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SECTION 10

RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION AND OTHER NDT


10.1

SCOPE, RESPONSIBILITIES AND SAFETY


10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3
10.1.4
10.1.5

10.2

RADIOGRAPHY
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.4
10.2.5
10.2.6

10.3

Materials and Equipment


Quality of Radiographs
Qualification of Radiographers
Radiographic Procedure Requirements
Qualification of Radiographic Procedure (Test Radiograph)
Production Radiography
(a) General Requirements for Radiographs
(b) Film Identification
(c) Film Processing
(d) Presentation of Completed Radiographs
(e) Additional Radiography or Alternative NDT Methods
(f) Submission of Radiographs

ULTRASONIC TESTING
10.3.1
10.3.2

10.3.3
10.3.4

10.4

Scope
Performance of NDT
Responsibilities Associated with NDT
Materials, Labour and Equipment for NDT
Safety

General
Materials and Equipment
(a) Approved Ultrasonic Test Equipment
(b) Couplant
Personnel Qualification
Ultrasonic Testing Procedures
(a) General
(b) Examination Standardisation
(c) Test Methods
(d) Calibration of Equipment
(e) Examination Procedure
(f) Examination Results

MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION (MPI)


10.4.1
10.4.2

General
Procedures
(a) Surface Preparation
(b) Inspection Medium
(c) Magnetisation
(d) Examination

10.5

10.5.1
10.5.2
10.5.3

DYE PENETRANT TESTING

General
Materials
Procedure
(a)
Surface Preparation
(b)
Penetrant Application
(c)
Developer Application
(d)
Examination

APPENDIX 1

RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION SHEET

APPENDIX 2

MAXIMUM RADIOGRAPH LENGTHS

SECTION 10
RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION AND OTHER NDT
10.1

SCOPE, RESPONSIBILITIES AND SAFETY


10.1.1 Scope
This Specification covers the non-destructive testing of welds and materials. Radiographic,
ultrasonic, magnetic particle and dye-penetrant methods of non-destructive testing are included
within the scope. The Specification should be read in conjunction with Section 9 Field Welding and
where appropriate the latest editions of the following standards:
ASME V

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Non-destructive Examination.

API 1104

Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities.

BS EN 1435

Non-destructive Examination of Welds. Radiographic Examination of Welded


Joints

BS EN 462

Non-destructive Testing. Image Quality of Radiographs. (Part 1:Image


Quality Indicators (Wire Type). Determination of Image Quality Value).
(Part 2: (Step Hole Type))

BS EN 1714

Non-destructive Examination of Welded Joints. UltrasonicExamination of Welded


Joints

BS EN 10160

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel Flat Product of Thickness Equal to or Greater Than


6mm (Reflection Method).

BS 6072

Method for Magnetic Particle Flaw Detection.

BS 3683

Glossary of Terms Used in Non-Destructive Testing

BS EN 571

Non-destructive Testing. Penetrant Testing (Part 1. General Principles)

BS EN 12223

Non-destructive Testing. Ultrasonic Examination. Specification for Calibration


Block No. 1.

10.1.2 Performance of NDT


There are three methods in which the duties of NDT can be allocated on a pipeline construction
contract as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

An Inspection Agency appointed by the Employer shall perform all NDT requirements and
pass sentence on the welds based on the results obtained.
The Contractor shall be responsible for performing all NDT requirements and shall submit
the results to the Employers appointed Inspection Agency for sentencing.
The Contractor shall be responsible for performing all NDT requirements which can
produce a permanent record such as a radiograph, and the Employers appointed
Inspection Agency will perform all other NDT requirements (i.e. Ultrasonics, MPI etc).

The Particular Specifications will state the method to be employed.

