.

be

?
32 in. around

2.

hem

rufflingare

FINDING

cost

to

bottom

IN

cut

11"

the hem

EXAMPLES

1.

be

to

yards

many

ruffle be

is

above

tucks

How

must

at
at

is the cost of
5

yd.

each

leg.

18^ cents
16| cents

hamburg

yard.

a
a

yard.

and

insertion

around.

Hamburg
Insertion

at 25

cents

at 15 cents

a
a

yard.
yard.

for

?
petticoat

204

13.

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

What

of the

is the cost
7

yd. silk

cover

What

is the

at 79 cents

cover

What

is the

of the

cost

cents

corset

for

corset

for

corset

yard.

cents

yard.

dozen.

followingmaterial

What

is the

at 15 cents

yard.

yard.

yard.

following material

of the

cost

dozen.

1| yd. longcloth at 14$ cents


If yd. hamburg at 17$ cents
17.

for

4 buttons

cover

What

is the cost

yard.

yard.

followingmaterial

of the

for

silk at

83$ cents a yard.


1$ yd. liningat 37$ cents a yard.

7$ yd.

18.

Find

the cost of
1

corset

yd. cambric

f yd.

bias

Find

doz. buttons

the cost

of

at

an

at

10

that

cover

12$

binding

If yd. lace at
\ spool thread
19.

skirt ?

14 yd. longcloth at 16| cents


2f yd. hamburg at 25| cents
2f yd. insertion at 191 cents

16.

yard.

following material

1$ yd. longclothat 15
2" yd. hamburg at 8^
4 buttons
at 12| cents
15.

for

yard.

cents

of the

cost

GIRLS

followingmaterial

1-|yd. lining at 35

14.

FOR

cents

at 2 cents

12

cents

cents

yard,
a

yard,

dozen.

yard.

at 5 cents

apron

requires

that

spool.

requires

yd. lawn at 12$ cents a yard.


2^ yd. lace at 10 cents a yard.
\ spool thread at 5 cents a spool.
1

skirt ?

ARITHMETIC

Find

20.

FOR

the cost

of

3| yd.

Find

nightgown containing

cambric

12|

at

yd.

lace at 5 cents

yd.

ribbon

\ spool
21.

thread

What

22.

is the cost

of

2f yd. shirting,32

inches

Sewing cotton, buttons,


What

23.

$ 1.49

at

is the

if each

is

much

skirt

How

finished

is needed

will

wide,

width

aprons

of the apron

wide

eightaprons

the

the

wide

for

needed

around

if
ruffling

are

bottom.

material

is

How

yard

one

cambric

ruffle that

when

121", includingthe hamburg edge

which

you

clusters of

the cost of

Silk

poplin, 40

inches

cut

5 tucks

deep, and
-J-"

allowing

Find

Coat

for

would

measure

28.

$1.25

For

2| yards

measures

deep

making

Satin

apron

4", two

measures

cents.

for 1 dozen

inches

lawn-36

ruffle is to be cut 7 inches

and

27.

for

one

material

wide

yard.

36
1\ yd. chiffon faille,

piecesof

many

the ruffle for


26.

pattern, 25

for fullness ?
How

25.

following?

at 23 cents

needed
are
yards of ruffling
one
yard wide and half the

many

apron

is added

of the

yard ?

How

24.

of

cost

made

wide,
and

yard.

spool.

dozen.

waist

yard.

5 cents

at

at 5 cents

at 10 cents

2 buttons

spool.

containing

finishingbraid

1^ yd.
\ spool thread

yard.

12| cents

at

yard.

yard.

5 cents

at

cambric

yd.

cents

3 cents

at

the cost of drawers


2

205

DRESSMAKERS

facing

inches

for

wide

poplinsuit
:

5| yards,

collar,revers,

and

made
at

of the

$ 1.79

cuffs,21

following:

yard.

inches

wide

yard.
lining,36

inches

wide

Buttons, braid, sewing

2f yards,

silk,two

at

$ 1.50

patterns, $ .64.

yard.

yard, at

206

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

Cloths
There

in

are

cloths

use

cloth

several

different widths

important to

know

which

is

buy. This may be calculated by


To illustrate :
finding the cost per square yard, 36" by 36".
56"
which
is less expensive,broadcloth
wide, at $2.25 per
yard, or 50" wide, at $1.75 per yard ?
the

economical

Widths
of

It is often

prices.

at various

and

of Different

common

GIRLS

FOR

most

36

56

3^

2.25

36

to

1.75

$ 1.44"

per

square

$ 1.26 per square

yard.

yard.

EXAMPLES

Find

the cost

yard

square

per

and

the relative

purchasing :
(a) Prunella,46" wide,
Prunella, 44"

(6) Serge,

54"

wide,

wide,

Poplin, 42"

$ 1.50

at

$ 1.35

$ 1.25

at

wide,

at

(c) Serge, 42" wide, at


Serge,37" wide, at

yard.

yard.

$ 1.00

at

yard.

yard.

49 cents

39 cents

yard.
yard.

("Z)Shepherd check,
Shepherd check,

54"

wide,

at

$ 1.75

52"

wide,

at

$ 1.50

Shepherd check,

42"

wide,

at

$ 1.00

(e) Taffeta, 19" wide,


Taffeta,36"

(/) Cashmere,
Nuns

wide,
42"

at 89 cents
at $ 1.25

wide,

yard.
yard.

$ 1.00

at

veiling44" wide,

yard.
yard.
yard.

yard.

at 75 cents

yard.

($r)Cheviot, 57" wide, at $1.50 a yard.


Diagonal, 54" wide, at $2.00 a yard.
26

"

wide,

at 59

Messaline, 36

"

wide,

at

(A) Messaline,

cents

$ 1.25

yard.
yard.
a

economy

in

ARITHMETIC

PROBLEMS

ILLUSTRATIVE

EXAMPLE.

"

for 20

material

the

than

more

dressmaker

discount

material, receiving 6 %

of

DISCOUNT

TRADE

IN

207

DRESSMAKERS

FOR

for

bought

She

sold

the

What

was

the

cash.

originalprice.

$ 125 worth

gain?
SOLUTION.

$ 125.00

"

originalprice

$125.00

.06

7.50

7.50
discount

$ 117.50

5[$125 originalcost
20 %

$25

$ 150.00

sellingprice

117.50

gain

$ 150 sellingprice

price paid for material.

price paid

$32. 50

Am.

gain.

EXAMPLES

1.

dressmaker

bought

yd. of hamburg

25

50

at

cents

per

She then sold the hamyard, receiving6 % discount for cash.


the
at 60 cents
was
burg to her customers
per yard. What
pricepaid for hamburg, and what per cent did she make ?
A

2.

dressmaker

discount

for cash.

What

originalprice.
A

sold

She

the

the

was

worth

325

bought $

goods

milliner

worth

materials

the

the

for

30

for 25

of

for

than

more

goods,receiving6 "/0

than

more

the

gain ?

bought $200
flowers,receiving5 % discount
3.

of

ribbons,velvets, and

cash.

She

then

sold

What

originalprice.

the
was

gain ?
REVIEW

1.

dressmaker

She

received

per

yard.
2.

and

3.

$ 18.

How

bought

discount
much

merchant

received

lawn

EXAMPLES

30

of 10
did

bought

discount

%.

she
50

of 6

yd.

She

gain

yd. of

for

of

on

silk at $ 1.25 per


sold

the silk for

the 30

lawn

cash.

at

yard.
$ 1.39

yards ?

12^

How

cents

much

yard,

did

the

cost ?

piece of

It

was

the cost

made

crinoline

into

of the crinoline

containing45 yd. was


dress models
of 5 yd. each.
in each

model

bought
What

for
was

208

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

dressmaker

discount

for cash.

4.

originalprice.

She

What

dressmaker

5.

much

did the silk for

yard, 12 yd. of
7

beading

at

discount

is

material

for

discount

silk for 25

gain per

than

more

dress

one

insertion

cents

yd. of

Valenciennes

6|-cents

at

yard.

cost ?

What

lace at

yard, and

is the

7^
12

buttons

waist

cents

yd.

cost, when

net

of

lingerieshirtwaists,each containing2| yd.,


from
49 yd, of batiste ?
What
is the cost of
one
waist,if the whole piece cost $ 9.80,less 5 %

bought 2i yd. of crepe at 29 cents


3 yd. of beading at 121 cents a yard,6
shirtwaist,

the

cent

dressmaker

8.

for

silk,receiving6 %

many

made

be

can

of

given ?

How

7.

the

the cost of ,36

Find

the

worth

bought 24J yd. of silk,at $ 1.10 per yard.


three dresses,and
had
13f yd. left. How

it she

made

sold

was

From

6.

175

bought $

GIRLS

FOR

35

at

cents

dozen.

What

did

material

the

yard,

crochet
for the

cost ?

bought 91 yd. of foulard silk,at $ 1.10 a yard,


for a dress,If yd, of net at $ 1.50 a yard, and
J yd. of plain
the cost of material ?
silk at $ 1.25 a yard. What
was
9.

woman

10.

dressmaker

She

sold

81

$ 1.00

What

did

per

cent

11.

the

yd. to

yard

one

to another

she

gain

on

50

yd, of
for

customer

customer, and
the

entire

taffeta

$ 1.25
the

piece?

silk for $ 45.00.

yard, 151 yd. at

remainder
What

was

at

the

cost.

gain

Two

and

one-half

yards

of cloth cost

$ 2.75.

What

was

priceper yard ?

12.

lace abroad
bought 50 yd. of handmade
for it. She paid 60 % duty on the lace and sold
What
the sellingpriceper yard ?
was
33^ %

dressmaker

paid $ 75
it at a gain of

and

bought

"

ARITHMETIC

209

DRESSMAKERS

FOR

bought 20 yd. of foulard silk at 90 cents


She sold it for 10" %
a
yard. She received 6 % discount.
than the originalprice. How
did she gain on the
much
more
What
sale ?
per cent did she gain ?
13.

dressmaker

dressmaker

the

bought

following materials for a


broadcloth
customer
at $ 2.75 a yard, 6-J: 4^ yd. of
yd. of silk
at $3.75 a yard, 2-^yd. of trimming at $2.50 a yard. She
received
discount
of 6 %
and 5 % discount for
a dressmaker's
14.

cash

What

dressmaker

She

for $ 22.50.

silk

the third
the
"

at

she

dress

How

be sold.

materials?
did

much

Did

she

She

she

of
3.50

gain or

gain ?

broadcloth

yard, but

lose ?

What

sold two

another

the three

three

After

yard.
piecesto one

cents

customer
at 35

customer

15-yd. pieces of
paying 60 % duty
at 48 % gain,and
% gain. What was

pieces?
the

furnished

dressmaker

and

in France

bought

25^

piece to

gain on

17.

them.

the

bought a 7^-yd.remnant
6 yd. to a customer
at $

not

dressmaker

them,

on

for

pay

cent

dress

sold

could

the remainder

16.

she

cent ?

per

15.

did

price for

retail

charged the

per

What

payment.

charged $25

it.

for

materials

For

the

for

materials

lingerie
she

following: 10 yd. of dimity at 45 cents a yard, 12i


Cluny insertion at 25 cents a yard, findings,$2. If
much
did she
gain on
charged $12 for making, how
and receiptit.
material ?
Make
a bill for the same
the

The

18.

She

sold

them

making.

She

What
19.
a

was

If

the

to make

dress

cost

than cost
10% more
paid her helper 20 % of
for

gain f"er cent

it takes

dress, how

needed

for

materials

6^

many
the

dressmaker
and
the

the

$ 14.50.

charged $15
amount

she

for

received.

yards of
yards of

same

paid
yd.

cloth

52

cloth

22

dress ?

inches

inches

wide
wide

to

make

will

be

210

dressmaker

20.

She

$ 25.
of

paid

paid

were

the

for

35

Which

for cash.

many

the

Find

24.

$ .121

12

piece

the

cost

buy

can

she

receive

buy

can

three
a

discount

yard
the

in

each

of

of

piece of
was

cost

What

4^ yd.

bought

the total cost ?


A

of

dressmaker

was

28.

She

the

above

lengths in

lace at

of lace at

$1.95

per

piece (one

yd.).

piece 42 yd. and

was

inches

cost

one

dresses,

summer

yard, or

than

more

yard.

Find

25.

27.

cents

%
?

cent

three

yard and
plan ?

silk,receiving

inches
f yd. ? (b) How
many
inches
in f yd. ? (d) How
many
many
inches
in
in J yd. ? (e) How
-Jyd. ? (/) How
many
inches in |-yd.?
inches in J yd. ? (g) How
many

inches

26.

25

for

needed.

are

is the better

(a) How
many
yd. ? (c) How

23.

gain per

order

an

of

silk for 40

the

the

J yd. of batiste
101 yd. each for
yd. for 25 cents

of

piece of

sold

31

remnants

for

worth

$1.50

was

has

dressmaker

which

She

What

originalprice.

22.

in

cash.

for

customer

work

own

bought

dressmaker

discount

one

$ 1.25

for her

receive

the dressmaker
21.

was

for

for

dress

day each for 31 days


returned
for alterations,and
the
How
much
did
more
day's work.

assistants

dress

GIRLS

FOR

to make

agreed

The

work.

assistants

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

made
of

another

pieces of white
J yd.,at $ .421

2
48

lining taffeta,
yard. What

crinoline
into
the

containing421 yd. that cost $ 1.70


of 81 yd. each.
What
dress models

crinoline

is the cost

of

in

child's

1" yd.

insertion

cents

at 19

cents

at 15

model

petticoatcontaining:

15

2J yd. longcloth at
If yd. hamburg

each

cents

yard,

yard,

yard

212

VOCATIONAL

is the

What

34.

Cotton

MATHEMATICS

of the

cost

gabardine,

36 inches

to

Which

buy

of

the

wide

44"

40"

Charmeuse,

Louisine, 38"
20"

Armure,
Satin

fabrics

wide,

wide,

at

21"

duchesse,

at

What

would

hat

at

$2.00.
$1.50.
$1.25.

at

with

the

followingtrimmings ?

Make

out

bill.

(See

yard.

$ 5.50 each.

feathers,at
and

yard.

PROBLEMS

cost

Frame

economical

most

$3.00.

1| yd. velvet,at $2.50 a yard.


" yd. satin for facing, at $ 1.98
2

yard.

$2.25.

at

wide,

MILLINERY

1.

is the

$3.25

at

wide,

wide,

wide,

cents

pattern, at 35 cents.

Franchise, 42"

Faille

at 39

5f yards

following

Crepe meteor,

GIRLS

following?

Sewing cotton, braid,buttons,


35.

FOR

work,

at

lesson

$2.50.

Invoice, Chapter XI,

on

page

243.)
2.

A
at

roses

velvet

leghorn
$2.98,

ribbon

charged 75
3.

bonnet

at

hat

bunches

$ 1.49

for her

milliner

used

foliage at $.98,
used for trimming.

work.
the

and

fadeless

11

the

following trimmings

yd.

of

milliner

The

did

much

How

of

bunches

Four

$6.98.
of

were

cents

hat

on

cost ?"

child's

piece straw

braid,

yd. maline,

at 25

flowers,at

4 bunches

foliage,at

was

receiptit.

the

at

$1.49.

at

cents

4 bunches

Work,
What

cost

69

yard.

cents

each.

49 cents

each.

hat ?

Make

$2.00.

total cost

of

the

out

bill and

old

An

4.

lady'sbonnet

yd. silk,at $

piece of jet,83.00.

What

5.

yard.

cents.

the finished

bonnet

the total cost

was

following:

$ 1.50.

Work,
did

tlie

aigrettes,at $ 1.50 each.

Ties, 75

much

1.50

2 small

How

with

trimmed

was

213

MILLINERS

FOR

ARITHMETIC

of

cost ?

hat

with

the

mings
followingtrim-

pieces straw

yd. velvet ribbon,

flowers,at 59

foliage,at

She
an

milliner

6.

used

yard.

cents.

at

$2.50.

2.00

$ 1.50

at

much

How

ornament.

49

charged $

yd. satin

at 98 cents

cents.

work,

and

Frame

each.

braid, at "2.50

for

did

and

yard

old

renovating an

the hat

charged $

hat.

2.25

for

cost ?

7.

The

followingtrimmings
3

yd. velvet, at 8

lace, at

yd.

2 bunches

Work,
much

How
8.

work.
9.

How
A

did

2 bunches

the

much

did

6.00

for

bunch.

hat with

grapes,

the
a

pay

and

for her

75

cents

hat ?

following trimmings
yard.

at 69 cents

cost ?

hat,

at $ 1.59

75 cents.

the hat

renovating three feathers,

for

4.75

customer

2| yd. ribbon,

How

child's hat

yard.
yard.

at 49 cents

yd. satin,at $ 1.75

Work,

cost ?

charged $
fancy band, $

lady bought

on

"2.00.

the hat

much

1.50

cents

buds,

milliner
for

$ 2.50

did

15

used

were

a
a

bunch.

yard.

for

214

VOCATIONAL

What

10.

MATHEMATICS

would

hat

with

cost

pieces straw

yd. ribbon,

FOR

the

braid, at $
at 89

cents

GIRLS

followingtrimmings ?

1.98 each.

yard.

Fancy feather,$6.98.
and

Frame

Estimate

11.

work, $

the cost

of

2. 50.

hat

using the followingmaterials

2" yd. plush, at $2.25


2

yd. ribbon,

1 band

fur, 75

Foliage,10

yard.

at 25 cents

f yd. buckram, at
^ yd. tarlatan,at

yard,

25 cents

yard.

10 cents

yard.

cents.

cents.

Labor, $2.00.
the

If

12.

true

bias

longer

than

the width

be cut

from

velvet

from
of the

18"

wide

selvedge to selvedge is about ^


bias stripsmust
goods, how many
in order to have a three-yardbias

strip?
The

13.

inches

45

it take
FRAME
^

be needed

to

brim

cover

16

bias

many

HAT

in

is

velvet

WIRE

edge

if each

of

hat

circumference

inches

strips of

to

fit the

what

amount

stripcut

measures

the

wide.

How

velvet

would

brim

of velyet

measured

of

wou]d
a

yard

along the selvedge?


15.

Give

3|-yards of
16.

How

material
17.

each
18.

velvet

the

number

material

of

13^-in.stripsthat

; also the

number

22^-in.strips can

many

of inches
be

be

can

from

of waste.

from

cut

cut

2J yd.

of

What

length bias stripcan

strip1 yd. 10
How

many

18 inches

in.

long

and

from

be made

1^

11

yd. of silk,

in. wide?

six-petalroses can
wide, each petal cut

be

made

from

3 inches

square

yard

of

ARITHMETIC

Estimate

19.

18

yard, centers
6 cents
Find

20.

the

FOR

total

cents

the

of

cost

of

12

cents

; the

ming
dozen, stem-

flower.
of

cost

is $ 1.50

for each

yard

flower

one

if velvet

roses,

dozen, sprays

yard,using

of

cost

215

MILLINERS

of

dozen

flowers,using the figuresgiven above.


21.

What

facing

and

headsize
inches

If the

what

of

crown

will be

hat, width

circumference

of brim

of

the

of silk will it take

amount

for

wide,allowing twice
allowing 1 inch oil depth

also
At

23.

the

24.

milliner

She

dozen.

Flowers

25.

at

75

bunches

sold

were

dozen

26.

gain ?
A

27.

gained
28.

much

on

2J

|-of

them

that

were

cents

to fit a

plain-top

inches,diameter

of

Ten

what

and
the

bunch.

per

cent

cent

at

What

19

of

cents

what

ribbon
a

others
?

bunches

gain

not

to

the

salable.

much

How

11

on

yards

was

was

velvet
sold

cent

the

yard.

$ 3.60

the

dozen

at

per

was

dollar,

one

each, but

ribbon,ten

the

fullness,

dozen

frames

$ 5.50

at

rolls of

ten

per

cents

lose and

bought

sold

was

or

for

? of twelve

75

for

of

casings?

frames

buckram

inches,

facing made

the hat

of silk for

eight

dozen
at

shirred

56

measures

around

frames

gain

bought

piece of

$28.20

had

she

8.50.

remainder

The

sold

of

rate

Did

milliner

roll,for $

for

sold

sold.

not

were

the

wholesale

is the cost of five dozen

what

brim

silk 22 inches
and

needed

of crown
151 inches,allowing 81
7" inches,diameter
brim for turning over
edges ?

on

22.

of velvet

amount

containing twelve yards


for $2.75
yard. How
per

bought

was

much

was

piece?

thirty-six
yard piece of maline
at 29 cents a yard. One
yard was
was
gained on the piece?

cost

lost in

$ 7.02

and

cutting.

was

How

216

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

Find

29.

of

cost

velvet

of

yd.

1|

of

| yd.

fur

feather

wire,

Taffeta

Making,

the

for
What

milliner

frame,

Valenciennes

hat

lace.

of
cost
the

edge

snap
?

Should

lace

cents

for

labor.

edged

with

1.50

3"

is

wide

25

25

cents

cents

yard,

lining

ruffle,

upper

12^

cents

the

and

cents,

the

cost

cost

cost

ruffles

two

edging

ribbon

organdie
35

has

ruffle

3"

and

37

paid

lower

of

She

trimming,

organdie

yd.

hat.

yard,

the

hat
10

cost

yard,
11

yd.

frame
cents.

cost.

velvet

much

How

32.

put

total

the

2J

yd.

for

8.37

of
The

cents.

profit

cent

2i-".

Find

25

2.50.

for

2.80

per

child's

31.

cents.

charged
$

the

was

10

yard.

$ 3.00.

at

cents.

yard.

34.00

at

50

lining,

1.50

at

ornament,

Edge

30.

requiring

band,

frame,

Hat

hat

velvet,

GIRLS

FOR

binding
the

on

velvet

at

hat
be

2.00

that
bias

yard

would

43"

measures

or

straight

you
around

buy

to

the

CHAPTER
CLOTHING

about

SINCE

aighth of

one

the income

in the average

workingimportant

family is spent for clothing,this is a very


purchasesthe linen for the house and
subject. The housewife
for her to have
her own
wearing apparel. It is not uncommon
considerable to say about the clothingof the men, particularly
know
she should
about
the underclothing. Therefore
thing
someconstitutes a good pieceof cloth,and be able
about what
man's

to make

fabric
the

of the best and

selection
intelligent

an

for

best,although

it is in

of cloth

All kinds

some

made

are

cheapest is

the

is called the
made

filling.Such

always

The

interlacing
(weaving)of
thread
running lengthwise

strongest and is called the warp.

is the

not

cases.

by
(calledyarn).

thread

the sets of

The

particularpurpose.

economical

most

fabrics

The

other

thread

knitted materials and

as

lace

the

Threads
interlacingof a single thread.
(yarn)are made by lengtheningand twisting(called
spinning)
Since the fibers vary in such qualities
short fibers.
as firmness,
length, curl,and softness,the resultingcloth varies in the
This is the reason
mediumsame
why we have high-grade,
way.
grade,and low-grade fabrics.
fabrics are
The principal
wool, silk,mohair, cotton, and flax
are

by

(linen).
The
and

wonders

difference
to

the

from

is often

consumer

why

is due

care

$ 1.35

in
to

in

there

part

tempted
is such
to the

For

buy

the

difference

cost of

manufacturing.
$ 5.00

to

raw

cheaper fabrics
in price. This

material

example, raw
pound, according to the
217

and

in

part

silk

costs

nature

and

218

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

qualityof

the

silk.

about

55

cents

The

of

cost

GIRLS

FOR

preparing the

silk

raw

ages
aver-

of the
pound, according to the nature
twist,which is regulatedby the kind of cloth into which it is
The
cost of dyeing varies from
55 cents
to enter.
to $ 1.50 a
are
paid from 2 to 60 cents a yard for weaving,
pound. Weavers
the pricevaryingaccordingto the desirability
of the cloth.

When

relative

the

compare

we

values

of

similar

goods

produced by different manufacturers, there are a few general


principles
by which good construction can easilybe determined.
The density of a fabric is determined
of warp
by the number
This
is usuallydetermined
yarn to the inch.
yarn and filling
of a magnifying glass with
trate
To illusa \" opening.
by means
36 threads
in the filling
and 42 threads in
: If there
are
is the density of the cloth to the inch ?
the warp
to J", what
SOLUTION.

"

36

144 threads

in the

42

168 threads

in the

filling.
warp.

EXAMPLES

A 25-cent

1.

undervest

summer

will
fabric)
(knitted

of the

flimsy15-cent varietyin addition


is the gain,in wear, over
the
shape. What

two

2.

50-cent

variety.
3.

cents, but

94

the better
A

yard,
yard.

as

What

dress

linen
will

one

sheer

thicker

for

will

buy

as

stocking at

dress

50-cent

is

gained

25-cent

style?
cents

of better

Why

seasons.

the

ready

material

is the

latter

(not full bleached) costing $1.04


linen at $ 1.25
long as a bleached

is the better

at

similar

What

of

girls,costing 75

last two

tablecloth

stocking
of

three

outwear

young

season.

last twice

Which

kind

to

will

retainingbetter
15-cent variety?
to

gained by purchasing the

dress

will last

costs

5.

is

What

cotton

made,

4.

undervest

outwear

investment
50

35

cents
cents.

stockingsshould

be

a
a

will

wear

What
selected

just half as long


is gained in wear
?
for

wear

220

counts, is based
560

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

the number

upon

yards requiredto weigh

ROVING

These

scales

will

of

if

hank

counts,
etc.

The

higher
unit

with
the

while

one

weighs

if 20 hanks

greater

the counts

are

each

of hanks

and

the finer

other, while

FOR

In worsted
in

for

woolen

the

will

yarn

pound,

one

necessary

the yarn.

for all worsted

"

pound,

required

number

LENGTH

Yarns.

one

the

of measurement

Woolen

SCALES

YARN

one
sandth
seventy-thoupound by tenths of grains or one
pound avoirdupois, rendering them well adapted for use
reels, for the numbering of yarn from the weight
yarn
with tables.
weight in tenths of grains to compare

one

hank, giving

Thus,

lengths(calledhanks) of
pound.

weigh

part of
in connection

of

one

OR

GIRLS

FOR

to

yarn

weigh

hank,

The

be

the

or

one

number

one

is the 20's,

pound,

the

is the

560

yards,

lie

parallelto
entangled.

yarns.
WORSTED

yarns
yarns

YARNS

the fibers
the

fibers

are

221

CLOTHING

difference is due

This
in

working

up

In woolen

systems
; the

Scotch

others.

In

stated.

This

100

yards

woolen

the

weigh

termed
technically

or

the

one

or

one

used

1600

in New

yards
or

ounce,

No.

; and

run

; the

run

will

number

of

be

England.

to

the

if 1600
if 300

done.

used

unless

The

otherwise

is based

run

Thus, if 100

yards weigh
yards weigh

yards necessary

parts of England

Philadelphia cut ; and

pound.

the

Among

differs in various

system

run

run.

