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Accurate Long-Term Deflection

© 2009 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Prediction In Flat Slabs Using


Linear Elastic Global Analysis
Jonathan Hirsch, Product Manager
Bentley Systems, Inc.
Calculating Deflections

• Thickness limits (deemed to comply)


• Elastic Deflection Multipliers
• 2D Frame Programs
– Detailed section analysis (including long-term effects)
– Still not great for irregular plates

• 3D FEA Programs
– Linear Elastic Finite Element Analysis
– Non-linear Finite Element Analysis

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Factors influencing long-term deflections

• Creep
• Cracking
• Tension Stiffening
• Load History
• Shrinkage and Thermal
– Externally restrained
– Internally restrained

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Creep
• Use ageing coefficient for gradually induced strains

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Cracking and Tension Stiffening
• Eurocode 2 Tension Stiffening Model:

• Reinforcement stresses consider the effects of


shrinkage, etc.

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Cracking and Tension Stiffening

Uncracked response
Load, P

3
Cracked response (no tension in
concrete)
4
1 2
Assumed unloading response

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0 Curvature, Ф

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The General Approach
• Perform a linear elastic global analysis and integrate
cross section forces
• Perform detailed non-linear long-term calculations on
each cross section
• Using resulting axial strains and curvatures, adjust
the stiffness of each element tributary to the cross
section
• Iterate until solution converges
• Repeat for each load/time stage, breaking each into

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an instantaneous component (with section force
change) and a sustained component (no section
force change)

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Cross section calculations

• Detailed long-term calculations performed on the


cross section
– Select material stress strain curves
– Select a tension stiffening model
– Select creep and shrinkage models

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Computer Program Implementation

• Based upon the approach developed


• Uses EC2 tension stiffening model (with
modifications/extensions)
• Assumes parabolic concrete stress strain curve and
elastoplastic reinforcement stress strain curve
• Uses ACI 209 creep and shrinkage models, user
defined total shrinkage strain and ultimate creep
factor

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Comparison with Experimental Data

• R.I. Gilbert and X.H Guo, “Time Dependent


Deflection and Deformation of Reinforced Concrete
Flat Slabs – An Experimental Study”, ACI Structural
Journal, 102 (3), 2005, pp 363-373
• Tests varied:
– Concrete strength
– Column fixity
– Slab thickness
– Reinforcement quantities
– Load magnitude and history

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• Analysis models were set up to resemble test
properties and material data

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Comparison with Experimental Data

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Comparison with Experimental Data
Loading Diagram, Slab S3
6

4
Load, kPa

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0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, Days

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Comparison with Experimental Data – S3
16

14

12

10
Point 1
Deflection, mm

Point 2
8 Point 3
Point 4
Ave
6 Concept

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2

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Age, Days
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Comparison with Experimental Data

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Comparison with Experimental Data
Loading Diagram, Slab S4
9

6
Load, kPa

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1

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Time, Days

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Comparison with Experimental Data – S4
30

25

20
Deflection, mm

Point 1

15 Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
Ave
10 Concept

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5

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Age, days
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Comparison with Experimental Data
Loading Diagram, Slab S5
9

5
Load, kPa

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1

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Time, Days
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Comparison with Experimental Data – S5
9

6
Deflection, mm

5 Series1
Series2
Point 3
4
Point 4
Ave

3 Concept

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1

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Age, days
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Comparison with Experimental Data
Loading Diagram, Slab S6
6

4
Load, kPa

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1

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time, Days

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Comparison with Experimental Data – S6
25

20

15
Deflection, mm

Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
10
Ave
Concept

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0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Age, days

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Comparison with Experimental Data
Loading Diagram, Slab S7
6

4
Load, kPa

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1

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time, Days

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Comparison with Experimental Data – S7
25

20

15
Deflection, mm

Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
10 Ave
Concept
Concept (mod)

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0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Age, days

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Potential Sources for Discrepancy
• Creep and shrinkage models vary slightly from the
test data
• Decision to use long-term beta factor in the tension
stiffening model will overestimate early age post
cracking results
• Creep recovery overestimated?
• Cannot account for change in sign of curvature due
to shrinkage

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Conclusions

• An analytical technique was developed accounting


for detailed consideration of important long-term
factors
– Applicable to virtually any concrete floor system but works
especially well in continuum structures
– Applies equally as well to reinforced or post-tensioned
concrete floors
– Allows virtually any load history to be specified with results
calculated at any point in time

• Comparison with experimental results showed good


correlation with test data, except for one case in

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which the experiment was cracking sensitive

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