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Topic, # days

Major Objectives

Key Ideas

Sample Questions

Activity Ideas

Scientific Method and Mathematical Analysis (18 days)

1.

organize, graph, and analyze data gathered from

Graphing

 

Alka­seltzer dissolving times

Scientific Method

 

Mystery white powder lab

laboratory activities or other sources 2. identify independentand dependent variables

Mathematical Analysis

3.

create appropriate axes with labels and scale

4.

identify graph points clearly

5.

measure and record experimental data and use data in calculations

6.

choose appropriate measurement scales and use units in recording

7.

show mathematical work, stating formula and steps for solution

8.

estimate answers

9.

use appropriate equationsand significant digits

10.

show uncertainty in measurement by the use of significant figures

11.identify relationships within variables from data tables 12. calculate percent error 13. recognize and convert
11.identify
relationships within
variables from data
tables
12. calculate percent
error
13. recognize and
convert various
scales of
measurement
temperature §
Celsius (°C) §
Kelvin (K) ◆ length
§ kilometers (km) §
meters (m) §
centimeters (cm) §
millimeters (mm) ◆
mass § grams (g) §
kilograms (kg) ◆
pressure §
kilopascal (kPa) §
atmosphere (atm)
14. use knowledge of
geometric
arrangements to
predict particle
properties or
behavior
15. Use deductive
reasoning to
construct and
evaluate
conjectures and
arguments,
recognizing that
patterns and
relationships in
mathematics assist
them in arriving at
 

these conjectures and arguments 16. interpret a graph constructed from experimentally obtaineddata

   

17.identify

relationships § direct § inverse 18. apply data showing trends to predict information 19. Apply algebraic and geometric concepts and skills to the solution of problems. 20. state assumptions which apply to the use of a particular mathematical equationand evaluate these assumptions to see if they have been met 21. evaluate the appropriateness of an answer, based on given data

Atomic Concepts (9 days)

 

● Themodernmodel oftheatomhas evolved over a long period of time through the work of many scientists.

● Each atom has a nucleus, with an

Spectroscopy

Model­building

 
overall positive charge, surrounded byoneormore negatively charged electrons. ● Subatomic particles contained in
overall positive
charge, surrounded
byoneormore
negatively charged
electrons.
● Subatomic particles
contained in the
nucleus include
protons and
neutrons.
● Theprotonis
positively charged,
andtheneutron
has no charge. The
electron is
negatively charged.
● Protons and
electrons have
equal but opposite
charges. The
numberofprotons
equalsthenumber
of electrons in an
atom.
● The mass of each
proton and each
neutronis
approximately
equaltooneatomic
mass unit. An
electron is much
less massive than
aprotonora
neutron.
● Inthe
wave­mechanical
model (electron
cloud model), the
electrons are in
orbitals, which are definedasthe regions of the most probable electron location (ground state). ● Each
orbitals, which are
definedasthe
regions of the most
probable electron
location (ground
state).
● Each electron in an
atomhasitsown
distinct amount of
energy.
● When an electron
inanatomgainsa
specific amount of
energy, the
electron is at a
higher energy state
(excited state).
● When an electron
returns from a
higher energy state
toalowerenergy
state, a specific
amount of energy
isemitted.This
emitted energy can
be used to identify
anelement.
● The outermost
electrons in an
atom are called the
valence electrons.
Ingeneral,the
number of valence
electrons affects
the chemical
properties of an
element.
● Atoms of an
elementthat
 

contain the same numberofprotons butadifferent numberofneutrons are called isotopes ofthatelement.

 

● The average atomic mass of an elementisthe weighted average of the masses of its naturally occurring isotopes.

Periodic Table

● The placement or location of elementsonthe Periodic Table gives an indication of physical and chemical properties ofthatelement. Theelementson thePeriodicTable are arranged in order of increasing atomicnumber.