10.1.3 Responsibilities Associated with NDT


The responsibilities associated with NDT differ according to the method adopted for performing
the work.
In (i) above, the Contractor shall be responsible for advising the Inspection Agency daily in writing
of completed work available for NDT and also the work to be completed in the next 24 hours. The
Contractor shall also be responsible for good access to the work until NDT is completed. The
Inspection Agency shall be responsible for the control and co-ordination of all NDT in accordance
with information received from the Contractor. The Inspection Agency shall also be responsible for
the timely performance of NDT and advising the Engineer of results. The Engineer shall be
responsible for advising the Contractor of the results.
In (ii) above the Contractor shall be totally responsible for control and co-ordination of all NDT and
for the timely submission of results to the Engineer or the Inspection Agency for interpretation and
sentencing. The Engineer shall be responsible for advising the Contractor of action required as a
result of NDT.
In (iii) above the responsibilities shall be as outlined above and borne by the Contractor and
Inspection Agency in accordance with the work performed.
10.1.4 Materials, Labour and Equipment for Non-Destructive Testing
Materials and equipment to be used for all non-destructive testing shall be maintained and
calibrated so as to preserve operating efficiency throughout the Works. Adequate spares shall be
provided.
The responsibility for the provision of all materials, labour and equipment for the performance of
non-destructive testing shall be:(i)

For performance by the Inspection Agency: The Inspection Agency shall supply all
materials, labour and equipment necessary for the execution of non-destructive testing
and the production of test results.

(ii)

For performance by the Contractor: The Contractor shall supply all materials, labour and
equipment necessary for the execution of non-destructive testing and the production of
test results for issue to the Engineer.

(iii)

For performance by both Contractor and Agency: Each participant shall supply all the
appropriate materials, labour and equipment necessary for the execution of nondestructive testing and the production of test results.

In all cases, the party responsible for NDT shall also provide suitable transport for labour and
equipment on a well maintained right-of-way. Where conditions deteriorate, however, and normal
right-of-way transport cannot gain access to the point where NDT is required, the Contractor shall
be responsible for transporting labour and equipment safely in and out of the area. The Contractor
shall also be responsible, in any event, for the provision of adequate and safe staging etc to
enable NDT technicians to proceed with their duties.
10.1.5 Safety
The Contractor, or the Inspection Agency as the case may be, shall be responsible for the safety
requirements associated with ionising radiations. This will include, but not be limited to, providing
radiographic personnel with film badges and/or dosemeters and radiation monitors and the
provision of warning notices and personnel barriers to be erected at the location of any
radiographic exposure. Safety in the storage and transportation of radioactive isotopes if used,
shall be the responsibility of the appropriate party. Radiation protection shall be in accordance
with the requirements of the relative paragraphs of the Manual of Industrial Radiation Protection,
Part II Model Code of Safety Regulations (lonising Radiations), issued by the International Labour
Office, Geneva.

10.2

RADIOGRAPHY
10.2.1 Materials and Equipment
(a)

Source of Radiation: the source of radiation may either be an X-ray unit or a radioactive
isotope, provided the required Image Quality Indicator (IQI or Penetrameter) sensitivity is
obtained.

(b)

Films: High-contrast, fine-grain or ultra fine-grain industrial X-ray film shall be used. These
correspond to Types B, C, D, or E in Table 1 of SE-1815 of Article 22, ASME Section V.
Maximum fog density permissible 0.30.

(c)

Screens: Lead intensifying screens shall be used. Fluoro-metallic screens may be used
only if the required penetrameter sensitivity is obtained

(d)

Image Quality Indicators (Penetrameters): Penetrameters shall be of the wire type in


accordance withBS EN 462: Part 1.. The use of step/hole type penetrameters as defined
in ASME V and BS EN 462: Part 2 may be used only with written approval from the
Engineer.

(e)

Processing Chemicals: Chemicals used for processing must be fresh and suitable for use
at the ambient temperature of the darkroom. They shall include developer, acid stopper
and fixer with or without hardener. A fixer neutraliser may be used between fixing and
washing and will be advantageous where fresh water supplies are limited.

(f)

Processing Facilities: Either manual or automatic processing equipment may be used. It


shall be adequate for the projected maximum throughput of radiographs per day. Facilities
must be available for washing the X-ray films in clean flowing water.

