Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 84

BERC

BERC
BERC

()
()
()


2006
. 696 . .
.

.

696 . . . ()
: www.berc.ps : 092346147 : 092346406 :
berctil@yahoo.com, admin@berc.ps


ISBN:9950-324-03-3

) (

10

11
11

11

11

12

12

14

15

15
15
17
17

17

17


19
19

20

21

21

22

22

23

23

23

26

28

30

33

34

35

36
37

39

42

43

45
47
49

51

52

52

53

()

56

57

58

59

61

65
68
70


Summary
Acknowledgments


/ ()
UNDP (GEF/SGP)
.
GEF/
.
.


.

" " "


" .

.
.


.

.
.
.
" "
: :
.
" "
.

.
" "

31 .

.
.

.

.
()
)
.(2006 2005

2005 ) hybrid varieties
.(2006
.

open-pollinated .(2006 )
.
.( )

.(Ashworth, 2002)
" "
.
.

.

.
.

tenderness
.

.
.
.(Ashworth, 2002)


.(1.1 )
stamen
. .anther
style stigma pistil
. ovary
.

.
rO

p
b

rK
iO

jO

WK

WK
WCu
X

. 1.1

varietal purity
.

.
.monoecious
selfers .dioecious

.(Ashworth, 2002) crossers

.

Self-pollinated
perfect
. flowers
. .
.
( )
.()
self-incompatible
. .
.(1966 ) % 4

Cross-pollinated
.
.
.
.imperfect flowers
.
.(2.1 )
.

. ( )

. ( )

.

. 2.1

.
.
. .

. ( ) ( )

.(3.1 )

. . : 3.1
.



. .

.(Ashworth, 2002; Lorenz & Nynard, 1988)
.

.
. "isolation distance"" "
) .
. (
. .

.

. .
caging bagging :
.
(4.1 ) : .1
.
.
.

.

. 4.1

: .2
.
.% 80 ( )
.(5.1 )
. .

. 5.1

()
.
%2015 .
.
.Hand-pollination techniques
.
.

.( 8.3 )
.


)
.( ) ( ...


.

.
( ) :
.
.
. seed vigor " "
. ""

.

.




.
.
.
.

100 20 .
.(Ashworth, 2002)

Roguing ( )

.(1999 )
.
.
.

.

.

(Hong et al., 1996; Walters, 1998; Wagner et al., 1999; Hawaii
.(Conservation Alliance, 2001




.
.
.
. viable
. .
. germplasm


.tissue culture

Longevity
( )
.
.
)
. (
viability equation
.
.(Hong et al., 1996)
12.5

: 10

105 o15 % 19

17.8 389 o 3.9


.(Hong et al., 1996)

Storage properties of seeds



(Hawaii Conservation Alliance, 2001; Hong & Ellis, 1996)
:
:Orthodox seeds () .1


.(Wieland, 1995)
(Hong et al.,
.1996)

. 1.2

.
.(1.2 )
:Recalcitrant seeds () .2



.

.(2.2 )

.

. . . : 2.2

:Intermediate seeds .3
.
:(Hong & Ellis, 1996)

11

.1
.
. .2
.
.
. ( )
.
% %
3
.(Hong et al., 1996) 15
.
. o150

. .

.
.



.(Schmidt, 2000; Ashworth, 2002)
.
.


.
.
.
.
. .
.

.

: 12
: 12

.
.




.
.
.
.


.
.
.
.
.
.
( )
( )
.
.
: .
: .
. .(3.2 )
. .(3.2 )

(bowl bucket ) .
(bowl bucket ) .

viable
viable

.
.




..

.(

.(

..



..

.
.

.
.

. .:
:

3.2
3.2

. .

..

..

..

. .

.

.

.
.

13

: 14

.
. o35

35

.
.
.

.
. .
.(4.2 )
.( )

. 4.2

(threshing )
.
:
.
.
. winnowing

15

.

:

/
25

50

30

o 55

25

52

25

o 52

30

o 50
o





.
.


.(5.2 )

. 5.2

.
.
.
.

:(6.2 ) 200100 .
105 () % 0.5 ( 100)

10 .

10 .

: 16

21)

. 10

() % 0.5 . : 6.2
105
. . 10
.
. . 10
. (

21)
. 10

17


.


.(7.2 ) RH
) .

. . (
.
.( 7.2 )

. ( 7)
.