The

to

weigh

yards of

pound, it is

one

one

upon

ounce,

or

4800

finer the yarn,


one

pound, the

run.

YARN
For

grading is

the

pound, the size will be No.

greater the

higher the

the

lessons

ounce,

yarn

great diversityof systems of grading, varying

English skein, which

is the system

per

spyndle ; the American

these

yards weigh

is

the districts in which

are

used

stock.

raw

there

yarns

according to
many

the

different methods

the

entirelyto

reeling and

measuring lengths

LENGTH

FOR

WOOLEN

REEL
of cotton,

YARNS

woolen,

and

worsted

(RUN SYSTEM)

yarns.

222

VOCATIONAL

Yarns.

Silk

Raw

MATHEMATICS

For

"

silk yarns

raw

GIRLS

FOR

the

table of

weights

is:
16 drams

ounce

16

pound

pound

256

The
1000

yards

weigh
two

of

unit

skein

one

"

pound,

one

for

measure

drams,

the

1-dram

"

ounces

drams

raw

of

silk

raw

it is known

yarn

silk is 256,000 yards per pound.

is called

weigh

1-dram

as

2-dram

dram,

one

silk, and

silk ; hence

if

or

256,000 yards

if 1000
the

if

Thus,

yards weigh

followingtable

is

made:
silk

2-dram

silk

4-dram

silk

Linen

Yarns.

1000

yards

per

dram,

1000

yards

per

yards

per 4

1000

"

The

256,000 yards

or

drams,
drams,

sizes of linen

128,000 yards

or
or

64,000 yards

yarns

are

Ib.

per

based

Ib.

per

per

Ib.

the lea

on

pound and the pounds per spindle. A cut is 300


of
thread
yards and a spindle 14,000 yards. A continuous
is 10 X 300
several cuts is a hank, as a 10-cut hank, which
3000 yards per hank.
of cuts per pound, or the
The
number
or

cuts

per

leas,is

the number

of the yarn,

as

30's,indicating30

300

that a spindle
yards per pound. Eight-pound yarn means
6.
weighs 8 pounds or that the yarn is 6-lea (14,400-5- 8) -s- 300

9000

223

CLOTHING

Yarns.

Cotton

sizes of cotton

The

"

1 hank.

system of 840 yards to


yarn weighing 1 pound
Spun

Silk.

that

used

as

silk yarns

Spun

"

for

that

calculations

rules and

graded

are

apply

the

upon

yards of

cotton

1 counts.

(840 yards

cotton

is,840

That

is called No.

based

are

yarns

the

same

also to spun

apply

cotton

basis

same

pound),and

per

to

the

on

silk yarns.
Two
two

More

or
more

or

twisted

Yarns
Ply Yarns.
ply ; that is,two or

together,making
is given as follows

the size

2/30'smeans
would

Thus

when

is

yarn

weigh

heavier,and

is

case

the

twisted

together.

number

of threads

twisted

3/30's

twisted

gether,
to-

thread.)

together,the resultant
of yards are requiredto

number

pound.

one

30's 'worsted

of 30's, expressed

ply thread
or

are

this

together, and

line the size of each

are

smaller

threads
In

yarn.

twisted

counts

30's counts,

threads

two

example

For

30's

figurefollowing the

the

twist

double

the line denotes

(The figurebefore
and

individual

more

in

of

threads, each

mean

threads

frequentlyproduced

are

"

equal

to

15's ; and

equals 16,800 yd.

yarn

2/30?s,requiresonly

three-ply thread

lb.,but

per

8400

yards

of 30's would

to the

be

two-

pound,

equal

to

10's.

than a two-ply,and made


two-ply,or more
of the
up of several threads of equal counts, divide the number
of the ply,
singleyarn in the requiredcounts by the number
and the result will be the equivalentin a singlethread.

When

To

the

Find

is

yarn

Weight
of

EXAMPLE.
worsted

"

in

Worsted
Find

the

Grains
Yarn

of
of

weight

Given

in

of Yards

Count

Known

Number

grains

of 125

yards of

yarns.
No.

1's worsted

No.

20' s worsted

1 lb. worsted

yam

yarn

yarn

560

11,200 yards

7000

yards

to

grains.

to

lb.
a

lb.

20's

224

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

11,200 yards of

If

worsted

20's

GIRLS

FOR

weigh 7000 grains, then

yarn

"

1 1

of

5"

7000

7000

"

divide

7000, and
given

method:

Another

"

Multiply

result

the

by the

the

125

Find

the

number

of

yards

yards by
of the

pound

per

cotton

Find

"

11,200.
78. 125

Grains

in

Weight

875,000.

20 's=

11,200

-T-

of Cotton
EXAMPLE.

7000

pound

875,000

Yarn

the

of
of

Given

Number

of

Yards

Count

Known

in

weight

Ans.

grains.

of

grains

80

yards

of 20's

yarn.
No.

1's cotton

lyd. 20's
80

yd. 20's

cotton

customary

80

to

Ib.

33.33

"

grains. Ans.

21

examples that

to solve

Ib.

grains.

16,800
It is

grains.

7000

=J

cotton

to

16,800 yards

1 Ib.

yards

840

20's cotton

No.

by

of

given number

count.

To

grains.

11,200
NOTE.

78.125

"

j^UU

occur

in

dailypractice

rule.
The

rule for the

precedingexample is as follows :
and divide the
of yards by 7000
Multiply the given number
result by the number
of yards per pound of the given count.
560,000
NOTE.

To
cotton

"

7000

is

find the

yards by 16, and


the known
To

find

of cotton

yards by

7000

(20

840)

always

weight

of

yarn

-*-

80

560,000.

multiplier and

in

known
divide

grains. Ans.

33.33

840

divisor.

of yards of
given number
of
count, multiply the given number
the result by the yards per pound of

ounces

of

count.

the

weight

yarn
the

of

in

known

pounds

of

given

count, divide

yards per pound

of the known

the

number

given
count.

of

yards

number

of

225

CLOTHING

find the

To
woolen

yarn

the number

by

NOTE.

of yards of
of a given number
weight in ounces
of yards
(run system),divide the given number
of runs, and multiply the quotientby 100.

Calculations

"

of

contained

ounces

EXAMPLE.
5-run

woolen

number

in 1

Find

"

the

on

the fact that the standard

basis

run

are

(1600) is

much

simplified,owing

exactly

100

times

the number

of

6400

yards

to

pound.
the

weight

in

ounces

of

yarn.
6400-

(5

100)=

12.8

Ans.

oz.

find the

of yards of
weight in pounds of a given number
woolen
be used,
calculation
yarn (run system) the above
may
and
the result divided
by 16 will give the weight in pounds.
To find the weight in grains of a given number
of yards of
woolen
of yards
yarn (run system),multiply the given number
the
divide
of grains in a pound) and
by 7000 (the number
result by the number
of yards per pound in the given run,
and the quotientwill be the weight in grains.
To

EXAMPLES

How

1.

341

ounces

many

pounds
How

many

pounds

3.

How

many

grains

2112

ounces

4.

Give

the

5.

(a)41's

Give

there

(a)in

6324

(6)in

grains?

2.

yarns

are

are
are

there

in 9332

there

(a)in 168J pounds

lengths per pound


; (6)55's ; (c) 105's

of
;

grains ?

the

following

(d)115's

(6)in

worsted

(e)93's.

the

lengths per pound of the following woolen


(run system): (a) 9J's; (6) 6's ; (c) 19's ; (d) 17's

yarns

(e) li's.
6.

yarns
7.

yarns

Give
:

(a)li's

Give
:

the

the

lengths
;

(6)3's

lengths

per
;

pound

of

the

(c)3J's; (d)20's

per

of

ounce

(a)4J's; (b)6|'s; (c)8's

following raw
; (e)28's.

silk

following raw

silk

the

(d)9's

(e)14's.

226

VOCATIONAL

What

8.

(b)25's
9.

yarns

(c)32's

(a)10's

silk yarns

from

lengths of
28's
(cf)

linen yarns

(e)45's

pound

per

(a)8's ;

lengthsper pound of the followingcotton


(b)32's ; (c)54's; (d)80's; (e)160;s?
the

(a)30's

GIRLS

FOR

the

are

Make

11.

are

What

10.

the

are

What
:

MATHEMATICS

table

lengths
;

(b)45's
of

pound

per
;

(c)38's

lengths

(d)29's

ounce

per

of the

followingspun
; (e)42's ?
silk yarns

of spun

1's to 20's.

12.

Find

the

weight in grains of

Find

the

weight in grainsof

144 inches

of

2/20'sworsted

of

3/30'sworsted

yarn.
13.

25

yards

yarn.
Find

14.

cotton

in

24,000 yards

of

2/40's

2,840,000 yards

of

2/60's

of

ounces

the

weight

in

pounds

Find

the

weight

in

ounces

Find

the

weight

in

Find

the

weight

in

cotton
16.

weight

yarn.
Find

15.

the

of

yarn.

yards of

of 650

woolen

li-run

yarn.
17.

grains of 80 yards of ^-run woolen

yarn.
18.

woolen
Solve
rule

pounds

of

64,000 yards

of

5-run

yarn.
the

followingexamples, first by analysisand

then

by

19.

Find

the

weight

grains of

165

yards of

35's worsted.

20.

Find

the

weight in grainsof

212

yards of

40's worsted.

21.

Find

the

weight in grains of

118

yards of

25's cotton.

22.

Find

the

weight

in

grainsof

920

yards of

18's cotton.

23.

Find

the

weight

in

pounds

24.

Find

the

weight in grains of

318

25.

Find

the

weight in grainsof

25

in

of 616

yards of
yards of

yards of

16^'s woolen.
184's

cotton.

30's linen.

228

Since the counts

"0". x

84

840

pound,

of hanks

to the

14,700 yd.

in 1 Ib.

the number

are

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

40

14,700
RULE.

Divide

"

-4-

840

counts.

Ans.

given

number

17.5

the

by

of

yards ;

divide

by the quotientobtained ; then divide this result by


of yards, and
weight in grains of the given number
quotientwill be the counts.

7000

840

To

-=-

84

10.

7000

-f-

10

700.

700

-f-

40

17.5 counts.

the Run

Find

Woolen

of a

and

EXAMPLE.
what

is the

run

50

7000-32
218.75

woolen

run

77.77

-f-

1600

Divide

"

Ans.

of Known

Thread

Length

woolen

weigh

yarn

77.77

grains,

?
1600

RULE.

the

Weight

yards of

If 50

"

the

32.

218.75.

2.812-run

given

Ans.

yarn.

of

(the number

the

yarn) by

number

yards per pound of 1divide


of yards ; then

(the grains per pound) by the quotient ; divide this


quotient by the given weight in grainsand the result will be

7000

the

run.

To

Find

Ounces

Weight in

the

Yarn

Worsted
EXAMPLE.
30's worsted

"

is the

What
yarn

202,400

Multiply
divide
the result by
and the quotientwill
"

of

Given

of

Count

Known

weight in

of Yards

Number

of

ounces

12,650yards of

12,650

RULE.

for

the
the
be

16

16,800

202,400.

12.047

given

number

oz.

Ans.

of

yards by 16,

yards per pound of


the weight in ounces.

the

and

given count,

229

CLOTHING

To

Find

the

in Pounds

Weight

of Worsted
EXAMPLE.

Find

"

of 40's worsted

for

Yarn

the

of

in

of
be

Divide

"

of Yards

of

pounds

1,500,800yards

yarn.

1,500,800 -4- 22,400


RULE.

Number

Count

Known

weight

Given

the

given

yards per pound of the


the desired weight.

67 Ib.

number

of

Am.

the

count, and

known

the

yards by

number

quotient

will

grains,find

the

EXAMPLES

1.

If

inches

108

of

cotton

weigh

yarn

1.5

counts.
2.

Find
2.5

weighs
3.

Find

worsted
4.

the

size of

woolen

72

thread

inches

long

which

grains.
the

in

weight

of

ounces

12,650 yards

of

2/30's

yarn.

Find

the

Find

the

in

weight

of

ounces

12,650 yards of

40's worsted

yarn.
5.

worsted
6.

Find

weight

in

of

pounds

What

the

is the

yarn

If

40's

of

pounds

789,600 yards

of

2/30's

weight

in

851,200 yards

of

3/60's

of

pounds

33,600 yards

of cotton

weigh

yarn

pounds,

find

the

of cotton.

counts

Buying Yarn, Cotton, Wool,


Every fabric is made
Therefore,it is
yarn

of

1,500,800 yards

yarn.

worsted
8.

in

yarn.

worsted
7.

weight

or

of yarn

buy cotton, wool,


these commodities.

of definite
for

necessary

fiber of different
yarn,
The

kinds
and

and

and
rags

every

Rags
qualityand
mill

grades. Many
from

pricesrise

and

brokers
fall from

tity.
quan-

buy

to

man

small
who

day

mills

deal
to

in

day

230

VOCATIONAL

according

MATHEMATICS

the

to

law

of

FOR

demand

GIRLS

and

supply.
weekly and

Price

lists

sent
out
giving the quotations are
sometimes
daily by agents as the prices of materials rise or fall. The
following are quotations of different grades of cotton, wool,
and shoddy, quoted from
list :
a market

QUANTITY
8103

lb. white

shoddy (bestall wool)


knit stock (bestall wool)
indigo blue

3164

Ib. white
Ib. pure

1110

Ib. fine dark


Ib. fine

718 Ib.
872

593

Ib.

987

Ib.

697

$0.485
365
315

shoddy

woolen

225
115

rags

cloakings (cottonwarp)

96 Ib.
Ib.

wool

lightmerino

Ib. wool

408

merino

Find

.02

bat rags

035

2/20'sworsted
(Bradford)yarn
2/40's Australian
yam
1/50'sdelaine yarn
16-cut merino
(50 % wool and
yarn
carpet yarn, 60 yd. double reel,wool

Ib.

LB.

PER

yarn

2896

410

PRICE

the

of the

total cost

above

725
1.35
1.20
50

% shoddy)

.285

filling

235

quantitiesand

of

grades

textiles.
EXAMPLES

1.

The

weight
has

Wyoming
wool
2.

raised
A

3.

colored

The

is 54
5.

The

In

tare.
to each

standard

27

pick in

on

farm

purchasing

How

much

bale ?

what

is the

is 8

Ib.
of

weight

558

cotton

Ib. per
acres

cotton

is the

; what

cotton

cotton

day

; how

much

(6 days)?

of 165

size of

27 inches

Ib. of

week

yield is
a

sheep

average

4,600,000 sheep ;

picks 155

man

the

on

in this state ?

year

average

will be raised
4.

fleece

the

at least

in

will he

cotton

of

an

would

much

cotton

?
bale

in the

cubical

allowance
be

; how

acre

United

contents

of 4

paid for

in 96

of

States
a

bale ?

is made

bales,500

for
Ib.

231

CLOTHING

Broadcloth

6.

in

it been

has

fourths

to

If

sample

If

9.

the

yards to
If

10.

calico

If

absorbs

12
A

12.

If

13.

the

by

cotton
6

the

"/obrown

5 per
16.

with

threads

per

cotton
17.

What

and
A

is

is the

ence
differ-

mill and

68 Ib.

Ib. 4

dyestuff,etc.,will
followingreceipt?
treated

1.5

% sulphate

1.5

from

how

ounces,

many

95

out
in

fifty-yard
ten-hour day ?

oz.

is

"

weighted

certain
is the
be

175%

pays

year

wage

"

per

out

capita?

requiredto dye

5 Ib. of

of copper,
of

potash,

acid.

yards

square

of waste

with

bichromate

"/oacetic

weighing one pound and a half


is the weight after absorption?

industry in a
994,875 people,what

1050

of cloth

weighing
the

Ib. of yarn,

oz.

per

loss in waste

sq.

ing
be-

piece of

wefted

three-

cent

1.8

textile

woven

cent

from

What

per

weighs

weighing 3
weight ?

many

be

yd. may

is the

what

buckram

color,afterwards

How

varies

turns
printing machine
are
printedper hour
many

15.

years

entered

Ib. of cotton

of 110

much

How

many

largest?

to

silk

total

$ 500,000,000 to
14.

smallest

sample of linen
% moisture, what

pieceof

is the

what

inches.

yard of
pound ?

piecesa day, how


11.

one-sixteenth

into fine yarn,

made

were

cotton

length from

in
8.

"Upland"

of

and

one

How

in 1641.

woven

use

length

The

7.

first

was

30's linen
inch
what

cloth

union

yarn,

in both
of linen

has
there

and

warp
is there

sample of calico 3
the weight in pounds

of 12's cotton

being

the

weft

in the

in.
of

warp

is

number

of

percentage

of

same

; what

and

cloth ?

by 4 in. weighs
70-yardpiece,36

30

grains.

in. wide

232

VOCATIONAL

cents

is

what

If
what

mill,

22.

What

of

bale
is

the

19

Ex.
is

the

This

75

what

was

The
is

of

total
its

value

the

of

worsted

of

cost

value

at

loss

is
67

gain

50.25

of

what

cents

75

Ib.

Ib.

to

worsted

67

at

Each

pound.

loses

in

oz.

reeling

the

75

Ib.

bale

in

ing,
dye-

it

part

per

of

cents

material

and

the

18

GIRLS

0.45

gains
cent

loss

of

Ib.

at

cost

of

cent

the

cotton

weighing

per

Ib.

contains

total

worsted

per

FOR

cloth
Ib.

1"

cent

what

20.

21.

and

per

certain

pound

19.

off

of

yd.

18.

MATHEMATICS

lost

lost

pound

oz.

in

the

fulling

of

cent

the

original

weight

PART

IV

AND

OFFICE

THE

"

CHAPTER
ARITHMETIC

THE

STORE

XI

FOR

OFFICE

ASSISTANTS

quick at figures that 'is,


should
be able to add, subtract,multiply,and divide accurately
should
and quickly. In order to do this one
practiceaddition,
and division until all combinations
subtraction,multiplication,
are
thoroughly mastered.
should
make
An office assistant
figuresneatly so that there
need be no hesitation
or
uncertaintyin reading them.
office assistant

EVERY

should

the
1.

the

time
27

following columns

requiredfor
2.

37

"

Calculations

Rapid
Add

be

and

the different
3.

471

check

the results.

Compare

examples.
4.

568

5.

1,039

20

295

284

579

11

194

187

381

18

20

327

341

668
559

12

12

16

287

272

12

191

184

375

16

237

193

430

194

156

350

12

169

166

335

11

15

247

232

479

12

13

194

180

374

27

25

52

12

8,

17

253

240

493

11

14

241

212

453

12

20

355

367

722

12

14

244

222

466

11

93

79

172

10

15

208

213

421

233

234

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

236
16.

VOCATIONAL

$437.58
2.75
1.40
70.06
3.54
396.89
33.00
18.24
6.75
68.70
1.53
9.20
.90

98.95
117.13
192.71
58.43
2.11
2.92
43.34
5.80
108.81
1.75
10.10
3.25
881.69
82.80
.75
3.00
26.50
19.04
2.24
19.50

2,676.35
25.25
.70
36.53
3.60
3.00
168.66

67.60

MATHEMATICS

17.

FOR

GIRLS

OFFICE

FOR

ARITHMETIC

Addition

Horizontal

often written

Reports, invoices,sales sheets,etc.,are


a

way

as

to make

to add

it necessary

is

it
adding figureshorizontally,

rightand

check

the

in such

figureshorizontally.In

customary

by adding

answer

237

ASSISTANTS

from

to add

from

rightto

left to

left.

EXAMPLES

Add

the

:
followinghorizontally

1.

38 +

76 +

49

2.

11 +

43 +

29

3.

27 +

57 +

15

4.

34 +

16 +

23

5.

47 +

89 +

37

6.

53 +

74 +

42

7.

94 +

17 +

67

8.

79 +

37 +

69

9.

83 +

49 +

74

19 -f 38 +

49

10.

Add

the

vertical totals
11.

12.

13.

check

following and

by adding

36 +

74 -|-19 +

47

29 +

63 -f 49 +

36

74 +

34 +

87 +

27

37 +

19 +

73 +

34

4-

74 +

109+

178+
39 +

111

+
14.

4-

381

217+589

784

309

983

+
+

611

83

127

the

horizontal

and

238

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

15.

1118

3719

8910

3001

5316

6715

Add

the

totals.

FOR

following and

Compare

check

the time

GIRLS

cal
by adding horizontal and vertirequiredfor the different examples.

ARITHMETIC

23.

On

the

following

What

is the total amount

What

is the average

Review

Interest,page

OFFICE

FOR

page

rate
50.

is

an

ASSISTANTS

itemized

of investments
of interest ?

list of

239

ments.
invest-

240
List

VOCATIONAL

of

Investments

MATHEMATICS

Held

by

the

FOR

Sinking

January

1,

Funds

1913

GIRLS

of Fall Ewer,

Mass.

ARITHMETIC

24.

What

is total amount

What

is the average
Water

of the
rate

Bonds

of

241

ASSISTANTS

OFFICE

FOR

followingwater

bonds?

of interest ?
Fall

River, Mass.

SUBTRACTION
DRILL

EXERCISE
5.

36
7

11.

43
16

6.

32

7.

4
12.

26

41
15

242

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

MULTIPLICATION
DRILL

EXERCISE

multiply the following numbers


By inspection,
11.

80

11.

740.

12.

79 x

11.

400.

13.

187

800.

14.

2100

11.

15.

2855

11.

16.

84x25.

17.

116

50.

49,009x400.

18.

288

25,

318,000x4000.

19.

198x25.

20.

3884

1.

1600x900.

2.

800

3.

360

4.

590

5.

1700

6.

1900x700.

7.

788,000

8.
9.
10.

1100.

988,000

"Review

rules

on

600.

50,000.

multiplication,pages

8-9.

11.

25.

244

VOCATIONAL

When

MATHEMATICS

the amount

of the

FOR

bill

invoice

or

GIRLS

is

paid,the

invoice

is marked.
Received

payment,

Name

of firm.
Per

This

is called

of authorized

name

person.

bill.

receiptinga

Ledger
Whenever

invoice

an

transaction
this book

is made

lines.

The

credit

side.

At

firm

record

on

this page

the

the

word
We
account

on

Mdse.
debit
when

or

side.
the
or
an

of

top

that

person

debit

recorded

book

parts by

means

the debit

and

each

is called
firm

credit
is

the account

the

side.

The

or

double

or

the

is

the
of

name

the person

cash

of

pages

is recorded.

of

the

rightside

purchases merchandise,
merchandise

The

of red

ledger page

of

record

ledger.

purchases merchandise

When

cash

customer,

called

into two

the

or

on

to

left side is called

person

When

in

divided

are

is sent

The
or

firm.

it is recorded

received,it

date, the amount,

and

is

the

usuallywritten.
when

account

it delivers

E.

it receives

value.
D.

SPECIMEN

REDINGTON

LEDGER

PAGE

value,

and

credit

an

A
a

ARITHMETIC

FOR

of

the debits

summary

The

statement.

represents

the

greater than
owes

then

the

credits,the

the merchant.
the merchant

between

of

the

owes

of
the

the

customer.

followingaccounts
BLANEY,

LUDWIG

CHARLES

BROWN

"

N.

the
on

greater than

are

"

LONG

BUTTON

CO.

is called

account

debits

named

customer

EXAMPLES

Balance

an

If

account.

If the credits

245

ASSISTANTS

credits

and

difference

standing

the

OFFICE

and

credits

debits

are

the account
the

debits,

246

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

K.

D.

LOSS

AND

(Review Percentage
A

merchant

paid

to have

50-56)

pages

at

higher pricethan

sufficient funds

for clerk

to pay

on

sell merchandise

must

for it in order

transaction

SON

"

REED

PROFIT

GIRLS

FOR

hire,rent, etc.

at

the end

Any

amount

of

he

the

above

is called
purchasing price and its attendant
expenses
below
purchasing priceis called loss.
profit
; any amount
A
be careful
in figuringhis profit. He
merchant
must
have a set of books
must
so
arranged as to show what caused
either an increase
reduction in the profits.
or
There
certain
used
in consideringprofit
are
specialterms
and
loss.
The
first cost of goods is called the net or prime
After
the goods have been received
cost.
and unpacked, and
the freight,cartage, storage, commission, etc. paid, the cost
the

has

been

total

increased

amount

to what

received

from

The

of expenses

selling
price.
goods subtracted

sum

from

sellingprice.

sellingpriceis

above

There

are

based

on

gross

cost

gain
the

or

the

below

or

of

per

percentage.

sellingpricethe

base

and

with

loses

cent

of

The

will be

gross
sale of

the

called

the net

according as

the net

cost.

computing gain
In

The

cost.

is called

sellingpriceis

percentage.

base,the

goods

connected

the gross

of

full

or

gross

sale of

gains or

methods

rules

the

the

the gross

merchant

two

is the

loss

is called

the

gain

second

or

or

first

loss,each

method,

the

loss the rate, the


method

explained in

considers
detail

later.

247

ASSISTANTS

OFFICE

FOR

ARITHMETIC

EXAMPLES

1.

Make

extensions after

Credit

not

allowed

without

goods returned

on

to

PEARL

16O

YORK,

Nov

TO

City of

SHIPPED

TO

Same

SHIPPED

BY

ORDER

REC'D

30

Warerooms
to

511

AVENUE

ATLANTIC

Days Net

17 1911

SOLD

". L

491

and

Terms

NEW

and

Offices

STREET

permission

our

MERCHANDISE

ELECTRICAL

156

givetotal :

COMPANY

PETTINGELL-ANDREWS
General

and

deductingdiscounts

Lowell

Lowell

School

Dept, Lowell,

Industrial School, Lowell, Mass.

11/14/11

11/13/1
I

Mass.

REELS

OUR
COILS

BUNDLES

CASES

REG.

NO.
BBLS.

3786

248

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

extensions

Make

2.
Goods

Charged for

are

the

on

of

the Convenience

followingitems
Customers

FALL

J.

H.

R. S.

and
are

give total
Rendered

Monthly

Co.
STORE

RIVER,

MASS.

MAHONEY,
THOMPSON,

Supt.

Sec'y.
Fall River Technical

for
.

September, 1913
No.

Accounts

GIRLS

Pres't " Treas.

MILLS,

Purchases

and

McWniRR

A.

DEPARTMENT

A. A.

FOR

City
Order

Number

719

High

School

extensions

Make

3.
Goods

Charged

are

for

Convenience

the

the

following items

of

Customers

FALL
A. A.

MILLS,

J. H.

MAHONEY,

R. S.

THOMPSON,

Purchases

Accounts

Rendered

Monthly

Co.
MASS.

RIVER,

Treas.

Vice-Pres't.

