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CE 1304

Pre-requisite: Environmental Engineering-I (CE 1207)
Semester: 5

3- 0- 0- 6

Introduction: Wastewater treatment systems, Terms and definitions.

Collection and Conveyance of sewage: Sewer systems, Planning and Hydraulic Design of
sewers, Dry and wet weather flow, Design procedure, Sewer materials, Crown corrosion.
Wastewater Characteristics: Domestic sewage Characteristics, Physical and chemical
parameters, Treatment standards, Municipal wastewater treatment systems, BOD, COD,
Decomposition of sewage.
Wastewater Treatment: Unit operation and process, Method of treatment, Preliminary
treatment, Primary treatment, Secondary treatment, Trickling filters, Activated sludge process,
Miscellaneous Treatment systems, Disinfection, Rural sanitation, Septic tank.
Sludge Treatment and Disposal: Thickening, Digestion, Dewatering.
Suggested Reading:
1. Introduction to Environmental Engineering, Davis & Cornwell, SIE, McGraw Hill
2. Environmental Engineering, Peavy & Rowe, McGraw Hill Publication.

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It is the branch of environmental engineering in which the basic principles of
science and engineering are applied to the problems of water pollution control.
So, as an overview, this wastewater engineering includes wastewater treatment,
sludge disposal and reuse, wastewater reclamation and reuse, effluent disposal
and the role of engineer.

In India, water pollution comes from the main sources such as domestic
sewage, industrial effluents, leachets from landfills, and run-off from solid
waste dumps and agriculture land. Domestic sewage (black water) and sullage
(grey water) is the main source of water pollution in India, especially in and
around large urban centers. The regular monitoring of the water quality in the
rivers and wells in the country revealed that the total coliform counts far
exceeds the desired level in water to be fit for human consumption [CPCB,

In the past disposal of waste from water closets was carried out manually and
wastewater generated from kitchen and bathrooms was allowed to flow along
the open drains. This primitive method was modified and replace by a water
carriage system, in which these wastes are mixed with sufficient quantity of
water. This waste is carried through closed conduits under the conditions of
gravity flow. This mixture of water and waste products is known as sewage.

In most of the communities, storm runoff water is collected in a separate sewer

system and conveyed to the nearest water course for disposal without
treatment. Several large cities have a combined wastewater collection system

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where both storm as well as sanitary wastes is collected in the same pipe

Storm wastewater means the wastes from rains or floods while sanitary or
domestic wastewater refers to liquid collected from residences, business
buildings and institutions. Municipal wastewater is the wastewater treated in a
municipal treatment plant which comes from towns frequently containing
industrial effluents from dairies, laundries, bakeries, factories and in large











manufacturing, breweries, meat processing, metal processing or paper mills


The first modern sewerage system for wastewater carriage was built in
Hamburg, Germany in 1842 by an English Engineer named Lindley. Most of
the improvement over 100 years in wastewater collection system consists of
improved materials and the inclusion of manholes, pumping stations and other

Wastewater Treatment System

For wastewater treatment there are two methods:
1. Unit operation Removes the contaminants by physical forces.
2. Unit process Removes the contaminants by biological or chemical
It is composed of a combination of unit operations and unit processes designed
to reduce certain constituents of wastewater to an acceptable level.

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Preliminary Treatment: Removal of solid materials from the incoming

Primary Treatment: Removal of organic suspended solids.
Secondary (or biological) Treatment: It consists of biological conversion of
dissolved and colloidal organics into biomass that can be subsequently
removed by sedimentation.
Tertiary (or advanced) Treatment: It often involves further removal of
suspended solids and or the removal of nutrients. Solids removal may be
accomplished by filtration and phosphorus & nitrogen compounds may be
removed by combinations of physical, chemical and biological process.

The treatment and safe disposal of wastewater is necessary. This will facilitate
protection of environment and environmental conservation, because the
wastewater collected from cities and towns must ultimately be returned to
receiving water body or to the land or reused to fulfill certain needs. The
sewage treatment plants constructed near the end of nineteenth century were
designed to remove suspended matter alone by the principal of simple gravity
settling. It soon became apparent that primary treatment alone was insufficient
to protect the water quality of the receiving water body. This was mainly due to
the presence of organic material, in colloidal and dissolved form, in the sewage
after settling. Thus, in the beginning of twentieth century several treatment
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systems, called secondary treatment, were developed with the objective of

organic matter removal. For this secondary treatment, biological methods are
generally used. The aerobic biological treatment processes were popularly used
as a secondary treatment, and these processes are still at the first choice.

In the second half of twentieth century, it became clear that the discharge of
effluents from even the most efficient secondary treatment plant could lead to
the deterioration of the quality of receiving water body. This could be attributed
partly to the discharge of ammonia in the effluent. In the receiving water body
this discharge exerts an oxygen demand for the biological oxidation of ammonia
to nitrate, a process called nitrification. However, even when nitrification is
carried out at the treatment plant itself, the discharge of effluent can still be
detrimental to the water quality due to introduction of nitrogen in the form of
nitrate and phosphorus as phosphate. The tolerance limits of nitrates for the
water when used as raw water for public water supplies and bathing is 50
mg/L as NO3. The availability of nitrogen and phosphorous tends to cause an
excessive growth of aquatic life notably, autotrophic organisms such as algae,
that can use carbon dioxide rather than organic material as a sources for cell
synthesis. Thus, explosive development of biomass may occur when nitrogen
and phosphorus are abundantly available. Although, this biomass may
produce photosynthetic oxygen in the water during daytime, after sunset it will
consume oxygen, so that the dissolved oxygen concentration will decrease and
may reach to the levels that are too low to sustain the life of other (macro)
organisms. This phenomenon of eutrophication has led to the development of
tertiary treatment systems. In these, nitrogen and/or phosphorus are removed,
along with solids and organic materials.

