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Wer A sagt, muss auch B sagen

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87

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93


,
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2.1.3
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1.2 ) ,
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.
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, . r2 s2 ri si.
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.
125


,
( )
2.2.

2.2.1.
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2.18

, . ,
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127

2.19

, ,
2.19. I ,
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. TE1 (Terminal Equipment)
, . TE1 S-, I.
,
( - )
TE2. S-
TA (Terminal Adapter). TE2
TA R. TE2 , R-
V X. , , R- T .
128

T-. S T
NT2 (Network Termination), ,
, .
NT1. NT1 NT2 . NT12, - NT.
U- NT1 LT (Line Termination). - 2B+D ( 2.19)
, U- () . - 30B+D
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LT ET (Exchange
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;
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, .
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130


2.20

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2.21

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132

. , , , U-. , ,
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133

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2.23

, , U- 30B+D, .
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30B+D , HDSL [35].
2B+D.
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( )
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2.24

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138

2.25

I , , 1, . , . ,
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1 .
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, .
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2.26

141


( ) , .
. 1992 1996 ,
. , . , ,
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, . Work-at-home [39].

, 2B+D. (1992 - 1996 1994 - 1998
), : 2,5 , . , [40].
. . ,
, ISDN
User, , ,
.
.
,
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.

142

,

()
2.3.
2.3.1.
, 2.3, . .
. , (Passive Optical Network - PON), ,
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[4, 26].
[4], ,
, . ,
,
, , .
[4] , .
HFC - Hybrid Fiber-Coax.
. 2.3 HFC
:
-.
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HFC .
.
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. - . 2.3 ,
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[26].
, 2.27 , . ,
2.27

144

, . , ,
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.
2.28 , [41]. , , -
- ,
.

2.28

- . ,
. 2.29.
:
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- , ATM;
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;
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145

- , ;
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-

2.29

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.
MPEG1+ MPEG2 [42]. ( ,
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148

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149

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2.32

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(Frequency
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(
) - -
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2.33

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1 2. -,
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152

.
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153

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154

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156

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158

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2.37

159

2.4 -
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ATM Forum , , - 25,6 / [49],
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160


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161

, ( 2.19).
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Broadband (). 2.38
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2.4.4.
2.4.4.1.
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162

2.39

t0 , .
t1,
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)
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163

. , ,
FTTB+VDSL.
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2.40

G.701 [52] I.113 [53].


, (Digital
section).
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, , G.701 (flexibility) .

. , ,
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165

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Nk. , 166

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2.41

.
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. 2.42

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.
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168

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169

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170

( , );
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2.44.

-. ()
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2.45

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172

2.46

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,

.
2.4.4.2.7. :
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.

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173


2.47

. , .
2.4.4.2.8.
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.
,
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, : , Frame Relay,
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2.48 IWF (Interworking
Functions), , . MAN (Metropolitan Area
Network) WAN (Wide Area Network),
. , , [57],
Gigabit Ethernet . ,

, ,
174

2.48

, - - Internet.
( )
.
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.
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2.48 1 2, (
) .
, SMDS,

. , SMDS , . , SMDS
.
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175

,
(SDH). 2.4.9 ( ) .

2.49

- S M. SDH,
.
() : , , , .
/ , .


-.

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176

, .
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2.50

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,
178

2.51

Loop Network.
,
2.51 .
,
.
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(lk).
(L1) , 2.51, .
,
, . , , , . (L2),
, , L2 > L1.
L2, , - Li Lg,
( - ) ( ) .
1.1, - -
(Transfer Network).
,
, Lg << L1. , . , :
- xDSL 179

;
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-.

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2.52

I - - -. ,
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180

-. , . -
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181

,
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182

, FTTOpt. (/)
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:
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ETSI, ATM Forum. -
, .

183

Audiatur et altera pars


( )
2.5.

2.5.1.
(, ,
), 2.5
. ,
Wireless Local Loop (WLL), , , , , 2.5
.
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Local Loop. , WLL,
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, 2.5,
.
2.54 .
, ,
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2.54

. , , , . WLL , , ( , ). , WLL

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185

) , , .

[58, 59] .
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2.55

186

- , t0, ,
;
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,
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CDMA) 5 .
t1 t2 , WLL
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187


: , ,
?
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.

2.56

( , . - . ,
WLL [62] PHS (Personal Handyphone System). , , , 2.56, WLL.
188

2.56

. WLL ,
[63, 64].
WLL .
.
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189



2.57

WLL [67, 68]. , ,


2000 20% WLL. ,
. , , WLL.
, , 1.5.5 - .
. . , 2010
50% . , 50%
. ,
.
190

WLL
QUALCOMM [61].
, CDMA,
[61] . , , QUALCOMM, :
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55% , ;
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,
, [69].
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WLL
2.58

191

2.5.3.
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WLL . , (
) , .
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;
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2.59

192

, . ,
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.
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[70, 71]
- MMDS (Multichannel Multi point Distribution Services)
LMDS (Local Multi point Distribution Services). MMDS (Wireless Cable).
,
Multichannel Multi point Distribution Services - () . LMDS . , LMDS, ,
Local Multi point Distribution Services - () .
MMDS 33 . 35 ( 56 ).
2,5 .
24 ( 61 ) . MMDS .
2.5.4 LMDS.
, LMDS, ,
. LMDS ( ) 3 , 4,8 .
.
, .
195

LMDS , MMDS. , LMDS , ( , - ) . LMDS


28 . ,
, 6,5 6,5 (16,51 16,51 ).
LMDS, ,
:
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;
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LMDS ;
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;
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2.62 LMDS,
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Alcatel, Electrical
Communication - 3rd Quater 1994.