Sec'y.
Fall River

for

Public

City

September, 1913
No.

are

give total

STORE

DEPARTMENT

Pres't "

and

and

McWniRR

A.

on

249

ASSISTANTS

OFFICE

FOR

ARITHMETIC

For Technical

High

School

Buildings

250

VOCATIONAL

EXAMPLE.
and

MATHEMATICS

"

sells it to

real

dealer

estate

50.

gain $

GIRLS

FOR

What

buys

is the

per

for

house
of

cent

$ 4990

gain

over

cost?

^L

SOLUTION.

100

UiT %. Ana.

"

499

4990

DRILL

Find

of

cent

per

EXERCISE

loss

gain or

EXAMPLES

dealer

buys

26

cents.

What

farmer

1.

gain
2.

20 cents

What
A

and

estate

of

bushel

was

for

of

gain ?

at 31

cents

buys

eggs

bushel

of

cent

sells to

and

gain?

the per

was

sold

cent

cents

potatoes for 86 cents,and gained

What

provisiondealer buys

sells them

91

at

is the per

cost.

the per

was

4.

the

over

Real

3.

sold

wheat

$ 19,880 at

smoked

hams

of

cent

profitof $

at 19

pound.

What

28

gain ?

cents

pound

is the per

3650.

cent

of

gain?
5.

at 35
6.

them
7.

$ 1472

grocer

cents

dozen.

What

at

cent

machines

at

dealer

buys sewing

at

$ 40.

What

dealer

buys

and

pays

is the per

$ 73.50

dozen

is the per

an

cents

cent

automobile

sells them

and

gain ?
$22

each

and

sells

gain ?
for

freight. What

$ 972

and

is the per

sells it for
cent

gain ?

252

VOCATIONAL

2.

3.

of the

4.

gain 26 %
18

What

%.
A

6.

dealer

the

was

cost

is the

What
.

at

he

sold

ton

per

profitof $ 98.
to gain 35 % ?
and

if he

sells it to

for

was

gain $

$ 1265

and

sells to

sellingprice?

buys a motor for $


sellingprice?

is the

What

gains 31 %

lot of shoes

GIRLS

FOR

coal at the wharf

jobber buys

electrician

An

5.

buys

is the

What
shoe

furniture

if
furniture,

coal dealer

ton.

per

sold

dealer

the cost

MATHEMATICS

pair of shoes was


profitof 97 cents.
sellingprice?

sold

to

What

48 and

gain

26

%, giving the

the cost

was

sells it to

gain
shoe

What

price?

FORMULAS
Gain

or

loss
Cost

SellingPrice
Cost

Cost

rate

of

Gain

or

loss

or

rate

Rate

of

Cost

(100 %

gain

rate

of

gain) or (100 %

SellingPrice

"

rate

of

loss)

SellingPrice

( r

rate

sellingpricein

COMPUTING

of

100

gain

"/o
-

rate

of loss

EXERCISE

each

of the

PROFIT

followingproblems :

AND

LOSS

ness
find that it is better busiMany merchants
practiceto figureper cost profiton the sellingpricerather
be
the cost price. Many
failures
in business
on
can

Second

than

loss

of loss

DRILL

the

or

100 %

Find

gain

MetTiod.

"

ARITHMETIC

OFFICE

FOR

to the

practiceof basing profitson cost.


be made
between
in mind
that no comparison can
to
profitor cost until they have been reduced
traced

unit

same

value

illustrate

To

of

expenses

It

the

as

business

quoted

of

estimating

the basis

SOLUTION.

what

would
of

cost

that the expenses

sellingprice.
of

selling

22

Profit

of

".

Cost

$ 100

on

100 %

1.

EXAMPLE
is the

divided

for to show
Process.
the

divided

of

article costs

by

75

or

The

average

should

cost

be

article

25
of

25

from

the

This

If $3.75
would

100%

the

What

goods, as
do, by adding
many
a sellingprice of about
$4.69, or

25

too

31

profit.

One

dollar

16|%.

answer,

Ans.

100.

$1,

What

$ 3.75.

costs

cost.

5 cents, and

correct

sells for $ 6.

16| %.

leaves

$5

minus

profitof

percentage

first

the

sellingprice.

on

$ 5 and

Ans.

profit?

An

"

Deduct

"

net

sellingprice.

dollars

2.

make

profit.

sellingand

The

10%

by $6, decimally,gives the

EXAMPLE

your

An

"

Six

"

article.

.$147 selling
price.

percentage

Process.

75,

68 %

the

32 %
.

of

terms

$132, taking
net

of

cents

per

it sell to

must

bear

must

certain

sales and

say

We

base.

same

calculate

of the

Expenses

"

For

%.

the

manufacture

to

students

would

man
on

Most

basis

$ 100
22

of

cents

per

costs

selling are

profit of 10%?
cost

to

or

253

ASSISTANTS

it sell

must

$ 5.
will

give

is

75%,

be

$5.

1%

Now,

the

to

you

remainder

would

be

if you

cost, you

less than

cents

by

$3.75

marked

would
the

of

tain
ob-

former

method.
EXAMPLES

1.

and

is the

percentage

of

if
profit,

an

article costs

$ 8.50

automobile

that

sells for $ 10 ?

2.

cost
3.

30

What

What

$ 810
An
?

is the
and

percentage

sold for $ 1215

article

costs

$ 840.

of

profiton

an

What

must

I sell it for to

gain

254

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

4.

them

to

25

gain

TABLE

The

of shoes

case

percentage

figuredon

the

what

For

must

I sell

FINDING

FOR

for $ 30.

bought

is

GIRLS

FOR

SELLING

THE

of

of

cost

doing

PRICE

OF

business

and

ANY

the

ARTICLE

profitare

sellingprice.
Rule

Divide

the

figure in
the

the

of

column

line with

EXAMPLE.

(invoiceprice with

cost

per
"

If

you

per
to do

the
"

on

business.

$60.00

cost

wagon

Freight

rate

net

it cost

cent

"

freightadded) by
cent profitdesired

1.20
.

$ 61.20
You

desire

It costs
Take

you

the

to make
to do

5 per cent

profitof

net

19 per

business

figure in column
76

on

line

19, which

is 76.

j$6 1.2000 [$80. 52, the sellingprice.


608
400
380
200
152

cent

bought

1.

buy goods

16

costs

Hardware

3.

costs

23

of 11

%,

desire

for what

profitof

for

I desire

I sell the

must

City.

If the

%.

be my

purchased

business,and

the

York

cost

sellingprice?

net

should

What

gain

be the

should

what

$ 97 and

at

sell to

to

supplies are

to do

%,

business.

to do

I desire

f.o.b. New

$84.00

for

wagon

is 18

business

2.

1.05.

Freight cost $
to do

table

followingexamples by

the

Solve

255

ASSISTANTS

OFFICE

FOR

ARITHMETIC

It
.

sellingprice?
If

$489.75.

to make

net

it

profit

goods?

EXAMPLES

1.

15

bought

cents

yd.,and

cloth

of

cuts

sold

it for

containing 40^ yd. each, at


the
cents
was
a
yd. What

gain?
A

2.

furniture

Goods

the cost

of the

5.

gave

payment

bought

What

at

$ 10 bill.

25

$ 4.50

change

each,

should

Office assistants

In

must

out

amount

the

for
Find

Find

$125.

must

in each

followingpay

know

profitof $

28.50.

?
silk at $ 1.80 per
did

change
at

$ 2.75

gave

in

payment

she

yard, and
receive.?

yard, and

per

bill.

$ 100

AND

tabulate
the

at

carpet

and

SHEETS

different denominations
exact

for $ 27.30.

loss of

sold

What

I receive

compute

addition,they

of

yards

TIME

and

at

were

yards of

4"

bought

woman

chairs

couch

14.50,a

goods.

in

6.

chairs

some

$367.75

costing $ 145.25
much
were
they sold

how

For

for

sold

were

Goods

4.

for

of his sales.

the amount
3.

table

11.75,and

for $

$ 45.80,a desk

sold

dealer

PAY
the time

individual
the

of the different
due

amount

number

requiredso as
envelope. This
roll form.

ROLLS

of coins
to

may

be

able

be done

each
and
to

ployees
em-

week.
bills of

place the
by making

256
FORM

VOCATIONAL

USED

TO

TIME

DETERMINE

MATHEMATICS

THE

NUMBER

OF

FORM

CARD

FOR

Week

GIRLS

FOR

DIFFERENT

USED
THE

TO

DENOMINATIONS

SEND

MONEY

TO

BANI

THE

PAY

FOR

ROLL

.191

Ending-

OF

MEMORANDUM

No.

CASH

FOR

PAY

ROLL

NAME
WANTED

BY

-19-

Total

Mrs.

Time--

Rate
Total

Wages

for

Week

OFFICE

FOR

ARITHMETIC

TABLE

find

To
cents

per

the
for

counted
for

due

amount

hour, look

and

hours

time

the

OF

at

Sundays

and

WAGES1
any

column

the
will

amount

overtime

at

be

257

ASSISTANTS

rate

from

30

Time

and

regular working days,

on

number

containingthe
shown.

to. 55

cents

of

half

and

is

double

holidays.

EXAMPLES

1.

hours

Find

the

amount

regular time
1

Similar

and
tables

due
2 hours
may

carpenter who
overtime

be constructed

at 55
for other

has
cents
rates.

worked
per

hour.

258

VOCATIONAL

2.

his

plastererworked
regular wages are 45

receive
3.

much

machinist's

from

cents

from

8 to 11

hour,

per

P.M.

7.30 to 12

him

works

working July

six

days

in the

afternoons

1 to 5.30 ; and
for his week's

A.M.

morning

; every

1 until 6

at 50

cents

What

P.M.

per

; two

P.M.

hour ?

EMPLOYEES

OF

$1,200.00 per
700.00

per

annum
annum

Nurses,

2 at

45.00

per

month

Nurses,

1 at

40.00

per

month

35.00

Nurses, 3

per

month

6.00

per

week

12.00

per

week

1.00 per

day

6.00 per

week

4 at

6.00 per

week

at

6.00 per week

at

Attendant
Cook
cook

Assistant
Kitchen
Ward

maid

maids,

Waitresses, 2
Laundress

2 at

Janitors, 1 day and


Barber

the

week

6.00 per

week

to

make

necessary

and

Assume

weekly
full time

6.00 per

week

for

(52 weeks

roll

pay
a

nations
denomi-

week.

Make

for bank.

coins and

to make

week

bills of all different

the

up

memorandum

the total of

per

16.00

coins

the above.

the currency
Find

night

total of

necessary

year) of

Find

per

8.00

Washwomen,

6.

he

How

8-12

1 to 4.30

Matron

out

from

week

from

one

Superintendent

If

will

hour.

an

4th

from

wages

WAGES

much

cents

for

; three

M.

from

will he receive

5.

how

o'clock.

plumber

afternoons

is 55

regular wage

is due

1^.30

4.

Sunday

on

GIRLS

FOR

money

and

MATHEMATICS

up

the

47" hours, at

bills of

the different

followingpay
30 cents.

48

hours,

at 45

48

hours,

at

46

hours,

at

cents.

47|
32^

cents.
cents.

roll

nations
denomi-

CHAPTER
ARITHMETIC
THE

SALESGIRLS

majority of employees
It

be

may

operationof
has

FOR

XII

such

well

to

store

and

in

AND

CASHIERS

girls.
department store are salesdescribe
of
brieflythe method
to indicate what
part a salesgirl
a

in it.

of a number
of distinct
department store is a combination
roof
and
stores
or
one
departments under
general management.
It is organizedin this way for the purpose
of economy.
Each
as
a
department is conducted
separate store, and is
in charge of a buyer, who
both
buys and plans the sales
for his department. His
department is charged for rent,
also pay
for overhead
according to its location,and must
charges.
The
him
buyer in charge of each department has under
or
saleswomen, who sell the goods. Each
salesgirls
salesgirl
has a book
containing sales slipsin duplicateand a card to
show

the amount

The
if the

sales

of sales.

slipshows

merchandise

the

and

name

is to be

sent

to

address
the

of the

customer's

specialform

home.

case

of

charge

account

260

sales

In

slip is
used.
The
and quality of the article purchased are
name
extended
to the right.
written in large space and the amount
the purchaser is placed
The
received from
of money
amount
at the top of the sales slip.
The
carbon copy
A carbon copy of each sales slipis made.
is sent with the money
and the original
is givento the customer
It is then used to tabulate data in regard to
to the cashier.
sales,etc.
the

of

purchaser

ARITHMETIC

FOR

SALESGIRLS

AND

CASHIERS

DEPARTMENT
SALESMAN

DATE--

261

262

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

FOR

GIRLS

calculations
Salesgirlsshould be able to do a great many
only through practice.
sight. This abilitycomes

EXAMPLES

Find

the

of the

amount

following :

1.

10

yd. percaleat

121

2.

12

yd. voile

3.

27

yd. silesia

4.

50

yd.

5.

28

yd. mohair

6.

48

yd. organdie at 37^-cents.

7.

911

yd. gingham

8.

112

yd. calico

9.

36

yd. galatea at

10.

11

yd. lawn

11.

64

yd. dotted

12.

24

yd. gabardine

13.

18

yd. poplin at

29

14.

16

yd. hamburg

at 15

15.

12

yd. lace

16.

19

yd. val

17.

26

yd. braid

18.

48 dz. hooks

19.

19

20.

18 pc.

21.

22.

56

yd. linen

23.

18

yd. albatross

24.

22

yd. silk

at 16

cents.

at 331

cents.

$ 1.50.

at

serge

cents.

$ 1.25.

at

at 10

at 41

cents.

cents.

15 cents.

at 19

cents.

muslin

at 621

$1.75.

at

at 871

cents.

cents.
cents.

cents.

lace at 9 cents.
at 25

and

yd. cambric

cents.
eyes

at 15

binding at

at 621

at

cents.

16 cents.

at 24

yd. canvas

at 12

at

cents.
cents.

$ 1.50.

$ 2.25.

cents0

at

ARITHMETIC

263

CASHIERS

AND

SALESGIRLS

FOR

PROBLEMS

bought

1.

for

handkerchiefs
whole

cloth

cotton

valued

$ 6.25,silk at $ 13.75,

at

What

$ 2.75.

$ 2.50,and

hose

for

$ 15.20

month, $

the

was

cost ?

Ruth

2.

third

the

and

saved

months

month

$ 4.05

20.75

than

more

much

How

together.

months

one

month,

first and

the

she*

did

second

in

save

second

the

three

?
Goods

3.

sold

were

for

$ 367.75,at

loss of $ 125.

Find

the cost of the stock.


Goods

4.

how

For

much

5.

costing$ 145.25
were
they sold

butcher

9J-pounds to
1" pounds, to
pounds did he
Edith

6.

cloak,and
A

sold

sold

were

second, to

fourth

as

profitof $

of

the

third

much

as

to

meat
much

as

to the

customer,

one

the

as

second.

many

for

$ 7.25 for

sold

9.

Find

merchant

hat.

sold

How

dress,one-half
did

much

as

much

for

she pay

first

four

16

piece
yards,
of the

sum

the

10.

From

7 cents

gain?

sold

goods

for $ 528.40

and

gained $

were

29.50.

cost.

6J yards for
11.

merchant

for all ?

piece of cloth containing65f yards,there


?
yards remained
23J yards. How
many

8.

plus

sell ?

paid $42.75

From

first

How

pieces of cloth ; the


contained
24 yards,the second
32 yards,the third
and
the fourth five-eighths
as
yards as the
many
other three.
How
yards were' sold?
many
7.

28.50.

8J pounds

at

11
a

yards
suit.

bought 15
a yard and

of

How
cuts

cut
cloth,3| were
yards remained
many

of cloth

for

coat, and

containing 40^ yards

sold it for 9 cents

yard.

What

each
was

at

the

264

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

13-Jyards of

12.

What

is the cost of

13.

What

is the

cost

of

16^ yards

is the

cost

of

per

GIRLS

FOR

silk at $ 3.75 per

yard ?

of broadcloth

$ 2.25

at

yard ?
What

14.

14^,and 15^ yards at


15.

What

will

16.

What

is the

chine

at

17.

121

cents

5| yards

$ 1.75 per

pieces of cloth containing 12|,


per yard ?

of velvet

cost

of three-fourths

cost

yard

$ 2.75 per yard ?

at

of

of

yard

crgpe

de

salesladyis paid $ 1.00 per day for services and a


all sales over
If the sales
of 2 % on
$ 50 per week.
will be her salary?
to $ 175 per week, what

bonus
amount

1.33^a yard, how

much

will 15

yard, how

much

will 9

18.

At

19.

At

$ 1.16

20.

At

1.12^ per yard, how

yards of
yards

will 6

much

lace cost ?

of silk cost ?

yards

of velvet

cost?
21.

At

22.

yards

of

Amount
customer
23.

33^

cents

$ 25.00.

6" yards

the

How

Sold

Amount

at

Sold

cheviot

at

received,$
?

141

much

111

of cheviot

of velveteen

change

yards

at

at

$ 1.10,5f yards of silk at

98

cents.

will be

of Persian

40.

lawn

much

How

Amount

given to

the

received,
?

customer

$ 1.95, 6| yards of

at

cents, 12J'yards of linen

25

received, $

customer

25.

handkerchiefs.

of 101

cost

Sold

dimity

the

yards of gingham at 25 cents, 9


cotton
at V2I\cents, 101 yards of Madras
at 35 cents.
received,$ 10. How much change will be given to the
salesgirlsold

1.25,91 yards

24.

each, find

suiting at

change

will

be

75

cents.

given

to

1.371,5J-yards

of

9| yards
$ 1.25,15
30.

How

of Persian

yards
much

of

lawn
cotton

change

at
at

$
121

will be

Amount

cents.

given

to

the

tomer
cus-

yards of muslin at 25 cents, 12^ yards of lining


at $ 1.50,7 yards of suitingat
11 cents, 6| yards of lawn
much
How
Amount
cents.
change will be
received,$ 20.
Sold

26.

at

75

265

CASHIERS

AND

SALESGIRLS

FOR

ARITHMETIC

given to
27.

48

at

at 24

$ 50.

the

customer

yards of velvet
cents, 23 yards of cotton
cents, 7| yards of ribbon
much
How
change will
Sold

at

16

28.

At

121

29.

At

$ 2.50

30.

If

it takes

jacket,and

cents

at

be

of

for

will

yards
for

cloth

customer

8J yards

vest, how

the

given to

will 2.8

5^ yards

yard

cents, 6| yards of dimity


Amount
25 cents.
received,

at 15

yard, what

yard, what

$ 2.25,14J yards of suiting

cost ?

of ribbon

of velvet

cost ?

coat, 3i yards for

yards

many

it take

will

for all ?
33

yards

cloth.

of

did

much

How

cost ?

yard

one

for

$ 16.50

I gave

31.

shopping. She had a $ 20 bill. She bought


dress for $ 9.50,a pair of gloves for $ .75,a fan for $ .87,
a
How
for $ .37 each, and a hat for $ 4.50.
handkerchiefs
two
Mary

32.

much

went

had

money

How

dress

Emma's

33.

much

she left ?

did

$ 11.25,and

cost

34.

What

is the cost

35.

What

is the

How

cost ?

Mary's

of

cost

of

Mary's

much

16f yards

did both

of silk at

14| yards

cost

cost ?

$ 2.75

of cambric

much.

as

at 42

yard ?
cents

yard?
If

36.

paid for

be

piece of

calico

sold at different times

yards

33

yard of sheetingcost 22|


bought for $ 15.15 ?

From

38.

been

calico cost

One

37.
can

5J yards of
14f yards ?

remain

cents, how

cents.

How

much

must

many

containing33| yards there


11J,7|,and 1" yards. How

be

yards

have
many

266

VOCATIONAL

bought 16 \ yards of

39.

it for $

4J

40.

MATHEMATICS

per

What

yard.
has

merchant

28|, 35 L, and
each
from
piece,he
67 yards. How
many

cloth

Make

to

Change.

FOR

should

gain ?

be

CASHIER

Every efficient cashier

"

to the

change by adding
enough change to make
change

sold

piecesof cloth containing,respectively,


41 f yards. After
sellingseveral yards
finds that he lias left in the three pieces
yards has he sold ?

makes

The

$ 3J per yard, and

three

ARITHMETIC

How

for

the

was

GIRLS

FOR

the

of the sale

amount

equal

sum

in the

returned

to

saleslady

or

purchase

or

presented.

amount

largestdenominations

possible.
To
of

illustrate

$ 1.52.

should

She

she

lady buys dry goods

young

gives the salesladya

receive

to

$ 5 bill.

the amount

What

change

saleslady will say:


$1.52, $1.55, -$1.65, $1.75, $2.00, $4.00,
That
$ 1.65 ; $ 1.55 + $.10
is, $ 1.52 + $ .03
$ 1.65 ; $1.65

The
$5.00.

$.10=

$1.00

$1.75;
=

$1.75 + $.25

$2.00; $2.00 + $2.00

$4.00

$4.00

$5.00.

EXAMPLES

1.

What

should

change

followingpurchases were

be

given

made

for

dollar

bill,if

$.87

c.

$.43

e.

b. $.39

d.

$.51

/. $.23

a.

2.

What

change

should

followingpurchases
a.

$1.19

6. $.89
c.

$1.73

be
made

were

given for

$.20

two-dollar

d. $1.57

g. $.63

$1.42

h. $.78

e.

the

/. $1.12

i.

$.27

bill,if

the

CHAPTER

XIII

CIVIL

ALMOST

is

through

examination.

an

subjectstested.

of the

one

subject,but also the


some
general rules on

totals
2.

questions of

On

for

added,

each

.For

division, as

each

know

to

deduct

only

not

for this

the

reason

Papers
added

are

sums

Arithmetic

cases

Civil Service

"

addition, where

and

across

the

16| %.

questions containing simple multiplication

in

error

most

to be

has

women

marking, and
subjectfollow.

this

error

to

of

standards

deduct

single process,

In

It is wise

Arithmetic

Marking
1.

positionopen

government

every

obtained

SERVICE

50

as

double

process,

or

deduct

25%.
3.

and

questions involving fractions

In

computation, mark

follows

as

(a) Wrong process leading to incorrect result,credit


or
complex statement, process,
(6) For inconvenient
right result,deduct

not

(c)

If the

(d)

If the

(e)
(/)

If

full,deduct

If the

25

0.
or

method, giving

"fc
.

but

is correct

answer

work

no

and

the

is shown,
is

process

credit

0.

clearly indicated,but

"fo
.

is made

attempt

no

5 to 25

is correct

answer

in

written

from

simple

than

other

problems

credit 0.

to answer,

operation is incomplete, credit

in

proportion

to

work

the

done.

(gr)For
deduct

the

omission

of the

dollar

given
4.

or

answer,

5.

(ft)In long division examples,


is

sign ($) in final result

as

For

(a)

For

commensurate

(6)

For

mixed

number,

questions
omission

on

deduct

to be

solved

by decimals, if the

25.

bookkeeping and accounts,


heading, deduct 25 ;

of total

mark
for

as

follows

misplacement

of credits

or

partial omission,

deduction.
every

answer

debits, deduct

25.

CIVIL

(c)
(d)

omission

For

every

For

omissions

NOTE.

Hard

"

and

are

is

fast rules

mistakes

of certain

examples

by

upon

high-grade positions
arithmetic.
service

the

in

like,is

type of
made

marked

about

CIVIL

SERVICE

work

easier

60%

2.

Subtract

3.

Divide

4.

At

5.

for $
7.

clerical

as

police and

as

fire

clerical.

example.)

48,901,001.

how

dozen,

dozen

many

eggs

can

be

372

of

pounds

meal

corn

cost

if 4 Ib. cost

If

What
of

How

394

bought

man

14,700,what

discount
8.

basis

same

for

would

What

errors

.717.

18,617.03 by

for $ 33.67

12 cents
6.

16,389,110 from

per

of

sorts

of

set

in arithmetic

such

than

in full in each

Multiply 83,849,619 by 11,079.

bought

the

tance
impora

EXAMPLES

1.

$ 0.37

Before

various

for

the

because

general, examples

practically

on

25.

example.

lower-grade examinations,

(Give the

balance, deduct

be

to

In

marked

are

10.

always applicable
the

examiners.

Arithmetic

and

of

not

with

deductions

the

deduct

item,

or

are

differs

the

marked,

decided

of date

misplacement

or

269

SERVICE

the

was

is the

net

37^-%

of

amount

$ 23,640 and

each

profiton

pints in

many

for

cows

93.70, subjectto

containing14,784

measure

210

cow

bill for $

sold

cubic

inches ?
9.

What

sixth

by

10.

If

week,

number

man's

how

much

What

will

12.

How

many

averages

each

How
ton

sum

of its

is $

1600, and

fourth, fifth,and

23 ?

11.

13.

the

exceeds

160

yearly income

hogs

costs

and

tons

$ 8.75 ?

in

save

16|-pounds

pounds
many

he

can

can

year

of butter
be

costs

of coal

can

be

spends

for
a

$ 25

cost at 34 cents

bought
9 cents

he

$ 1340

pound
bought

pound

if each

hog

for

$446.25, if

270

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

14.

lady

young

letter averages
in

handle

separate 38 letters per minute.

can

how

6^ ounces,

hour

an

GIRLS

FOR

of mail

pounds

many

If

does

she

?
divide

and

Multiply 53 J by 9f
(Solvedecimally.)
15.

the

product by 2^.

Roll

16.

matting

73

costs

each
the cost of 47 rolls,
A

17.

$ 6500.
A

18.

much

How
wheel

days, 8
he

save

How

hour

each

70 cents

the transaction

hour.

an

spends $

yards

square

them

for

What

is the distance

If he

works

50

how

month,

is it in

48' 5"

and

long

does

23' 1" wide.

area

days will it take a ship to cross


miles,if the vessel sails at the rate

2970

129

much

the Atlantic

many

Eleven

What

bought

men

How

tract.

23.

merchant
of

giving the agent


If milk

of 21 miles

quart, and
of milk

quarts
25.

many

did

traveler

more

miles

have

for his commission

quart, and

you

milk

was

an

in

acres

28

buy goods.
for freight

?
sold it for 9 cents

$48,

how

many

sell ?

you

travels
has

the

22

$ 10,228 to

agent

goods, after paying $

profitfor

your

man

with

the

6 cents

costs

land

will each

his

sends

of

7 tracts

acres

many

is the value

24.
a

sold

and

22.

and

will be

in. wide

36

in diameter.

rectangular courtyard is

How

Ocean,

What

yd.

year

many

21.

27 mules

gain by

3' 1"

measures

sq.

yd. long and

for

he

bricklayerearns
hours a day, and
a

20.

did

per

the tire ?

around
19.

roll 60

5123.25

paid $

man

cents

"

he

llf
yet

miles
to

travel

day

for

if the

days.
journey

How
is 134

miles ?
26.
a

is the

What

discount

of

16| %

net

amount

of

bill for $29.85,

subjectto

Add

27.

add

then

totals in the

placing the

across,

the totals and

271

SERVICE

CIVIL

check

indicated ;

spaces

TOTALS

17,694

8,431

18,630

91

3,777

871

8,901

305

5,912

707

6,801

29,006

5,891

30

16,717

5,008

10,008

7,771

144

9,001

13,709

10,999

1,113

3,444

28.