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Once the minimum effluent quality has been specified, for maximum allowable
concentrations of solids (both suspended and dissolved), organic matter,
nutrients, and pathogens, the objective of the treatment is to attain reliably the
set standards. The role of design engineer is to develop a treatment scheme
that will guarantee the technical feasibility of the scheme, taking into
consideration other factors such as construction and maintenance costs, the
availability of construction materials and equipment, as well as specialized
skilled personals for operation and maintenance of the treatment plant.

Primary treatment consists of screens (for removal of floating matter), grit










sedimentation tank (for removal residual settleable solids which are mostly
organic). Skimming tanks may be used for removal of oils; however, in
conventional treatment plant no separate skimming tank is used and oil
removal is achieved by collecting the scum in primary sedimentation tank. This
primary treatment alone will not produce an effluent with an acceptable
residual organic material concentration. Almost invariably biological methods
are used in the treatment systems to effect secondary treatment for removal of
organic material. In biological treatment systems, the organic material is
metabolized by bacteria. Depending upon the requirement for the final effluent
quality, tertiary treatment methods and/or pathogen removal may be included.

Today majority of wastewater treatment plants uses aerobic metabolism for the
removal of organic matter. The popularly used aerobic processes are the
activated sludge process, oxidation ditch, trickling filter, and aerated lagoons.
Stabilization ponds use both the aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms. In the
recent years, due to increase in power cost and subsequent increase in
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operation cost of aerobic processes, more attention is being paid for the use of
anaerobic treatment systems for the treatment of wastewater including sewage.
Recently the high anaerobic process such as Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket
(UASB) reactor is used for sewage treatment at many places.

Depending on the mode of disposal the tertiary treatment may be given for
killing pathogens, nutrient removal, suspended solids removal, etc. Generally
secondary treatment followed by disinfection will meet the effluent standards
for disposal into water bodies. When the treated sewage is disposed off on land
for irrigation, the level of disinfection needs will depend on the type of
secondary treatment and type of crops with restricted or unrestricted public
Terms and definitions
Refuse: It is a general term used to indicate what is rejected or left out as
worthless. It is divided into six categories:
Garbage: Dry refuse.
Rubbish: Sundry solid wastes.
Sullage: Waste water in which organic matter is not present.
Sewage: Waste water in which organic matter is present. Sullage is also
Subsoil water: Ground water which enters into the sewer through leaks.
Storm water: Rainwater of the locality.
Industrial wastewater: It is the wastewater generated from the industrial and
commercial areas. This wastewater contains objectionable organic and
inorganic compounds that may not be amenable to conventional treatment
Night Soil: It is a term used to indicate the human and animal excreta.
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Sanitary sewage: Sewage originated from the residential buildings comes

under this category.
This is very foul in nature. It is the wastewater generated from the lavatory
basins, urinals and water closets of residential buildings, office building,
theatre and other institutions. It is also referred as domestic wastewater.
Sewage Treatment Plant: It is a facility designed to receive the waste from
domestic, commercial and industrial sources and to remove materials that
damage water quality and compromise public health and safety when
discharged into water receiving systems or land.
Sewer: It is an underground conduit or drain through which sewage is carried
to a point of discharge or disposal.
Sewerage: The term sewerage refers the infrastructure which includes device,
equipment and appurtenances for the collection, transportation and pumping
of sewage, but excluding works for the treatment of sewage. Basically it is a
water carriage system designed and constructed for collecting and carrying of
sewage through sewers.
Wastewater: The term wastewater includes both organic and inorganic
constituents, in soluble or suspended form, and mineral content of liquid waste
carried through liquid media. Generally the organic portion of the wastewater
undergoes biological decompositions and the mineral matter may combine with
water to form dissolved solids.


The waste generated should be expeditiously removed away to a suitable place,
usually situated at some distance from the town, for disposal. The refuse
contains substance that is offensive and injurious to public health; they
decompose and give bad smelling gases which contaminate the air, soil and
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water. All these have an adverse effect on the health of the person living by.
Also, the water supply also gets contaminated by infiltration of sewage through
soil. It is therefore very essential that such substances should be removed away
from the vicinity of a town as soon as they are produced.

Excreta and sewage is satisfactorily disposed if the following conditions are

1. The waste does not pollute the ground surface.
2. It does not pollute the drinking water.
3. It should not be accessible to children or household.
4. It should not give unsightly appearance.
5. It should not give rise to mosquito nuisance.
Sewer systems
Once the water is used for its intended purpose, the water becomes wastewater.
The individual pipes used to collect and transport wastewater are called
sewers, and the network of sewers used to collect wastewater from a
community is known as a sewerage collection system.