(g)

Darkroom and Viewing Facilities: The darkroom shall be large enough for the storage of
unexposed and exposed films along with processing and viewing facilities. The unit may
either be mobile for processing and initial viewing at the radiographic site or a static unit
stationed at the base. Subdued lighting conditions with a viewing illuminator of sufficient
light intensity to reveal clearly changes in density of radiographic films and avoid glare to
the film reader shall be provided.

10.2.2 Quality of Radiographs


(a)

Sensitivity: All radiographs shall show an IQI sensitivity of 2% or better when the IQI is
placed on the source side of the material being radiographed. For procedures where the
IQI cannot be placed on the source side of the material being examined or production
welds, two IQIs shall be used for the procedure qualification radiograph. One shall be
placed on the source side and one on the film side. The required sensitivity shall be
obtained on the source side IQI and the sensitivity shown by the film side IQI recorded.
Radiographs of production welds using this procedure shall achieve an IQI sensitivity
corresponding to that recorded on the film side IQI.

(b)

Density: the minimum density for X-ray films shall be 1.8 and for gamma ray films 2.0. The
maximum density shall be 3.5.
The density of the radiograph shall be measured on the body of the parent metal adjacent
to the weld.

(c)

Identification Marks: each film shall have markers identifying the weld, location, date etc.
These marks must be clearly defined and must not mask the area of the radiograph being
examined.

(d)

Artifacts: a radiographic film is unacceptable if any artifact such as a processing mark or


pressure mark can possibly interfere with the correct interpretation of the film.

10.2.3 Qualification of Radiographers


All personnel to be used for radiography work shall be suitably experienced and qualified.
Generally, pipeline radiographers shall be qualified to Level 2 as defined by any of the following:The American Society for Nondestructive Testing SNT-TC-1A supplement A (latest edition)
Recommended practice for nondestructive testing, testing personnel qualification and
certification. or
PCN/GEN General Requirements for the Certification of Personnel Engaged in NDT as issued by
the British Institute of NDT.
Qualifications must be relevant to the work being undertaken. Qualifications are only acceptable if
they have been awarded by an independent authority (i.e. not by the operator's employer).
Personnel qualified solely for the taking of radiographs shall not be used for interpretation and vice
versa.
10.2.4 Radiographic Procedure Requirements
A written proposed radiographic procedure shall be submitted to the Engineer for review.
The procedure shall include but not necessarily be limited to, the following information.
(a)

Radiation source (the type of radiation source, effective source size or effective focal spot
size and voltage rating of X-ray equipment)

(b)

Intensifying screens (the type of intensifying screen used and screen thickness if lead is
used)

(c)

Masks or filters (the type and placement of masks, diaphragms or filters, other than
intensifying screens, if used)

(d)

Film (film brand, type and width). For multiple film techniques, specify how film is to be
viewed.

(e)

Exposure geometry (whether single or double wall exposure. Source or focal spot/film
distance, relative positions of film, weld, source, penetrameters, and interval of reference
markers. The minimum number of exposures required for complete inspection of a
circumferential weld)

(f)

Exposure conditions (exposure in milliampere-minutes or curie minutes. For X-ray


equipment not fitted with mA or kV meters the exposure conditions can be expressed in
terms of input voltage, input amperage and minutes)

(g)

Processing (whether automatic or manual, time-temperature for development, stop bath


or rinse, fixation, washing, drying, etc)

(h)

Material (type, thickness range of material being radiographed)

(i)

Limit of film coverage (when the radiation source and film are both on the outside of the
weld and located diametrically opposite each other, the maximum acceptable length of
film for each exposure shall not exceed the values specified in Appendix2).

A radiographic procedure specification sheet which shall be completed by the radiographer for
all procedures is shown in Appendix 1.
10.2.5 Qualification of Radiographic Procedure (Test Radiograph)
For qualification of the proposed radiographic procedure a test weld on a pipe joint, identical in
size and material to those to be encountered in production inspection, shall be radiographed using
equipment and conditions as specified in the radiographic procedure.
The discontinuities shown on the radiograph shall be recorded on the same report format as will
be used during the production inspection. Three copies of this report, together with the test
radiograph, and three copies of the radiographic details shall be submitted to the Engineer for
approval.
10.2.6 Production Radiography
(a)