.

. % 2010 .
.% 15
. .
.
( ) (color-indicating gel)
.( 7.2 )
.
.
. 8 o95
. 450
.
30 x 20 25 .
. 5 4
.
.

: 18

230
) (8.2 ) .
.(
.
.

1
3

.2 .1 () . 7.2
. .3
. .4

19

. 87
%86

.%5
.%3 . (% 54)

Biodiversity & Environmental Research


Center (BERC)

(Non-Governmental - Non-Profitable Organisation)

( )

Til Village, Nablus, Palestine


Nablus POB 696. Telefax: 09-2346-406, 2346-147, Mobile 0599674227; E-mail: info@berc.ps berctil@yahoo.com

BERC-CSB 14

Ranunculaceae :

Nigella:

Nigella ciliaris DC.:

- :
6 :

12 :

Jun-04 :

99 :

293 :

Aug-04 :

15 : 1000

:
:

. 8.2

7
.


.
.

.

Seed storage techniques


.
. ""
. ""
(Ashworth,
.(2002; Engels & Visser, 2003

: 20

.100
.
""
% 20 .
% 80 "" .
% 20
.
.
.

seals .
.
.

.

() .
.
.( )
:
.(Walters, 1998; Hawaii Conservation Alliance, 2001; Engels &Visser, 2003)
.
.
.
18 20 .
.
.

% 8 ""
. % 8 .
.
% 8

21

% 8 .
.% 8

.

.
. 12

.
.

.


.

.
.Refrigeration
. 54

.
.
.

.% 40 10

.
.
.
.
.
.

: 22

.
.
.
. % 1510



% 85 .
.
.
10
. 5
. .



.(Ashworth, 2002 1999 )
12.5X7.5 .
.
: .
( )
accession number
. .
:
.
.
: .
( )

.

23


.
.(Lorenz & Nynard, 1988; Ashworth, 2002 2005 ) 31

Solanaceae

. 2000 90

"" Solamen Solanaceae .

: 24

.alkaloids . sedative
.

Pollination characteristics and techniques



. crossing
.
.

General production and processing techniques


.

.
.
. ()
.
.
43 (1.3 )
.
)

. .

.(
.
.
.
.
.

. . 1.3
.
. 43
. .
. .
..

25

: 26

Lycopersicon lycopersicum, Tomato

.

.
.
.
.(1966 ) %5
.(1966 )
.
.
.(2.3 )

. . : 2.3
. .
. . .
.
.

27

: 28

.
.
.
.tomato paste
.
.
. 54

.
104
.

Capsicum annum, Sweet & Chili Peppers

.
.

29

"" Capsaicin
.( ) .
. capsaicin ""
.
( )
. .
C. annum . 18 Capsicum
. .
. .
.(% 80 )
. 150
.


. O38
.
.

.
. .
. 3 % 50
() . .
. 6
O35 24 . 1 0.7
. 107

: 30

Papilionaceae (Leguminosae)

. ( )
. 6000
.
.
600 .
Phaseolus (beans) . 25 12000
. Pisum (peas)
.
.
Hypogeal .1 :

Epigeal .2
.Phaseolus vulgaris

31


.
.
. 87
.
.
:

.
.
.
.

.
) .
. (
.
.

. .

.
. .
( )
15 .
.()
. /
.
.



. .(3.3 )
.

: 32

.Feed sack method


.
rolling pin ()
.

. 3.3

.Tarp method
.
.Hand method
.

.
bean weevils
.
.
.

33

.

.
O18
12 O18
.
.
.
.
.

Pisum sativum, Garden Pea and Edible Podded Pea

http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/Plant.asp .


.
. .
.
. 100

: 34

.
. 15

.
.
. .
3 % 50 .
.
.
. 2.51.5 .
. 75

24 7

. 52.5 .
.

Phaseolus vulgaris, Common Bean

. .

.( ) .

35

. .
4 %50 .
.
. 2.5 .
. 73 O30 16
. 10

Vicia faba, Fava Bean ( Broad Bean)

.
.

.favism
) .
x

.(

: 36

.(20 ) 6030
605 .
.
.
. 1.6 .
.
. 6 %50
.
. 2.5 .
. 105

24 13


. 12.510 .

Malvaceae

37


.Okra

Abelmoschus esculentus, Okra



.West Africa
.
. .
.
. 1.6
.