, . . LMDS

2.62

196

,
, .
,
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,
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2.63

197

,
.
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2.64

198

LMDS
. .
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199

LMDS , .
.
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64 /. , [72]
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.
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Ad narrandum, non ad peobandum


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243

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251


1. .. . - .: ,
1997, 423 .
2. .., .., .., ..,
... . - .:
, 1995, 224 .
3. ITU-T. Interworking between networks operating at bit rates less than
64 kbit/s with 64 kbit/s-based ISDN and B-ISDN. Recommendation I.525
- Geneva, 1996, 10 p.
4. ITU-T. Framework Recommendation on functional access networks Architecture and functions, access types, management and service node
aspects. Recommendation G.902 - Geneva, 1995, 44 p.
5. ITU-T. Vocabulary of terms for ISDNs. Recommendation I.112 Geneva, 1993, 16 p.
6. ITU-T. Princi ples for a telecommunications management network.
Recommendation M.3010 - Geneva, 1993, 64 p.
7. ITU-T. TMN management services: overview. Recommendation M.3200
- Geneva, 1993, 28 p.
8. .. - XXI . - , 2/97, . 3 - 5.
9. ITU-T. Study Group 13. Temporary Document 1-E (PLEN), Geneva,
1998, 4 p.
10. ITU-T. V-Interfaces at the digital local exchange (LE) - V5.1-interface
(based on 2048 kbit/s) for the support of access network (AN).
Recommendation G.964 - Geneva, 1995, 165 p.
11. ITU-T. V-Interfaces at the digital local exchange (LE) - V5.2 Interface
(based on 2048 kbit/s) for the support of access network (AN).
Recommendation G.965 - Geneva, 1995, 152 p.
12. ITU-T. Study Group 13. Temporary Document 36-E (PLEN),
Geneva, 1998, 107 p.
13. ITU-T. Study Group 13. Temporary Document 1- (GEN), Geneva,
1998, 133 p.
14. ITU-T. Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection Basic reference model: The basic model. Recommendation X.200 - Geneva,
1994, 59 p.
15. ETR 306. Transmission and Multi plexing (TM); Access network for
residential customers - ETSI, 1996, 38 p.
16. ITU-T. Digital exchange interfaces for subscriber access.
Recommendation Q.512 - Geneva, 1995, 10 p.
17. ITU-T. Digital exchange design objectives - Operations and
maintenance. Recommendation Q.542 - Geneva, 1993, 21 p.
18. ITU-T. Digital exchange performance design objectives.
252

Recommendation Q.543 - Geneva, 1994, 36 p.


19. ITU-T. Transmission characteristics at 2-wire analogue interfaces of
digital exchanges. Recommendation Q.552 - Geneva, 1995, 25 p.
20. ITU-T. Transmission characteristics at digital interfaces of digital
exchanges. Recommendation Q.554 - Geneva, 1994, 3 p.
21. ETR 248. Transmission and Multi plexing (TM); Use of single-mode
fibre in the access network - ETSI, 1996, 36 p.
22. NET 4: Attachment to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN);
General technical requirements for equi pment to be connected to an
analogue subscriber interface in the PSTN.
23. ETS 300 448 Business telecommunications (BTS); Ordinary quality
voice bandwidth 2-wire analogue leased line (A2O) Connection
characteristics and network interface presentation. - ETSI, 1996, 33 p.
24. ETS 300 449 Business telecommunications (BTS); Special quality
voice bandwidth 2-wire analogue leased line (A2S) Connection
characteristics and network interface presentation. - ETSI, 1996, 38 p.
25. ETS 300 451 Business telecommunications (BTS); Ordinary quality
voice bandwidth 4-wire analogue leased line (A4O) Connection
characteristics and network interface presentation. - ETSI, 1996, 32 p.
26. ETS 300 452 Business telecommunications (BTS); Special quality
voice bandwidth 4-wire analogue leased line (A4S) Connection
characteristics and network interface presentation. - ETSI, 1996, 38 p.
27. ETS 300 288 Business telecommunications (BTS); 64 kbit/s digital
unrestricted leased line with octet integrity (D64U); Network interface
presentation. - ETSI, 1995, 7 p.
28.ETS 300 766 Business telecommunications (BTS); Multi ple 64 kbit/
s digital leased line with octet integrity presented at a structured 2048 kbit/
s interface at either or both ends (D64M); Connection characteristics and
network interface presentation. - ETSI, 1996, 22 p.
29. ETS 300 418 Business telecommunications (BTS); 2048 kbit/s digital
unrestricted leased line with octet integrity (D2 048U and D2 048S); Network
interface presentation. - ETSI, 1956, 25 p.
30. ETR 119: Open Network Provision (ONP) study on possible new
interfaces at the network side of NT1. - ETSI, 1993, 37 p.
31. ETR 328. Transmission and Multi plexing (TM); Study and
investigation of Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Lines (ADSL). - ETSI,
1996, 23 p.
32. DAVIC 1.0 Part 08: Lower layer protocols and physical interfaces.
33. ITU-T. Digital multi-programme systems for television, sound and
data services for cable distribution. Recommendation J.83 - Geneva, 1995,
61 p.
34. . . . - .: , 1974, 720 .
253

35. ETS 300 429 Digital Broadcasting Systems for Television, Sound
and Data Services; Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for
cable systems. - ETSI, 1994, 21 p.
36. ISO/IEC 8802-3 Information technology; Local and metropolitan
areanetworks; Part 3: Carrier sense multi ple access with collision detection
(CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications.
37. ETR 139. Radio Equi pment and System (RES); Radio in the Local
Loop (RLL) - ETSI, 1994, 89 p.
38.ETS 300 175-1.Radio Equi pment and System (RES); Digital Enhanced
Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); Common Interface (CI); Part 1:
Overview - ETSI, 1996, 26 p.

254

255

256

257