General Requirements for Radiographs


Radiography shall only be performed when the weld temperature has cooled to ambient
conditions.
Only qualified procedures shall be used to determine welding quality during construction.
The quality of production radiographs shall be substantially the same as that of the
qualified radiograph.
Methods of establishing the required radiographic sensitivity when inspecting pipe butt
welds shall be as follows:When a complete circumferential butt weld is radiographed in a single exposure using a
source inside the pipe, three penetrameters equally spaced around the circumference
shall be used. When a circumferential weld is radiographed using a multiple exposure
procedure, a penetrameter shall be located within one inch of each end of the applicable
limits of film coverage.
When a circumferential weld is radiographed using a double wall technique (BS, ASME
V), the maximum length of diagnostic film shall be as shown in Appendix 2.
All unacceptable imperfections and discontinuities observed in the radiographs shall be
reported unless the Engineer specifically requires that all imperfections and discontinuities
observed be reported irrespective of type, form size, or distribution. Radiographers shall
always indicate whether or not the weld meets the standards of acceptability detailed
under 9.6.3 of Section 9, Field Welding, but the Engineer shall retain the right of final
acceptance or rejection of the weld.

(b)

Film Identification
All films shall be clearly identified so that the particular weld and any discontinuities can
be located. Whenever more than one film is used to inspect a weld, the marker location
shall be common to two successive films to establish that no part of the weld has been
omitted.

(c)

Film Processing
Chemicals for processing films shall be used in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions. Films shall be developed in approved solutions for a controlled period of 4 to
5 minutes at a temperature of 200C + 10C. After developing, the film shall be passed
through an acid stop bath preparatory to fixing. The fixer shall be of an approved make
and suitable for use at ambient temperatures up to 350C. Hardener may be incorporated
in the fixer solution if recommended by the manufacturer.

Films shall be washed and dried prior to viewing. The temperature of the wash water shall
be maintained in the range of 18-210C. All films shall be washed at least 3 times using
series arranged agitated washing tanks with a minimum capacity of 25 litres each. Films
shall be advanced progressively from one tank to the next at five minute intervals and
each film drained thoroughly before transfer. The water in the tanks shall be replaced after
every four hours of use. Alternatively, films may be washed in continuously running water.
Radiographs shall be processed to allow storage of film without deterioration for at least
three years. The radiographs shall be free from imperfections due to processing or other
defects which could interfere with satisfactory interpretation. If required by the Engineer
the processing technique shall be demonstrated at any time to show that the film can be
processed using the site facilities to meet a fog level of not more than 0.30 (HurterDriffield).
(d)

Presentation of Completed Radiographs


Completed radiographs shall be arranged in sequence for each weld and enclosed within
an identifying envelope stating the radiograph number, weld number, pipe diameter, date
shot, date processed, radiographer and any other information which may be required by
the Engineer.

(e)

Additional Radiography or Alternative NDT Methods


The Contractor or Inspection Agency, as the case may be, shall perform such additional
radiography, or NDT by alternative methods, as may be necessary to clarify and further
define indications of imperfections which (due to the two dimensional nature of the
standard uni-directional radiograph) cannot be positively identified.

(f)

Submission of Radiographs
All welds notified as being completed and available for radiography shall be radiographed
and the film with a preliminary interpretation submitted to the Engineer within 48 hours.
This timing may be relaxed at the start of work where 100% radiography is required or at
any other period when the percentage of radiography is increased due to the number of
repairs and cut outs.

10.3

ULTRASONIC TESTING
10.3.1

General

Ultrasonic testing may be employed as a single method of inspection or may be used in


conjunction with radiography or other forms of NDT.
Ultrasonic testing and evaluation of test results shall be generally in accordance with the
latest edition of an applicable international standard as listed below.
ASME V

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Non Destructive

Examination

BS EN 1714

Non-destructive Examination of Welded Joints. Ultrasonic Examination of


Welded Joints

BS EN 10160

Ultrasonic Testing of Steel Flat Product of Thickness Equal to or Greater


Than 6mm (Reflection Method).

BS EN 12223

Non-destructive Testing. Ultrasonic Examination. Specification for


Calibration Block No. 1.