Divide

29.

37,818.009 by .0391.

pileof

is sold

and

is the

Add

30.

wood

for $ 4.85

What

cost.

39

the

is 136
per

cost

ft.

long, 8

cord, which

of the

ft.

wide, and
20 % more

is

6 ft.

high,

than

the

pile?

following column

and

the

from

subtract

sum

81,376,019:
80,614,304
68,815,519
32,910,833
54,489,605
96,315,809
75,029,034
21,201,511
A

31.

man

sold it for 28
A

32.

bought 128 gal. cider at


much
cents a gallon. How

laborer

his expenses

has

$48

$ 7.75

are

in the

bank.
How

day.

23

cents

did
He

he

gallon;

make

he

is taken

days

many

sick

will

and

his fund

last?
In

33.

many

bricks

34.

at

9 in.

street

long and

If

mi.

long

4 in. wide

Find

the

simple interest

Find

the

simple interest

on

and

will be

$ 841.37

54

ft.

wide,

how

required?

for 2 yr. 3

mo.

17 da.

$ 367.49 for 1 yr. 7

mo.

19 da.

5%.
35.

at

paving

4%.

on

272

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

SPECIMEN

GIRLS

FOR

ARITHMETIC

PAPERS

CLERKS, MESSENGERS,

ETC.

Rapid Computation
1.

Add

these

; then

placing the

across,

add

the totals

in

totals

the

dicated
in-

spaces

TOTALS

the

Give
Multiply 82,473,659 by 9874.
3. From
68,515,100 subtract 24,884,574.
full.
4. Divide
29,379.7 by .47. Give
2.

What

5.

is the

discount

of

net

amount

of

Give

the work

16f %

Give
the

bill for

work

in

the

full.

work

work

in

in
full.

$19.20, subjectto

in full.

Arithmetic
1.

How

Give

987,642 ?

pole 9
spirewhich
3.

How

yard

24

shadow

work

price of

221

has

5.

noon

to

noon

7.

goods

the

principalthat

increased

Give

and

by

deducts

still makes

of

in full.
sod

the work

$ 25

will

yield $

the work

90 minutes

midnight,what

merchant

Give

right
up-

church

requiredto

is he worth

What

an

day,
Give

% simple interest.

past

from

Find

at 6

of

the work

income

an

make

to

height of

will be
wide

522

to

Give

ft. long ?

merchant

time

his

is the

retired

at 4

in full.

If the shadow

8 inches

mo.

of the time

2.

10 feet

in full.

If the

in full.

8 in. square,

property being invested

in 1 yr. 6

added

long and

4.

be

8^ ft. long,what

sods, each

feet

the work

6.

casts

720

must

work

the

ft. high is

many

in full.
his

times

many

time
20

profitof

16

full.

equals -f^

is it ?
from

in

38.40

Give

the

the marked

%.

At

what

advance

on

the

in full.

8.

If

cost

sells

grocer

the

are

marked

goods

Give

tub of butter

at 22

the

cents

sells it at 17 cents

if he

he will gain 168 cents, but

273

SERVICE

CIVIL

work

pound,

will lose 112

cents.

Find

(a)the weight of

the butter and

the cost per

pound.

Give

the work

9.

four factors is 432.


factors

two

of the factors

Two

What

equal.

are

in full.

the

are

The

3 and

are

(b)

product of

4.

The

equal factors

he

pound,

other

Give

the

times

and

in full.

work

STENOGRAPHER-TYPEWRITER

leave
2.

and
3.

what

From

1.

number

remainder

What

number

seventh
A

of 49 ?

sells to

at

work

in full.

at 6
5.

and

the

A
the

the work
sold

\ of
remaining 60

man

the farm

did

simple interest

Give

%.

at first ?

his

332.0625
Give
2.

the work
How

decimal

What

goods

cost

profit;

the

Give

for 3 yr. 1

15 da.

mo.

D.

the work

WEIGHTS
and

test

is its

B, f

of

the remainder

How

acres

many

to

C,

were

in

in full.

MEASURES

AND

Measures,
is found

43, 276)

pages

to

have

capacity of

capacityin gallons,quarts, etc. ?

in full.
would

quarts, dry measure,

many

hold ?

3.

in.

cu.

to

to

acres

OF

under

measure

sells to C at 5

of $ 297.60

farm

(Review Weights
A

in full.

the work

the

fourth,fifth,
sixth,

in full.

Give

SEALERS

1.

Give

307

in full.

of its

sum

10'% profit;B

paid $ 5336.10, what


Find

the work

the

101 ?

if C

4.

Give

exceeds

parts by

be subtracted

857

can

Give

the work

in

the

full,carrying the

above

answer

ure
meas-

to four

places.

What
?

is the

Give

equivalentof

the work

in full.

175
1

Ib.
av.

troy
Ib.

in

pounds

7000

dupois
avoir-

grains.-

274

VOCATIONAL

How

4.

the work

15

Ib. 10

Give

What

the
of

part

in full.

bushel

"the

is 2

What

7.

will

both

answer

10 bushels

$ 2.10 per bushel

as

decimally and

in the

pecks and

Give

part of

What

8.

the work

Give

pints?

decimal

and

as

of

form

(") WThat

percentage

of

full

cost

in full.

grains,expressed both
fraction

common

strawberry basket was


capacity. (a) How
many

quarts of seed

is 50

troy pound

9.

in

pecks and

fraction.

common

at

Give

avoirdupois?

oz.

grains avoirdupois to grains

20

oz.

work

full and

in

work

the

Ib. 15

12

GIRLS

FOR

in full.

troy weight.
6.

grains in

many

Reduce

5.

MATHEMATICS

found

to

cubic

inches

be 65.2 cubic inches


short

quart did it contain

was

it ?

Give

the

in full.

work
10.

In

testinga spring scale

22

Ib. of

22

Ib. 101

at this

correct

on

that in

found

was

the

same,

percentage of

the

was

Give

weight ?

weights

test

What

oz.

it

weighing
indicated

scale

in this scale

error

in full.

the work

VISITOR
1.

certain

received

$ 693.07, and
to

$ 1322.48.

had

"home"

The

the

at

during
expenses

beginning

the

year

for

the

donations
were

year

of

the

year

amounting
:

salaries,

$387.25 ; printing,
$651.15 ; rent, $104.25
etc.,$175 ; supplies,
Find
heat,etc.,$ 75 ; interest,$ 100 ; miscellaneous, $ 72.83.
the

cash

hand

on

at

the

end

of

the

year.

Give

the work

in

full.
2.

expense

Of the
in

locally,and
relieved by

72,700 persons

the
the
the

year

ending

remainder
state.

Give

relieved
March

by
the

the
work

in

certain

state

31, 1912, 76 %
state.

Find

in full.

were

the

at

public
aided

number

PART

ARITHMETIC

"

FOR

CHAPTER

A
used
the
on

should

NURSE

be

NURSES

XIV

familiar

with

the

There
dispensingmedicines.
English, based on the grain,and
in

are

the

weights and

measures

systems used

two

Metric

system,

based

the meter.
APOTHECARIES'

WEIGHT

(Troy Weight)
20

The
written

grains (gr.)
=

scruple (3)

33

=1

dram

(3 )

83

=1

ounce

(3 )

123

=1

pound

(ft)=96

of units

number
after

the

60 gr.
24

=480

gr.

=288

is often

symbols.

1.

How

many

grains in

iv

2.

How

many

grainsin

iii drams

3.

How

many

grains in

iv

4.

How

many

scruplesin

5.

How

many

grains in

6.

How

many

drams

7.

How

many

grains in

8.

How

many

scruplesin 3

9.

How

many

drams

How

many

10.

ounces

5760

expressed by Roman
Numerals,
(See Roman

EXAMPLES

scruples?

ounces

lb i ?

lb iii?

in lb iv ?

in

3 ii ?
v

5 vii ?

in lb viii ?
276

gr.

numerals
p.

"

2.)

ARITHMETIC

gr.

5 i will make

Salt

11.

to

xc

how

277

NURSES

quarts of saline

many

solution,

qt. 1 ?

How

12.

FOR

drains

many

Seidlitz Powder

Each

of sodium

APOTHECARIES'
60 minims

(m)

FLUID

1 fluid dram

8 f 3

=1

fluid

16 f 3

=1

pint (0)

=1

gallon (C)

8 O

contains

powder

ounce

in 10

carbonate

powders

of

gr. xl.

MEASURE

(f 3 ).
(f 3).
f 3

128

m.

f 3 =1024

128

7680

f 3

EXAMPLES

1.

How

many

minims

in f 3 iv ?

2.

How

many

minims

in f 3 iii?

3.

How

many

fluid drams

4.

How

many

minims

5.

How

many

pints in

6.

How

many

fluid drams

7.

How

many

minims

8.

How

many

fluid drams

9.

How

many

pints in

10.

How

many

minims

11.

If the dose

of

3 ii of

12.

cocaine

is

in 5
8

in C vii ?
v

in f

5 ix ?
is

and

xxx

of the

much

drug

given

solution
when

contains
doctor

gr. i of

orders

Measures

Household

dose

is contained

and

is

cocaine.

contains
in f 5 i

much

How

of the solution

of Fluids

Measures)

ordinaryteaspoonfulis supposed
water

each

(With

pure

ii?

in 0

in f 5 viii ?

Approximate

An

pints?

gallons?

solution

-^ggr. strychnine,how
of the solution

in 1 0 ?

to

approximately equal

to

hold
a

60
fluid

minims

of

dram.

278

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

drop
to

GIRLS

FOR

is

ordinarilyconsidered
equivalent
minim, but this is only approximately
in

true

the

of

case

water.

The

specific
gravity,shape,and surface from
which
the drop is poured influence
the
size.
In
be
to
preparing medicines
taken
should
never
internally,minims
be measured
out
as
drops. There are
minim
for this
droppers and measures
purpose.
A

level

teaspoonful of either a fluid


solid preparationis equal to a dram.
or
Level
spoonfuls are always considered
A

in

GRADUATE.

teaspoonful

dessertspoonful

measurements.

1 fluid dram.

2 fluid drains.

tablespoonful

4 fluid drams

ul
wineglassf

2 fluid

ounces.

teacupful

6 fluid

ounces.

8 fluid

ounces.

1 tumblerful

or

fluid

ounce.

EXAMPLES

1.

How

many

in
dessertspoonfuls

2.

How

many

wineglassfulsin

3.

How

many

in
tablespoonfuls

4.

How

many

s in
teaspoonful

5.

How

many

teacupfulsin

6.

How

many

in
dessertspoonfuls

7.

How

many

teaspoonfulsin

8.

How

many

drops of

9.

How

many

in
teaspoonfuls

How

many

minims

10.

6 fluid drams

quart ?

ounces

pints?

?
?

ounces

gallon?

in 1
3

3 fluid drams

5 fluid

ounces

2 tumblerfuls

4 fluid drams

water

in 3

8 fluid

ARITHMETIC

What

11.

household

3 i to

would

measure

279

NURSES

to make

use

you

the

measurements
followingapothecaries'
equivalents:

12.

their

tion,
solu-

pint?

Read

FOR

a.

3 iv.

b.

gr.

c.

/.

3 ss.1

v.

g.

ii.

h.

3 ii.

d.

5 ii-

e.

" ij.

Metric

metric

give

iv.

*"" 3 iv.

j. I

of

System

and

Weights

Metric

(Review

and

in

System

ss.

Measures

Appendix.)

of

is used
to a
weights and measures
The
advantage of this system over
great extent in medicine.
it is easy to change
the English is that,in preparing solutions,
and volumes
to weights without
the use
of
weights to volumes
The

system

fractions.

common

In

avoid
chief

medicine

the

confusion

with

the

dram)

1000

wt.

and

grammes

kilogram of

water

of 1 cubic

kilogram

the

in

prescriptionsto
milligramme are the

1000

cc.

1 gramme

grain

1 cubic

centimeter

0.064

15 minims.

1 liter

The
volume

liter and

used

0.06

approx.

c.

kilo."

15

grains.

(approx.).
are

in medicine.
ss

at 4"

cc.

centimeter

water

gramme.

1 quart

cubic

(cc.) of

FACTORS

15.4

1 minim

"

1 liter.

or

centimeter

or

CONVERSION

written

weights used.

1 gramme

(so

gramme

means

one-half.

the

principalunits

of

280
A

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

micro-millimeter
It is

r^

To

convert

To

convert

To

convert

cc.

To

convert

minims

To

convert

grains into

To

convert

fluid drams

To

convert

drams

into minims

cc.

in

tances.
measuring microscopicaldisindicated
by the Greek letter /A.

multiply by

into drams

grammes
into

divide

ounces

into

divide

by

divide

cc.

into

4.

by
15.

by

divide

grammes

15.

30.

15.

by

multiply by

cc.

into grammes

4.

multiply by
0.064

4.

grain

grains

0.1 gramme.

grains

0.3 gramme.

grains

0.5 gramme.

10

grains

15

grains

milligramme

0.6

gramme.

gramme.

1 gramme.
0.0154

Troy (apothecary)and

Review
and

is

and

mm.

43

is used

GIRLS

FOR

grain.

avoirdupoisweights, pages

276.
EXAMPLES

1.
a

red

fraction
2.

of

4.

bottle
5.

grams
6.

is

form

part of
A

the

diameter

What

part

Give

in

25000"

in diameter.

inch

of

is it ?

Another

What

8 /x,in diameter.

inch.

an

microbe

millimeter
3.

corpuscleis

of microbe

millimeter

bottle holds
when

How

cc.

-Q^-^Qof

an

inch

in diameter.

is it ?
is the

What

weight

of water

in the

it is filled ?

of water

the

in

liters of water

many

Give

48

is

vessel

containing4831

approximate equivalent

in

English

following:
a.

48 grammes

d.

8 kilos

b.

3.6

e.

3:9 grammes

c.

3.5 liters

kilograms

/.

53

milligrammes

of

the

7.

of the
a.

approximate equivalentsin
following:

Give

39

grains

d.

1 fluid drams
47

flb

Approximate

13

e.

Equivalents

metric

the

the

b. 4 drams
c.

281

NURSES

FOR

ARITHMETIC

system

quarts

/.

g.

39

h.

8321

gallons
minims

grains
Household

and

Metric

between

Measures
1

teaspoon ful

dessertspoonful

tablespoonful

wineglassful

teacupful

glassful

cc.

or

4 grams

of water.

8 cc.

or

8 grams

of water.

16+
60

of water.

15+ grams

or

cc.

of water.

60 grams

cc.

or

180

cc.

or

180 grams

of water.

240

cc.

or

240

of water.

grams

EXAMPLES

(Give approximate answers.)


1.

What

metric
2.

system
3.

is the

metric
5.

in the

of

in

What

of

in the

metric

liters of

water

in

the

of

water

in

the

gallon of

is the

weight

is the

weight

of

three

volume

of

four

water

What

What

is the

ounces

system ?
What

is the volume

English system

of twelve

cubic

centimeters

What

is the volume

of f 3 iii in the metric

7.

What

is the volume

of

8.

What

is the

9.

What

is the volume

10.

What

is the

11.

With
the

of water

6.

obtain

the

water

glassfulsof

two

system ?

English system
4.

weight

weight
weight

eighty grammes

of 360.1

cc.

of 6.1 liters of water

ordinary household
following: 5 gm., m

of water

of water

of 4 kilos of water

L., 25

?
?
?
how

measures

xv, 1.5

system

cc.,

would

5 ii,f 5

you
ss

282

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

GIRLS

FOR

SYSTEM

METRIC
EXAMPLES

the

Change

1.

followingto milligrammes
dg.,13 gm.

8 gin., 17
2.

3.

Change

the

13 mg.,

29

Add

following:
18 dg., 21 gm.,

the

11 mg.,

Express

25

the

Give

doses

of

dose

contains
6.

in

answer

mg.

4.2 gm.

dg.,21

mg.

milligrammes.
is

to make

25

equivalentin

the

dose

the

9.8

atropine

is necessary

gramme

0.4
cc.

mg.
of

solution in which

of
1

a
cc.

metric

system

of the

following

of

Extract

b.

Tincture

gentian, gr. ^.
of quassia,3 i.

capsicum, m iii.
d. Spiritsof peppermint, 3 i.
Cinnamon
m
x.
e.
spirit,
/. Oil of cajuput,m xv.
of cascara
sagrada, gr.
g. Extract
Tincture

of

h.

Fluid

i.

Agar

agar,

7.

Give

the

doses

extract

of senna,

v.

3 ii.

ss.

equivalentin

the

English system

a.

Ether,

6.

Syrup of ipecac,4 cc.


Compound syrup of hypophosphites,4

c.

fraction

What

a.

c.

following :
1.7 gm.,

mg.,

The

grammes

in grammes.

the

Express
5.

dg.,7 dg.,21

answer

Add

4.

following to

cc.

cc.

of the following

284

VOCATIONAL

5.

If the normal

is 1 dram, what
6.

what

what

If the normal

If

the

what

10.

for

child

much

How

in

nurse

treating the

drams,

strychninesulphateis ^

adult

dose

of aromatic

is the

dose

for

adult
be

should

is 4

gr.,

of 8 ?

dose

ipecac is

15

grains,what

is

of

of

dose

given to

sick.

of 5 m'onths

ipecacis

child

1 gramme,

what

is

2 years

3.2 mg.

old ?

SOLUTIONS

the

strengthof

of these

Most

ammonia

strychninesulphateis

OF

about

know

child

spiritsof

old ?

STRENGTH
A

of

10 months

child

should

salts

epsom

of

adult

normal

The

of

dose

If the normal
a

ounce,

of 11 ?

what

for

oil is one-half

of 4 ?

dose

adult

ammonia

of 7 ?

of castor

dose

child

If the normal

the dose
12.

for

If the normal

is 4 grammes,
11.

adult

spiritsof

of 6 ?

child

If the normal

dose

dose

adult

for

child

GIRLS

FOR

of aromatic

for

child

normal

is the dose

9.

dose

adult

for

is the dose

8.

adult

is the dose

is the dose

7.

the

MATHEMATICS

substances

substances

are

used
which

drugs

given in a book called a


prepared according to formulas
Pharmacopoeia.
Preparationsmade according to this standard
often
have
the
letters
official preparations,and
called
are
from
to distinguishthem
U. S. P. written after them
patented
are

prepared from
preparations
Drugs

are

applied in

unknown

the

formulas.

following

forms

ments,
solutions,lini-

ointments,
oleates,cerates, powders, lozenges,plasters,
etc.

An

infusion

is

liquidpreparation of

extractingthe drug
infusion

is

physician.

5%

of

with

the

boiling water.

drug, unless

the
The

otherwise

drug made
strength
ordered

of

by

by
an

the

strength of

The

of

form

the

ratio.

parts by weight of water


by weight of the substance.
100

of

fraction

be written
written

as

This

cent

that

in

every

are

10

parts

there

solvent

the

or

means

be

may

in

per

as

written

or

in

form

y1^-or y1^-.In other words, for every ten parts


Since a fraction may
is one
part of substance.
ratio,it may be called a solution of one to ten,

"

there

of solvent

solution

10

written

be

solution may

285

NURSES

FOR

ARITHMETIC

thus, 1

10.
EXAMPLES

1.

the

Express

following per

cents

ratios:

as

5%, 20%,

2%, 0.1%, 0.01%.


Since

cent

per

represents

so

parts

many

be changed to per cent by


ratio may
of a fraction and multiplyingby 100.

hundred,

per

putting it in the form


The quotientis the per

cent.

Express
15, 1 : 25, 1

the

2.

3.

in

cents

per

following solutions
%, 24 %, 6 %, 1 : 10, 1

%,

4,

3,

6,

40.
the

in

the

Arrange

strength :

following

14, 1

their

of

order

50, 40 %,

45,

50%.
4.

Express

cents, and
a.

80

the

strength

of

the

following solutions

as

per

in ratios.
of dilute

ounces

contains

alcohol

40

of absolute

ounces

alcohol.
6.

pints of

dilute

alcohol

contains

two

pints of

absolute

alcohol.
5.

Change

the

1:5, 1 : 35,
highest.
6.

Change

the

following
:

100.

ratios into
in

Arrange

following

per

per

cents

18,

order, beginning with

cents

to

ratios

33

from

the

12
,

20,

15%, .5%,!%.
7.

Is it

possibleto

make

an

solution

plain.
Ex-

286

VOCATIONAL

8.

Express

a.

25

c.

9.
a.

b.

the

in 100

alcohol

in 3

solution.

cc.

qts.

the

followingstrengths in terms of per cent :


50 cc. of ^solution
containing5 cc. of peroxide of hydrogen.
f 5 iii of dilute alcohol containing^ ii of pure alcohol.
Express

to Make

Solutions

Drugs

of Different

Tablets

or

of Known

Exact
ILLUSTRATIVE

make

EXAMPLE.

dissolve

to

solution

part
is

powder

to 2000

20f

dissolve

Approx.

21

will

water

bichloride

be

sary
neces-

of

mercury

should

be

to

part is 5 gr.

parts
32

Crude

dissolved,

480

10000

much

How

powdered

2000

Strengths from
Strengths

Method

"

of

gr.

of 1

Since the whole

water

of ratio

terms

f 3 iii.

f " i contains

How

The

GIRLS

FOR

following strengths in

of alcohol

cc.

pints of

b. 5

MATHEMATICS

10,000 grains.

gr.

oz.

oz.

qt.

oz.

or

1" pints of

water

used

to

it.
above

example

necessary

to

may

dissolve

be solved

; then

powder

f"

by proportion, when

"
=

: : X

wt.

of

powder

drug

no.

: : x

oz.
:

of

water.

2000.

20|oZ.

Approx.

21o,

EXAMPLES

Solve
1.

the

How

powdered
1000?

following examples by analysisand


much

water

corrosive

will

sublimate

be

required to

to make

proportion:

dissolve

solution

of

5
1

gr.

of

part

to

ARITHMETIC

much

How

2.

tablet of corrosive

15295minims

of 1

Since

A"o
40

used

of

make

to

part

7^-grain
to 2000

% solution
pint of 1 : 500
40

480

minims

7680

minims

oz.

of pure

amt.

pint.

formaldehyde

necessary

to make

500.

the

or

much

pint

be

solution

How

"

should

dissolve

required to

to make

EXAMPLE.

formaldehyde

solution

be

sublimate

ILLUSTRATIVE

of

will

water

287

NURSES

FOR

strength

"f the

"/osolution

of the

actual

solution

amount

is obtained

is

40%,

15^

Therefore,

necessary.

by dividingby f

represents but

minims

the full amount

of

192

?j* I
x

To

Determine

Solution

much

make

To

crude

20

minims

of Crude

Quantityof a

illustrate
how

38"

"

the Amount

Certain
To

carbolic

acid

20

: : x

gal.

20

: : x

pints or

128

6f

pint.

to Make
Drug Necessary
of a Given Strength

gallon of

to a

20

carbolic

is necessary

128

acid

tion,
solu-

ounces.

ounces.

crude

ounces

carbolic

acid.

EXAMPLES

How

1.

of 5

much

boric acid is necessary

crude

100

: :

6 pts.

100

: : x

576

100

of 1

How
:

pints

boric acid ?
5

2.

to make

much

18 boric

crude
acid ?

drams.

2880.
28.8

drams.

boric acid is necessary

to make

quarts

288

VOCATIONAL

much

crude

many

7J~graintablets

How

3.

cocaine

of 1

much

solution

phenol

bichloride

much

chlorinated

are

drug

crude

drug

lons
gal-

20

0 vii of 1

to make

500

to make

0 iii of 1

10

from

these

and

weaker

for

hand.
25

less than

10

Doses

in

pillsare

kept

solutions

use.

is done

the

tablet

is not
The

about

administered
standard

part, correspondingto the dose, is used

and

in

required
by findingout
as

solution

or

in

on

than

more

solution

pillor

minims

20

hand

on

made

are

This

is of

minims.

diluted

or

0 vi of 1

to make

is necessary

drug

hypodermic
part the required dose
The
hypodermic dose

dissolved

is necessary

strong solutions

hospitaland
by the nurse

make

to

crude

lime

Standard

or

f 3iii of 2

is necessary

Hypodermic

what

to make

necessary

of mercury

crude

of mercury

How

7.

is necessary

much

How

6.

bichloride

1000

How

5.

drug

GIRLS

FOR

How

4.

MATHEMATICS

is

fractional

the

for

injection.
is asked
illustrate : A nurse
to give a patient -^ir gr.
strychnine. She finds that the only tablet on hand is -"$gr.
How
will she give the requireddose ?
To

"dro-s- sV
The

pillin

required
80

minims

dissolvingin
dose

not

dose

80

less than

is

imr

of the stock

of water
rather

and

than

in

pill.

administers
minims

20

30

-^

Therefore

12

she

minims.

is to

have

dissolves

The

the

reason

the
for

hypodermic

10 minims.

EXAMPLES

1.

metric
1

Express

the

dose,

in

the

illustrative

example,

in

the

system.

Hospitals usually

use

1 tablet

for

pint of

water

to make

1000

solution.

ARITHMETIC

2.

from
3.

289

NURSES

FOR

How

would

you

stock

tablet

-^

How

would

How

would

you

give

tablets
if only ^--grain
y1^,

were

would

you

tablets
if only ^y-grain
give gr. -"$,

were

would

you

tablets
if only T^7-grain
give gr. g-1^,

were

would

you

give gr. y^

give

g-1^
gr. strychninesulphate

dose

gr. ?

give

you

-J^,if only -^ grain were

gr.

on

hand?
4.

hand

on

5.

How

hand

on

6.

How

hand

on

How

7.

in tablets
8.

if

How

would

were

Estimate

Dose

were

of

often

are

different fractional
To

only

illustrate
solution

on

atropinesulphate,if only

of

give gr. -^

you

of

apomorphine hydrochloride

hand

on

DifferentFractional

the

from
Nurses

hand

on

only y^grain tablets

To

gr.

Prepared

hand

dose
is

of

one

of

Grain

Solution

required to give a
part of a grain from

Give

Part

dose
the

of

medicine

drug they

of

have.

-^ gr. of strychninewhen
containing -fagr. in every

the
10

minims.
Since

^ grain is contained in 10 minims,


in 300
1 grain or 30 x -^ grain is contained
Then, ^ of a grain is ^ of 300
^ x 300
=

minims.
=

12 m.

EXAMPLES

1.

What

will be

given

2.

Reckon

should

gr.

dose
to

of

get T^

solution

of

60

minims

containing -^

gr.

gr. ?

quickly and accuratelyhow much


be given to have the patientobtain a

of
dose

tablet

gr.

y1^.