.
.
.
. .
.
24 .
. 48
.
.
.
.
( ) .(4.3 )
.
.
.
21.5 .
. 127 O3521
. 4530

: 38

. 4.3

39

Umbilleferae

www.kulak.ac.be/facult/wet/ ../Daucus%20carota%20-%20Peen .


. 200 .
. .
.(5.3 ) Umbels
. .
4030 .
.
.

38

: 40

. 5.3


.
. :
.

.



.
. 75
.

. %10
) 3 .

41

(
. . 4.8
.
.
10 .
( 117 ) .
.
.
. .
.

.


:
. .
.Seed-to-root-to -seed method
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

35

. .

.
.

: 42

Peroselinum sativum, Parsley

.
.
.
. 1.6
.
.
. .

.
.
. .
3 %50 .
.
.
.

43

2410 .

. 2012
. 1510 2520

Daucus carota, Carrot

www.kulak.ac.be/facult/wet/ ../Daucus%20carota%20-%20Peen .

: 44


.
. .
.
. . 0.8
.
.

. .
. .

.
.
.( )
.
.% 90 O4 0 86
. 32



. .
(mesh) 22
.

. 3
. .
.
.
. 216 .

24 10

. 43 .

45

Liliaceae

400 .
. .
.



. 3
30 . 6
.
.
.
4.8 1.6
.
.

: 46

.
10
. .
129
.

. . .
.
.




.
. .
.

.
. :

.
" " : .
. .
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

47

Allium cepa, Common Onions, Garden Onion


. . 400 . . 3200
. .
.
1312 :
16 15 14.5
.
. O 40
.
. 1.6 .
.
.
. .(6.3 )

( ) .

: 48

)
. () .(2003
. .
.
1210 .
. O24
63 .
.7060 O35 25
.% 40

3 1210

. . . . : 6.3


.
.
.
. .
.
.

49

.
. .

. .
. %50
. .
.
. .
. 10 O21
. 7.5

Cruciferae (Brassicaceae)

. 350
. Cato .. 201
.

: 50


. Cruciferae .



.
.
.

.

.
.
. 0.8 .
.

.
. .
.
.



.
. .
.
.
.
.

.
.

.

51

Brassica oleracea, Cabbage

www.cambridge2000.com/gallery/html/P5276851.html .

.Capitata Group
. Vernalization
. O2
.
. .

) . .
.(
. 1.61
.
.
.
. 4

: 52

.
. 1.5
. 105

24

.
. . 9060
. O2

Rhaphanus sativus, Radish

http://www.vegetableseed.net/heirloom-vegetable-seeds/radish-seeds/radish-seeds.html .

.
.
. .
. .
O297 . .
. 52.5 . 104

Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Cauliflower


.

53

Cucurbitaceae ()



.

.
. .

.


ovary
. .(7.3 )

: 54

.
. ( )
.
.

. 7.3

(8.3 )
10 .
12

.
.
.
.
.

.

55

) . : 8.3
. . (
.
. .
.


.
20
.
.
. 20

: 56


. O35 .

.
.

.
.
.

.

Citrullus sativus, Watermelon


.
.

57

. .
.
)
6 .(
.
. .
.
2 . 53 O3529
. 6030 .

Cucumis melo, Egyptian cucumber


) .
.() (
. .
. % 80 ( )

: 58

5 . .
.
2 .
.O 3227 53
. 4530

Cucurbita pepo convar. Giromontiina, Marrow

59


. . . .(2006) .
1 ) () . .
. : .(9
: .(2005) . . . .
.421 3 .
) : . .(1999) .
. (
: . .(2003) . . .
.
. : . .(1966) .
. . . . . .(2006) .
.(4333 ) ()
. :
. . . . . .(2006) . .
.(2510 ) ()
. :

Hawaii Conservation Alliance. (2001). Seed Storage Practices for Native Hawaiian
Plants, An On-Line Manual. www.hawaii.edu/scb/docs/science/seed/seedmanual.html.
Retrieved August 2004.

Hong, T. D., & Ellis, R. H. (1996). A protocol to determine seed storage behaviour.
IPGRI Technical Bulletin No. 1. (J. M. M. Engels, and J. Toll, vol., Eds.) International Plant
Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.

