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A Review Material for the NCBTS-Based
2009 Licensure Examination for Teachers

Prepared by

Maria Ruth M.

1. Determine the roles of the teachers as active members of the community and as
global citizens responsible for the outcomes of their actions and for developing
other citizens.
2. Analyze historical, economic, socio-cultural, geographical, environmental,
political and social-psychological factors that affect the role of the school as an
agent of change.
3. Interpret educational problems in the light of philosophical and legal
foundations of education.
4. Apply the four pillars of learning in responding to the aspirations of the
community: learning to know; learning to do; learning to live together; learning
to be.

Content Coverage
1. Social Science Theories & Education
2. Four Pillars of Learning
3. Intercultural communication

4. Gender and development

5. Globalization and education

I. Social Science Theories & Education

Definitions of the Theories

Consensus Theory (Dahrendorf)
- A general or widespread agreement among all members of a particular society
- Emphasizes on social order, stability and social regulation
- Views social change as occurring in a slow and orderly fashion
- See shared norms and values as fundamental to society

Conflict Theory (Marx)

- A clash between ideas, principles and people
- Emphasizes on the dominance of some social groups by others
- See social order as based on manipulation and control by dominant groups
- Views social change as occurring rapidly and in a disorderly fashion
- Focuses on the struggle of social classes to maintain dominance and power in
social systems

Structural Functionalism (Parsons)

- States that the society is made up of various institutions that work together in
- Four Functional Imperatives (AGIL Scheme):
a system must cope with external situational exigencies
Goal attainment
a system must define and achieve its primary goals
a system must regulate the interrelationship of its
component parts
a system must furnish, maintain, and renew both the
motivation of individuals and the cultural patterns that
create and sustain the motivation

Functional Requisites of a Social System

1. Social system must be structured so that they operate compatibly with
other systems.
2. To survive, the social system must have the requisite from other systems.
3. The system must meet a significant proportion of the needs of its actors.
4. The system must elicit adequate participation from its members.

2 SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION A Review Material for the NCBTS-Based Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

5. It must have at least a minimum of control over potentially disruptive

6. If conflict becomes sufficiently disruptive, it must be controlled.
7. A social system requires a language in order to survive.
Key Principles of the Functionalist Theory
1. Interdependency
2. Functions of Social Structure and Culture
3. Consensus and Cooperation
4. Equilibrium

Interactionist Theories (Mead & Cooley)

- Critique functionalist and conflict theories for being very abstract as they
emphasize on the structure and process at a societal level of analysis
- See the importance of analyzing the processes as these carry with them many
implicit assumptions about learning and children
- Interaction: the process in which the ability is both developed and expressed;
refines our ability to think.
- 2 Types of Interactionism
1. Symbolic Interactionism views the self as socially constructed in relation
to social forces and structures and the product
of ongoing negotiations of meanings (Lookingglass-self)
2. Non-Symbolic Interactionism require mental processes

Relation of the Theories to Education

Education performs an important role in the development and maintenance of a
modern society, especially on the equality of opportunity for all citizens.
Schools provide citizens with the knowledge and dispositions to participate actively in
civic life.

II. Four Pillars of Learning

Came from Learning the Treasure Within, the report of the International Commission on
Education for the 21st Century, chaired by Jacques Delors, published by UNESCO in 1996
Stresses that each individual must be equipped to seize learning opportunities
throughout life, both to broaden her/his knowledge, skills and attitudes, and adapt to a
changing, complex and interdependent world
Learning to Know
- To acquire the instruments of understanding, the passport of lifelong education, for
learning throughout life
- Implies learning how to learn by developing ones concentration, memory skills, and
ability to think; more on mastery of learning tools than acquisition of structured
- Underpinned by pleasure that may be derived from understanding, knowledge, and