● Thenumberof protons in an atom (atomic number) identifiesthe element. The sum oftheprotonsand neutronsinan atom (mass number)identifies an isotope. Commonnotations that represent

History/discovery of table

(10 days)

Discovery of noble gases Exploration of different atomicproperties Alkali metal demo

isotopes include: 14C,14C, carbon­14, C­14. ● Elements can be classified by their properties and located
isotopes include:
14C,14C,
carbon­14, C­14.
● Elements can be
classified by their
properties and
located on the
Periodic Table as
metals, nonmetals,
metalloids (B, Si,
Ge, As, Sb, Te),
and noble gases.
● Elements can be
differentiatedby
their physical
properties. Physical
properties of
substances, such
as density,
conductivity,
malleability,
solubility, and
hardness, differ
among elements.
● Elements can be
differentiatedby
chemical
properties.
Chemical
properties describe
howanelement
behaves during a
chemical reaction.
● Some elements
exist in two or more
forms in the same
phase. These
forms differ in their
molecular or crystal
structure, and hence in their properties. ● ForGroups1,2, and13­18onthe Periodic Table, elementswithinthe same
structure, and
hence in their
properties.
● ForGroups1,2,
and13­18onthe
Periodic Table,
elementswithinthe
same group have
the same number
of valence
electrons (helium is
an exception) and
therefore similar
chemical
properties.
● The succession of
elementswithinthe
same group
demonstrates
characteristic
trends: differences
in atomic radius,
ionic radius,
electronegativity,
first ionization
energy,
metallic/nonmetallic
properties.
● The succession of
elements across
the same period
demonstrates
characteristic
trends: differences
in atomic radius,
ionic radius,
electronegativity,
first ionization
energy,
   

metallic/nonmetallic properties.

 

Memorize common ions/compounds/el ements

 

EOY Project Parts (5 days):

 

1.

Find and evaluate sources

2.

Learn to make citations

Study Skills (3 days):

 

1.

Note cards

 

2.

Study guide (1.5 days)

 

3.

Time management (.5 days)

 

Q1 Test (at 45 days)

 
 

EOY Project (5 days):

 

3. Take notes from sources

Properties of Matter (25 days)

● Matter is classified asapure substance or as a mixture of substances.

Separating mixtures Propertiesofdifferent substances Boilingpoints Energy transfer Chemical Reactions Concentrations of harmful substances

● The three phases of matter (solids, liquids, and gases) have different properties.

● A pure substance (element or compound) has a constant composition and constant properties throughout a given sample, and from sample to sample.

 
● Elements are substances that are composed of atoms that have the same atomicnumber. Elements
● Elements are
substances that are
composed of atoms
that have the same
atomicnumber.
Elements cannot
be broken down by
chemical change.
● Mixtures are
composed of two or
more different
substances that
can be separated
by physical means.
Whendifferent
substances are
mixed together, a
homogeneousor
heterogeneous
mixture is formed.
● Theproportionsof
components in a
mixture can be
varied. Each
component in a
mixture retains its
original properties.
● Differences in
properties such as
density, particle
size, molecular
polarity, boiling
point and freezing
point, and solubility
permit physical
separation of the
components of the
mixture.
● A solution is a
homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent. The solubility of a solute in
homogeneous
mixture of a solute
dissolved in a
solvent. The
solubility of a solute
in a given amount
of solvent is
dependentonthe
temperature,the
pressure, and the
chemical natures of
the solute and
solvent.
● The concentration
of a solution may
be expressed as
molarity (M),
percent by volume,
percent by mass,
orpartspermillion
(ppm).
● Theadditionofa
nonvolatile solute
to a solvent causes
theboilingpointof
the solvent to
increase and the
freezing point of
the solvent to
decrease. The
greater the
concentration of
particles, the
greater the effect.
● Energy can exist in
different forms,
such as chemical,
electrical,
electromagnetic,
thermal, mechanical, and nuclear. ● Heat is a transfer of energy (usually thermal energy) from
thermal,
mechanical, and
nuclear.
● Heat is a transfer of
energy (usually
thermal energy)
from a body of
highertemperature
toabodyoflower
temperature.
Thermalenergyis
theenergy
associated with the
random motion of
atomsand
molecules.
● Temperatureisa
measurement of
the average kinetic
energyofthe
particles in a
sample of material.
Temperatureisnot
a form of energy.
● The concept of an
idealgasisa
model to explain
the behavior of
gases. A real gas is
most like an ideal
gaswhenthereal
gasisatlow
pressure and high
temperature. (Save
forLater)
● Kinetic molecular
theory(KMT)foran
ideal gas states
thatallgas
particles: 1. are in random, constant, straight­line motion. 2. are separated by great distances relative
particles: 1. are in
random, constant,
straight­line motion.
2. are separated by
great distances
relative to their
size; the volume of
the gas particles is
considered
negligible. 3. have
no attractive forces
betweenthem.4.
have collisions that
may result in the
transfer of energy
betweengas
particles, but the
totalenergyofthe
system remains
constant.
● Collision theory
states that a
reaction is most
likely to occur if
reactant particles
collide with the
proper energy and
orientation. (Goes
with Chemical
Reactions)
● Kinetic molecular
theory describes
the relationships of
pressure, volume,
temperature,
velocity, and
frequency and
force of collisions
among gas
 