10.3.2
(a)

Materials and Equipment


Approved Ultrasonic Test Equipment
The test equipment shall be of the pulse echo type, capable of generating
frequencies over the range of 1 MHz to 6 MHz and suitable for ultrasonic
thickness measurement and flaw detection on ferrous materials.
A complete range of test probes for both elevated and normal temperatures and
for flat and curved, rough and smooth surfaces and suitable standard test blocks
shall be supplied as required. The equipment shall be of the portable battery
powered type with shielded view screen.

(b)

Couplant
Couplant for use between the probe and test surface shall be liquid detergent,
paste and water or other approved solution. All couplant shall be removed from
the test area upon completion of inspection.

10.3.3

Personnel Qualification

Personnel for ultrasonic testing shall be adequately qualified for operation of the test
equipment and the interpretation of test results.
Subject to the approval of the Engineer, UT operators shall be qualified to Level 2 as defined
by any of the following:The American Society for Nondestructive Testing SNT-TC-1A supplement A (latest edition)
Recommended practice for nondestructive testing, testing personnel qualification and
certification. or
PCN/GEN General Requirements for the Certification of Personnel Engaged in NDT as
issued by the British Institute of NDT.
Qualifications must be relevant to the work being undertaken. Qualifications are only
acceptable if they have been awarded by an independent authority (i.e. not by the operator's
employer).
10.3.4
(a)

Ultrasonic Testing Procedures


General
Ultrasonic testing procedures shall be carefully selected to meet the particular
inspection requirements of the test piece and material grade and shall be modified
as necessary when any significant change in weld or component geometry takes
place. Proposed procedures shall be submitted to the Engineer for review.

(b)

Examination Standardisation
To ensure complete coverage of the test zone the minimum overlap between
adjacent transducer probe positions shall be 10% of the transducer width.

The speed at which manual scanning is carried out shall not exceed 100 mm per second.
(c)

Test Methods
Welds shall be examined by the angle beam method where practicable. In the
examination of weldments where geometry or conditions do not allow angle beam
examination from both sides of the weld from a single surface or a combination of
surfaces, either a combination of angle beam and straight beam or straight beam
in two directions at 90 degrees to each other shall be used.
Wall thickness testing shall be carried out using straight beam techniques.

(d)

Calibration of Equipment

(i)

Calibration Reflectors and Blocks


For carbon steel pipe, standard calibration blocks such as the following shall be
used: the basic calibration block specified for ferritic welds in ferritic pipe in Article 5
of ASME V,
calibration block 1 as defined in BS EN 12223 with the addition of the
alternative reflector.
Alternative calibration blocks shall be used only with the prior approval of the
Engineer.
Block materials shall be metallurgically similar to the test piece material. Suitable
blocks for CRA alloys and CRA clad/lined pipe shall be agreed with the Engineer.

(ii)

Ultrasonic Tester
The nominal frequency shall be 2.25 to 4 MHz unless variables such as
production material grain structure require the use of other frequencies to assure
adequate penetration.
For angle beam techniques, the beam angle in the production material shall be
selected to suit material thickness and weld geometry and shall be in the range of
40 to 80 deg. inclusive with respect to the entry surface.
The reference response from the calibration blocks shall be adjusted by the gain
control to 75 percent of full screen height. This shall then be the primary reference
response.
Calibration of the probes for beam angles shall be carried out on a daily basis.
Calibration of the flaw detector time base and amplification is required before
examining each weld.

(e)

Examination Procedure
(i)

Coverage
Where possible, butt welds shall be examined from both sides of the weld, usually
from only one surface.

(ii)

Sensitivity Level
The reference level sensitivity for monitoring discontinuities is the primary
reference response corrected for distance by the distance-amplitude curve and
modified by the transfer method.

(iii)

Reference Level
When possible, scanning shall be performed at a gain setting of 2 times (6dB
above) the reference level sensitivity.