290

VOCATIONAL

sulphate

will

What

4.

be

What

fluid

of

of

dose
of

extract

to

vomica

gr.

containing

give

gr.

-fa?

of

cc.

containing

1
be

given

Dose

morphine

xx

will

Definite

GIRLS

containing

gr.

solution

nux

Obtain

To

given

in

of

solution

be

will

give

to

FOR

of

solution

given

dose

sulphate
5.

of

dose

What

3.

MATHEMATICS

from

give

to

Stock

gr.

nine
-^ strych-

0.1

cc.

of

0.06

cc.

the

Solution

of Definite Strength
illustrate

To
stock
1

"

To

has

solution

"IGsolution

give

of

strength

each

that

means

patient

yL-grain dose

when

the

1%.

drop of the solution

contains

T^7 part

or

""-'of strychnine.
100

2*5gr.

is contained

Therefore

in

as

many

drops of the

drops

T*"T

100

"fosolution

in it.

is contained

T^

as

4.

"^

contains

gr.

EXAMPLES

1.

To

give fa

2.

To

give

minims

ten
3.

To

^
give

gr.

2T

strychnine

from

solution.

from

solution

sodium

benzoate

strychnine

gr.

containing

in

gr.
3 gr. of

caffeinic

from

25

solution.
from

4.

To

give 2-J-Qgr.

of

atropine

5.

To

give Y^-Qgr.

of

strychnine

6.

To

minims

give ^
-^

gr.

gr.

atropine

from

from

%
l

solution

solution.

"/0solution.
containing

in

ten

292

VOCATIONAL

When

2.

this

what

FOR

F.,the

170"
To

what

albumin

degree

Centigrade scale

coagulates
Centigrade

138" F.

At

is

pasteurizedby bringing milk


To
what
degree
temperature of 165" F.
Milk

on

(white of egg) coagulates at

the

degree on

4.

GIRLS

correspond?

albumin

Egg

above

the milk.

on

scum

scale does
3.

is heated

milk

forms

and

MATHEMATICS

in
on

the

bottle

the

Centigrade

to

scale ?

Gentle

"

5.

between
the

"

heat

is

32" to 38" C.

Fahrenheit

used

term

What

are

denote

to

the

temperature
correspondingdegrees on

the

scale ?

Baths

(Change
A
as

bath

bath

with

bath

temperature

between

33" and

65" F. is known

temperature

between

65" and

75" F. is known

temperature

between

75" and

85" F. is known

with

85" and

92" F. is known

temperature

between

temperature

between

tepid bath.

A
as

Centigradescale.)

temperate bath.

A
as

with

bath

A
as

to

cool bath.

A
as

with

followingtemperatures

cold bath.

A
as

the

bath

with

98" F. is known

bath.

warm

bath

92" and

with

temperature between

98" and

112"

F. is known

hot bath.
i

In

day,

order

the

recorded
name

of

to

Medical

Chart

(Graph)

(See Graphs

in the

Appendix.)

follow

the

temperature,

morning and
the patientis

condition

of

patient from

day

to

are
pulse beats, and respirations
The
night on a specialruled chart.
placed on each chart.

the

ARITHMETIC

FOR

293

NURSES

NAME.....
Day of
Month

HoMf

101'

i=t

! I

TT

294

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

EXAMPLES

the

Chart

of

following case

pneumonia

Morning

day

104"

day

102.6"

105"

day

102.4"

104.2"

day

102.4"

103.6"

day

102.4"

104"

day

102.4"

104.4"

day

101.8"

103"

day

102.9"

104"

10

day

102"

102.8"

11

day

98.4"

98.5"

12

day

97.4"

98.2"

13

day

97.4"

98.2"

14

day

98.2"

98.4"

PROBLEMS

Bacteria
are

as

are

Evening

102"

low

HOUSEHOLD

IN

forms

of

CHEMISTRY

animal

vegetable and

and
life,

capable of producing disease.


that are employed to destroy bacteria
Chemicals
which
limit the growth or
germicides. Those
of bacteria

power

neutralize

70" C.

2.

bacteria

which

Creolin

is used

be added

What

is

will grow
as

in solutions

wounds
never

destructive

antiseptics. Deodorants

multiply in all temperatures


the temperatures in the
are

What

within

known

remove

or

unpleasant odors.

Bacteria

1.

called

are

are

some

the

to water

from
98"

over

2"

Fahrenheit

and
scale

germicide

of

between

and

to 5

C.,as

deodorant

"/0. The

its

corresponding temperature

for offensive
creolin

must

strength is impaired.
on

the

Fahrenheit

scale ?
3.

The

bacteria

most

important

is nutrient

medium

bouillon.

It is

preparationfor growing
made
of the following:

or

ARITHMETIC

Meat

5 grams

extract

10 grams

Peptone

What
4.

bouillon.

5 grams

Water

1 liter

bouillon

sugar

bacteria.

Salt

of each

cent

per

culture

is used

for

It is made

How

ing
cultivatartificially
glucose to nutrient

by adding 1 % of
of glucose to a
grams

many

Carbolic

295

NURSES

FOR

solution

bought by hospitalsin a 95 %
diluted
and
as
required. A solution of carbolic acid
used
to destroy germs.
much
95 % solution
How
requiredto make 5 gallons 1 : 20 ?
5.

of

6.

7.

1000

much
10.

for

purity of

If

I desire

how

much

water

used

How

much

gallon

of

saturated

water

be

gallon?

drug
a

is the

What

drug

pure

centage
per-

lotion

of

substance

1000

would

be

corrosive
added

mate,
subli-

and

how

?
water

the

corrosive

and

sublimate

required

are

following strengths?

b.

1:4000.

e.

c.

1:10,000.

1:20,000.
1:100,000.

/. 1:150,000.

solution

pint (0 i)of

of

boric

water.

acid

may

What

be made

is the per

by

solving
dis-

cent of the

solution?

saturated

solution

" i to 0 i ?
13.

is

by dissolving9 grams
teaspoonfulsto the quart?

d.

to

20

will

to the

grams

is made

many

of

pure

the

quart ?

to make

saturated
3

12.

of

many

1:2000.

a.

11.

the

is the ratio

of
9.

How

quart.

grains to

What

how

means

salt solution

the

many
8.

is

solution

normal

salt to

How

acid

liter of solution?

How

much

0 i to make

What

of the

of

KMn04

is the per
saturated

1 "/0solution

may
cent

solution

be

made

by

solving
dis-

?
should

be added

to

296

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

Water

Every
chemical

should

nurse

analysisof

Terms

be

able

interpreta

to

biologicaland

water.

and

BacteriologicalReports

following brief explanationof

The

GIRLS

Analysis

in Chemical

used

FOR

the terms

in chemical

used

and

examinations
of water
is given in order
bacteriological
that the reports of analysesof samples may
be clearly
stood.
underAs the quantities
to be obtained
ally
by analyses are ususmall, they are ordinarilyexpressed in parts per
very
million
(p.p. m.), and always by weight.
is caused
such as clay,
Turbidityof water
by fine particles
and microscopicorganisms.
silt,
is self-explanatory.The
Sediment
and
amount
of
nature
the sediment
are
usually noted.
Color is measured
by comparing the sample with artificial
standards
made
by dissolvingcertain salts in distilled water,
sometimes
with
colored
The
color of large
or
glass disks.
lakes is usually below
0.10.
This requiresno explanation.
Odor.

Evaporation, or Total Solids,indicates the total


matter, both organic and inorganic,in 1,000,000 parts

Residue
solid
of

water.

grams

of

on

The

determination
in

water

accurately. The
this

is made

platinum

dish

by placing about

and

weighing

the

100
whole

is then

erate
evaporated to dryness by modheat and the dish again weighed ; the difference between
and the weight of the empty dish gives the total solids in

the water.

The

organic matter,

water

dish
when

the

inorganicor fixed
reported,is a measure
Ammonia.

organic matter

Ammonia
in

an

is then

the

heated

weight
The

solids.
of

the
in

hot, to

the

remaining

loss

on

out

ash

the

gives

ignition,sometimes

organic solids.

water

advanced

of

burn

red

indicates

the

presence

stage of decay, and

of

although

the
is

called

"

and

is that

high

Chlorine

to

in

normal

the

is

in the

the

is

probably
gerous.
perhaps dan-

0.1 p. p. m., it is

than

of

water.

free ammonia

of

m.

oxygen

indication

gives an

two

figurefor albuminoid

ammonia

usually represents
be

It is

ocean.

due

from

found
the

20 p. p. m., it may
fixtures.
of

one

to sewage

always

decreasing

plumbing

content

the action of the

under

p. p.

more

It may

exceeds

and

freed
of the

sum

water

amount

amount

forms,

two

is 0.05

p. p. m.,

is 0.50.

one

salt.

common

of

has 0.05

low

what

actuallybeen set free in


decay of organic matter, while
which
has not yet been
set free,

is that

if it has

in

of

has

organic matter

which

pure, while

and

of

amount

Water

which

process

The

in the water.

indication

valuable

albuminoid."

"

is liable to be

which

297

NURSES

It is determined

water.

Ammonia

Albuminoid

total

the

in the

water

but

Ammonia

Free
the

small, it affords

in

on

free

"

FOR

is

amount

going

ARITHMETIC

the

sodium

chloride,or
ness
pollutionor to near-

in natural

waters, the

inland.

seacoast

corrosion

cause

If

in boilers

Properly interpreted,the
most

useful

indexes

of

the

the

chlorine
extent

of

pollution.
in the form of nitrates and
Nitrogen is usuallydetermined
nitrites,the former being the final result of decomposition,
while the latter is the incomplete result of the same
action.
If an analysisshows
the ammonia
to be low and the nitrates
high,it indicates that the water has become
fied,
completelypuriwhile
the
indicates that the decaying process
reverse
and
is going on
the water
is dangerous. In good drinking
sewage

the

water

the

be

may

nitrites,if present, are

Oxygen
by

nitrates

the

water

is absorbed
amount

Consumed.

This

from

by

consumed

as

high

as

or

practicallyalways
is the

amount

of

organic

givesa

matter

measure

sign

As

the

present in the
of the amount

of

lution.
pol-

absorbed

oxygen

potassium permanganate.

the

p. p. m., while

of

oxygen

water, the

impurities

298

VOCATIONAL

contained

MATHEMATICS

in it.

while

high

as

than

Less
4

as

FOR

1 p. p.

5 p. p.

or

GIRLS

indicates

m.

indicates

m.

probable purity,

danger

in drinking

water.

Hardness.
in

solution

carbonates

the

When
to be

have

boilers,a

by

the

hard

number

of

Rain

of from
be

may
if

it is

sulphates
for

soap

before

forms

scale.

parts

of

has

when

of

washing,

or

nesium.
mag-

these

salts

be formed.

can

Hardness

is

carbonate

in

hardness

it contains

calcium

lather

calcium

water

"

hard

"

is used

water

water

water.

river waters
Iron

hard

be

to

and

decomposed by

In

parts of

is said

water

expressed
1,000,000

of about

5,

and

50 to 100.
in

troublesome

present

in

used

water

for domestic

quantitiesgreater

than

0.3

poses
purto

0.5

m.

p. p.

Alkalinityor
hardness

which

causing

the

for

water

hardness

Temporary
is due

and

use,

the

of

scale.

part of the total

removable

to carbonates

formation

boiler

is that

Hardness

by boiling,thus
of softening
purposes

For

it is necessary

to

know

both

the

total

alkalinity.

qualityof a water of
turbid
and
it does
unpleasant odor is suspicious,
appearance
is a water
which
is entirely
not follow that it is dangerous, nor
free from
color and odor necessarily
a safe drinking water, for
ological
bacteriThe
epidemics of typhoid have been caused by such.
the number
examination
of water, by which
of bacteria
fore
present in one cubic centimeter
(1 cc.)is determined,is therean
important part of an analysis.
Bacteria.

As

While

it is obvious

general statement,

less than
500

bacteria

100
per

that

it may

be

bacteria per
cc.

should

cc.

the

said

waters

is

water

is pure, that water

be viewed

that water

water

that fresh

taining
con-

ing
contain-

and
suspicion,
is undoubtedly contaminated.

with

containing1000 bacteria per cc.


In considering these
figures with relation to a
surface
that all natural
supply,it must be remembered
contain

some

bacteria

the greater part


pollution,

and
of them

that, except
are

where

there

absolutelyharmless.

300

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

EXAMPLES

ON

FOR

ANALYSES

(Parts

in

OF

GIRLS

WATER

100,000)

1.

Give

the number

of

parts of

free ammonia

2.

Give

the

number

of

parts of

nitrates

3.

Give

the number

of

parts of nitrites

would
a.

to

How

a.

9 1.

Give

4.

of the

the

for

in

10,000

of

centimeters

c.

in b.
in d.

water

you

child

of water

c.

spiritsof
6 years

1.

weigh

d. 48

ammonia

is 30

minims,

old ?

approximateequivalentsin

household

b. 36 grams

c.

d.

ounces

90 minims

cc.

measures

following:

7 drams

a.

d. 61 mg.

0.4 gm.

followingamounts

cc.

of aromatic

dose

is the dose

what

kg.

the

b. 4.7

If the

3.

would

much

10,000

in

get the following :

b. 11

70 gm.

2.

a.

out

measure

cubic

of

number

the

Give

in

10,000

EXAMPLES

REVIEW
1.

in

e.

12 fluid

/.

3 fluid drams

ounces

ARITHMETIC

approximate equivalentsin
following:

of the

1500

6. 11

cc.

d. 0.003

cc.

in 3

many

grammes

7.

How

many

drams

8.

How

many

grammes

in

9.

How

many

grammes

in 5 liters of 1

10.

How

many

teaspoonfulsof

solution

How

11.

of 1

the

for

dose

of

child of
A

15.

50 solution

liter of 10

has

pure

solution

solution

25

carbolic acid in

gallon

in

quart

carbolic

acid

ipecacis 20

seven

dose

temperature

years

of 1

500

of 94" F.

of 26"

a temperature
registers

Give

C.

Give

the

scale.

the Fahrenheit

equivalenton
14.

Centigrade scale.

the

cool bath

solution

solution ?

equivalenton

13.

gallonof

drops (minims) of

basin of rain water

ounces

many

1000

12.

1 gramme

of 1

How

measures

/. 0.008 gramme

grain

in 1

household

e.

6.

of 1

3 liters

c.

301

NURSES

the

Give

5.

a.

FOR

to 30

What

grammes.

is the dose

solution

how

means

many

to

grammes

quart?
Given

16.

make
17.

acid
18.

gallon of

How
from

would

would

you

50

make

pure

make

make

acid ?

solution

(Considerstandard

silver

nitrate,how

would

you

gallonof

solution

of acetic

acid ?
you

of

solution

5000

you

the pure

How

would

acid from
19.

solution

5%

two

(Considerpure

is used

gallon

quarts of 5 % solution

for

40

%.)

standard

bolic
car-

%.)

wounds.
disinfecting

of this fluid from

strengthabout

acid 95

of

How

solution ?

302

VOCATIONAL

20.

MATHEMATICS

solution

of

much

irrigations. How

boric

GIRLS

FOR

acid

is used

for

and

eye

boric acid will be necessary

ear

to make

quart of the solution ?


Give

the

of

approximate equivalents
of the following:
measures
apothecaries'
21.

31

b.

yi"

c.

1.6 gram

cc.

powders

of

How

the

tincture

24.

Convert
How

25.
a

the
much

is

alcohol

contains

absolute

alcohol

in

The
for

29.

dose

baby

The

is f 3 i.
30.

dose

What

Hands

of

in

water)

(eightounces
?

many

of

and

dose

arms

followed
to four

is
of

gm.

to

of absolute

dilute

alcohol

by

How

?
What

gm.

is the

old ?

camphorated

is the

of

necessary

alcohol.

absolute

gallonof

7 months
of

41.5

morphine sulphateis 0.008

solution of permanganate

of each

how
trional,

composed of 75 % of absolute acid,how


?
a pound of the official preparation

Diluted

28.

of

cc.

alcohol

acid

much

of

101

followingto milligrams: 5 dg. and 0.27


followingto grams : 483 dg. and 7 mg.

absolute

27.

pints

the

If lactic acid

26.

minims

(15 "/Gstrength)will be
quart of alcohol containing80 % volume
66%?
37%?
75%?

alcohol?

dose

and

opium is 0.5 cc. ; 10 cc.


1 gm.
of opium ; 12 %
of opium
milligrams of morphine in one dose

many

Convert

a.

tincture

contains

morphine.

much

e.

/.

of the

dose

tincture

make

50

pharmacy nurse
buys 3 oz.
10 grainseach can
she make

The

23.

6.

gram

d.

If the

22.

the

a.

metric

for

are

of

of

tincture

baby

often

6 months

old ?

disinfected

potash (two

immersion

opium (paregoric)

in

by washing
to four

ounces

solution

quarts of water). What

quarts

of oxalic

is the

in

acid

percentage

iodoform

Adhesive

31.

solution

following

the

in

gauze

much

How

32.

of

cent

per

22

grams

Resin

10

grams

Glycerine

Alcohol

26

of

pound

each

of
the

each

What

33.

sulphate

and

quantity

mass

oxide

Glycerine

12

parts

Water

10

parts

following
sulphate

oz.

What
of

35.

of

amount

carbolized

What

per

carbolic

of

cent

the

qt. of
37.

to

make

in

ing
prepar-

is

atropine

acid

How

25,000

solution

much
a

pint

bichloride

much

potassium
of

1000

18

of

gr.

fluid

ounce

crystals

is used

to

make

following

Water

How

acid

petrolatum

Boric

36.

used

solution

1^

Water

be

system.

Atropine

34.

English

parts

5 parts

the

in

1.)

as

Gelatine

of

glycerine

should

ingredient

following

cent

per

cc.

Give

Zinc

sterilized

cc.

alcohol

of

by saturating

Iodoform

(Consider specific gravity


What

is made

gauze

303

NURSES

FOR

ARITHMETIC

solution

is boric

acid

gr.
oz.

mercury

is

required

to

make

permanganate
solution

will

be

necessary

PART

EVERY
to do

the

young

with

the

men

PROBLEMS

ON

CHAPTER

XV

who

lives

the
the

and

it is

THE

FARM

the farm

on

has

the arithmetic

bookkeeping and

on

work,

"

person

sellingof

of the

this

VI

eggs,

milk, and

farm

have

the

other
time

more

less

or

with

connected

products. Very
the inclination

or

usuallyperformed by

the wife

few

to do

daughter.

or

EXAMPLES

1.

pay

I sold
in butter

receive
2.

16

at 40

dealer

bought
Find

Three

the

4.

the value
A

farmer

wife

many

as

the farm

6.

bin

16

How

and

took

pounds

many

my

did

cords

of

wood

$ 4

at

cord

and

sold

gain.

and

divided

257-facres,

Find

dozen

farm.

Carl

Henry paid $ 1135.75,


as
Henry and Philip.

much

as

of the farm.

he gave

5.

cents

pound.

bought

men

Philip $2400.25,
Find

cents

30

at

eggs

it for $ 96.
3.

dozen

acres

his farm

to his younger
as

his

to

follows

as

200fV

son

two

sons.

to his

elder

acres, and

How

many

son

to his

acres

in

One

farm

contains

the difference
One

184^

bin contain

bin

between

contains

bushels.
than

287f

How

acres

and

another

244J

acres.

them.

165^

bushels

many

the smaller

?
304

of

bushels

grain
more

and

the

does

the

other

larger

PROBLEMS

From

7.

remained

acres

many

sold.

were

acres

How

141

bought

afterwards

305

FARM

375J acres, 84^

owning 57f

farmer

8.

of

farm

THE

ON

of land

acres

How

acres.

sold

281

he

did

acres

many

and

acres

then

own?
farm

9.

contained

one-sixth

woodland,

What

One

11.

pasture, and
farm

the

the

is cultivated

is

vated.
culti-

How

many

trees, 14J barrels

four

remainder

is

of

apples

bbl.

31

gathered.

were

How

many

barrels

two-fifths

I owned

share
12.

of

which

one-eighth of

acres,

bought 5^ bbl.,another

man

remained

my

part

From

10.

is

cultivated

are

acres

132

for $ 1350.

bought

Find

loads

of

farm

value

of

and

sold

of

three-fourths

of the whole

farm.

potatoes containing 331

bushels,

I
27f bushels, 40J bushels, 35^ bushels, and 29^ bushels.
sold 12J bushels
and 25^-bushels
to each of three men,
to each
of four
13.

How

men.

If

two-thirds

of the farm
14.

of

$ 7

Thomas

Mr.

15.

head.

farm

SOy7-^
acres, the
fourth 28|-acres.
16.

horse
receive
17.

bushels
pears

bought

$ 2480, what

costs

168

of them

Find

the

is the

cost

sheep
$ 6

at

at

$5.50

head, and

head.

He

the

remainder

gain.

is divided

into

second

4211

How

many

farmer

for

farm

left ?

were

sold three-sevenths
at

bushels

many

four

acres,

lots.
the

The

third

first contains

35^

in the farm

acres

sold

acres,

the

sheep for $ 62.50,cattle


How
$ 125.75,and a plow for $ 18.25.

for

much

102.60,a
did

he

?
Farmer
of
did

Blake
pears.

he raise ?

raised
How

many

114

bushels
more

of

bushels

apples and 73f


of apples than

306

VOCATIONAL

18.

much

farmer

Mr.

19.

has

much

A's

21.

farm

the difference

Grover

Mr.

22.

the

for

horse.

cow?

of woodland

and

sells

an

ten

of land

acres

How

acre.

B's

265f-acres,

size of their farms

had

110

of

acres

did

much

$ 65

at

many

acres

Mr.

Dean

23.

fourth

had

he

sold

43^

an

acre

What

acres.

is

land, and

sold

7^%-

acres.

ID

left ?

one-third

another, and

to

304f

he lose ?

'

How

How

he left ?

contains
in the

$ 165

cow,

than

cost

bought

sold it for $ 24.60

and

GIRLS

FOR

450T7"acres

has

Sherman

Mr.

20.

78 for

the horse

Borden

How

acres.

paid $

did

more

MATHEMATICS

of

his

one-eighth to

farm

to

another.

one

man,

What

one-

part had

he left ?
I

24.

of what

he

they

2|

farmer

bushels

27.

worth

be

grain can

into 16

put

bags,if

35 bushels
at 75

for

paid $76.50

for four-fifths

the loss ?
of

each

sold him

horse, and

was

carries

is half this load

bushels

many

hold

26.

What

cost.

How

25.

for

365.75

paid $

cents

18

of

apples to

bushel

What

What

sheep.

market.

the

was

average

price?
28.

721

Mr.

Platt
How

acres.

29.

many
bushel
30.

many

If 41

be

can

of

had

for

giving each

he ?

potatoes

bought

to his sons,

of land

acres

sons

many

bushels

bushels

435

gave

bought

were

$ 10.80

at

the

$ 3.60,how

for
same

priceper

White

Mr.
cords

could

paid $ 16.25 for 2^


he buy for $ 74.75

cords
at

the

of

wood.

same

How

price per

cord?
31.

sons,

father

giving to

divided
each

45

183
acres.

of land

acres

How

many

equally among
sons

had

he ?

his

308

VOCATIONAL

The

2.

field
for

working

MATHEMATICS

others,20

cents

for

own

hour

cents

per

worth

for the

in

plowed

was

his

hour

work.

Mr.

day.

per

of 10 hours

day

GIRLS

FOR

for

receives,when

his

How

horses

much

and

is his

15

time

paid $ 12 for his plow and two extra points. The


Mr. A broke
$ 10.50.
a plow
regular pricewithout extras was
much
the loss ?
How
was
point on a rock.
3.

Mr.

4.

It took

2) as
the

at what

Mr.

5.

the
6.

from

hour

bought
A

Mr.

commission
much

is

he

He

Mr.

9.

Mr.

the

about

The

of 6 ft.
11.

20

ft.

cement

What

Mr.

A's

deep.

1st.
was

his

Some

used

the

commission

harrowed

What

of

fertilizer

at

receives

to the

equal

with
the

rate

cost

of
of

expense

$ 2.50 ?

to

horse

How

company.

times, each

three

corn

his hired

this he and

Which

was

much

How

of

planter.
30 ^ per

time

ing
requir-

?
It

of the stalks had

ft.

grown

to

ting
cut-

height

long, 10

How

for

ready

was

weekly growth

is cemented.

spent 3

man

expensive,the

more

1st.

10
rectangular,

floor

in the floor ?

in

the fertilizer cost ?

sells for

he

the average

silo is
The

did

planted June

was

September

7 o'clock

it take ?

Besides

8 hours.

ample
(see ex-

bushel.

per

amount

to

man

cultivated

corn

1.25

plant his corn


planting,which is at

once.
days hoeing the corn
?
hoeing or the cultivating

10.

corn

corn

railroad

hires

begun at
piece be

was

piece,and also the


station,which amounted

own

long did

How

much

what

on

$ 2 for the

pays

hour.

%
his

on

hauling from
8.

How

field

P.M.)

sell to receive

fertilizer used

the

agent for Bradley fertilizers and

of 10

must

the

harrow

one-hundred-poundbags

$ 1.40 per hundred.


7.

work

would

to 1

M.

to

at $
bought seed com
cost, 12 quarts being the

seed
He

time

12

long

as

If the

it.

plow

to

morning,

(Noon
did

three-fifths

many

ft.

wide, and

sq.

yd.

of

PROBLEMS

If

12.

lumber

the

thickness

one

How

many

many

cubic

is 5 ft.

stalks

feet in

level

of the

bam

floor of the

of

the

produced

on

the

silo hold

floor,which

silo ?

cut

and

compressed

the

acre

of land

corn

to fill the

space

Two

silo.

1st

September

On

15.

worked

men

$ 1.50 per day each.


$ 3 per day each.
cost
$ 7.
power
per

day.

day

The

Two

did

the

day

cuttingmachine,

these

pay

with

men

the
Add

this

for

men

the

the

expense

stalks

at

teams

at

with
and

fill the

horses

silo at

the

work

for

$ 1.50
of the

cutting machine,

the

for

man

in the

corn

Mr.

to the barn

leveled
A

Mr.

work.

to finish the

helped
cuttingdown

men

hauled

men

man

team, and

of

gang

men,

One

next

in the field

Two

What

with

man

board

many

ensilage will

cemented

been

have

must

of

the

bushels

many

thick,how

feet

feet below
the

309

FARM

cubic

higher than

How

14.

is 1 inch

of the walls

How

13.

THE

ON

silo worked
to

that

hours

two

of the

one

previous

day.
A

16.

with

filled the space


with

pulley in

The

months.

When

this

the

ensilagebe

18.

per

when

of

bushel,how

19.

How

is the value

at

the

with

ton

many

many

the
the

opens

will

even

to

giving each

cows,

It is estimated

one-third

to

Mr.

At

rate

left

was

10

basket.