molecules.

Equal volumes of

different gases at the same temperatureand pressure contain anequalnumberof particles.

The concepts of kinetic and potentialenergy can be used to explain physical processes that include: fusion (melting), solidification (freezing), vaporization (boiling, evaporation), condensation, sublimation, and deposition.

A

physical change

results in the rearrangement of

existing particles in

a

substance. A

chemical change results in the formation of different substances with changed properties.

Chemical and physical changes can be exothermic

or endothermic.

● The structure and arrangement of particles and their interactions determinethe physical state of a substance at a given temperature and pressure.

● Intermolecular forces created by theunequal distribution of charge result in varying degrees of attraction between molecules.

● Hydrogen bonding is an example of a strong intermolecular force.

● Physical properties of substances can be explained in terms of chemical bondsand intermolecular forces. These properties include conductivity, malleability, solubility, hardness, melting point,andboiling point.

Stoichiometry

● A compound is a

Law of Conservation of

(12 days)

substance composed of two or more different elementsthatare chemically combined in a fixed proportion. A chemical compound can be broken down by chemical means. A chemical compound can be represented by a specific chemical formula and assigned a name based on the IUPAC system.

Mass Observations of chemical reactions

● Types of chemical formulas include empirical, molecular, and structural.

● The empirical formula of a compound is the simplest whole­numberratio ofatomsofthe elementsina compound. It may bedifferentfrom the molecular formula, which is the actual ratio of atomsina molecule of that compound.

● In all chemical reactions there is a conservation of mass, energy, and charge. ●
● In all chemical
reactions there is a
conservation of
mass, energy, and
charge.
● A balanced
chemical equation
represents
conservation of
atoms. The
coefficients in a
balanced chemical
equation can be
used to determine
mole ratios in the
reaction.
● The formula mass
of a substance is
the sum of the
atomic masses of
its atoms. The
molar mass (gram
formula mass) of a
substance equals
onemoleofthat
substance.
● The percent
composition by
mass of each
elementina
compound can be
calculated
mathematically.
● Types of chemical
reactions include
synthesis,
decomposition,
single replacement,
anddouble

replacement. (3.2b)

EOY Project (3 days) 4. Plan Paper 5. Write Rough Draft (Introduction)

Q2 Test/Midterm (at 90 days)

EOY Project (2 days) 5. Write Rough Draft (Rest)

Chemical Bonding (15 days)

● Compounds can be differentiatedby their chemical and physical properties.

● Twomajor categories of compounds are ionic and molecular

Molecular modeling Examples of reactions that occur/don’t BondingLab:

f

(covalent) compounds.

● Chemical bonds are formed when valence electrons are • transferred from one atom to another (ionic) • shared between atoms (covalent) • mobile within a metal (metallic)

● Inamultiple covalent bond, more than one pair of electrons are shared between two atoms.