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

- Students need to develop learn-to-learn skills; Teachers as facilitator, catalyst, monitor

and evaluator of learning
Learning to Do
- To be able to act creatively in ones environment
- Entails acquisition of a competence that enables people to deal with a variety of
situations, often unforeseeable, and to work in teams
- Requires finding peace within ourselves, expansion of acceptance and understanding
of others, and living the values that lead to peaceful and just society
- Focuses on the development of competence, life skills, personal qualities, aptitudes
and attitudes
- Represents the skillful, creative and discerning application of knowledge
Learning to Live Together in Peace and Harmony
- To participate in and cooperate with other people in all human activities
- A dynamic, holistic and lifelong process through which mutual respect,
understanding, caring and sharing, compassion, social responsibility, solidarity,
acceptance and tolerance of diversity among individuals and groups are internalized
and practiced together
- Can be achieved by developing understanding of others and their history, traditions
and spiritual values.
- Recognizes growing interdependence and a common analysis of the risks and
challenges of the future
Learning to Be
- To better develop ones personality and to act with ever greater autonomy, judgment
and personal responsibility
- The complete fulfillment of the human person, in all richness of the personality, the
complexity of forms of expressions and various commitments as an individual,
member of a family or community, citizen and producer, inventor of techniques and
creative dreamer
- Believes in the holistic and integrated approach to educate the human person towards
the full development of the dimensions: physical, intellectual, aesthetic, ethical,
economic, socio-cultural, political, and spiritual

III. Intercultural Communication

Characterized by the growing number of contacts resulting in communication between

people with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds
Communication & Language
Types of Communication
1. Verbal
use of language
2. Non-verbal use of gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements
- An abstract system of word meaning and symbols for all aspects of culture
- Inclusive of speech, written characters, numerals, symbols and gestures, and
expressions of non-verbal communication

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

The key factor in the success of the human race in creating and preserving
A reflection of the kind of person one is, the level of education attained, and an
index to the behavior that may be expected
Influences culture

A set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that characterize a
particular society or population (Ember, 1999)
The learned norms, values, knowledge, artifacts, language, and symbols that are
constantly communicated among people who share a common way of life (Calhoun,
et.al., 1994)
The sum total of symbols, ideas, forms of expressions, and material products
associated with a system (Johnson, 1996)
Characteristics of Culture
1. Culture is learned.
2. Culture is shared by a group of people.
3. Culture is cumulative.
4. Cultures change.
5. Culture is dynamic.
6. Culture is ideational.
7. Culture is diverse.
8. Culture gives a range of permissible behavior patterns.
Components of Culture
1. Communication language, symbols
2. Cognitive ideas, knowledge, beliefs, values, accounts
3. Material tools, medicines, books, transportation, technologies
4. Behavioral norms, mores, laws, folkways, rituals
Organization of Culture
Cultural trait Culture complexes Culture pattern

Cultural Transmission
1. Enculturation learning ones own culture
2. Acculturation learning new traits from another group
3. Assimilation an individual loses entirely of previous group identity and takes
on that of another group.
Importance and Functions of Culture
1. Culture helps the individual fulfill his potential as a human being.
2. Through the development of culture, one can overcome physical disadvantages
and allows provision of needs.
3. Culture provides rules of proper conduct for living in a society.
4. Culture provides an individual his/her concepts of family, nation or class.
Cultural Relativism
An approach to the question of the nature and role of values in culture
An anthropological approach which posits that all cultures are of equal value and
need to be studied in a neutral point of view

5 SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION A Review Material for the NCBTS-Based Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

Social Institutions
Structures and mechanisms of social orders and cooperation that govern the behavior
of its members
A group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role
Characteristics of an Institution
1. Institutions are purposive.
2. Institutions are relatively permanent in their content.
3. Institutions are structured.
4. Institutions are a unified structure.
5. Institutions are necessarily value-laden.
Functions of Institutions
1. Simplify social behavior for the individual person
2. Provide ready-made forms of social relations and roles for the individual
3. Act as agencies of coordination and stability for the total culture.
4. Tend to control behavior
Essential Tasks
1. Replacing members or procreation
2. Teaching new members
3. Producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services
4. Preserving order
5. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
Major Social Institutions
1. Family
2. Education
3. Religion
4. Economic institutions
5. Government

IV. Gender & Development

Shapes the lives of all people in all societies
Influences all aspects of our lives, the schooling we receive, the social roles we play, and
the power and authority we command
Theories of Gender Development
Social Learning Theory parents, reinforce appropriate gender role behaviors
Cognitive Development Theory children engage in symbolic thinking, acquire their

gender identity, then begin the process of acquiring genderappropriate behaviors

Gender Schema Theory schema helps a child to develop gender identity, formulate an
appropriate gender role, and develop an integrated schema or
picture of what gender is and should be