(iv)

Detection of Discontinuities Parallel to the Weld


The search unit shall be placed on the contact surface with the beam aimed at 90
deg to the weld and manipulated laterally and longitudinally so that the ultrasonic
beam passes through all the weld metal in two different approaches of the beam
to the reflector. Techniques using two search units may be used to detect lack of
penetration in double welded butt joints.

(v)

Detection of Discontinuities Transverse to the Weld


Two search units shall be placed on the contact surfaces adjacent to the weld,
one on each side, forming an angle of 45 deg or less with the axis of the weld. As
an alternative, where the weld surface is sufficiently smooth, one search unit may
be placed on the centre line of the weld with the beam directed along its axis to
scan the entire depth of the weld.

(vi)

Wall Thickness and Lamination Checks


For testing of pipe material the probe shall be scanned in a zig-zag pattern in a
zone 100 mm wide around planned cut-outs for nozzles and back from the ends of
cut pipe.

(f)

Examination Results
All indications which produce a response greater than 20 per cent of the reference level
shall be investigated to the extent that the operator can evaluate the shape, identity, and
location of all such reflectors in terms of the acceptability standards.
Where repairs are carried out, they shall be re-examined by the same procedures used for
original detection of the discontinuity.
After completion of ultrasonic testing, a report containing the following information shall be
submitted to the Engineer.

10.4

(i)

All procedures and equipment sufficiently identified to permit repetition of the


examinations at a later date. This includes initial calibration data for the equipment
and any significant changes in subsequent rechecks.

(ii)

A marked-up drawing or sketch indicating the welds examined, the item or piece
number and a listing of the defects found.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION (MPI)


10.4.1

General

Magnetic Particle Inspection generally shall be in accordance with the latest edition of an
internationally recognised standard such as listed below:ASME V Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Non-destructive Examination
BS 6072 Method for Magnetic Particle Flaw Detection.
Proposed procedures shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

10.4.2 Procedures
(a)

Surface Preparation
Surfaces to be inspected shall be clean and free from oil, grease, sand, loose rust or scale
which may interfere with satisfactory testing. For certain applications, inspection may be
satisfactorily accomplished without the need for surface dressing.
Surface grinding or machining will be required, however, where surface irregularities may
possibly affect the detection of defects. Surface preparation shall extend at least 30 mm
past the areas to be inspected.

(b)

Inspection Medium
Wet methods only shall be used. Either water-based fluorescent inks to be viewed with
ultraviolet light, or black, paraffin-based ink on white background paint may be used. For
fluorescent inks, the concentration of suspended magnetic material shall be within the
range 0.1% to 0.5% by volume; whilst for black inks, the concentration shall be within the
range 1.2% to 2.4%. The spray dispenser or aerosol containers shall be shaken frequently
to ensure consistent concentrations of magnetic material in sprayed-on deposits. The
concentrations shall be checked regularly and spot checks shall be carried out at any time
at the discretion of the Engineer. When white background paint is used it shall be applied
as thinly as possible, consistent with satisfactory viewing.

(c)

Magnetisation
Unless directed otherwise by the Engineer, magnetisation of butt joints in plate and piping
components shall be by the use of a permanent magnet.
A U section magnet shall be used with shape and size such that the weld area being
examined can be viewed whilst the magnet is still in position.
The magnet shall be fitted with pole pieces shaped to the profile of the pipe being
examined and shall have sufficient strength to ensure detection of relevant defects.
Magnets suitable for this application shall have maximum pole spacing of 150 mm. If the
pole spacing is less than or equal to 75 mm, the magnets shall be capable of lifting not
less than 0.24 kg per millimetre of pole spacing. If the pole spacing is greater than 75 mm,
the lifting power shall be at least 18 kg.
The toes of fillet welds shall be examined using an impressed current magnet with a
current of 3A/mm of probe separation. The equipment may be powered by a suitable
battery or if powered from a generator it shall be protected by an earth leakage trip device.
Careful attention shall be given to the possibility of sparking if used in potentially
hazardous areas.

(d)

Examination
Information submitted to the Engineer shall include the following:(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

Materials, shapes, or sizes to be examined.


Type of magnetization to be used.
Equipment to be used for magnetization.
Surface preparation (finishing and cleaning).
Ferromagnetic particles to be used: manufacturer, colour.
Magnetization current.
Demagnetization.
Sketches or a chart indicating coverage, where necessary for clarity.