The collection system is meant for collection of the sewage generated from
individual houses and transporting it to a common point where it can be
treated as per the needs before disposal. In olden days, waste generated from
water closets was collected by conservancy methods and other liquid waste was
transported through open drain to finally join natural drains. Since, the excreta
was carried through carts, it was not hygienic method for transportation to the
disposal point. Now, collection and conveyance of sewage is done in water

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carriage system, where it is transported in closed conduit using water as a


The sanitation of a town or city is done by two methods, which are:

1. Conservancy system
2. Water- carriage system.

Conservancy system: This system is sometimes also called as dry system. The
faecal matter (night soil) in this system is collected in pails which is then
removed to some convenient site away from the inhabitated area and buried
underground in shallow trenches which are covered with alternate layers of dry
earth, as it possesses the property of de-odouring and oxidizing the organic
matter. In the localities where agriculture is an occupation, the excreta are
mostly used as manures. The garbage is collected separately in dust bins and
conveyed in hand carts or vehicle twice in a day. The combustible waste in
incinerated and the non-combustible waste are used as land fill. The storm
water is conveyed in open drains.
Disadvantages of conservancy system
a. Hygiene and sanitary aspect The conservancy is highly unhygienic and
cause insanitary conditions since the excreta starts decomposing within
few hours of its production.
b. Transportation aspect Transportation of night soil takes place in open
carts through streets and other crowded localities. It is highly
c. Labour aspect The working of this system depends entirely on the
labour force. If they go on strike even for one day, the privies cannot be
used because of foul smell.

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d. Building design aspect The lavatories or privies is to be located outside

the house and slightly away from main building. The compact design is
therefore not possible.
e. Pollution problem The liquid wastes from the lavatories may soak in
ground and contaminate the soil.
f. Health issues Due to improper and careless disposal of night soil, there
are more chances of outbreak of epidemic.
g. Cost consideration Though the system is quite cheap in the beginning,
its maintenance and establishment costs are very high.
Water- carriage system: In this system the solid faecal matter is removed
along with sewage water in underground sewers. There is always a variation in
sewerage system due to size of the town and the occupation of the inhabitants.
Sometimes, the storm water is also allowed to flow into the sewers due to lack
of space for its removal in open drains. Generally, in small towns the excreta
and domestic sewage are separated from the storm water and in large cities the
sewage along with industrial wastes and storm water are removed together.
Advantages of water- carriage system
a. Hygiene and sanitary aspect The system is very hygienic since the night
soil and other wastewater is conveyed through closed conduits.
b. Pollution aspect The liquid wastes are directly conveyed through sewers
and therefore there is no chance of waste being soaked into the ground.
c. Labour aspect The labour required for the operation and maintenance
is extremely small.
d. Compactness of design Since the latrines are flushed after every use,
excreta does not remain and there is no foul smells. The lavatories, thus,
can be accommodated in any part of the building.
e. Treatment aspect The system permits modern treatment methods and
treated wastewater and sewage can be safely disposed off.

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f. Cost consideration Even though the initial cost of installation of the

system is costly, the running costs are very small, since manual labour is
very much reduced.
g. Epidemic aspect There are no chances of outbreak of epidemic because
flies and other insects do not have direct access to the sewage.

The water- carriage system is further classified into:


Separate system.
Combined system.
Partially separate system.

When the domestic and industrial sewage are taken in one set of sewers,
whereas storm and surface water are taken in another set of sewers, it is called
separate system. When only one set of sewers is laid for carrying both the
sanitary sewage and storm water, it is called combined system. In the separate
system, if a portion of storm water is allowed to enter in the sewers carrying
the sewage, and the remaining storm water flows in separate set of sewers, it is
called partially separate system.

The combined system is most suited in areas having small rainfall which is
evenly distributed throughout the area, because at such places self- cleaning
velocity will be available in every season. As only one sewer is laid in this
system, therefore it can also be used in crowded areas, where it is very difficult
to lay two sewers. The combined system can also be used in area having less
sewage, to obtain the self-cleaning velocity.

If the rainfall is heavy and it is for short time, it is better to provide separate
system, because in combined system self-cleaning velocity will not be available
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for most of the period of the years. In rocky areas it is more expensive to lay
one large sewer than two small sewers. Separate system should be provided if
the sanitary sewage is to be pumped.

Comparison of conservancy and water- carriage system

Conservancy system
Water- carriage system
Economical initially.
Initial cost is high.
System is unhygienic since everything System is hygienic since everything is
is visible.
Compact design is not possible.
Large labour force is required.
Water consumption is small.
No technical person required.
Risk of spread of epidemic diseases.

not visible.
Compact design is possible.
Labour force required is small.
Higher water consumption.
Technical persons are required.
Risk is very less.

Comparison of separate and combined system

Separate system
Combined system
The quantity of sewage to be treated is As the treatment of sewage as well as

storm water is to be done, treatment

cost is high.
In the cities having more intensity of In the cities having less intensity
rainfall, this system is more suitable.
rainfall this system is more suitable.
If due to topographical feature, the In this case cost of pumping is high,




this as storm water also is to be pumped

system is more suitable.

along with sewage.
In narrow streets, it is difficult to use It is more suitable in narrow streets.
this system.
If rainfall is throughout the year and In such cases this system is more
intensity is less, this system is not suitable.