Hong, T. D., Linington, S., & Ellis, R. H. (1996). Seed storage behaviour: A
compendium handbook for genebanks #4. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources
Institute.
Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., & Sohmer, S. H. (1999). Manual of the flowering plants
of Hawai'i, revised edition. University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu.
Wieland, G. D. (1995). Guidelines for the management of orthodox seeds. St. Louis,
MO:Center for Plant Conservation.
Lorenz, O. A., & Maynard, D. N. (1988). Handbook for vegetable growers 3rd Ed. NY:
Wiley & Sons.
Ashworth, S. (2002). Seed to seed 2nd Ed. Decorah, Iowai: Seed Savers Exchange.

Schmidt, L. (2000). Gu
Denmark: Danida Forest See
60

Engels, J. M. M., &


germplasm
collections. IPGR
Schmidt, L. (2000). Guide to handling of tropical and subtropical forest seed.
Humlebaek,
Denmark: Danida Forest Seed Centre.
Yahoo
Images.
seeds/radish-seeds.html.
Ret
Engels, J. M. M., & Visser, L. (Eds.). (2003). A guide to effective management
of
germplasm collections. IPGRI Handbooks for Genebanks No. 6.
Walters, C. (1998). Ultr
USA. Seed Science Research
Yahoo
Images.
http://www.vegetableseed.net/heirloom-vegetable-seeds/radishseeds/radish-seeds.html. Retrieved July 2006.
Yahoo Images. www.um
Walters, C. (1998). Ultra-dry storage: perspective from the national seed storage laboratory,
Yahoo Images. www.k
USA. Seed Science Research, 8, 1-74.
July 2006.
Yahoo Images. www.um.es/eubacteria/visu.html. Retrieved July 2006.
Yahoo Images. http://w
2006. Retrieved
Yahoo Images. www.kulak.ac.be/facult/wet/.../Daucus%20carota%20-%20Peen
July 2006.

Yahoo Images. http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/Plant.asp. Retrieved July


2006.

61

28 26 24 23 19 15 12 3 2

30

15

22 21 1120 10

48 8 5

30

56 24 21 18 17 14 12

33 22 21 20 10 9

56 24 20 9

45 40 37 33 3

21 9

50 46 62431374245
51
34

56 24 12
50 49 46 41 33 14
53 51 47 42 38 32 4 1
3 1
9
35
47 46 41 36 34 31 6
56 55 54 53 51 46 45 42 41 7 3
51 50 44 37 31 29 26 6 4 3
55 53
6 5 4
44 42 37 36 34 33 29 26
57 51 47

6
1
57 22 9 8 5 3 2 1
47
47
47
15
3 2
3 2
52 51 47 42 37 26293536
57
22 8
8 5

31
3
46 45

23 15

34 33 32 19 14 3
44 43 39
38 37 12
44
12
11 10

11 10
53 51 45 41 40 37 35 31 7 6 5 4 3 2
55
47 46 45 44 42 41 37 31 29 24 7 6

1
11 10
1

51 50
7 5
50 46 6
49 48 47 46 45
50 46 6
23
21 15 11 10 9
57 56 53 12
43 42
42

62

24 23

12

31 30

30

37 36

30

44 43 42 41 40 30

30

45

53 50 40 31 24

50 49

53

57 56 55 53 3
4

41 40 24 5

36 33 14

41 31 6

46

50
22 21 20 12 11 10 9

36 34 33 31 24 6 3 1

12

35 34 30 12
9

48

49 48 46

52 12

20 19 18 17 11 9

22 15 9

48 44 22 21 20 19 17 10 9

12
58 57 12

29 28 23 19 15

15 6 3

30

36 35 30 3

10
33

19 18 17

9
57 56 55 53 3

55 54 7 4 3

39

3 2
48 47

20 8

22 10

1
9

20 19

49 46 41

17

32

39

32

18 17

44 41

17

49 48 46

17

52

58 3 12

63
52 51 50 49 15 8

54 45 31 7 3 2

10
2

50 44 42

40 30

31 2

40 30

5 4

44 4 3

5 4

6 3 1

32

44 42 36 35 33 29 22 20 19 16 15 11
49
5

50 41 34 3
4 42 41 40 39

9
50 47 45 44 42 41 37 36 33 29 5 4 3
51
58 51 50 29 26 2 11 9
14 12

12

Abelmoschus esculentus 37
Allium cepa 47
Anther 2

Bagging 6
Bean weevils 32
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis 52
Brassica oleracea 51
Brassicaceae 49
Broad bean 35