● Molecular polarity can be determined

by the shape of the molecule and the distribution of charge. Symmetrical (nonpolar) molecules include
by the shape of the
molecule and the
distribution of
charge.
Symmetrical
(nonpolar)
molecules include
CO2,CH4,and
diatomic elements.
Asymmetrical
(polar) molecules
include HCl, NH3,
andH2O.
● Whenanatom
gainsoneormore
electrons, it
becomes a
negative ion and its
radius increases.
Whenanatom
loses one or more
electrons, it
becomes a positive
ionanditsradius
decreases.
● Whenabondis
broken, energy is
absorbed. When a
bondisformed,
energy is released.
● Atoms attain a
stable valence
electron
configuration by
bondingwithother
atoms. Noble
gases have stable
valence
configurations and
tendnottobond. ● Physical properties of substances can be explained in terms of chemical bondsand intermolecular
tendnottobond.
● Physical properties
of substances can
be explained in
terms of chemical
bondsand
intermolecular
forces. These
properties include
conductivity,
malleability,
solubility,
hardness, melting
point,andboiling
point.
● Electron­dot
diagrams(Lewis
structures) can
represent the
valence electron
arrangement in
elements,
compounds, and
ions.
● Electronegativity
indicates how
strongly an atom of
an element attracts
electrons in a
chemical bond.
Electronegativity
values are
assigned according
to arbitrary scales.
● The
electronegativity
difference between
twobondedatoms
is used to assess
 

thedegreeof polarityinthebond.

 

● Metals tend to react with nonmetalstoform ionic compounds. Nonmetalstendto react with other nonmetalstoform molecular (covalent) compounds. Ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions have both ionic and covalent bonding.

Kinetics/Equilibrium (10 days)

● Collision theory states that a reaction is most likely to occur if reactant particles collide with the proper energy and orientation.

● Therateofa chemical reaction depends on several factors:

EquilibriumLab:

 

temperature, concentration, nature of reactants, surface area, and the presence of a catalyst.

● Some chemical and physical changes can reach

equilibrium. ● At equilibrium the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the
equilibrium.
● At equilibrium the
rate of the forward
reaction equals the
rate of the reverse
reaction.The
measurable
quantitiesof
reactants and
products remain
constant at
equilibrium.
● LeChatelier’s
principle can be
used to predict the
effect of stress
(change in
pressure, volume,
concentration, and
temperature)ona
system at
equilibrium.
● Energy released or
absorbed by a
chemical reaction
can be represented
byapotential
energydiagram.
● Energy released or
absorbed during a
chemical reaction
(heat of reaction) is
equaltothe
difference between
thepotential
energyofthe
products and the
potentialenergyof
the reactants.
 

● Catalyst provides analternate reaction pathway, which has a lower activation energy thanan uncatalyzed reaction.

● Entropy is a measure of the randomness or disorder of a system. A system withgreater disorder has greater entropy.

● Systems in nature tendtoundergo changes toward lowerenergyand higher entropy.

Organic Chemistry (6 days)

● Organic compounds contain carbon atoms which bond to one another in chains, rings, and networks to form a variety of structures. Organic compounds can be named using the IUPAC system.

● Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Saturated hydrocarbons

contain only single carbon­carbon bonds. Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain at least one multiple carbon­carbon
contain only single
carbon­carbon
bonds. Unsaturated
hydrocarbons
contain at least one
multiple
carbon­carbon
bond.
● Organic acids,
alcohols, esters,
aldehydes,
ketones, ethers,
halides, amines,
amides, and amino
acids are
categories of
organic molecules
thatdifferintheir
structures.
Functional groups
impart distinctive
physical and
chemical properties
toorganic
compounds.
● Isomers of organic
compounds have
the same molecular
formula but
different structures
and properties.
● Inamultiple
covalent bond,
more than one pair
of electrons are
shared between
two atoms.
Unsaturated
organic compounds
 

contain at least one doubleortriple bond.

 

● Types of organic reactions include:

addition, substitution, polymerization, esterification, fermentation, saponification, and combustion.

Oxidation­Reduction (8 days)

● An oxidation­reduction (redox) reaction involves the transfer of electrons

Electrochemical cell

● Reduction is the gain of electrons.

● A half­reaction can bewrittento represent reduction.

● Oxidation is the loss of electrons.

● A half­reaction can bewrittento represent oxidation.

● In a redox reaction thenumberof electrons lost is equaltothe numberof electrons gained.