Examination shall be by the continuous method; that is, the magnetizing current remains
on while the examination medium is being applied and while excess of the examination
medium is being removed.

At least two separate examinations shall be carried out on each area; in the second
examination, the lines of magnetic flux shall be approximately perpendicular to the
direction of those in the first examination of that area.
Examinations shall be conducted with sufficient overlap to assure 100 percent coverage at
the established test sensitivity.
Demagnetization of each inspection area shall be carried out if specifically called for in the
Contract specifications. In all such cases, the field strength used to demagnetize must be
equal to or greater than the field strength which was used to magnetize the inspection
area.
10.5

DYE PENETRANT TESTING


10.5.1 General
Dye penetrant testing shall be generally in accordance with the latest edition of the
following:
ASME V
BS EN 571

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Non-destructive Examination


Non-destructive Testing. Penetrant Testing (Part 1. General Principles)

Proposed procedures shall be submitted to the Engineer


10.5.2 Materials Penetrant
Penetrant shall be of the colour contrast, solvent-removable type and shall be positively specified
as being chemically suitable for use on the particular material under test. Manufacturers
recommended temperature limits shall be adequate for local conditions.
Wet type solvent suspension developer, suitable for application by spraying, shall be used.
10.5.3 Procedure
(a)

Surface Preparation
Surface preparation shall be generally as in Clause 10.4.2(a). After the cleaning process
the test surfaces shall be allowed to dry out completely prior to application of the
penetrant.

(b)

Penetrant Application
Penetrant shall be applied by aerosol sprays in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions. Since penetration time is critical, a time shall be established in the
procedures which will give satisfactory results for the prevailing surface temperature of the
test piece.
For surface temperatures outside the recommended usage range of the penetrant, a new
procedure shall be qualified (Ref. to the section entitled 'Techniques for Nonstandard
Temperatures' in Article 6 of ASME V).
After the penetration time specified in the procedure has elapsed, excess penetrant, as far
as possible, shall be removed by wiping with a lint free cloth or absorbent paper, repeating
the operation until most traces of penetrant have been removed. The remaining traces
shall be removed by wiping the surface lightly with cloth or absorbent paper moistened
with solvent. To minimize removal of penetrant from discontinuities, care shall be taken to
avoid the use of excess solvent. Flushing the surface with solvent, prior to developing, is
prohibited.

(c)

Developer Application
Developer shall be spray applied to the entire surface of the test piece as recommended
by the manufacturer. Too thin a coating may be insufficient to draw the penetrant out of
discontinuities but excessive coating thickness may result in pooling and thus mask
indications. Prior to its application, the developer must be thoroughly agitated to ensure
adequate dispersion of the suspended particles.

(d)

Examination
The type and size of any discontinuity may be difficult to evaluate if the penetrant diffuses
excessively into the developer. The surface shall be observed during the application of the
developer to detect the nature of any indications which tend to bleed out profusely. Final
interpretation shall be made after allowing the penetrant to bleed out for up to 30 minutes.
If bleed-out does not alter the examination results, longer periods are permitted. If the
surface to be examined is so large as to preclude complete examination within the
prescribed time, only portions of the surface shall be examined at any one time.

APPENDIX 1
RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION
Project/Contract_____________________________________________________ Date______________
Contractor
Radiographic Sub-contractor _____________________________________________________________
(a)

Radiation source
(X-ray)

(b)

Type of equipment external


internal
Manually operated/cable
Battery crawler device

(c)

Intensifying screens type


Thickness front
Thickness back

(d)

Filter type and placement

(e)

Geometric relationship
Focal film distance
Object film distance
Radiation angle with respect to weld and film

(f)

Technique as specified in BS EN 1435

(g)

Film (Examples:- Kodak Ilford Gevaert)

(h)

Cassette type or pre-packed

(i)

Chemicals (not powder type)

(j)

Exposure time
m/a
(*Delete as necessary)

Signed by Contractor
Approved subject to Qualification_____________________________________________