Cabbage 51
Caging 6
Capitata group 51
Capsaicin 29
Capsicum annum 28
Carrot 43
Cauliflower 52
Citrullus sativus 56
Color-indicating gel 17
Common bean 34
Common onions 47
Cross-pollinated 3
Crossers 3
Cruciferae 49, 50
Cucumis melo 57
Cucurbita pepo convar. Giromontiina 58
Cucurbitaceae 53

Daucus carota 43
Dioecious 3

Edible podded pea 33


Egyptian cucumber 57
Epigeal 30

Fava bean 35
Favism 35
Feed sack method 32

Garden onion 47
Garden pea 33
General production and processing techniques 24

Hand method 32
Hand-pollination techniques 7
Hybrid varieties 1
Hypogeal 30

Imperfect flowers 3
Intermediate seeds 10
Isolation distance 5

Leguminosae 30
Liliaceae 45
Longevity 9
Lycopersicon lycopersicum 26

Malvaceae 36
Marrow 58
Monoecious 3

Okra 37
Open-pollinated 1
Orthodox seeds 10
Ovary 2, 52

Papilionaceae 30
Parsley 42
Perfect flowers 3
Peroselinum sativum 42
Phaseolus vulgaris 30, 34
Pistil 2
Pisum sativum 33
Pollination characteristics and techniques 24

Radish 52
Recalcitrant seeds 10
Rhaphanus sativus 52
Roguing 8

Seed vigor 8
Selfers 3
Self-incompatible 3
Self-pollinated 3
Solanaceae 23
Stamen 2
Stigma 2
Style 2
Sweet & chili peppers 28

Tarp method 32
Tissue culture 9
Tomato 26

Umbels 39
Umbilleferae 39

Vernalization 51
Viability equation 9
Viable 9, 12
Vicia faba 35

Watermelon 56

64

65

Abelmoschus esculentus 37
Allium cepa 47
Anther 2

Bagging 6
Bean weevils 32
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis 52
Brassica oleracea 51
Brassicaceae 49
Broad bean 35

Cabbage 51
Caging 6
Capitata group 51
Capsaicin 29
Capsicum annum 28
Carrot 43
Cauliflower 52
Citrullus sativus 56
Color-indicating gel 17
Common bean 34
Common onions 47
Cross-pollinated 3
Crossers 3
Cruciferae 49, 50
Cucumis melo 57
Cucurbita pepo convar. Giromontiina 58
Cucurbitaceae 53

Daucus carota 43
Dioecious 3

Edible podded pea 33


Egyptian cucumber 57
Epigeal 30

Fava bean 35
Favism 35
Feed sack method 32

Garden onion 47
Garden pea 33
General production and processing techniques 24

Leguminosae 30
Liliaceae 45
Longevity 9
Lycopersicon lycopersicum 26

Malvaceae 36
Marrow 58
Monoecious 3

Okra 37
Open-pollinated 1
Orthodox seeds 10
Ovary 2, 52

Papilionaceae 30
Parsley 42
Perfect flowers 3
Peroselinum sativum 42
Phaseolus vulgaris 30, 34
Pistil 2
Pisum sativum 33
Pollination characteristics and techniques 24

Radish 52
Recalcitrant seeds 10
Rhaphanus sativus 52
Roguing 8

Seed vigor 8
Selfers 3
Self-incompatible 3
Self-pollinated 3
Solanaceae 23
Stamen 2
Stigma 2
Style 2
Sweet & chili peppers 28