● Oxidation numbers (states) can be

   

assigned to atoms and ions. Changes in oxidation numbers indicate that oxidation and reduction have occurred.

 

● An electrochemical cell can be either voltaic or electrolytic. In an electrochemical cell, oxidation occurs at the anodeand reduction at the cathode.

● A voltaic cell spontaneously converts chemical energy to electrical energy.

● An electrolytic cell requires electrical energy to produce chemical change. This process is known as electrolysis.

 

EOY Project (4 days) 7. Peer Review 8. Write Final Draft

 
 

Q3 Test (at 135 days)

 

Acids/Bases/Salts (12 days)

Behavior of many acids and bases can be explained

Titration

pHLab

bytheArrhenius theory. Arrhenius acids and bases are electrolytes. ● An electrolyte is a substance which,
bytheArrhenius
theory. Arrhenius
acids and bases
are electrolytes.
● An electrolyte is a
substance which,
when dissolved in
water,formsa
solution capable of
conducting an
electric current.
Theabilityofa
solution to conduct
an electric current
dependsonthe
concentration of
ions.
● Arrhenius acids
yield H+ (aq),
hydrogen ion as
the only positive
ioninanaqueous
solution. The
hydrogen ion may
also be written as
H3O+(aq),
hydronium ion.
● Arrhenius bases
yield OH­ (aq),
hydroxide ion as
the only negative
ioninanaqueous
solution.
● In the process of
neutralization, an
Arrhenius acid and
an Arrhenius base
react to form a salt
andwater.
 

● Titration is a laboratory process in which a volume of solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution.

 

● Therearealternate acid­base theories. One theory states that an acid is an H+donoranda base is an H+ acceptor.

● The acidity or alkalinity of a solution can be measured by its pH value. The relative level of acidity or alkalinity of a solution can be shown by using indicators.

● On the pH scale, each decrease of oneunitofpH represents a tenfold increase in hydronium ion concentration.

Nuclear Chemistry (12 days)

● Stability of isotopes is based on the ratio of neutrons andprotonsinits nucleus. Although

Cancer meds Nuclear power Nuclear weapons/Manhattan project

most nuclei are stable, some are unstable and spontaneously decay, emitting radiation. ● Each radioactive
most nuclei are
stable, some are
unstable and
spontaneously
decay, emitting
radiation.
● Each radioactive
isotope has a
specific mode and
rate of decay
(half­life).
● A change in the
nucleus of an atom
that converts it
from one element
to another is called
transmutation. This
can occur naturally
or can be induced
bythe
bombardmentof
the nucleus by
high­energy
particles.
● Spontaneous
decay can involve
the release of
alpha particles,
beta particles,
positrons and/or
gammaradiation
from the nucleus of
an unstable
isotope. These
emissions differ in
mass, charge, and
ionizing power, and
penetratingpower.
● Nuclear reactions
include natural and artificial transmutation, fission, and fusion. ● Therearebenefits and risks associated with
include natural and
artificial
transmutation,
fission, and fusion.
● Therearebenefits
and risks
associated with
fission and fusion
reactions.
● Nuclear reactions
can be represented
byequationsthat
include symbols
which represent
atomic nuclei (with
the mass number
andatomic
number),
subatomic particles
(with mass number
and charge), and/or
emissions such as
gammaradiation.
● Energy released in
a nuclear reaction
(fission or fusion)
comes from the
fractional amount
of mass converted
into energy.
Nuclear changes
convert matter into
energy.
● Energy released
during nuclear
reactions is much
greater than the
energy released
during chemical

reactions.

● Thereareinherent risks associated with radioactivity and the use of radioactive isotopes. Risks can include biological exposure, long­term storage and disposal, and nuclear accidents.

● Radioactive isotopes have many beneficial uses. Radioactive isotopes are used in medicine and industrial chemistry, e.g., radioactive dating, tracing chemical and biological processes, industrial measurement, nuclear power, and detection and treatment of disease.

EOY Project (10 days) 7. Make poster 8. Write presentation 9. Poster session

Study Skills and Review for Final (6 days)

Final Exam (at 175 days)