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Solutions to Exercises

Exercise 21.1 Find a basis and the dimension of the hyperplane in R5 with equation

x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + 4x4 + 5x5 = 0.

{(2, 1, 0, 0, 0), (0, 3, 2, 0, 0), (0, 0, 4, 3, 0), (0, 0, 0, 5, 4)}.

Check spanning and linear independence as before. There are four vectors in this basis so the hyperplane has dimension four. By the basis theorem, a valid solution consists of four linearly independent

vectors satisfying the equation of the hyperplane.

Exercise 21.2 Find a basis of the hyperplane in Rn with equation x1 + x2 + + xn = 0.

Solutions: One basis is

ei ei+1 ,

i = 1, 2, . . . , n 1.

Check spanning and linear independence as before. There are n 1 vectors in this basis so the hyperplane has dimension n1. By the basis theorem, a valid solution consists of n1 linearly independent

vectors whose coordinates sum to zero.

Exercise 21.3 Find bases of the kernel and image of the n m matrix A all of whose entries are 1.

Solution: The image is the line through (1, 1, . . . , 1) and the kernel is the hyperplane in the previous

problem.

Exercise 21.4 Find a basis of R4 containing the vectors (1, 2, 3, 4) and (4, 3, 2, 1).

Solution: The given vectors are linearly independent, so can be expanded to a basis. Since R4 has

dimension four, we must add two vectors. For example,

{(1, 2, 3, 4), (4, 3, 2, 1), (1, 0, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0, 0)}

is one such basis. To prove this, it suffices, by Goldilocks, to show that the four vectors are linearly

independent. Any linearly independent set of four vectors in R4 containing the two given vectors is a

valid answer.

Exercise 21.5 Let V be the hyperplane in R4 given by x y + z w = 0 and let

S = {(0, 1, 2, 1), (1, 2, 1, 0), (1, 2, 4, 3), (2, 1, 3, 4)} V.

a) Show that V is spanned by S.

b) Find a basis of V that is contained in S.

Solution: Since there are more than three vectors, we try to shrink down to a basis, by throwing one

vector out, say the last one. Let (x, y, z, w) V We seek scalars c1 , c2 , c3 such that

c1 (0, 1, 2, 1) + c2 (1, 2, 1, 0) + c3 (1, 2, 4, 3) = (x, y, z, w).

This translates to the equations

c2 + c3

c1 + 2c2 + 2c3

2c1 + c2 + 4c3

c1 + 3c3

=x

=y

=z

= w.

We find c1 = y 2x, c2 = (y 2z)/3, c3 = (w y + 2x)/3. This proves that the first three vectors

span V , so a) is done. Since dim V = 3, this means the first three vectors are a basis of V , as well, so

b) is done.

Exercise 21.6 Prove that any set of n orthogonal nonzero vectors in Rn is a basis of Rn .

Solution: Let {v1 , . . . , vn } be a set of n orthogonal nonzero vectors in Rn . Since dim Rn = n, it

suffices to show this set is linearly independent. Suppose

c1 v1 + c2 v2 + + cn vn = 0.

For each k = 1, 2, . . . , n we have

0 = hvk , 0i = hvk , c1 v1 + c2 v2 + + cn vn i = ck hvk , vk i,

by orthogonality. Since each vk 6= 0, we must have ck = 0 for each k, so {v1 , . . . , vn } is linearly

independent and is therefore a basis of Rn .

Alternatively (or additionally) you can show that every vector v Rn can be written as

v=

n

X

hv, vk i

vk ,

hv

k , vk i

k=1

in the same manner as Exercise 20.4 part b). This shows that {v1 , . . . , vn } spans Rn .

Exercise 21.7 Let V be the vector space of solutions of the differential equation f 00 f = 0. Show

that {cosh x, sinh x} is a basis of V.

Solution: First check that both functions satisfy the equation. We know dim V = 2, so it suffices to

check linear independence. Suppose

c1 cosh x + c2 sinh x = 0.

Differentiating gives

c1 sinh x + c2 cosh x = 0.

Multiplying the first equation by cosh x, the second by sinh x and subtracting, we get

0 = c1 (cosh2 x sinh2 x) = c1 ,

by the hyperbolic trig identity cosh2 x sinh2 x = 1. So c1 = 0, and then c2 sinh x = 0, so c2 = 0.

Hence {cosh x, sinh x} linearly independent and is therefore a basis of V.

2

Exercise 21.8 Find a basis and the dimension of the vector space V consisting of polynomials of

degree n vanishing at 1:

V = {f Pn : f (1) = 0}

[Hint: consider powers of x 1.]

Solution: I claim that {x 1, (x 1)2 , . . . , (x 1)n } is a basis of V. Since we dont yet know the

dimension of V, we must check both spanning and linear indpendence.

For spanning, let f V and consider the Taylor expansion of f at x = 1:

f (x) =

X

f (k) (1)

k=0

k!

(x 1)k .

Since f (1) = 0, the sum actually starts at k = 1. Since deg f n the sum only goes up to k = n. So

f (x) =

n

X

f (k) (1)

k=1

k!

(x 1)k ,

In Exercise 20.3 you showed that any set of polynomials {p0 , . . . , pn } with deg pk = k for all k is

linearly independent. Throwing out p0 , the set remains linearly independent. Since deg(x 1)k = k,

it follows that {x 1, (x 1)2 , . . . , (x 1)n } is linearly independent and therefore is a basis of V, so

dim V = n.

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