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Factors governing the choice of system

Separate system
1. Financial aspect:
2. Flat topography:
3. Rainfall pattern:
4. Outlet conditions:
5. Pumping aspects:
6. Steep topography:
7. Subsoil conditions:
8. Development pattern:

Combined system
1. Space consideration:
2. Integrated development:
3. Even rainfall pattern:
4. Pumping requirements:

Planning and Hydraulic Design of sewers

Before designing of any sewage system, it is necessary to know the total
quantity of sewage, which will flow in it after the completion of the design. The
total wastewater flow can be divided into two components:
a. Dry Weather Flow (DWF)
b. Storm Water Flow (wet weather flow)

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The dry weather flow is the flow through the sewers that would normally be
available during non-rainfall periods. It consists mainly of i) Domestic sewage
ii) Industrial sewage and iii) Groundwater infiltration.
The storm water flow is additional flow that would occur during the rainy
season. It consists of runoff available from roofs, streets, open spaces etc.
during rainfall.

Factors affecting dry weather flow

The quantity of dry weather flow is mainly affected by the following factors.

Rate of water supply

Type of area served as residential, industrial or commercial
Groundwater infiltration

Rate of water supply: The rate of water supply to a city or town is expressed as
so many lts/captia/day. The quantity of wastewater entering the sewers would
be less than the quantity of water supplied. This is because that some water is
lost in domestic consumption (i.e., cooking etc.), evaporation, gardening, etc.
However, infiltration of sub-soil water, other water supplies (i.e., domestic wells)











approximately assumed equal to the water lost in consumption. So, wastewater

flow rates are assumed equal to the rate of supply of water. If there is no
addition of extra water into the wastewater generated then wastewater quantity
may be assumed to be 80% of the quantity of water supply. However, the
sewers must be designed for a minimum of 150 lts/capita/day.
Population: The quantity of wastewater depends on the population. As the
population increases the quantity of sewage also increases because the
consumption of water is more. The sewerage system is designed for the quantity

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of wastewater not only of the present population but also the future population.
The population forecast may be done by the following methods:

Arithmetical increase method.

Geometrical increase method.
Incremental increase method.
Decrease rate of growth method.
Graphical method.
Graphical comparison method.
Zoning method or Master plan method.
The logistic curve method.

Table shows the water consumption and sewage production with the increase
in population.

Water consumption

Sewage production

Below 2 lakhs
2 to 5 lakhs
5 to 10 lakhs
More than 10 lakhs



Type of area served: The quantity of sewage depends upon the type of area as
residential, industrial or commercial. The quantity is depends on population if
it is residential, type of industry if it is industrial. Commercial and public
places can be determined by studying the development of other such places.
The wastewater produced from the residential area may be assumed to be equal
to 70 to 80% of the water supplied through the water supply system.
Groundwater infiltration: When sewers are laid below the water table in the
ground, the groundwater may infiltrate into the sewer from the faulty joints
and cracks in the pipelines. Exfiltration is the reverse process which indicates
the flow of wastewater from the sewer into the ground. Both infiltration as well
as exfiltration are undesirable and take place due to imperfect joints. The

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quantity of infiltration water in the sewer depends upon the height of the water
table about the sewer, sewer material, permeability of soil, size and nature of
the faults or cracks in the sewer line.

Infiltration of water into the sewer line may be expressed by the following
a. Area basis: In this, the rate of infiltration is expressed as litres per
hectare of area per day, i.e, 5,000 lts/hect/day. Thus, if area served by
the sewer is 10 hectares, the total infiltration volume per day will be
5000*10 = 50,000 lts. The infiltration may range from 0.2 to 28
m3/hect/day. In the absence of any other data, the following flow rates
shown may be adopted.

Fig.: Average infiltration rate curve

b. Length basis: In this, rate of infiltration is expressed as lts/unit
length/day, i.e., 10,000 lts/km length of sewer/day. If the length of sewer
through the ground water zone is 5km, the total infiltration volume will
be 10000*5 = 50,000 lts/day, at the above rate.
c. Diameter-length basis: This is the most rational method in which
infiltration rate is expressed in litres per cm diameter of sewer per km

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length per day. The rate of infiltration will increase with increase in the
diameter of the sewer.
While estimating the design discharge, following suggested discharge can be considered
Table 4.1 Suggested estimates for groundwater infiltration for sewers laid below groundwater
L per day per manhole



Design Period

The future period for which the provision is made in designing the capacities of
the various components of the sewerage scheme is known as the design period.
The design period depends upon the following:

Ease and difficulty in expansion,

Amount and availability of investment,
Anticipated rate of population growth, including shifts in communities, industries and

commercial investments,
Hydraulic constraints of the systems designed, and
Life of the material and equipment.

The branch and main sewers are designed for a population which may occur at
the end of one generation of 30 years. The pumping plants are designed for a
design period of 5 to 10 yrs only, since additional pumps can be installed
whenever needed. The treatment units are designed for 10 to 30 yrs period.
Variation in Sewage Flow

The rate of sewage flow is not constant. Variation occurs in the flow of sewage
over annual average daily flow. Fluctuation in flow occurs from hour to hour
and from season to season. The designer must be concerned with both

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maximum and minimum rate of flow. The sewers should be designed that it
can take the maximum load. At the same time, they should be laid on such
longitudinal gradient that there are no deposits in the sewers at the minimum
flow. Both the maximum and minimum flows are expressed as percentage of
the average rate of flow.
The relation between the maximum and average rate of flow of sewage for
residential areas can be expressed by the following empirical relations:

Babbits formula:
Qmax =

5 Qav
P 0.2
Harmons formula:

Qmax = 1+

4 +P0.5

Where, Qmax = maximum rate of flow

Qav = average rate of flow
P = population in thousands

The first formula is restricted to maximum value of P = 1000 and a minimum

value of P = 1. There is no such limitation in the second formula.
In practice, the above flow are not calculated by using any formulae given
above, but are simply assumed with common values given below.
Maximum daily flow = Two times the annual average daily flow (representing
seasonal variations)
Maximum hourly flow = 1.5 times the maximum daily flow (accounting hourly
= Three times the annual average daily flow
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The hourly, daily and seasonal variation of the sewage flow of a town affects the
working of not only sewers, but also the pumping station and treatment plants.
The hourly rate of wastewater flow is affected by the hourly variations in water
consumptions. In general, the wastewater discharge curve closely follows the
water consumption curve, but with a time lag of few hours.