Gender Stereotyping
The beliefs humans hold about the characteristics associated with males and females
Gender & Equality

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

Gives women and men the same entitlements to all aspects of human development,
including economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights, the same level of respect
of power to shape the outcomes of these choices
Gender Inequality

Four themes that characterize feminist theories about gender inequality:

1. Men and women are situated in society not only differently but also unequally.
2. Inequality results from the organization of society, not from any significant
biological or personality differences between men and women.
3. No significant pattern of natural variation distinguishes the sexes even if
individual human beings may vary somewhat from each other in their profile
of potentials and traits.
4. All inequality theories assume that both men and women will respond fairly
easily and naturally to more egalitarian social structures and situations

V. Globalization & Education

Global Education and Globalization
Globalization refers to an increasing interconnectedness and convergence of activities
and forms of life among diverse cultures throughout the world.
Globalization links individuals and institutions across the world with unprecedented
Education systems constitute the core of the globalization process.
Global education extends students awareness of the world in which they live by
opening them to the diverse heritage of human thoughts and action, and creativity.
Core Values and Competencies for Global Education
Peace and non-violence
Social justice and human rights
Economic well-being and equity
Cultural integrity
Ecological balance
Democratic participation
Core Skills and Competencies
Self-worth and self-affirmation
Affirmation of others
Critical thinking
Effective communication skills
Non-violent conflict resolution and mediation
Effective organizing

Issues on Globalization

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

Socio-cultural Issues massive migration, managing difference, global changes in

Economic Issues educational and employment opportunities, neo-liberal
Political Issues constraints on national/state policy due to external demands
from transnational institutions Globalization and Its Impact on Education
Education as a service industry is part of the globalization process
Globalization may mean a more competitive and deregulated educational system.
Schools should be sites for counter hegemonic movements.
Content of Education curriculum upgrading, productivity orientation
The Fall Out of Globalization internationalization of education, finances,
privatization of secondary and higher education

Bilbao, P. P. B.B. Corpuz, A. T. Llagas, and G. G. Salandanan. (2006). The teaching profession. Quezon City: Lorimar
Publishing, Inc.
McNergney, R. F. and J. M. McNergney. (2001). Education: The practice and profession of teaching. USA: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Vega, V. A., N. G. Prieto, and M. L. Carreon. (2006). Social dimensions of education. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing,

8 SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION A Review Material for the NCBTS-Based Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

DIRECTIONS: Read each item carefully. Then choose the best answer.
1. Which social science theory is satisfied when people tend to agree and cooperate on a certain issue?
A. Conflict Theory
C. Interaction Theory
B. Consensus Theory
D. Structural Functionalist Theory
2. Who advocated on the theory that presents the struggle of social classes to maintain dominance and power in social
A. Blumer
C. Marx
B. Dahrendorf
D. Mead
3. What is believed to be the state of a society if there is absence of conflict and no disagreements manifest between
members of a society?
A. Consensus
C. Interaction
B. Equilibrium
D. Symbiosis
4. Which functional imperative by Parsons is being described when a system must clearly identify its primary tasks and
work out ways to achieve them?
A. Adaptation
C. Integration
B. Goal attainment
D. Latency
5. What is the assumption of a functionalist perspective about why society chooses a particular form or set-up?
A. That a society takes its particular form because that form works well for that society given its particular situation.
B. That a society chooses a particular form based on the prevailing trends common in other societies.
C. That a society tends to reject a particular form if it makes it subordinate to other societies.
D. That a society prefers a particular form because it is always useful in different situations.
6. Which pillar of education is being strengthened by a teacher who provides learning opportunities for his/her students
to develop their social skills and capacities to work with other members of the class?
A. Learning to know
C. Learning to live together
B. Learning to do
D. Learning to be
7. Which is the result of successfully learning to live together?
A. There will be group consensus.
B. There will be peace and harmony.
C. There will be excellence in work habits.
D. There will be a continuous drive to discover new knowledge.
8. What should teachers do so that the pillar of learning to be could be strengthened?
A. Give tasks where the students would grow holistically
B. Focus on the cognitive and affective development of students
C. Point out to the students the basics of becoming a complete person
D. Facilitate activities that emphasize on the students behavioral competence
9. A teacher facilitates an inquiry task to be participated in by at least 4 members per team. What pillar of learning is
strengthened in this situation?
A. Learning to know
C. Learning to live together
B. Learning to do
D. Learning to be
10. What is being stressed by the 4 Pillars of Learning?
A. The importance of equipping individuals with the learning tools for adaptation and interdependence.
B. The acquisition of updated knowledge about oneself, family, community and the world.
C. The acquisition of competence that enables people to work in teams in peace and harmony.