How

many

times

A
it

must

mass

to his

two-bushel

he fill the basket


17.

ensilagehad settled 8 feet and Mr.


He and a helper hoisted
surplus corn.

later the

week

tons

fermenting

two

silo,he begins feeding regularly


twice a day.
one-half
bushel

silo be

the barn

for

process

emptied?

should

When

floor ?

ensilage is equal in value


of hay. If ensilage weighs 50 pounds
pounds of hay equal a feed of ensilage?

that

of

ton

hay

$ 15 per ton ?

of

is the

ensilageworth

What

310

VOCATIONAL

it pay

Does

20.
NOTE.

the farmer

Ensilage

"

as

it better

MATHEMATICS

milk

than

could

to raise

be used

not

producer

when

fed

is

and

84

the

Milk

water.

the per

weight and
50

moderate

in

for

but

hay,

is

Cows

quantities.

illustrate

Ib. contains

cent

cellent
ex-

like

casein

is

(fat)in

cream

milk
(cheese),

usually sold

the

by

it.

sugar,

farmer

by

cream.

sample

of

amount

it contains

to cream,

about

To

substitute

PRODUCE

graded according to

addition

In

ensilage?

as

GIRLS

hay.
DAIRY

Milk

FOR

of milk

from

The

cream.

large can

weighing

contains

large can

Ib. of

butter fat.

EXAMPLES

1.

of

sample

milk

butter fat.

3J %

How

from

much

cooler

butter

gives 3J gallons of
weighs 8f Ib.,what is the weight
2.

cow

month

per

how

much

month

4.6

6.

cow

fat.

examples

Skim

pigs at 5J
a

quart

give the

milk

cooler ?

day.
per day

If

per

of milk

? per

gallon
week

it

2 contains

week

yield per
26

the butter

cents

4.7 per

fat in

cent

? per

of cream,

month

pound, how
example 3 ?

much
How

is obtained
much

butter

in

one

fat does

from

Another

5.

example

fat is worth

per week
per

in

butter

If butter

4.

fat in the

If the milk

3.

Ib. tested
containing48-J-

or

milk
cents

from
a

to make

skim

gives 3-|gallons of milk a day that tests


the
Is it more
to keep this cow
or
profitable
and 3, and by how
much
?

milk

the butter

gallon.
butter
to the

Is it
and

pigs?

usually sold
cheaper to sell milk
fat is

sell it at 26 cents

to feed
at 5^

pound

the

cents

and

PROBLEMS

ON

PROBLEMS

decided

that

should

shares

be

and

each

of the

money

formed,
Part

factory,and

rest

was

depositedin

to

run

the

it

as

needed

was

be

products should
the business

each

by

Half

and

man.

$0.03

at

building cost $

The

Babcock

small

Whey

supply

money

; 4

and

cheese

drawn

the

the

sale

for

carryingon

the money
of expense

of

out

invested
:

foot.

square

for material

2000

$30

tester

50 each

large vats, $

Three

until

business

sufficient to

to erect

bank

paying a small per cent on


The
followingare the items

of land

acre

seventy-three
bought a share at

used

was

the election

of

member

the rate of $ 75.


the

after

stock company

FACTORY

CHEESE

together,and

came

was

311

FARM

COOPERATIVE

EQUIPPING

Seventy-threefarmers
of officers it

THE

ON

work.

and

discount.

discount.

2| %

engine, belts,etc., $53.85.

trough

Cheese

$ 28

press,

; 3

"Jodiscount.

54 ; 4

leads, $

and

discount.

Rennet, salt,coloring,wood, cheesecloth,boiler,and piping,$15.


acid for test, etc.,$ 57 ; 3

Boxes,

Scales,weights,and
A

year's salary to

The

$27.85.

weighing can,

maker, $

the cheese

left after these

money

commission.

520.

put

was

expenses

at 3

interest.

PROBLEMS

1.

How

much

money

2.

How

much

did

3.

What

4.

The

engine
What
5.

the
much
6.

was

did
The

who

man

and

belt

he

How

leads,and

of the land

cost

the

the

to

maker

cheese

sold

who

man

he

the

into the business

boiler

company

average

week

?
and

piping
received 6 %

and

also

the

commission.

receive for his sales ?

bought

received

large vats
did

the

put

was

receive

much
vats

did

the

the

whey trough,the leads, and

discount

as

his

commission.

How

?
the

receive ?

company

that

sold

the

whey trough,

312

VOCATIONAL

much

How

7.

MATHEMATICS

did the

trough,leads,and
An

8.

did

much

receive
much

The

10.

he

who

"/ocommission.

the

for the

out

whey

; his commission

was

%.

How

cost the

tester

the

bought

and

press

How

much

did

the

did

it cost

to

buy

company

material
and

press

received

materials

cost

company?
much

How

11.

and
How

much

13.

How

much

and

16

left at interest

was

would

the

is the interest for

15.

What

per

cent

of the

16.

What

per

cent

of the whole

hen

has to have

It costs about

One

dozen

One

hen

Broilers
are

ten

for

3 years

6 months

lays about
are

Brooders
small
hen

cents

costing $
cost

cost

to feed

per

in the house.

room

one

for 30

hen.

cents.

year.

pound.
pound.

a
a

20 holds

150

eggs.

dozen.

$7.50.

chicken
costs

$ 1.00

feet of

average

eggs

sold for 15 cents

coop

costs

$ 8.00.

60 cents.

Little chickens
Chicken

100

sold at 25

Setting eggs

POULTRY

month

the

on

left at interest ?

was

ON

is this interest ?

investment

five square

cents

sell

eggs

incubator

One

tory,
fac-

year ?

one

whole

PROBLEMS

An

the

days ?
What

Hens

land, build

interest be

14.

One

the

equip the plant?

12.

pay

did the

man

company

vats

agent sold the tester

How

9.

buying

GIRLS

FOR

wire, 6

1 week
ft.

old cost 10 cents.

wide,

costs

4J-cents

per

foot.

THE

ON

PROBLEMS

313

FARM

PROBLEMS

large would

How

1.

be for 30 chickens
If I have

2.

50 ft.,how

chickens

can

will it cost

much

to

is 30 ft.

by

in it?

put

chickens

the

keep

to

have

the floor of which

poultry house

poultry house

month

one

year ?

one

If I have

4.

for them

Suppose I
lb.,and the

5.

receive
would
them

rest

an

have

cost

How
I

If

I pay
the

would

much

for $

incubator

an

for $

from

Would

me

them

kept

will I receive

gain

lb.,5 weighing

weeks,
or

would

much

How
14

her

how
in

lose

much

keeping

bought
did

of 4 lb.

average

to feed

me

broilers,12 weighing

If I had

much

coop

much

how

25

they

chicken

7.

sold

If

6.

it pay

them

it cost

lays 90 eggs, how much


to keep the hen ?
me

she

for

how

Does

does

much

hen, how

one

Suppose

year?

one

? for 50 ? 80 ? 200

many

How

3.

floor of my

the

8, and

150

20, a brooder

to

eggs

into

put

for $

the

7.50,

incubator,

in all ?

150

only 139

eggs

I receive

for the

hatched

were

little chickens

and
when

lived,
I sold

them?

Suppose

8.

feet of
it cost

then

would

chicken

I need

to

put wire around


many

eggs

would

If I sold all from

for them
10.

to

me

How

9.

year

wire

I had

40

profitdid

fence

100

by

250

it in ?

ft.

How

How
much

many
would

it ?
I receive

hens, how

from
much

60

hens

would

in

one

I receive

bought 50 little chickens,kept them 16 weeks, and


them, each weighing on the average 3 lb.,how much

If I
sold

yard

I make

on

them

314

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

POULTRY

1.

wishes

man

If he has
interest

$ 75, how

the

will he

have

it cost to

If he

5.

would

he

he

year,

sold

400

dozen

at

hatched
9.

would
10.

much

he

100

the

how

with

buy

much

cents

per

would

eggs

would

dozen,how

much

many

gain from
eggs

each

for

"

for

amount

"

at 50

setting
these ?

to

keep

sellinghis
sold

for
how

dozen,

cents

How

much

the hens

for

"

eggs ?

setting,"9

many

chickens

chickens

were

in all ?
If

it cost

him

27

cents

to raise

it cost to raise all the chickens


If

for

each

pair

his entire

of

stock

broilers
net

After

him

consideringthe cost
pricereceived for them, what

12.

he

above

dozen

from

could

dozen

receive

for all his eggs

did he

material, how

would

him

for material,

? for 5 years

year,

25

much

hen, how

one

remaining dozen

much

much

would

11.

the

for them

sold the

hatched

were

eggs

much

for 1 year

many

If,from

8.

lays 100

How

for

as

for $ 125.

?
as

hens

cents

keep

to

? how

If it cost
how

50

cost

year

receive

7.

hen

times

many

one

dozen, how

did

How

$ 1 per year

receive

If he

6.

left ?

hen

they yield in

at 5

apparatus

all of his hens

keep

If each

4.

for

henhouse

to borrow

for 1 year

to pay

if each

If it cost

3.

stock

will he have

much

as

remainder

and

$ 20 for labor,three

one-fourth
much

RAISING

build

much

will -he have

If he pays

2.

to

GIRLS

FOR

After

profit?

he

had

paid

his

of
was

one

how
broiler,'

much

for broilers ?
he

received

$ 1.50, how

raisingthe
his profit
?

interest,what

broilers

and

his

net

was

APPENDIX
METRIC

metric

THE

Continental

system
the

of

and

Europe

of

in

system is used

weights

unit

SYSTEM

is

meter

part

thirtieth of
is

of the

an

unit

The

ounce.

little largerthan

(mm.)

the standard
the meter

on

as

about

is

of volume

the

inches.

39.37

equal

ten-

The

about

to

one

which
is the liter,

quart.

of Length

Measures
10 millimeters

of

supposed to be one
meridian passingfrom

length of the
equator to the poles. It is equal to
unit of weight is the gram1 which
millionth

countries

as

It is based

measures.

The

length.

the

scientific men

among

and

nearly all

I centimeter

cm.

10 centimeters

=1

decimeter

10 decimeters

=1

meter

10 meters

=1

dekameter

Dm.

10 dekameters

=1

hektometer

Hm.

10 hektometers

=1

kilometer

Km.

millimeters

100 square

centimeters

100 square

decimeters

1000

cubic millimeters

1000

cubic

centimeters

1000

cubic

decimeters

1
a

The

temperature

metric

ton

is the

..-.=!
.

Measures

(mm.)
.

weight

of

of 39.2" F. ; the

one

centimeter

square

decimeter

cm.

sq.

sq. dm.

meter

sq.

m.

of Volume
=

1 cubic

cubic

kilogram

is the weight of 1 cubic

square

1 square

gram

=1

(mm.)

m.

of Surface (not Land)

Measures
100 square

dm:

meter

317

cu.

centimeter

cubic

centimeter
is the

decimeter

cu.

cm.

cu.

dm.

meter

of pure

cu.

distilled water

weight of 1 liter of water

of water.

m.

at

; the

318

of Capacity

Measures

=1

10 milliliters (ml.)

centiliter

cl.

deciliter

dl.

10 deciliters

1 liter

10 liters

=1

10 dekaliters

10 hektoliters

=1

10 centiliters

centigrams

10

decigrams

10 grams

10

dekagrams
10 hektograms
1000 kilograms

centigram

eg.

decigram

dg.
g.

gram

dekagram

Kl.

of Weight

HI.
.

kiloliter

Dl.

dekaliter

milligrams(mg.)

10

1.

1 hektoliter

Measures
10

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

hektogram

......

Dg.

......

Hg.
Kg.

kilogram

1 ton

of Length

Measures
in.

39.37

1 meter

1 centimeter

1 millimeter

1 kilometer

MEASURES

EQUIVALENT

METRIC

.3937

ft.=

3.28083

1.0936

yd.

inch

.03937

inch,or -fainch nearly

.62137

mile

1 foot

.3048

1 inch

meter

2.54 centimeters

of Surface

Measures
10.764

meter

1 square

centimeter

.155 sq. in.

1 square

millimeter

.00155

1 square

yard

1 square

foot

1 square

inch

meter

35.314

cu.

ft.

1 cubic

decimeter

61.023

cu.

in.

1 cubic

centimeter

cu.

in.

liter is

equal to

meter

the volume

=645.

centimeters

of Volume

1 cubic

The

yd.

meter

square

6.452 square

.061

sq.

sq. in.

.836 square

Measures

1.196

sq. ft. =

1 square

.0929

25.4 millimeters

and
1.308
.0353

2 square

millimeters

Capacity
cu.

yd.

cu.

ft.

occupied by

264.2

gal.

1 cubic decimeter.

METRIC

1 liter

1 cubic

yard

cubic

foot

cubic

inch

.7645

.02832

cubic

liters

cubic

gallon (British)

4.543

liters

gallon(U. S.)

3.785

liters

kilogram

1 metric
1

grain

ounce

pound

1 ton

ton

avoirdupois

.9842

ton

.0648

gram

28.35

of 2240

Ib.

28.317

decimeters

cubic

centimeters

of Weight

of 2240

Ib.

19.68 cwt.

2204.6

Ib.

kilogram

1.016

at 62" F.

grams

.4536

cu.

pounds

.0353

grains

2.2045

meter

Measures
15.432

in.

cu.

meter

cubic

16.387

(U. S.)=.2642 gallon (U. S.)

Ib. of water

28.317

1 gram

61.023

quarts

2.202

cubic

ft.

decimeter

1.0567

319

SYSTEM

metric

tons

1016

kilograms

Miscellaneous
1

kilogram

1 gram
1

meter

per

kilogram

per

square

kilogram per

cubic

degree centigrade

pound

per foot

pound

per

pound

per cubic

degree

1 Calorie

square

(French
power

1 watt

(Unit

of

1.488

degrees
4.882

16.02

Thermal

pounds
pound

pound

per

cubic

1000

per

meter

kilograms per
kilograms

Unit)

foot

Electrical

watts

TABLE
To

change

meters

foot

Fahrenheit

square

cubic

per

pounds
Power)

3.968
per
=

B.

T. U.

minute

meter

meter

.00134

1.34 horse

OF

power

METRIC

horse

=44,240

square

meters

meters

to square

feet

watts

power

44.24

foot

foot

pounds

per minute

multiply by

3.28083

multiply by

.3048

.0929

CONVERSION

feet to meters
feet to square

Unit)

per minute

to feet

square

(BritishThermal
746

pounds
1 kilowatt

foot

per square
per

inch

square

degree centigrade

.5556

33,000

.0624

kilograms

foot
foot

Fahrenheit

1 horse

1.8

.2084

meter
"

1.422

meter

per foot

pound

millimeter

square

per

.6720

multiply by

multiply by

10.764

320
To

VOCATIONAL

change

MATHEMATICS

square

centimeters

square

inches

inches

to centimeters

centimeters

GIRLS

multiplyby

.155

multiply by

6.452

multiply by

2.54
.3937

multiply by

grains

multiply by

grams

multiply by

.0648

to ounces

multiply by

.0353

grainsto
grams

to square

inches

centimeters

to inches

to

grams

to square

FOR

pounds

kilograms

to

28.35

multiply by

to grams

ounces

15.43

multiply by

.4536

kilograms to pounds

multiply by

2.2045

liters to quarts

multiply by

1.0567

liters to

gallons

multiply by

.2642

gallonsto liters

multiply by

3.78543

liters to cubic

multiply by

61.023

cubic
cubic

inches

inches
to cubic

centimeters

centimeters

to cubic

inches

cubic feet to cubic

decimeters

kilowatts

power

to horse

calories to British

multiply by

16.387

multiply by

.061

liters

or

Units

Thermal

multiply by

28.317

multiply by

1.34

multiply by

3.968

EXAMPLES
1.

Change

m.

2.

Reduce

Km.,

3.

How

to centimeters

6 m., and

square

many

meters

which

is 25.5 feet

long and

4.

(a) Change
(6) Change

6J5 centimeters

5.

cellar 18

will it cost
6.

5.2

cu.

at 13

How
m.

48.3
m.

cents

per

m.

to centimeters.

of

carpet

24 feet wide

square
37

; to kilometers.

m.

cubic

many

liters of

is the

weight

floor

into inches.

meter

to do

capacityhas

inches.

into square

is to be

m.

the
a

; what

excavated
work

tank

containing

7.

What

8.

Give

9.

Change

84.9

square

Change

23.6

liters to cubic inches.

10.

cover

centimeters
x

will

the

in grams

approximate value
meters

of 31

cc.

of water

of 36 millimeters

into square

feet.

?
in inches.

7.3

Change

11.

321

METRIC

SYSTEM

to

millimeters

m.

centimeters

to

to

kilometers.
12.

Reduce

13.

What

and

48.1

9.8

kilometers

to

m.

in

difference

is the

14.

What

part

of

kilometer

15.

What

part

of

meter

16.

How

3.4 Dm.

is 1.3

and

85.7

69

Reduce

20.

What

cm.

wide

869.7

is the

of water
23.

which
24.

tank

in

is 7.9

m.

will it hold

What
is 89

What

alcohol,the
25.

What
26.

26

square

What

is the
g. per

by

cubic

in

is the

weight

What

part

of

43

long, 8.4

m.

of

in
a

of

grams
of 43.9

48.7

dm.

of

cc.

water

as

Of

5 1. of mercury

m.

by

3.1

m.

874

cc.

of

of

which

liter is 1.7

How

copper,

bottle

that

g. per
of

grams

kilograms

water

; what

many

the

is

grams

density of

is 0.8
in

to grams.

1. of water?

much

as

centimeter

weight

kilograms ;

to

4.3

capacity

densityof
is the

wall

milligrams ;

kilograms

weight

is the

rectangular gardens,

weight

weight

in

Mercury weighs 13.6 times


weight of 87.5 cc. of mercury
A

in

there

are

21.

22.

m.

in

meters

eg. to

is the

wide

dm.

cubic

many

19.

the

2.7

mm.

cm.

meters

square

many

How

high, and

What

between

meters.
milli-

long

18.

is 1.8

centimeters

square

many

How

17.

millimeters

; to

mm.

kilometers

centimeters

; to

cubic

56.8

cc.

of 7 1. of alcohol
cc.

kg.

of

centimeter

holds

of
?

alcohol?

GRAPHS
A

of

SHEET

that

are

distant

equally

cross-section, or
distinct

so

GRAPH

for

without

VARIATION

THE

IN

SERIES

coordinate

price
or

of

is

paper

used

commodity,

any

OF

to
or

aid

PRICE

of

sheet

line

is

of

very

horizontal

the

ruler.

COTTON

OF

lines

Ruled

YARN

FOR

or

YEARS

record

the

called

off

measure

the

vertical

tenth

Every
to

one

and

other, is

each

coordinate, paper.

distances

SHOWING

horizontal

with

from

it is easy

that

vertical

and

ruled

paper,

rise

rise

the
and

fall of

and

fall of

the

the

barometer

thermometer.
Trade

paper

papers
to

show
In

and
the

this

reports frequently make


results
way

of
one

the
can

322

in

changes
see

at

use

of

the

price

glance

coordinate

the

of

modities.
com-

changes

FORMULAS

technical books

MOST
The

often

are

they

been

in which

by
throughout

whole

clauses

the

the

discussion

meaning results

of the

written

rule

in

the

are

pressed
ex-

have

to

with

meaning

same

until

viate
abbre-

to

attempt

letter being understood

letter,that

one

The

the

emphasize

that rules

comprehended

not

times.

formulas.

many

remember

we

meaning

several

length and

the

when

is evident

reread

contain

magazines

their true

long and

have

formula,

this

for

reason

and

which

it

started.
illustrate

To

One

fundamental

of the

quantity of electricityflowing through

laws
a

of

circuit

is that the
electricity

is
(flow of electricity)

quotient (expressed in amperes) obtained by dividing the


force
electric motive
(pressure,or expressed in volts,voltage) of the
equal

current

One
times
how

to

the

unfamiliar
before

with

the rule may


7

Then

of the current
of the current

resistance

1=

E+

It is customary

"

with

sides

clear.

To

show

which

wire

(amperes)

(volts)
(ohms)

the first letter of the

case

I is used

this

Translating
The

are

to allow
in this

formula, but
formula

the different parts

several

over

abbreviated,

pressure

"

be

between

through
quantity of electricity

is obliged to read this rule


electricity

relations

the

Let

the

(expressedin ohms).

by the resistance

because

quantity
the

to

represent it in

letter C is used

in

other
an-

might be confused.

Rules

into

Formulas

trapezoidis equal to the sum of the two parallel


multipliedby one half the perpendiculardistance between
area

of

them.
324

325

FORMULAS

We

A
L

Then

length

of

length

of shortest

length

of

of

area

Let

Then

side
longest parallel

^,
2

circle

parallelside

perpendicular

is

3.1416.

multipliedby
In this

(L +

by letting

trapezoid

area

JV

it is called

of

M=

The

this rule

abbreviate

may

3.1416

case

equal

When

is

them

or

the

to

the

of

square

in the

is used

number

constant, and is sometimes

between

distance

formula

representedby
letter

Greek

the

representedby

radius

letter.

(pi)

TT

of circle

area

radius

IT

of circle

jR2,or (themultiplication
sign is usuallyleft out

between

letters)

Thus

we

rule.

stating a
of

and
the

their

higher

When

operated
by
or

letter

the
may

is to

For

the

same

used

above,

To

"

prevent

for different

technical

or

to

braces
one

is to

be

often

are

brackets

of these
is

work.

multipliedor

{ },or

divided

multiply

the

[ ]. Any

within
sum

different

in the

same

\TrH\*(r*
+ r'2)+ ^2]which
2
o

L2

wise
other-

of L

signs

number
no

other

parentheses.

the

and
of

problem.

instance,
V=

or

grouped together

parentheses, with

grouped

confusion,

combinations

and

short

quantity, they

multiply all that

case

parentheses.
be

by

upon

trapezoid

for

quantitiesare

parentheses ( ) or
placed before or after

sign between,
In the

of

means

may

rule.

of mechanical
more

simple way of
be written
or
expressed in
The
knowledge of formulas
nearly every one engaged in

is

formula

is necessary

use

or

formula

called

forms

two

Any

is then

and

words

that

see

equals

Jf, hence

aggregation

326

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

GIRLS

FOR

EXAMPLES

Abbreviate
1.

One

electrical horse

2.

One

kilowatt

is

3.

The

number

of

such
circuit,

as

into formulas

following rules

the

is

power

1000

equal to

746

watts.

watts.

consumed

watts

in.

given electrical,

by multiplyingthe

is obtained

lamp,

equal to

volts

by

the amperes.
4.

number

The

of

equals the

volts

watts

divided

by

the

divided

by

the

amperes.
5.

of

Number

equals

amperes

the

watts

volts.
6.

The

horse
the

of

power

number

The

the

between
8.

speed

of

column

the

the

is found

by

of amperes

number

tiplying
muland

746.

which

at

body

traveled

distance

find

To

by

of volts

dividing the product by


7.

electric machine

an

and
in

pressure

water, multiply the

travels
the

is

which

time

pounds per
height of the

the ratio

equal to
is

required.

inch

square

of

in feet

column

by

0.434.
9.

The

the cost
10.

amount

of

multipliedby

The

gain in

the

of

the rate

sellingprice of

multipliedby

business

quantity 100

is

transaction

gain.

commodity
% plus the

is

equal to

rate

of

12.

of

the

The

The

interest

on

principal,time
as

sum

of

money

(expressedas
hundredths).

the

cost

gain.

sellingprice of a commodity is equal


multipliedby the quantity 100 % minus the rate of
11.

equal to

to the

cost

loss.

equal to the product


presse
years),and the rate (exis

327

FORMULAS

The

13.

of

amount

of

sum

obtained

be

may

money

plying
principal to the quantity obtained by multithe principal,the time
(as years),and the rate (as
hundredths).

by adding

find

To

14.

length of
circle by the

the

of the

diameter

this

the

To. find

number

of

radius

and

of

number

circle

Multiply

in the

degrees

arc

the
and

.0087266.

product by

15.

of

arc

an

the

of

area

in the

arc

by .008727;

or,

degrees

of

sector

of the

circle

multiply the

Multiply the
of the

the square

by

sector

the

of

arc

by

sector

half its radius.

Translating
In

order

One

1.

of

of

the

Here

stands

for the

for the radius

is

TT

circle

to

for

its diameter.

The

The

and

for

the

ratio

value

3.1416

Lx

circumference

expressed

in

of

figures,

circle is

equal

to

3.1416.
of

rectangleis

W
of

length

of
of

rectangle
rectangle
rectangle

rectangle,therefore,is

length by the width,

be

of

area

area

area

width

the

3^.

or

of

cannot

multipliedby

of

area

circle,

findingthe

Here

area

finding the

able

R*

reads, the

The

TT

is the

exact

formula

of the radius
formula

is called

ordinary purposes

the square

of

be

to

circle.

quantity

Therefore,the

2.

area

of the

constant

is that for

simplestformulas
A

Rules

is necessary

circle,

but

formula, it
simple language.

to understand

it in

to express

into

Formulas

found

by multiplying

328

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

EXAMPLES

the facts of the

Express

force

Electromotive

1.

current, when

following formulas
voltage

or

resistance

and

current

E
the

For

2.

radius

is

circumference

of

the

For

area

of

"

^"

7T

when
circle,

the

length of

OF

MV

by

the

7T.L/

equilateraltriangle,when

an

side is given:

one

delivered
electricity
are
given:

RI

of

given:
O

3.

of

rules

as

the

length

a*v'3

T~
4.

For

the

height are

For

5.

and

one

volume

of

circular

when
pillar,

the radius

and

given :

the

volume

side of the

of

base

pyramid,

square

the

when

height

given :

are

o^
3
6.

For

7.

For

breadth

8.

For

girth is

the

volume

of

the

diagonal
given :

are

the
known

of

rectangle,when

diameter

average

the diameter

sphere,when

of

the

tree, when

is

given :

length

the

and

average

Lf

"

7T

9.

known.

For

the

diameter

of

a
sf

ball,when

the

volume

of

it is

329

FORMULAS

The

10.

The

from

be obtained

feet,may

M
The

12.

in

number

be obtained

may

in

The

by

area

by

volume

expressed

the formula
O-

excavations

in

excavation

cubic

yards ; the
expressed in yards

the formula

from

.0495 x

circumference

of

circle may

When

C
L
a

The

surface of

be obtained

from

the

(C

of

solidityof

cylindermay

L)

V2

be

expressed

2a

circumference

length

area

of

one

be

sphere may

S
The

3.5446

of the surface

area

the formula

17.

given

the formula

The

16.

in

from

given

(7=
15.

.13367

C
14.

formula

feet

express

of bushels

number

area

given length,expressed in

.00019

of cubic

Contractors

the

VZ

in
the

be obtained

gallonsmay

13.

1.1283

of miles

number

from

Z"
11.

be obtained

circle may

followingformula

the

by

of

diameter

D*

end

expressedby the

formula

3.1416

sphere

may

be

obtained

from

the

formula
S
18.

The

side of

from

the

an

D3

.5236

inscribed

cube

of

1.1547,

where

sphere

may

be

tained
ob-

formula
=

E*

It

length of side,
radius of sphere.

330

19.

by

The

the

solidityor

of

contents

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

pyramid

be

may

expressed

formula
-pi

where

"

A
F

20.

the

The

of

length

an

of

arc

circle

of

area

height

be

may

base,
of

pyramid.
from

obtained

formula
L

21.

.017453

loss

The

in

where

R,

transaction

length

number

of

radius

be

may

of arc,

degrees,

of circle.

expressed

by

the

formula
L

22.

the

The

where

r,

of

rate

in

loss

loss,

cost,

of loss.

rate

transaction

may

be

expressed by

formula

23.

The

of

cost

commodity

be

may

expressed

by

the

formula
or

"

"

24.

The

where

--

selling price,

COSt,

lUU

-r-

of

volume

great circle is known

sphere
be

may

the

when

determined

v-C3

rate.

circumference

by

the

of

formula

~e^
25.

is known

The

diameter
may

be

of

found

by

circle
the

the

formula

circumference

of

which

332

VOCATIONAL

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

Equations
A

that two

quantitiesare equal may be expressed


mathematically by placing one
quantityon the left and the
the right of the equality sign (=). The
other on
statement
in this form
is called an equation.
The
quantity on the left hand of the equation is called the
the quantity on
the righthand
and
of the
left-hand member
equation is called the right-handmember.
An
If a balance
as
a balance.
equation may be considered
is in equilibrium,
we
may add or subtract or multiplyor divide
the weight on each side of the balance by the same
weight and
the equilibriumwill still exist.
So in an
equation we may
without
perform the following operations on each member
changing the value of the equation:
statement

We

add

may

an

each

equal quantity or equal quantitiesto

ber
mem-

of the equation.
We

subtract

may

each

member

We

equal quantityor

an

of the equation.
multiplyeach

may

equal quantitiesfrom

member

of the equation by the

same

or

of the equation by the

same

or

equal quantities.
We

divide

may

each

member

equal quantities.
We

may

extract

We

may

raise each

The
If

the square

expression,A
the

process

of

rules.

To

obtain

the

must
on

(2)
(3)

be

side of

one

(1)

desire to obtain

we

by

so

member

.A

"

-/"

irIP

IP

root

of each

of the equation to the

trip is

an

transformation
value of R

means

(Dividing equation (1) by


root

we

do

above

series of operations

that

the coefficient

of each

may

the

according to
that

power.

of A

instead

performed on the equation so


the equation.

square

same

equation. Why

the value of R

(Extractingthe

of the equation.

member

will be left

of

.R2.)

side of the

equation.)

333

FORMULAS

of Representing Operations

Methods

MULTIPLICATION

sign (X ) is used in most cases.


multiplication
the letter (x)is also
used in operationswhere

The
be

not

method

Another

is

"

ployed.
em-

convenient, especiallywhere

is very

method

to be

2a-3b

a-6

2-3

This

follows

as

It should

number

employed. Keep the dot above the line,


it is a decimal
otherwise
point.
Where
signs may
parentheses,etc.,are used, multiplication
For instance,(a + b)x (a
be omitted.
b) and (a + ")(a b)
identical ; also,2 (x
are
y) and 2(x "y).
The
multiplicationsign is very often omitted in order to
2 times a ; 5 xyz means
2 a means
To illustrate,
simplifywork.
times (a
5 x y z ; x(a
x
"),etc.
b) means
written to the right of, and above, another
is
A number
(x*~)
known
the specialkind of multiplication
as
a sign indicating
small

of

terms

are

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

involution.
In

Thus,

x2

"

"

x5

"26

a4b3c

dissimilar

terms

ab

"

of
multiplication

Thus,

#2+3

y?

abc

The

exponents of similar

add

we
multiplication

"

"

"

"

terms.

be

may

indicated.

abcxyz.

DIVISION
The
cases,

division

sign (-*-)is used


however, it is best to employ

division.

To

in
a

means

the

In

cases.

horizontal

illustrate,

most

same

many

line to indicate
as

(a + ")

-f-

x-y

(x

"

y) in simpler form.

The

division

sign

is

never

omitted.

334
A

VOCATIONAL

root

MATHEMATICS

is
sign (yH, ^/x2)

radical

or

of division

form

known

Thus,

y?

The

sign indicatingthe special

exponents of similar

xi

GIRLS

evolution.

as

subtract

division,we

In

FOR

division of dissimilar

y?-2

"

terms

terms.

be indicated.

may

Thus,
xyz

Substituting and
A

formula

The
the

usually written

is

left-hand

member

quantitythat

contains
whose

the

find

To
every

we

the

letter

are

value

in the

value, (2) carry

out

perform

to

division

we

letters

values

before

Transposing
in the

contains
desire

to

only
find.

form

of

equation.
quantity,which is

one

The

an

right-hand member

representing the quantity and numbers


given either directlyor indirectly.
of

the

formula

right-hand
the

must

we

member

(1)substitute

its exact

for

numerical

various

remembering
operationsindicated,
operations of multiplicationand

all the

those of addition

and

subtraction,(3)if

there

parentheses,these should be removed, one pair at a


time, inner parenthesesfirst. A minus sign before a parenthesis
that when
the parenthesisis removed, all the signs of
means
the terms
included
be changed.
in the parenthesismust
Find
the value of the expression
are

any

3a
Substitute

subtraction

the
in the

6(2a-"
value

of

18),where

letter.

each

Then

parentheses.

15 +

3(10 -3
3(28-3)
3(25)

15 +

75

3x5
15 +

90

18)

5, b

perform

3.
all addition

or

335

FORMULAS

EXAMPLES

2 A

2.

4.

+ y),when
(a?

5.

13

6.

24 y -f 8

7.

Q(6

8.

Find

when

9.

A)

1.

(2 +

(6

(a;"y),when

Jf

the

value

11.

9.

8 ;

?/ =

when

11.

4, ^=5,

formula

in the

of X

9, P

7.

3 y, when

"

10.

27 ; y

+3^r)-f2 0,

Jf

A
a

9 ; y

(2 + y)

11, N=

8, when

a) X 7, when

"

:
followingexpressions

of the

the value

Find

6, 0

8.

28.

P"

10.

Find

11.

12.

5|"

13.

si +

14.

a2

63 -\-c2,when

15.

(a + 6)(a +

16.

(a2-62) (a2+ 62),when

17.

(c3+ d3)(c3 d3),c

18.

Va2 + 2 a6 + 62,when

19.

"v/c3 61, when

the

-f-4

"

(p 4-

p^

S^

"

8 q

"

(6

"

"

"

+ 3

c)

$)

"

c, when

"

"

g, when

9, 6

c),when

5.

4, 6

5,g

7,r

5, S

3, c

4.

5.

7, 6

6, c

4.

2, 6
8, 6

9, d

6, c

when

t+p),

"

equation

of T in the

value

8.

4.

2.

9,$

8, t

9.

11.

336

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

GIRLS

FOR

PROBLEMS

the

Solve

followingproblems by first writing the


rule on page 326, and then substitutingfor the

the

from
1.

How

many

electrical horse

2.

How

many

kilowatts

3.

(a)

and

Give

power

in 2389
of

the number

in 4389

in

answer.

watts

watts

watts

formula

circuit of

110

volts

25 amperes.

(b) How

is the

What

4.

2740

and

watts

and

circuit if the

horse

is

power

delivered
quantity of electricity

the

the

of

is the resistance

What

circuit if the

is
quantity of electricity
is the

What

6.

voltage of

power

is

25

voltageis

110

amperes
5.

electrical horse

many

pressure

25 amperes

per

inch

square

of

water

87 feet

high?
capacityof a cylinderwith a base of 16
inches
and
6 inches
high?
(Capacity in gallons is
square
obtained
by multiplying base by the
equal to cubical contents
height and dividingby 231 cubic inches.)
7.

What

is the

8.

What

is the

length

is the

area

diameter

40" in

What

11.

What

buys
12.

11"

is the
a

What

house

What

What

16" and

circle with

for $ 5000

is the

the

is the

contains

at the end

arc

an

capacityof
of

greatestbreadth

of 5 years

at 5

gain in a transaction,when
and gains 10 % ?

sellingprice of
gained 33 % ?

area

which

of

amount

is the

sector

of $ 800

(diameterof bottom),and

14.

of

arc

16"

of

18" ?

is the amount

$ 895, if the salesman


13.

of

circle of diameter

10.

man

30"

What

9.

of

an

16"

an

automobile

?
a

cost

pail 14" (diameterof top),


in height?

ellipsewith
10" ?

that

the

greatest length

337

FORMULAS

Interpretationof Negative Quantities


12 has no meaning to us according
quantityor number
to our
knowledge of simple arithmetic,but in a great many
work
the minus
sign before a number
problems in practical

The

"

assists
To

us

in

understanding

the different

solutions.

illustrate :

Boiling
point of

Boiling
point of

212"

100"

water

water

Freezing
point of

THERMOMETER

CENTIGRADE

THF.BMOMETEB

FAHRENHEIT

Freezing
point of

-32"

"

water

-0"

"

water

""""!

Centigradescale the freezingpointof water is marked


Below
the Centigrade scale
the freezingpoint of water
on
readingsare expressedas minus readings.
30" C means
thirtydegrees below the freezing point. In

On the
0".

all
"

other

words, all readings, in

the

direction

below

zero

are

readings above zero are called +.


Terms
are
quantitiesconnected
by a p'lusor minus sign.
Those
precededby a plus sign (when no sign precedes a quantity
while
is
called
plus
positivequantities,
understood)are
those connected
by a minus sign are called negativequantities.
expressed as

and

"

all

338

VOCATIONAL

Let

MATHEMATICS

FOR

GIRLS

problems involving negative quantities.


Find
the correspondingreading on
the Fahrenheit
scale cor~
18" C.
responding to
try

us

some

"

Notice

that

minus

The

point
Let

value
on

"

"

is

consider

another

corresponding

32f" +

to

I (_

it is to be

the

|".

=-

of

degree below

reading on

the

zero

grade
Centi-

40" F.

"

40"

32" ; F

it is

Find

problem.

Substitutingin the formula,


C

explained by saying
scale.

scale

+ 32"

ip"

Fahrenheit
us

" C + 32"
f(- 18")+.32"

quantity.

=-

quantity is placed in parenthesis when

another

multiplied by

have

we

32")

| (- 72")

40".

is equivalentto adding
subtractinga negative number
of the same
a
value, and subtracting a positive
positivenumber
of the
number
is equivalentto adding a negativenumber
lows
same
value,the rule for subtracting may be expressed as foland
the sign of the subtrahend
: Change
proceed as in
Since

addition.
For

40 minus

example,

"

40 minus
"

40 minus

28

equals 40 plus 28, or 68.

28

equals 40 plus

+ 32

equals

"

40

"

28, or 12.
plus

"

32

72.

positive quantitymultipliedby a negative quantity or


a
negative quantity multiplied by a positive quantity always gives a
positive quantities multiplied together will give
negative product. Two

(Notice that

positive product, and

two

give a positiveproduct.)

To

5 times
5 times

(-5)

negative quantities multiplied togetherwill


illustrate
5
_

25

x(- 5)
+25
(-5)

5 ="

times

-26

first add all the


adding positiveand negativequantities,
positivequantitiesand then add all the negative quantities
In

340

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

repeat

the

similar

Place

(same
Thus,

of

products
in

exponents)

second

the

by

GIRLS

in

term

the

factors

same

Add

column.

same

multiplied

the

using

operation,

same

FOR

the

and

partial

plier.
multi-

degree

products.

b.

"

a-b

a?+

62

ab
-

-ab
-62

a2

Notice
to

the

the

of

product

difference

of

their

the

of

difference

and

sum

the

quantities

is

equal

squares.

EXAMPLES

1.

State

2.

State

Multiply
what

the

Multiply
what

square

the

-f- b

"

square

by

of

the

by
of

(p

q)(p

4.

Multiply

(p

g)(jp

5.

Multiply

(r

-f

s)(r

Multiply

(a

"

6)(a

6.

"

of

sum

"

the

Multiply

3.

b.

"

quantities

equals.

y.
difference

of

quantities

the

q).

7.

Multiply

g).

8.

(x

9.

(a;

s).

the

b).

10.

(x

(a;

"

y)(x

2/)2=?
y)2

equals.

y)(x

y)

"

y).

MECHANICAL

USEFUL
There

are

know

should
and

machines

certain

mechanical

and

able

be

that

important

of

Change

Sueed

girl

every

Speed
and

time

are

that

labor-savingdevices
to-day.

time-rate of change of

to the

given

name

terms

and

laws

to the

in the home

Time
Two

and

terms

apply

to

used

are

INFORMATION

speed. Speed

is the

position. That

is,

distance

positionor

"

Time

taken

EXAMPLES

1.

speed in
One

120

train takes
miles

hour

hour

per

contains

60

seconds

to

go

mile ; what

one

is its

minutes, 1 minute

contains

60

seconds, then

1 hour

contains
60
If the train

of

mile

and

in 3600

seconds

3600

2.

At

In
3600

3.

it

in miles
second

times

At

as

the

move

in 120

seconds.

seconds, in

second

one

it will go

T"7

it will go

T"7

hour

3600

30 miles

seconds

Ans.

per hour.

per

mile,how

fast is

train

of

mile

; in

3600

seconds

it will

move

much.

the rate

watch

speed in

per

it will

requireto
4.

the rate of 80

moving

60

mile

one

goes

of

55 miles

travel between

shows

55

an

many

seconds

will

?
mile-posts

seconds

miles per hour

hour, how

?
341

between

mile-posts
; what

is

342

VOCATIONAL

What

5.

to

speed of

minute.
If

7.

If

how

miles

40

continues

miles

many

the

at

and

at the

in

move

second

the

at

in

rate of

hour

an

of

rate

mile

one

feet

44

of 3.87 miles

in 6

minutes,

Momentum
the

about

of

motion

bodies

the laws

of

knowledge

spond
corre-

traveling?

and

interestingfacts
by the aid of

understood

rate

is it

hour

an

it

travel

to

Motion

Many

mile-postswill

will it travel

miles

many

train travels

hour

an

feet does

many

train

between

seconds

fly-wheelis moving

How

second, how
8.

of

rim

The

6.

of

number

GIRLS

FOR

MATHEMATICS

be

can

of

motion

momentum.

force,1such as
by some
slowly,increasingits speed under

acted

body

starts

force.

the

To

upon

illustrate

when

"

electric

an

steam

or

the

tricity,
elecof

action

starts, we

car

experience a heavy jarring; this is due to the fact that


the seat starts before
our
body, and the seat pushes us along.
is a tendency of bodies
in a state of rest or
There
to remain
of a body
motion, which is called inertia,that is,the inability
itself to change its position,
to stop itself if moving, or to start
often

if at rest.
The
motion

momentum

of

in

and

body,

velocityin

feet per

EXAMPLE.

To

weight, when
If the
and

the

moving
of the

mass

is the

product
(speed).

second

find

the
with

body

upon

velocityin seconds, the


MASS

is defined

body

the

of

of

momentum

force

Force

Mass

is that
is the

which

quantity

body

is

in

tends

to

given

of matter

in

motion.

body.

in

second.
in

pounds,

foot-pounds.

foot-pounds.

produce

the

pounds

MOMENTUM

675

75

and

mass2

acts

given

VELOCITY

quantity of

75 feet per

the force
will be

the

velocityof

which

the

as

We

the

quantities. Let
by V.

by allowing letters to stand for


ity
representedby M and the veloc-

this rule

abbreviate

may

343

INFORMATION

MECHANICAL

USEFUL

be

mass

EXAMPLES

What

is the

12 miles

per

1.

moving

miles

26

moving
A

4.

5 miles

of

momentum

hour

per

truck
At

per

is the

of

hour

foot-pound.

foot

in

one

and

It

is the

of

520,000

pounds.
foot-

Energy

resistance

of

work

One

second.

tons,

weighing 135 pounds,

person

of

kind.

any

in

is measured

Work

work.

do

overcoming

abilityto

ing
tons, mov-

weighing

motor-car

weighing 4 tons has a momentum


what
speed is it moving ?

is the

15

weighing

car

Work
Work

is the momentum

What

3.

hour

is the

What

2.

of

momentum

Energy

unit

called

in

done

raising one pound one


is 33,000 foot-poundsin

horse power

minute.

one

EXAMPLES

1.

to

lifts

woman

shelf

ft. above

foot-poundsof
2.

in
is

force

package weighing
the

does

work

floor

she

does

use

If

an

engine is

in 8 seconds
1

Remember

rated

at

1 H. P.

two

means

the

Ib. from

15

How

seconds.

floor
many

weighing
in 20

5 H.

? in 3 minutes
that

in

woman

climbing a 13-story building


16' high.
3.

do

much

How

minutes

P.,1how

130
?

much

pounds
Each

work

?
33,000 ft.-lb.

in

one

minute.

do

story

will

it

344

Find

4.

the horse

at the

draws

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

miles

of 31

rate

developed by

power

hour

per

locomotive

train

GIRLS

when

it

ance
resist-

offeringa

130,000 Ib.

of

Machines

Experience shows that it is often possibleto use our strength


contiivance
called
of
a
to better
a
advantage by means
in labor-saving
is interested
machine.
Every home-maker
devices.

into those

resolved
and

pulley,and

and

screw.

the

all machines

In

simple machines
of the lever,including the wheel
inclined plane, to which
belong

force

by the acting
accomplished by the
ratio

of

actingforce

is

there

done

The

the

more

useful

work

of
efficiency
work

Levers.

100

The

"

Inclined

greater than
which

in

the two

"

the

between

90

is

work

small

so

inclined

the

In

work
heat.

done

by

the

the machine.

in

come

and

100

contact

is

levers
to be

as

is

; the

nearly

very

disregarded.

plane

there

lever,because

bodies

work

into

total work

efficiencyof simple

Planes.

wedge

the friction

because

the

axle

accomplished
expended

"

Total
"

and

actual

transformed

the

to

the

be

may

friction.1The

exceeds
is

that

^se^
i

less

or

always

amount

is called the

Em

all

principlesof

mechanical

The

more

the

is

friction
surface

is
efficiency

with
where
some-

block and tackle


of the commercial
efficiency
with several movable
pulleysvaries from 40 % to 60 %
there is necesof the jack screw
In the use
sarily
Jack Screw.
is
of friction so that the efficiency
a very
large amount

Pulleys.
"

The

"

often
1

as

low

Friction
or

moving

as

is the

25

%.

resistance

of any

other

which

surface

every
upon

material
it.

surface

offers

to the

ing
slid-

345

INFORMATION

MECHANICAL

USEFUL

EXAMPLES

Mention

1.

some

instances

friction is of

in which

foot-poundsof work are expended by


raisinga load,and only 398 pounds of useful work
of the dredge ?
is the efficiency
what
If 472

2.

foot-poundsof work
249 pounds of useful
a lever,and
is the efficiency
of the lever ?
If 250

3.

If

4.

body

on

work

are

advantage.
a

dredge
are

in

plished,
accom-

expended at one end of


are
accomplished,what

are

work

foot-pounds of work are expended in raisinga


inclined
an
plane, and only 584 pounds of useful
of the inclined
accomplished,what is the efficiency

589

plane ?
foot-pounds of work are expended in raising a
of pulleysand
body by means
only 512 pounds of useful work
of the pulley?
are
accomplished,what is the efficiency
If 844

5.

Water

Supply

questionof the water supply of a cityor a town is very


from
is usuallyobtained
lakes and rivers
important. Water
which
drain the surrounding country. If a lake is located in
section of the
a
surrounding country higher than the city
the water
be obtained
(which is often located in a valley),
may
The

from
be

the

lake,and

the

pressure

sufficient to force it

in most

cases

through

reservoir

the

town

or

into it.

reservoir

is

the

the

town, the

If houses

are

pipe,which
is pumped
Water

is

water

built
is

will flow
on

steel

the

is built at

highest portionof
Since

of

the

same

the water

pipes into

tank, is erected

on

may
But

high as the
is pumped
the water
the highestpoint of

it to any

hill with

lake

the houses.

elevation

an

city,and
as
high as

from

in the

the

as

part of the
a
reservoir,

this hill and

town.

stand-

the water

into it.

conveyed

from

the reservoir to the house

by

means

346
of

VOCATIONAL

iron

pipes of
of

parts
Since
know

water

how

of proper

MATHEMATICS

various

the

house

by

to calculate

small

the exact

distribution

lead, iron, or
pressure,

pressure

it is

in order

to the

ent
differ-

brass

pipes.

necessary
to have

to

pipes

strength.

SUPPLY

WATER

The

GIRLS

It is distributed

considerable

exerts

size and

sizes.

FOR

of water

What

is the number

of

What

is the number

of

in

cityduring 1912

is

as

follows

gallonsper day for each consumer


gallonsper day for each inhabitant

?
?

348

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

(c)15"
5' 4"

in diameter

high ; (e)2'
Area

Inside

of Tanks.

the

area

it.

In the

of the

Find

for

made

whose
for

2' 4"x

widths

four

of the sides and

area

to line

do

sides of

the

to

of

above

not

line

bottom.

tank whose

10".

copper

are

of the

height. Then add


top is usually open, we

10"

of

amount

dimensions

the

inside

1'9"

11"

line

to

necessary

10",no

tank

allowance

amount

dimensions

of

copper

are

3' 4"

to

necessary
x

1' 2" x

line

tank

allowance

11", no

overlapping.
Find

10.

2' 11"

the

V 4"

of

amount

zinc

Law

of

squares

Squares.
"

to

line

tank

The

of Pipes
of similar

areas

figuresvary

as

the

of their

correspondingdimensions.
in shape and
cylindrical
are, therefore,similar
of any two
areas
pipes are to each other as the

Pipes are
figures. The
squares

necessary

10".

Capacity

of the diameters.

EXAMPLE.
in

the

liningpurposes,

the

find the

and

overlapping.

Find

9.

for

of zinc necessary

are

the

inside

whose

by
the

the amount

inside dimensions
8.

result

in diameter

high.

area,

together

Since

followingproblems

Find

7.

bottom.

add

GIRLS

8"

6' 1"

and

find the

To

"

tank, and multiply the

the

high; (d) V

2" in diameter

rectangular tank,

or

square

4'

and

FOR

"

If

diameter, their

4 times
therefore,

pipe is 4" in diameter and another is 2"


of the largerone
ratio is -^, and the area
is,

one

the smaller

one.

EXAMPLES

1.

of 2"
2.

of 1"
3.

3"

How

much

largeris

section

of 5"

largeris

section

of 2"ff

pipe

than

section

section

pipe ?
How

much

pipe than

pipe ?
How

pipe ?

much

largeris

section of 5"

pipe than

section of

PLUMBING

AND

Atmospheric
The

is

use

at

greatest

atmosphere
level

has

atmosphere
is

of the

Pressure

The
weight and exerts .pressure.
sure
preslevel,because here the depth of the

sea

the

greatest. In mathematics

is taken

the

as

349

HYDRAULICS

standard.

Men

have

at

pressure
learned

to

sea

make

principlesof atmospheric pressure in such devices


the pump,
the barometer,the vacuum,
etc.
as
is often
Atmospheric pressure
expressed as a
certain number
of
atmospheres." The pressure
"
of one
atmosphere is the weight of a column of
air,one square inch in area.
"

"

At

level

the

pressure

of

sea

average

the

is

atmosphere

approximately
pounds

per

15

square

inch.
The

of

pressure

the air is measured

by

instrument

an

called
The

barometer.

barometer
of

sists
con-

glasstube,

about

311

long,

which

inches
has

been

entirelyfilled
with
(thus
mercury
removing all air from
a

vessel
The

varies

BAROMETER

the

BAROMETER

TUBE

tube) and

inverted

in

of mercury.
space
as

at the

the

air

top

of the column

pressure

on

mercury

in the vessel

increases

pressure

is read

from

the
or

of

mercury

surface
decreases.

graduated scale

which

of

the
The

indi-

350

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

the

from

distance

the

cates

FOR

vessel to the top of the mercury

the

of

surface

GIRLS

in the

mercury
in the tube.

column

QUESTIONS

atmospheres would

Four

1.

how

mean

pounds the following


-Jatmosphere ; J atmosphere.
2.

Give

3.

If

in

the

inches

30

mercury

with

high

base

pressures:

will

average,

of the air ?

is the pressure
849

the

air, on

pounds

many

(One cubic

atmosphere;

support

of

column

of

inch, what

square

foot of mercury

weighs

exerts

against

pounds.)
Water

When

is stored

water

sides,whether

the

Pressure

in

sides

the

tank, it

pressure

vertical,
oblique,or horizontal.

are

perpendicularlyto the surface on which it


in a tank, at a
In other words, every pound of water
acts.
height above the point where the water is to be used, possesses
due to its position.
of energy
a certain amount
force is exerted

The

It is often
the
to

top of

problems

water

perpendicularheight
Pressure

exerted

in feet
The

the
inch

per
inch

1 square

pressure,

water

with

weight

of

is 0.434
the

0.434.

by

pressure

water
the

by

or

The

lb., we

height in feet

in

as

case

of fire.

In

perpendicularheight from
the point of discharge. This

find

the

per

pressure

water, multiply the head

inch
and

area

per

obtain

the

to

height

inch,

inch

0.434.

is due
the

square

of water

by

use

city,so

or

in

result will be the pressure

of 1 square

column

to

To

"

of

square

weight

base
a

column

in

town

at

is called the head.

Square Inch.

per

tank

the

the

level in the reservoir

the water

inch

know

must

one

for

pressure

in

energy

of

in the reservoir

or

the needed

secure

such

house

the

estimate

to

necessary

is

the

equal

to the
the

high and having

pressure

per

of

square

column

of

in feet.

base

inch

water

of

Therefore,

weight

height

of

pounds.

column.

of the

multipliedby

1 foot

weight

square

foot of
Since

of 1 square

ing
by multiply-

PLUMBING

351

HYDRAULICS

AND

EXAMPLES

is the pressure

What

the

find

To

"

(weight)per

inch

square

of

head

high?

known, multiply

is

of

column

feet, if

in

water

4"

(c)30'

(a) 8' high? (6) 15' 8" high?


high ? (e)41' 3" high ?
Head.

of

inch

square

per

(d)

the

the

water

18' 9"

pressure

by

pressure

2.31.
Let p
h

Then

p
h

pressure

height in

0.434 Ib. per sq. in.

h x

feet

P
"

"
~

0.434

0.434

p=

EXAMPLES

Find

the

sq. in. ;

head

of water, if the
Ib. per

(b) 88

Ib. per sq. in. ;

28

Lateral

sq. in. ;

pressure

is

Ib. per

(c)46

Ib. per

(a) 49

sq. in. ;

(d)

Ib. per sq. in.


find the
lateral
To

(e) 64

Pressure.

"

the
of
water
(sideways)pressure
upon
sides of a tank, multiply the area
of the
submerged side,in inches,by the pressure
due to one
half the depth.
12"
A
EXAMPLE.
tank
18" long and
What
is the lateral
deep is full of water.

"

Pressure
is zero

"

on

pressure
length
18"

side ?

one

depth
12"

216

square

inches

area

of side

Pressure
is ha If that at

depth
1'

base

0.434

.434 Ib. pressure

at the

bottom

of

the tank
0

pressure

at

top

2).4341b.
.217 Ib. average

depth
.217

216

pressure
of the

46.872

side of the tank

due

to

one

half

the

tank

pounds

pressure

on

one

LATERAL

PRESSURE

352

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

Water
The

of

question

Various

great importance.
the

entering

sewage

of

disposing
the

devices

outlet

the

device

called

placed

of the

trap is used.

in the waste

pipe

of

trap consists

plumbing

of

It allows

fixtures.

more

All

these

the pressure

EXAMPLE.

What

one

column
in

twice

of water

"|
3 x

"

arm

height

"

is

the trap has

as

high,

in
and

to

height
a

will

seal of

3 inches.

or

is

column

1.7 ounces.
|
ty
Therefore,a 1^-inchtrap
=

to the

the seal of

which

pressure

of

equivalent

1 inch
ounces,

from

ing
enter-

forms
or

pressure

trap

plumber

by

that

so

and

it
volve
in-

less arithmetic.

or

To determine

If

problems belong

water

different

have

be empty.

of

the free passage

foul odors

material, but prevents sewer


gases or
The vessels holding the water
livingrooms.

never

building,a

or

vessel

traps may be emptied by back


(see illustration) These
in the
siphon. It is a good plan to have sufficient water
will

from
of gas

escape

house

of waste
the

prevent odors

prevent the

to

basement

This

of the

to

is of

sewage,

TRAPS

in the

sewer

used

be

order

In

water, called

waste

may

WATER

from

GIRLS

Traps

the

house.

FOR

pressure

l^-inch

trap will resist :

trap resist ?

If inches, both

Since
of

equivalent
of water

to a

column

pound,
pressure

3 inches

in

or

will make

arms

of

16 ounces,
of

of

ounces

a
a

inches
column

pound,

or

height is equivalent to

will resist 1.7

28

water

of pressure.

353

HYDRAULICS

AND

PLUMBING

EXAMPLES

1.

What

back

pressure

will

f-inchseal trap

2.

What

back

pressure

will

2-inch seal

3.

What

back

pressure

will

21-inch

trap

resist ?

4.

What

back

pressure

will

4J-inchseal trap

resist ?

5.

What

back

pressure

will

5-inch

Water
When

flows

water

of

from

work.

Consequently, water

the

by

of such

use

level

which

amount

energy,

as

must

be

another, it exerts a
capacity for doing

to

is the

utilized to create

be

may

means

trap resist ?

Power

one

certain

trap resist ?

seal

seal

resist ?

the water

wheel,

the

power

turbine,and

hydraulicram.

the

Friction, which
water

resistance

is the

power,

considered

when

over

of

the

moving through or
friction depends upon

when

which

substance

encounters

substance.

another

between

pressure

of

speaks

one

The
the

amount

surfaces

in

contact.

When
it is

by

All the

part of the energy

naturallylost.

friction.
to

is done

work

In

the
which

power

is
advantage,and efficiency
the water

to the

Efficiency.
"

pump

lifts

water

by

Since
work

To

forces

the

the

water

has

is due

by

done

friction must
upon

the

it to

be
water

when

into
the

used

work

done

it.

upon

the

water

when

taken

the

to

be

cannot

ratio of the useful

done

work

this

water

put into

height,multiply the weight


height through which it is raised.

or

the

done

the

total work

find

of

case

is

which

consideration,the
same

power

of the

useful

is exerted

will

equal the weight of the water multipliedby the height


of the
through which it is raised,multipliedby the efficiency
pump.
EXAMPLE.

"

Find

the

power

required to

raise

half

ton

354

VOCATIONAL

(long ton,
the

MATHEMATICS

2240

or

of
efficiency

the purnp

Total

work

1120

40

H. P.

Ib.)of

done

V?"

required

water

to

is 75

weight

FOR

59,733.3

of 40

height

feet,when

height

GIRLS

counter
efficiency

ft. Ib.

59^733-3

Ana.

1.8.

33000

EXAMPLES

Find

1.

28',if

the

the pump

Find

2.

the

Find

5.

the

has

the

70

of

mass

of 62.425

16',if

requiredto
% efficiency.

raise

quart of

water

25',if

unit

of Water

volume

foot of pure

of

rise of

substance

water

at

At
a

of

water
to be
1

the

decreases
but

Consider

until

we

57.5

pounds.

the time

1 minute

falls below
find the

in all power

39.1"

weight
examples

of

of

F.,
a

where

mass

temperature is

temperature, the density decreases

temperature

its

water

temperature, the

F., the boilingpoint of water, the weight


is only 59.64 pounds.
fresh water

When

temperature

212"
of

has

F.

this

this

change

is called

39.1"

therefore,its density at

or

With

water

water

approximately 62.5.
has its greatest density. With
density is also changed.
62.425,

gallonsof

gallonof

pounds

253

cubic

density. One

15',

water

raise

Density
The

of water

requiredto
% efficiency.

power

has

pump

gallonsof

required to raise
70 % efficiency.

power

has 85

pump

foot

% efficiency.

power

the

cubic

raise 80

requiredto

75

the pump

Find

4.

the

has

Find

18',if

has

required to raise
80% efficiency.1

the power

if the pump
3.

power

the

cubic

the time

until
cubic

at

foot

density of
foot

is not

of ice

given.

356

have

Tables

been

it is seldom

so

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

FOR

compiled givingthe specific


gravityof different solids,
to

necessary

it.

compute

specificgravity of liquids is

The

industrial

GIRLS

it

world, as

the

means

"

often

very

strength

"

used

of

in

the

liquid.

In

in
be soaked
wool, the wool must
be
sulphuric acid of a certain strength. This acid cannot
form
bought except in its concentrated
(sp.gr. 1.84),and it
be diluted with water
until it is of the requiredstrength.
must
the

The
a

keeps

the

The

liquid.

the

with
In

Those

stem.

impartial

an

tube

is with
with

cury
mer-

in a

which

graduate

can

of the

specificgravityrecorded
in

commonly

most

graduated

are

use

scale.
scale

is

employed,

commonly

English,

are

The

in this country.

use

to.specificgravity and

relation

marked

in

placed

of the textile mill workers

scale in

same

the

on

the

have

Twaddell's

England,

since most

is

of

it is immersed

when

scale

instrument

all instruments

not

the

on

has

glass tube,

bulb

This

mercury.

upright

closed

liquid

specificgravity is to be determined.

liquidwhose
But

hydrometer

of

consists

filled with

hydrometer

when

read

end

specificgravityof

the

instrument

This

at the lower

bulb

raw

to determine

simplestway

hydrometer.

be

of

carbonization

Twaddell
can

and

find the

we

scale bears

be easilyconverted

into it.
scale

Another

readings
the

use

of

be

cannot
a

of the

converted

complicated

HYDROMETER

hydrometer
into

formula

or

is the

but

Beaume,

without

specificgravity
reference

to

FORMULA

SCALE

these

1.

Specificgravityhydrometer

Gives

2.

Twaddell

""

CONVERTING

FOR

INTO

S. G.

the

N=

EXAMPLE.

"

particulardegree which

Change

168

(.5

^)

is to be converted.

degrees (Tw.) into


=L84"

100

S. G.

direct reading

100

3. Beaume

-^

table.

S. G.

100

scale into specific


changing degrees Twaddell
JV) + 1000
gpecific
gravitVi

for

formula

Another

(5 x

gravityis :

357

HYDRAULICS

AND

PLUMBING

1000

and

so

by

on

the

1.005

1.010

2"

specificgravity

3"

specificgravity

1.015

degree.
ply
gravity is given,multispecific

of .005 for each

regular increase

find the

To

gravity
scale,1" specific

In Twaddell's

degrees Twaddell

the

when

1000, and divide by 5.

specific
gravity by 1000, subtract

(S.G.X 1000)-1000

Formula

degrees T^^H

EXAMPLE.

Change

"

1.84

(1.84x1000)

dell,
specific
gravityinto degrees Twad-

-1000
=

degrees Twadden

16g

5
EXAMPLES

1.

What

is the

specific
gravityof sulphuricacid

2.

What

is the

specific
gravityof

acetic acid

3.

What

is the

specific
gravityof

liquidof

164"

Be. ?

4.

What

is the

specific
gravityof

liquidof

108"

Be. ?

5.

What

is the

specific
gravityof

liquidof

142"

Tw.?

of 116"

of 86" Tw.

Tw.?
?

Heat
Heat

Units.

The

"

shops of America
(B. T. U.) and is

unit
and

of

heat

England

defined

used
is the

in the

industries

and

British

TJiermal

Unit

the

quantity of heat required to


raise one
pound of water through a temperature of one degree
Thus
the heat required to raise 5 Ib. of water
Fahrenheit.
through 15 degreesF. equals
5

Similarly,to
86

The
is the

15

heat necessary

75 British Thermal

raise 86 Ib. of water


x

unit used
metric

as

on

(B. T. U.)

through "" F. requires

43 B. T. U.

the Continent

system
to

Units

unit, a

raise 1 gram

and

by

calorie.
of

water

scientists in America

This
1

is the

amount

of

degree Centigrade.

358

FOR

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

GIRLS

EXAMPLES

How

1.

4823
2.

cubic

Ib. of water

62

How

B.

many

How

Ib. of water

(Considerone
How

4.

5.

How

water

12

6.

How

66" F. to 208"

raise

required to

heat

raise 785

requiredto

F.?

of heat

118"

from

365

F.?

will be

foot of water

T. U.

B.

many

be

requiredto change

are

(B. T. U.)

cubic

many

ft. of water

of heat

T, U.

74" F. to 208"

from

will

U.)

degrees ?

units

many

T.

(B.

from

feet of water

3.

cu.

units

many

lb.)

requiredto change

are

to 211"

621

equal to

1825

units

will it take

units

will

gallonsof

to raise 484

degrees ?
heat

many

of water

from

66" F. to 198"

it take

raise

to

5116

gallons

F.?

Temperature
The

ordinary

called

are

used

instruments

to

There

thermometers.
and

temperature

measure

kinds

two

are

mometer
ther-

Fahrenheit

The

Centigrade.

heit
Fahren-

"

consists
with
100

with

mercury

tube
cylindrical

the

positionof

the

filled

mercury

2121

at the

32.

water

divisions.

the

positionof

and

the

the

convert

(F.
-

F.

Fahrenheit

F. into

scale

into

into

C.,subtract

into
has

32

necessary
the

renheit
Fah-

Centigrade.
from

the F.

multiplyby -|,or divide by 1.8,or


Centigradereading
32")f where C.

and

degrees
and

It is often

spaces.

Centigrade

scale,and

17.8

is divided

of

the

into 100

convert

C.

freezingpoint

Centigrade thermometer

The

the

boiling point of water 100


freezingpoint0. The intervening space

is divided

To

the

interveningspace

The

180

to

at

mercury

212, and

marked

boilingpointof water

positionof

THERMOMETERS

of

Fahrenheit

reading.

To

F., multiply C. degreesby f

C. to

convert

359

TEMPERATURE

AND

HEAT

1.8 and

or

add

32".

EXAMPLE.

Convert

"

5(212"-

32

212

degrees

")

5(180")

100

Convert
100"

9 x

32"

minus

freezingpoint is
we

must

bear

Thus,

32"

v_y.

reading.

+ 32"

212"

F.

written

changing

usually

"

the

15" C. into F.

sign.

^=~

+ 32" =-27"

32" =5"

Change

"

is

thus,15 degrees below

In

the minus

-+320

15".

"

freezingpoint,it

it :

EXAMPLE.

luu

C. to F.

180"

the

signbefore

in mind

Jp

"

temperature is below
with

written

degrees

"

If the

="

99

"

reading

900"

-*

EXAMPLE.

F. to C.

C.

f (F.

C.

f (-

22" F. to C.

32)

22"

32")

$ (

54")

30"

EXAMPLES

1.

Change

36" F. to C.

6.

Change

225"

C. to F.

2.

Change

89" F. to C.

7.

Change

380"

C. to F.

3.

Change

289"

F. to C.

8.

Change

415"

C. to F.

4.

Change

350"

F. to C.

9.

Change

580"

C. to F.

5.

Change

119"

C. to F.

Latent

By

latent heat
in

heat

of water

Heat

is meant

that

heat

which

water

sorbs
ab-

passing from the liquid to the gaseous state,or that


which
water
dischargesin passing from the liquidto the

360

VOCATIONAL

solid

state,without
of

temperature
above

rises

of

steam

in

atmospheric

because

of

Thus,

the

pressure

heat

the

to

convert

temperature

same

the

Latent

state.

necessary

the

never

absorbs

steam

for its gaseous

quantity of

into steam

GIRLS

temperature.

own

is necessary

is the

water

FOR

at

degrees F.,

which

steam

of

pound

affectingits

boiling water

212

of heat

excess

heat

MATHEMATICS

the

as

question.
COMMERCIAL

ELECTRICITY

What

is no
knows.
Its action,
one
electricity
however, is so like that of flowingwater that the comparison is
helpful. A current of water in a pipe is measured
by the
which
flows through the pipe in a second
amount
of time, as
So a current
of electricity
is measured
one
gallonper second.

Amperes.

"

WATER

by

the

of

which

amount

coulomb

ANALOGY

-The

rate

The

ampere.

along a wire
coulomb
being a

"

electricity,
just as

water.

gallon

of flow of

rate

POTENTIAL

OF

flows

second,

per

FALL

OF

of

second,

unit

unit

coulomb

one

of flow

is

in

of

of

one

measurement
of

measurement

per second

five coulombs

as

per

is called

one

is five

second

amperes.
Volts.

depends
flows.
a

wire

The

"

to

The

quantity of
large

extent

number

depends

in the

upon

of amperes
same

which

water

way

the
of

flows

pressure

through
under

which
electricity

upon

the

pressure

pipe

which
flow

it

along

behind

it.

COMMERCIAL

electrical unit

The

is

there

water

of

surface

of

the stream

is the

pressure

difference

361

ELECTRICITY

between

in pressure

and

point

In

volt.

bottom.

the

near

point

of

stream

the

on

This

is

the two
points.
differenceor drop in level between
It is also spoken of as the pressure
head, head
meaning the
between
two points in a body
of pressure
difference in intensity
at any
of water, as well as the intensityof pressure
point.
the

called

"

"

Similarlythe

two
(or voltage)between
called the difference
or
drop

points in

pressure

electric circuit

is

potential. The amperes represent the


the volts
and
flowing through a circuit,
the

in

an
or

pressure
of

electricity
causing
pressure

amount

the

the flow.
Ohms.

Besides

"

the

helps to determine
the resistance,the
The

pressure.
A

wire

has

force

can

no

Ohm's

less

than

Ohm's

electric

the pressure

the

of

one

divided

the

the

"

(ohms)
is the
stated

pressure

is

the

same

ohm.

an

of

volt

one

through

it.

(amperes),

expressed by

fundamental

law

follows

as

wire

greater

is called

current

of

law
the

conductor

is

equal

to

(volts

(amperes)
^

(ohms)

Resistance

Letting /=

ampere

between

be

may

when
of

current

of

flowing under

resistance

ohm

one

current

flowing along a
by the resistance.

current

Current

unit

This

Law.

and
study of electricity
An

of

resistance

current

resistance

and
(volts),
as

the

relation

The

"

of

amount

electrical

more

Law.

pressure
known

the

resistance

the

pressure

amperes,

I=E

Rm

volts, R

ohms,

R
E=

EXAMPLE.

"

of 220

IR

If

pressure

ohms,

what

of

current

110

volts

is

will flow ?

applied to

sistance
re-

362

MATHEMATICS

VOCATIONAL

"

EXAMPLE.

"

of which

is 300

IE

EXAMPLE.
and

"

If

300

resistance

of the

of

as

12

the circuit ?

Ans.

flows

amperes

circuit

ohms_

2Q

Voltmeter.

whole

voltageof

is 240

in

circuit

volts,find

the

Ans

12

and

volts.

the

?40

Ammeter

circuit the resistance

circuit.

circuit

600

voltage applied to

the

flows in

current

Ans.

is the

What

ohms.

2 x

GIRLS

of 2 amperes

A current

"

.5 ampere.

220

FOR

to any

or

Ohm's

"

Law

in

Ohm's
an

much

how

This

current.

cause

This
so

to

through it,and is always placed


(seep. 235) with that part of the circuit

it will

has

not

meter
volt-

voltage.
will

current

shunt,

the

high resistance

small

in

the

measure

very

flow

has

in pressure.

instrument

that

the

measure

that

so

drop

is used

to

called

instrument

resistance

low

to

is

instrument

is used

ammeter

flowing
it by
calculating

An

Law.

desirable

current

circuit without

applied to

It is often

part of it.
know

be

may

or

parallel

voltageof

which

is to be found.
EXAMPLE.
100
loss of

"

What

is the resistance

from

amperes

generator

potentialequals 12
Drop

in

Drop

in volts

voltage

"

conducting wires

to

that

are

motor, if the

IE

ing
carry-

drop

or

circuit made

100 amperes

1=

=12

is

wires

volts ?

E="

EXAMPLE.

of

E=

up

supplied under

"

of

? ohms
0.12

ohm.

Ans.

incandescent
a

pressure

lamps
of

115

and

volts.

INDEX

Addition,

numbers,

Cotton, 229
Rags, 229
Wool, 229
Yarn, 229

39

Aliquot parts,

Alkalinity of water,
362
Ammeter,
296
Ammonia,

298

Cancellation,

169, 360
Amperes,
66
Angles,

136
Cement,
Chlorine, 297
Circle, 64
64
Circumference,
Civil Service, 268
Claims, 196

66

66

Annuity, 192
Antecedent, 37

Apothecary's weights,
Apothem, 72
Approximate
equivalents
and

household

Clothing, 91
Coefficients, 331
between
measures,

of

measures

Arc, 64
of

ring, 65
of a triangle,69
Area
349
Atmospheric pressure,
Avoirdupois weight, 43

Area

Cooperative,

measure,

187

Brickwork,

134

food

20

15
of

costs

and

nutrients

energy

materials

at

114, 115
numbers,
Compound
Addition, 46
Division, 47

digestible
in different

prices,

average

42, 46

Multiplication, 47
Subtraction,

Computing

46

profit and

loss, 252

75

Cone,
Consequent,
Construction

57
of

house, 128

Cooperative banks,

print reading,

Bonds,

Multiple,
Comparative

179

National, 178
Savings, 179
Baths, 292
Bed linen, 161
Beef, 118
Bills, 243
Board

296

denominator,
Fractions, 17

Common

Bacteria, 294, 298


Banks, 178

Blue

fluids,277

of water,

Color

281

Approximate

138

Clapboards,
276

metric

13

Capacity of pipes, 348


Carbohydrates, 102

53

Complementary,
Right, 66
Straight, 66
Supplementary,

Christmas

Buying

46

Decimals, 33
Fractions, 21

Amount,

materials, 133
gifts,94

Building

Compound

131

80

Cost

of food, 105

Cost

of

Cost

of

furnishing a house,
subsistence, 91

Cotton, 217
Yarns, 223
365

179

146

366

INDEX

Counting,
Credit

Cube,

244

Expense

193

book,

account

95

61

Cube

Root,

Cubic
Cuts

Exchange,

44

account,
61

Factors, 13
42

measure,

Farm

of Beef, 120

122
Mutton,
121
Pork,
Cylindrical tank, 347

Fluid

Dairy Products,

Fractions, 30

Addition, 33
Division, 36
Mixed, 31

For

Reduction, 32
Subtraction, 34
Denominate
fraction, 45
Number,
42, 45
42
Denomination,
17
Denominator,
of water,

of

Frustum
89

Division, 9

Compound

numbers,

47

Fractions, 25
Income, 92
Drawing to scale, 85

Dressmaking,

198

Dry

43

measure,

Economical
Uses

marketing,

of Meats,

loss,253

Multiplication, 24

354

income,

profit and

Reduction, 17
Subtraction, 22
and roof, 132
Frame
Free ammonia,
297

294
Deodorants,
Diameter, 64
Distribution

computing

Fractions, 17
Addition, 21
17
Common,
30
Decimal,
Division, 25
Improper, 17

Multiplication, 35

Density

277

measure,

Food, 100
Values, 110
Formulas, 327

310

Debit, 244
Decimal

307

measures,

Problems, 305
Filling, 217
Flax, 217
Flooring, 139

125

of

76

cone,

Furnishing a bedroom,
153, 154, 155
156
Dining room,
Hall, 146
Kitchen, 162
Living room,
149, 150, 152
161
Sewing room,

Germicides, 294
Graphs, 322
Greatest

divisor, 15

common

117

of space,
130
of
water, 353
Efficiency

Economy

Electricity,360
Ellipse,72
English system, 276
Ensilage problems, 307
Equations, 332
Substituting, 334
Transposing, 334
Equiangular triangle,68
Equilateral triangle,68
Estimating distances, 86
Weights, 87
Evolution,

61

of water,

Hardness

Heat,

298

357

And

light,167

Units, 357
Hem, 200
72
Hexagon,
Horizontal
addition, 237
Household
linens, 160
277

Measures,
How

to

make

Solutions
crude

change,
of various

drugs

strength, 286

or

266

strengths
tablets

from

of known

367

INDEX

to read

How
Gas

electric meter, 169

an

Hypodermic

doses, 288

fractions, 17

Improper
Inclined

planes, 344

Income,

89

Inside

Millinery problems,
Mixed
decimals, 31
Mohair, 217
342
Momentum,
Money orders, 194
Mortar, 133

168

meter,

Mortgages,
of

area

tanks,

348

Motion,

188

Insurance,

56
Compound,
Simple, 53
Interpretation of negative quantities,
337
Invoice

bills,243
Involution, 61
in water, 298
Isosceles triangle,68
Iron

344

screw,

Kilowatt,

Decimals, 31
Fractions, 24
Mutton,
122, 123
National

banks, 178
Nitrogen, 297
Notation, 1
Notes, 181
2
Numerals, Roman,
1
Numeration,
17
Numerator,
Nurses, arithmetic
for, 276-303
Nutritive

ingredients of food,

Octagon,

72

169

weights and

Kitchen

measures,

103

Odor
Latent

heat, 359

Lateral

pressure,

Lathing,
Least

Ohm's

351

multiple,

15

measure,

131

297

141
142

Paper measure,
Pay rolls,255
Pentagon, 72
Percentage, 50
Perimeter, 72
Plank, 131

42

Linen, 217
Yarns, 222
Lumber,

consumed,

Painting,
Papering,

Ledger,
Levers, 344

Liquid

361

Law,

348

244

measure,

296

361

Oxygen

common

Linear

of water,

Ohm,

141

of squares,

Law

180

342

Multiplication, 8, 242
Algebraic expressions, 339
numbers, 47
Compound

Fire, 188
Life, 189
Integer, 1, 17, 31, 45
Interest, 53

Jack

212

43

44

Plastering, 133
Machines, 344
Measure, of time, 43
Length, 317
Medical
chart, 292
64
Mensuration,
Menus, making up, 113
243
Merchandise,
Methods
Methods

of
of

heating, 174
solving examples,

Polygons,
Power,

312

30

Pressure, lateral, 351


Per

inch, 350

square

Water,

350

Principal, 53
Profit

87,

88
Metric

72

Poultry problems,

Proper
system, 276, 279, 282, 317-319

and

loss, 246

Promissory notes,

182

fractions, 17
Proportion, 57, 58, 59

101

368

INDEX

Protractor, 67

Studding, 132
Substituting in equations, 334

Pulleys, 344
Pyramid, 75

Subtraction

numbers,

Compound
Quadrilaterals,71

Decimals, 34
Fractions, 22

Radius, 64
Rapid calculation,
Rate
(per cent), 50

Supplement,

silk yarns,
Reading a blue

88

and

companies,

Trust

Tucks,

figures,77

334

179

199

Turbidity of water,
Two-ply yarns, 223

Terms, 331
Simple interest, 53
59

Unit,

Slate roofing, 137

Specificgravity, 355

States

and

272

Measures,

revenue,

mechanical

Useful
papers,

296

United

Weights

341

Isosceles, 68
Right, 68, 69
Scalene, 68

Shoes, 219
Silk, 217

of

speed,

Equiangular, 68
Equilateral, 68

in water, 296
137
Shingles,

arithmetic

logical
bacterio-

Triangles, 68

Sediment

Sealers

and

Transposing in equations,
Trapezium, 71
Trapezoid, 72

Sector, 64

Specimen

in chemical

sheets, 255
Trade
discount, 52, 207

179

Proportion,

257

Time

tables, 56
triangle, 68

Similar

used

Time

Interest
Scalene

conversion, 317

of wages,
347

reports, 296

methods,

Savings bank,

of metric

Terms

61

of thumb

linen, 161

Table

Tanks,
Taxes, 143
Temperature,
290, 358
loans, 259
Temporary

print, 80

Ruffles, 201
Rule

Table

Table

222

Rectangle, 71
Reduction, 42
Ascending, 42, 44
Descending, 42, 44
Right triangles, 68, 69
Roman
numerals, 2
Root, cube, 62

Square,

66

233

Ratio, 57
Raw

46

144

information,

341

of tables, 88

Use
Uses

of nutrients

in the

body,

102

273
State visitors,274
Stenographers, 273
Sphere, 76

Spun

silk yarns,

Square measure,
Square root, 62

223

and

Stocks,

Warp,
Water,

beef, 118

184

Stonework,

135

Strength

solutions,224

of

of coal

to

produce heat,

Volt, 169, 360


Voltmeter, 362
Volume, 74

42

Stairs, 140
Steers

Value

217

alkalinityof, 298

Ammonia

in, 296, 297


Analysis of, 296
Bacteria
in, 298
Chlorine in, 297

167

369

INDEX

Water,

continued.

"

Watt,

170

Wool,

211

Color

of,

296

Hardness
Iron

of,
in,

Work,

in,
of,

Oxygen
Power,

Traps,
Turbidity

Worsted

consumed

by,

297

Yarns,

353

219

yarns,

217

Cotton,
350

on

Sediment

Supply,

297

220

yarns,

343

296

Pressure,
Residue

Woolen

298

Nitrogen
Odor

298

Linen,
evaporation,

in,

296

345

296

Raw

Spun
Two-ply,

352

Woolen,
of,

296

Worsted,

223
222

silk,

222

silk,

223
223
220
219