Tarp method 32
Tissue culture 9
Tomato 26

Umbels 39
Umbilleferae 39

Vernalization 51
Viability equation 9
Viable 9, 12
Vicia faba 35

Hand method 32
Hand-pollination techniques 7
Hybrid varieties 1
Hypogeal 30

Imperfect flowers 3
Intermediate seeds 10
Isolation distance 5

Watermelon 56

Style 2
Sweet & chili peppers 28

Tarp method 32
Tissue culture 9
Tomato 26

Umbels 39
Umbilleferae 39

Vernalization 51
Viability equation 9
Viable 9, 12
Vicia faba 35

Watermelon 56

66

67

68

Summary
This guide "Field Guide on the Production and Storage
Techniques of Seeds of Indigenous (Baladi) Varieties of Vegetables"
includes indigenous seed varieties production, processing, and storage
techniques adopted by the Til-BERC Community Seed Bank. The
methods it describes require only simple facilities, and most
equipment is available from normal merchants of horticultural
supplies or household ware.
This guide is intended for gardeners, plant propagators,
conservationists, farmers, land managers, and others in Palestine who
need to produce, and store seeds of indigenous varieties of vegetables,
as a way to renew and advance the farming heritage of their ancestors,
but do not have access to specialized facilities or staff.
It is aimed at providing the user with essential information
about the reproductive abilities of plants, and how cross-pollination
can be prevented so that pure varieties can be maintained. It is also
aimed at providing the reader with the necessary information on seed
cleaning methods, storage techniques, and testing.
The guide comprises three chapters, list of references, and an
index.
Chapter 1: "Principles of production of indigenous seed
varieties and maintaining varietal purity", provides the user with the
basic information on the essentials of production and maintaining
varietal purity of indigenous seed varieties (Baladi) of vegetables,
including pollination and isolation methods.
Chapter 2: "Practical aspects of seed processing and storage",
describes storage properties of seeds, practical aspects of seed storage
including harvesting, extraction, cleaning, testing, preparation for
storage, and storage techniques.
Chapter 3: "Production, processing, and storage of seeds of
selected main indigenous (Baladi) varieties of vegetables", describes
general methods of seed production, processing, storage, and
maintaining varietal purity of local landraces of seven plant families,
in addition to the specific methods for 1-3 vegetable crops of each
family.

69

70

Acknowledgments
The Biodiversity and Environmental Research Center
(BERC) would like to thank the Global Environmental
Facility Programme / Small Grants Programme (GEF/SGP),
United Nations Development Programme for the financial
support of the Taward setting a community seed bank in the
West Bank- Nablus Area Project. The authors would also
like to thank Mrs. Rula Jiryis, the GEF/SGP National
Coordinator, and her aid in the West Bank, Mrs. Nadia ElKhodary for their invaluable contribution towards the success
of this project.
The Authors would also like to thank Mr Ali Khalil
Hamad for reviewing the manuscript, and agricultural
engineers Mahdi Al-Khader and Mohammed Jarrar, and Mr
Ahmad Shtayeh for their technical assistance in carrying out
the technical aspects of seed storage methods adopted by
BERC Til Community Seed Bank.

Biodiversity & Environmental Research Center (BERC),


Til, POB 696 Nablus, Palestine
Website: www.berc.ps,
e-mail: info@berc.ps, berctil@yahoo.com
2006 M. S. Ali-Shtayeh, R. M. Jamous,
POB 696, Nablus, Palestine.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means,
without permission in writing from the authors.
Field Guide on the Production and Storage Techniques of Seeds of
Indigenous (Baladi) Varieties of Vegetables
ISBN 9950-324-03-3
Business correspondence should be addressed to the publisher:
Biodiversity & Environmental Research Center (BERC), Til, B.O.B. 696
Nablus, Tel: 09-2346406, Fax: 092346147, Website: www.berc.ps, Email:
info@berc.ps, berctil@yahoo.com.

BERC

BERC

Field
FieldGuide
Guideononthe
theProduction
Productionand
andStorage
Storage
Techniques

of Seeds of Indigenous (Baladi)

Techniques of Seeds of Indigenous (Baladi)


Varieties
VarietiesofofVegetables
Vegetables

Mohammed
S. S.
Ali-Shtayeh,
Mohammed
A. Shtayeh,PhD
PhD

Professor
of of
Applied
Biological
Sciences
Professor
Applied
Biological
Sciences,
Biodiversity
& Environmental
Research
Center
(BERC),
Til,
Nablus
Biodiversity
& Environmental
Research
Center
(BERC),
Til,
Nablus

RanaM.M.Jamous,
Jamous,MSc
MSc
Rana

Researcher,
Biodiversity
& Biotechnology
Research
Unit,
BERC
Researcher,
Biodiversity
& Biotechnology
Research
Unit,
BERC

Biodiversity & Environmental Research Center-BERC, Til, Nablus, Palestine


Biodiversity & Environmental Research Center-BERC, Til, Nablus, Palestine

Mohammed S. Ali-Shtayeh
Rana M. Jamous

BERC

Biodiversity & Environmental Research Center- BERC, Til, Nablus, Palestine

Оценить