Fig.: Hourly variations of sewage flow

Fig.: Hourly variations of

sewage flow
with respect to water supply

Peaking factors

The effect of daily variations in sewage flow is maximum on domestic and

lateral sewers since, they receive the flow directly from the sources. This effect
reduces gradually as the flow reaches the branches and main sewers. This
variation is considered in the design by taking peaking factors (ratio of peak
flow to average flow). Such peaking factors are given in table.


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Domestic sewer
Lateral sewer
Branch sewer
Main sewer
Trunk or outfall


As the tributary area increases, peak hourly flow will decrease. For smaller
population served (less than 50000) the peak factor can be 2.5, and as the
population served increases its value reduces. For large cities it can be
considered about 1.5 to 2.0. If the flow records are insufficient to establish the
peaking factors, the curves given below may be used.

Fig.: Peaking factors for domestic sewage

Minimum flows
The minimum flow passing through sewers is also important to develop self
cleansing velocity to avoid silting in sewers. This flow will generate in the
sewers during late night hours. The effect of this flow is more pronounced on
lateral sewers than the main sewers. Sewers must be checked for minimum
velocity as follows:
Minimum daily flow = 2/3 Annual average daily flow
Minimum hourly flow = minimum daily flow

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= 1/3 Annual average daily flow

The overall variation between the maximum and minimum flow is more in the
laterals and less in the main or trunk sewers. This ratio may be more than 6
for laterals and about 2 to 3 in case of main sewers.

Storm water flow (wet weather flow (WWF))

When rainfall occurs, part of it infiltrates or percolates into the ground, a part
of it is evaporated into the atmosphere and the remaining part overflows as
storm or flood water. The quantity of storm water reaching the sewers or drains
may be very large as compared to sanitary sewage.

In the case of combined system, the sewers are normally not designed for peak
storm water flow, since the size of the sewers required would be very large.
During ordinary rain, the sewers run full of storm water. However, during
heavy rainfall, the peak storm water is allowed to accumulate for some time,
while the sewers continue to run full of storm water. After the rains are over,
the accumulated storm water is discharged gradually through the sewers. In
separate system, the sanitary sewage is taken in one set of sewers and storm
sewage is taken in another set of sewers. The quantity of storm sewage depends
on many factors.

The factors affecting the quantity of storm water flow are as below:

Area of the catchment

Slope and shape of the catchment area
Porosity of the soil
Obstruction in the flow of water as trees, fields, gardens, etc.
Initial state of catchment area with respect to wetness.
Intensity and duration of rainfall
Atmospheric temperature and humidity

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Number and size of ditches present in the area

Measurement of Intensity of rainfall

The rainfall intensity could be measured by using rain gauges and recording
the amount of rain falling in unit time. The rainfall intensity is usually
expressed as mm/hour or cm/hour. The rain gauges used can be manual
recording type or automatic recording rain gauges.
Time of concentration
The period after which the entire catchment area will start contributing to the
runoff is called time of concentration. In other words, it is the time required for
the flood discharge to reach to the maximum limit. The time of concentration
consists of two components: i) Inlet time or time of entry (t e or ti) ii) time of flow
or time of travel (tf or tt). The time of concentration is the summation of inlet
time and time of flow.
Time of concentration = inlet time + time of flow
The time required for the rain in falling on the most remote point of the
tributary area to flow across the ground surface along the natural drains or
gutters up to inlet of sewer is called inlet time (Figure). The areas tributary to
most of the sewers is usually small. Hence, it is a suitable value is normally
assumed. The inlet time decreases with increase in slope and imperviousness
of the ground, while it increases with distance and storage conditions of the
ground. A normal practice is to assume it between 3 to 20 minutes. The lower
value being adopted for the steepest slope while higher value is adopted for
grassy plots.

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Fig.: Runoff from a given catchment

The time required by the water to flow in the drain channel from the mouth to
the point under consideration is called as time of travel. It is computed by
assuming the velocity of flow in the drain and measuring the length of drain or
sewer from inlet point to the point under consideration.
Time of Travel (tf) = Length of drain/ velocity in drain
It is generally considered that the maximum runoff occurs when duration of
storm is equal to time of concentration. This is because if the duration of storm
is shorter than the time of concentration, the whole catchment will not be
contributing water, though the intensity of rainfall will be more than the
obtainable for a storm of longer duration. The result will be that lesser runoff
will be obtained. If, the duration of storm is longer than the time of
concentration, the rainfall intensity will be less, resulting in lesser runoff.

Methods for Estimation of Quantity of Storm Water

1. Rational Method
2. Empirical formulae method

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In both the above methods, the quantity of storm water is considered as

function of intensity of rainfall, coefficient of runoff and area of catchment. The
coefficient of runoff or the maximum rate of runoff mainly depends on the
surface slope and the estimated condition of the drainage area with reference to
the proportion of rainfall that will run.

Rational Method
The rational method is most commonly used for design of storm drains. It takes
into account three main factors: i) Catchment area (A) ii) Impermeability factor
(I) of the catchment iii) Intensity of rainfall (R). The rational formula can be
expressed as,
Q=K . I . A . Ri
Q = quantity of storm water in m3/sec.
I = impermeability factor
Ri = intensity of rainfall in mm/hr for the duration equal to time of
A = catchment area in hectares
To find the constant K, we have
( 4 A)( I )

( 1000Rx 3600 )



A . I . Ri

Catchment area (A)

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The catchment area can be directly found from the map of the town showing
the position of streets, houses, play grounds, sewers etc. However, since the
impermeability factor depends on the type of surface, the catchment area of the
different types of surfaces should be found separately.
Impermeability factor (I)
The storm water flow depends upon the imperviousness of the surface over
which rainfall occurs. The percentage of rainwater available in the form of
runoff is known as impermeability factor or runoff coefficient. The common
values of impermeability factors, which are commonly used in determining the
quantity of storm water are given below in table.

Type of surface
Value of I
Forest and wooden area (depending on ground surface and 0.01 to 0.20
Open grounds, unpaved streets and railroad yards
Parks, lawns, meadows and gardens
Gravel roads and walks
Macadam roadways
Inferious stones, brick or block pavements with open joints
Stone, brick and block pavements with open joints
Good quantity pavements of stones, bricks or blocks
Asphalt pavements in good conditions
Water-tight roof surfaces




As every locality consists of different types of surface areas, the overall

impermeability factor for the catchment (or drainage) area can be worked out as
Overall Impermeability factor ( I av )=

Reference Material

A1 I 1 + A2 I 2+ + A n I n AI
A 1+ A 2+ + A n

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Where, A1,A2,.An are types of area with I1,I2,In as their respective

impermeability factors.

From the above expression it is clear that for calculating impermeability factor,
area of each type of surface is to be measured and then substituted in the
formula. The calculation of area of each type of surface is very tedious.
Therefore, impermeability factors are chosen based on the type of localities,
which depends on the density of population. Table below gives the
impermeability factors for various types of localities.

Type of locality
Business area
Areas closely built up
Areas with semi-detached houses
Suburban areas with detached houses
Extremely suburban areas thinly populated

Value of I
0.45 to 0.55

Intensity of rainfall (Ri)

The value of intensity of rainfall can be determined from the rainfall records of
the area. However, R also depends on the storm frequency and duration of the
The frequency of storm for which the sewers are to be designed depends on the
importance of the locality. Commercial and high priced areas should be
subjected to less frequent flooding than the residential areas. The following
values of frequency are generally adopted:
a) Residential areas
i) Peripheral areas: Twice a year
ii) Central and comparatively high priced areas: once a year
b) Commercial and high priced areas: one in two years
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The duration of storm is equal to time of concentration. It is the time required

for the runoff to be contributed to the point of concentration from the entire

Fig.: Relationship of rainfall duration and intensity

These relationships between rainfall intensity and duration are developed based
on long term experience in field (Fig.). Under Indian conditions, intensity of
rainfall in design is usually in the range 12 mm/h to 20 mm/h. In general, the
empirical relationship has the following forms:
a. General formula
R i=

25.4 a
t +b

Where, Ri = intensity of rainfall in mm/hr

t = duration of storm in min = time of concentration
a,b = constants

The following values of a and b are adopted.

Duration of storm

5 to 20 min



20 to 100 min



b. For areas of heavy and frequent rainfall

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The above formula gives rainfall intensity of frequency once in 5 years.

c. For storm occurring once in a year
R i=


d. For storm occurring once in 10 years

R i=


Empirical formulae method

Rational formula is used only when the area of draining water into the sewer is
small, say smaller than 400 hectares. For larger area empirical formulae are
more suited. All empirical formulae are applicable under specific conditions
such as slope of land, imperviousness, rate of rainfall etc. These have been
developed for a particular region after long practical experience and collection
of field data.

A. Burkli-Zeiglar formula (used in Switzerland)

Q=296 C R i A


1/ 4

( )

Constant C varies between 0.5 to 0.9, with an average value of 0.7 is


B. Mc. Math formula (used in USA)

Q=296 C R i A


( )

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Constant C varies between 0.3 to 0.9, with an average value of 0.75 is


C. Fannings formula
Q=3125 A3k / 4

E. Talbots formula

Q=87000 A k

F. Dickens formula (Suited for North India)

Q=14 C A 3/k 4
Where, constant C = 250 for very large areas
= 850 for average areas with annual rainfall between 600 to
1200 mm.
= 1600 for small areas

G. Ryves formula (Suited for North India)

2 /3

Q=15 C A k

The constant C may vary between 400 to 625.

Where, Q = runoff in lts/sec

Ri = maximum rate of rainfall in mm/hr
A = catchment area in hectares
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Ak = area in square km.

S = slope of the ground in metres per 1000 m.

Hydraulic Design of sewers

After estimating the quantity of sewage and storm water, the diameter of main
sewer, branch sewer, etc. should be designed properly. The sewage, to be
transported through sewers, is mostly liquid (i.e. water), containing hardly 0.1
to 0.2 percent of solid matter in the form of organic matter, sediments and
minerals. Hence, the general approach for the design of sewers is similar to the
design of water mains. However, there are some differences in the designs of
sewers and water mains:
Water Supply Pipes
It carries pure water.

Sewer Pipes



containing organic or inorganic solids

which may settle in the pipe. It can
cause corrosion of the pipe material.
Velocity higher than self-cleansing is To avoid deposition of solids in the
not essential, because of solids are not pipes
present in suspension.
It carries water under




necessary at all possible discharge.

pressure. It carries sewage under gravity.

Hence, the pipe can be laid up and Therefore it is required to be laid at a

down the hills and the valleys within continuous falling gradient in the
certain limits.

downward direction towards outfall


These pipes are flowing full under Sewers are design to run partial full at

maximum discharge. This extra space


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This will minimize the leakage from

sewer, from the faulty joints or crack,
if any.
Generally, sewers are laid at steeper gradients falling towards the outfall point
with circular pipe cross section. Storm water drains are separately constructed
as surface drains at suitable gradient, either rectangular or trapezoidal section.
Sewers are designed to carry the maximum quantity of sanitary sewage likely
to be produced from the area contributing to the particular sewer. Storm water
drains are designed to carry the maximum storm runoff that is likely to be
produced by the contributing catchment area from a rain of design frequency
and of duration equal to the time of concentration. The maximum and
minimum velocities of flow of sewage should be maintained by providing
suitable gradient so that the conditions of non-silting and non-scouring may be
Provision of Freeboard in Sewers
7.4.1 Sanitary Sewers
Sewers with diameter less than 0.4 m are designed to run half full at maximum
discharge, and sewers with diameter greater than 0.4 m are designed to flow
2/3 to full at maximum discharge. The extra space provided in the sewers
provides factor of safety to counteract against the following factors:
1. Safeguard against lower estimation of the quantity of wastewater to be
collected at the end of design period due to private water supply by
industries and public. Thus, to ensure that sewers will never flow full
eliminating pressure flow inside the sewer.
2. Large scale infiltration of storm water through wrong or illegal
connection, through underground cracks or open joints in the sewers.
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3. Unforeseen increase in population or water consumption and the

consequent increase in sewage production.

7.4.2 Storm Water Drains

Storm water drains are provided with nominal freeboard, above their designed
full supply line because the overflow from storm water drains is not much
harmful. Minimum of 0.3 m free board is generally provided in storm water

Hydraulic Formulae for Determining Flow Velocities

Sewers of any shape are hydraulically designed as open channels, except in the
case of inverted siphons and discharge lines of pumping stations. Following
formulae can be used for design of sewers.
1. Chezys formula
2. Kutters formula
3. Bazins formula
4. Manning formula
5. Crimp and Bruges formula
6. Hazen and Williams formula

1. Chezys formula
V =C R . S
Where, V = velocity of flow (m/s)
S = hydraulic gradient or slope of the sewer
C = Chezys constant
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R = hydraulic mean radius (m) = A/P

A = area of cross-section (m2)
P = wetted perimeter (m)
The Chezys constant is a complex parameter which is dependent on several
factors such as roughness of inner surface of sewer, hydraulic mean radius,
size and shape of sewer, slope etc. The value of C is found using Bazins
formula or Kutters formula. Knowing the velocity of flow V, the channel
section is designed by the general formula,
Q= A . V
Where, Q = discharge in m3/sec

2. Kutters formula
0.00155 1
0.00155 N
1+ 23+

Where, R = hydraulic mean radius

S = slope
N = rugosity coefficient and it depends on the nature of inside
surface of the sewer.

Table: Value of Kutters or Mannings coefficient N

Conduit Material
Salt glazed stoneware
Cement concrete
Cast iron
Brick, unglazed
Asbestos cement
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Condition of the interior surface

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Plastic smooth



A reduction in the value of N has been seen with the increase in diameter of the
sewer or drain. For cement concrete pipes of dia. 600mm and above, a value of
N = 0.013 may be adopted.

3. Bazins formula


Where, K = Brazins constant can be obtained from the table

Table: Brazins constant K

Nature of inside surface of
Very smooth surface
Smooth brick or



Rough brick or concrete surface


Good earthen channels
Rough earthen channels


4. Mannings formula

1 2 /3 1/ 2
Where, V, R, N and S are the same as explained above. The value of N

can be obtained from the same table given for Kutters constant.

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5. Crimp and Bruges formula

V =83.47 R 2/3 S1 /2
The above is similar to Mannings formula and with comparison, we have,
V =83.47 R


1 /2

S =

1 2 /3 1/ 2

Which gives N = 1/83.47 = 0.012. Hence, Mannings formula becomes Crimp

and Bruges formula when N = 0.012.

6. Hazen and Williams formula

The formula is mostly used for flow under pressure.
V =0.85 C R 0.63 S0.54
Where, the coefficient C can be obtained from table below.

Table: Hazen and Williams coefficient C

Type of material
Old CI pipes
Stoneware pipes in good


Steel lined with cement
RCC new pipe
New CI pipes
Plastic pipes
Asbestos cement pipes


Minimum Velocity: Self Cleansing Velocity

The velocity that would not permit the solids to settle down and even scour the
deposited particles of a given size is called as self-cleansing velocity. This

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minimum velocity should at least develop once in a day so as not to allow any
deposition in the sewers. Otherwise, if such deposition takes place, it will
obstruct free flow causing further deposition and finally leading to the complete
blocking of the sewers. This minimum velocity or self-cleansing velocity can be
worked out as below:
V s=

( Ss1 ) g . d '

Where, K= constant, for clean inorganic solids = 0.04 and for organic
solids = 0.06
f' = Darcy Weisbach friction factor (for sewers = 0.03)
Ss = Specific gravity of sediments
g = gravity acceleration
d' = diameter of grain, m

Hence, for removing the impurities present in sewage i.e., sand up to 1 mm diameter with
specific gravity 2.65 and organic particles up to 5 mm diameter with specific
gravity of 1.2, it is necessary that a minimum velocity of about 0.45 m/sec

and an average velocity of about 0.9 m/sec should be developed in sewers.

Hence, while finalizing the sizes and gradients of the sewers, they must be checked for the
minimum velocity that would be generated at minimum discharge, i.e.,

about 1/3 of the average discharge.

While designing the sewers the flow velocity at full depth is generally kept at about 0.8
m/sec or so. Since, sewers are generally designed for to full, the
velocity at designed discharge (i.e., to full) will even be more than 0.8
m/sec. Thus, the minimum velocity generated in sewers will help in the
following ways:

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Adequate transportation of suspended solids,

Keeping the sewer size under control; and
Preventing the sewage from decomposition by moving it faster, thereby preventing
evolution of foul gases.

Maximum Velocity or Non-scouring Velocity

The interior surface of the sewer pipe gets scored due to the continuous
abrasion caused by suspended solids present in sewage. The scoring is
pronounced at higher velocity than what can be tolerated by the pipe materials.
This wear and tear of the sewer pipes will reduce the life span of the pipe and
their carrying capacity. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to limit the
maximum velocity that will be produced in sewer pipe at any time. This limiting
or non-scouring velocity mainly depends upon the material of sewer. The
limiting velocity for different sewer material is provided in Table below.
Sewer Material


Vitrified tiles
Cast iron sewer
Cement concrete
Stone ware sewer
Brick lined sewer




The problem of maximum or non-scouring velocity is severe in hilly areas

where ground slope is very steep and this is overcome by constructing drop
manholes at suitable places along the length of the sewer.

Effect of Flow Variations on Velocities in a Sewer

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The discharge flowing through sewers varies considerably from time to time.
Due to the variation in the discharge, the Hydraulic Mean Depth (R) also
varies. Since, the velocity is a proportional to R 2/3, the velocity of flow varies as
sewer discharge varies. This is more prominent in case of combined sewers or
partially combined sewers. As the flow decreases, the velocity of flow also
decreases. Therefore, it is necessary to check the sewer for minimum velocity of
about 0.45 m/sec at the time of minimum flow (1/3 of average flow) and the
velocity of about 0.9 to 1.2 m/sec should be developed at a time of average flow.
The velocity should also be checked for limiting velocity i.e. non-scouring
velocity at the maximum discharge.

Hydraulic elements of circular sewer

Sewers of circular cross-section are the most commonly used shape of sewer.
Sometimes, egg-shaped sewers are also used. Using of circular sewers offer
the following advantages:
1. They can be easily manufactured.
2. A circular sewer gives maximum area for a given perimeter and hence,
has the greatest Hydraulic Mean Depth (HMD) when running full or half
3. It is the most economical section since it utilizes minimum quantities of
4. It has uniform curvature all around and hence, minimum deposition of
solid waste.
To take advantage of the circular section, most of the times the sewer runs
more than half full. However, if the flow drops to 0.2depth, the velocity must be
increased to equal self-cleansing velocity.

a) Circular section running full

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Let D be the internal diameter of the circular sewer.

Area of crosssection= A=


Wetted Perimeter=P=D

Hydraulic Mean Depth=R=

P 4

b) Circular section running full

Figure shows a circular sewer running partially full. Let
d be the
depth at partial flow and let be the central subtended


a = area of cross-section
p = wetted perimeter
r = HMD
v = velocity of flow

Central angle is given by,

cos =1



cos = 1cos
2 2
2 2

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Proportional depth,

d 1

= 1cos
D 2





cos .




( )( 360
2 )


Proportional area,


A 360 2

Wetted Perimeter:
p=D .

Proportional wetted perimeter,

P 360

Hydraulic mean depth:


4 360 2
r= =



360 sin

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Proportional HMD,

360 sin
= 1

Velocity of flow:
v = r 2 /3 S 1/ 2
where, n = rugosity coefficient applicable for partial flow
Proportional velocity,

v N r
V n R

2/ 3

( )

Taking N/n = 1.0, we have,
Proportional discharge,


360 sin

360 sin

360 2

q av a r

2 /3

( )


2/ 3

For variable n/N, we get,

q n a


2 /3

( )( )

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Fig.: Hydraulic elements for circular sewer

From the plot it is evident that the velocities in partially filled circular sewer
sections can exceed those in full section and it is maximum at d/D of 0.8.
Similarly, the discharge obtained is not maximum at flow full condition, but it
is maximum when the depth is about 0.95 times the full depth. The sewers
flowing with depths between 50% and 80% full need not to be placed on steeper
gradients to be as self cleansing as sewers flowing full. The reason is that
velocity and discharge are function of tractive force intensity which depends
upon friction coefficient as well as flow velocity generated by gradient of the

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Sewer materials,
Crown corrosion.

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