9 SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION A Review Material for the NCBTS-Based Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

D. The value of equality, fairness and social justice to achieve harmony ant peace across the globe.
11. Which reflects the quality of a person?
A. Language
B. Educational attainment
C. Occupational skills
D. Structural context
12. What is not true about the relationship of culture and language?
A. The more languages one speaks, the richer his/her cultural background becomes.
B. The structure of a language determines the way in which speakers of that language view the world.
C. No amount of training can produce the more advanced uses of language found in people, no matter what their
D. An understanding of language can provide individuals with a better appreciation of the different cultures of people
with whom they may relate.
13. Which transmission of culture involves the process of learning some new traits from another culture?
A. Acculturation
B. Assimilation
C. Enculturation
D. Pluralism
14. Under which component of culture would books belong?
A. Behavioral
B. Cognitive
C. Communication
D. Material
15. Which exemplifies the function of culture where individuals can overcome their physical disadvantages?
A. The invention of the cellular phones enables family members to communicate with one another even between
great distances.
B. The establishment of rules of proper conduct for living in a society ensures orderliness and social justice.
C. The development of ones full potentials as a human being.
D. The creation of new needs and the arrangement of means to acquire them.
16. Which illustrates cultural relativism?
A. Practices that are considered taboo in a certain group but are acceptable to other groups.
B. Learning the folkways and social traditions of ones own group.
C. A Tuguegaraoeo moves to a point where s/he speaks only Visayan and assumes the folkways of the local group.
D. When students migrate from rural to urban areas, they learn some of the urban customs and routines.
17. Which does not provide an understanding of multicultural education?
A. Teachers integrate content concepts that give emphasis to a particular ethnicity.
B. Every student must have an equal opportunity to achieve her or his full potential.
C. Every student must be prepared to competently participate in an increasingly intercultural society.
D. Teachers must be prepared to effectively facilitate learning for every individual student, no matter how culturally
similar or different from themselves.
18. Which of these is the political function of schools?
A. Teach basic cognitive skills
B. Prepare students for their later occupational roles
C. Help students assimilate diverse cultural groups into a certain order
D. Socialize children into the various roles, behaviors and values of the society
19. Which social institution is concerned with the satisfaction of the material wants of a society?
A. Economic

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

B. Educational
C. Government
D. Religious
20. Which gender development theory believes that parents reinforce appropriate gender role behaviors?
A. Cognitive Developmental Theory
B. Gender Schema Theory
C. Interactionist Theory
D. Social Learning Theory
21. What does gender stereotyping mean?
A. The identification of factors that may influence the gender preference of a person
B. The beliefs humans hold about the characteristics associated with males and females
C. The actions done to equate the accessibility of guidance programs to improve gender concepts
D. The training that promotes sensitivity between and among men and women as to their capabilities and rights.
22. Which is the current understanding of the word gender?
A. Sexlessness
B. Prejudice against sexes
C. Discrimination against sexes
D. Subjectivity to sex preferences
23. Which situation does not manifest gender equality?
A. Men helping women advance their causes
B. Recognizing that women can improve themselves
C. Girls are enrolled in regular schools which used to be for boys only.
D. A glass ceiling which determines the peak of womens advancement in the levels of management
24. Which is a socio-cultural issue concerning globalization?
A. Economic coordination has become increasingly regulated well-regulated
B. The challenge to engage and work through contrasting models of language and kinship
C. Constraints on national/state policy-making posed by external demands from transnational institutions
D. Narrowing income of gaps between developed and developing countries through improvements in basic
25. Which does not contribute to the fall out of globalization?
A. Finance-related issues
B. Hiring of teachers
C. Internationalization of education
D. Privatization of secondary and higher education

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila