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Student Handout #1

Computer with Applications | Preliminary Term


A mouse is a small device used to point to and select items on your computer screen. Although mice come
in many shapes, the typical mouse does look a bit like an actual mouse. It's small, oblong, and connected
to the system unit by a long wire that resembles a tail. Some newer mice are wireless.
A mouse usually has two buttons: A primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button. Many
mice also have a wheel between the two buttons, which allows you to scroll smoothly through screens of

When you move the mouse with your hand, a pointer (sometimes called cursor) on your screen moves in the same direction. (The
pointer's appearance might change depending on where it's positioned on your screen.) When you want to select an item, you point
to the item and then click (press and release) the primary button. Pointing and clicking with your mouse is the main way to interact
with your computer.
Just as you might use your hands to interact with objects in the physical world, you
can use your mouse to interact with items on your computer screen. You can move
objects, open them, change them, throw them away, and perform other actions, all by
pointing and clicking with your mouse.
Basic parts
A mouse typically has two buttons: a primary button (usually the left button) and a
secondary button (usually the right button). You will use the primary button most
often. Most mice also include a scroll wheel between the buttons to help you scroll
through documents and webpages more easily. On some mice, the scroll wheel can
be pressed to act as a third button. Advanced mice might have additional buttons that
can perform other functions.
Holding and moving the mouse
Place your mouse beside your keyboard on a clean, smooth surface, such as a mouse pad. Hold the mouse
gently, with your index finger resting on the primary button and your thumb resting on the side. To move the
mouse, slide it slowly in any direction. Don't twist itkeep the front of the mouse aimed away from you. As
you move the mouse, a pointer (see picture) on your screen moves in the same direction. If you run out of
room to move your mouse on your desk or mouse pad, just pick up the mouse and bring it back closer to you.

Mouse Actions
Mouse Action

What to Do?


Position the mouse pointer over an item or area.


Press and release the LEFT mouse button.


Press and release the RIGHT mouse button.


Perform Click two times in rapid succession.


Hold the LEFT button and move the mouse to the desired location.


Use the RIGHT button in dragging.


Perform Drag then release the button to the desired location.

Can I do it now?

Mouse Pointers

Meaning / Use

What to Do?

Normal Select

Click on something.

Help Select

Point at an object and you get pop-up help message.

Working in

Wait Windows is working on your most recent command.

Can I use it



Meaning / Use

What to Do?


Relax Windows is working on your most recent


Precision Select

Select an exact area for your graphics; then click and drag
to draw it.

Text Select

Select where you want your text to appear.


Select an exact area for your graphics; then click and drag
to draw it.


Abandon option because It is not allowed or is currently

unavailable since another task is in process.

Can I use it

Vertical Resize
Horizontal Resize
Diagonal Resize 1

Move your mouse in the direction of the arrows to stretch

or shrink a selection.

Diagonal Resize 2

Drag the currently selected object to a new position.

Link Select

Select a hypertext (or text that provides a link to another

information) and you will be directed to the linked
information or file.

Tips for using your mouse safely

Holding and moving your mouse properly can help you avoid soreness or injury to your wrists, hands, and arms, particularly if you use your computer for
long periods of time. Here are some tips to help you avoid problems:

Place your mouse at elbow level. Your upper arms should fall relaxed at your sides.
Don't squeeze or grip your mouse tightly. Hold it lightly.
Move the mouse by pivoting your arm at your elbow. Avoid bending your wrist up, down, or to the sides.
Use a light touch when clicking a mouse button.
Keep your fingers relaxed. Don't allow them to hover above the buttons.
When you don't need to use the mouse, don't hold it.
Take short breaks from computer use every 15 to 20 minutes.
A keyboard is used mainly for typing text into your computer. Like the keyboard on a
typewriter, it has keys for letters and numbers, but it also has special keys:

The function keys, found on the top row, perform different functions depending on
where they are used.
The numeric keypad, located on the right side of most keyboards, allows you to
enter numbers quickly.
The navigation keys, such as the arrow keys, allow you to move your position within
a document or webpage.

You can also use your keyboard to perform many of the same tasks you can perform with a mouse.
Whether you're writing a letter or calculating numerical data, your keyboard is the main way to enter information into your computer. But did you know
you can also use your keyboard to control your computer? Learning just a few simple keyboard commands (instructions to your computer) can help you
work more efficiently. This article covers the basics of keyboard operation and gets you started with keyboard commands.
How the keys are organized
The keys on your keyboard can be divided into several groups based on function:

Typing (alphanumeric) keys. These keys include the same letter, number, punctuation, and symbol keys found on a traditional typewriter.
Control keys. These keys are used alone or in combination with other keys to perform certain actions. The most frequently used control keys
are Ctrl, Alt, the Windows logo key
, and Esc.
Function keys. The function keys are used to perform specific tasks. They are labeled as F1, F2, F3, and so on, up to F12. The functionality
of these keys differs from program to program.
Navigation keys. These keys are used for moving around in documents or webpages and editing text. They include the arrow keys, Home,
End, Page Up, Page Down, Delete, and Insert.
Numeric keypad. The numeric keypad is handy for entering numbers quickly. The keys are grouped together in a block like a conventional
calculator or adding machine.

The following illustration shows how these keys are arranged on a typical keyboard. Your keyboard layout might be different.

Typing text
Whenever you need to type something in a program, e-mail message, or text box, you'll see a blinking vertical line ( ). That's the cursor, also called the
insertion point. It shows where the text that you type will begin. You can move the cursor by clicking in the desired location with the mouse, or by using
the navigation keys (see the "Using navigation keys" section of this article).
In addition to letters, numerals, punctuation marks, and symbols, the typing keys also include Shift, Caps Lock, Tab, Enter, the Spacebar, and

Key Name

Caps Lock

How to Use It?

Can I do it now?


Press Shift in combination with a letter to type an uppercase letter. Press Shift in
combination with another key to type the symbol shown on the upper part of that
Press Caps Lock once to type all letters as uppercase. Press Caps Lock again to
turn this function off. Your keyboard might have a light indicating whether Caps Lock
is on.
Press Tab to move the cursor several spaces forward. You can also press Tab to
move to the next text box on a form.
Press Enter to move the cursor to the beginning of the next line. In a dialog box,
press Enter to select the highlighted button.


Press the Spacebar to move the cursor one space forward.


Press Backspace to delete the character before the cursor, or the selected text.
Using keyboard shortcuts

Definition of Term
Dialog Box A small window that contains options for completing a
task. For example, the first time you save a file a dialog box appears
with options for naming the file and choosing which folder to save it

Keyboard shortcuts are ways to perform actions by using your

keyboard. They're called shortcuts because they help you work faster. In
fact, almost any action or command you can perform with a mouse can
be performed faster using one or more keys on your keyboard.

In Help topics, a plus sign (+) between two or more keys indicates that
those keys should be pressed in combination. For example, Ctrl+A means to press and hold Ctrl and then press
A. Ctrl+Shift+A means to press and hold Ctrl and Shift and then press A.
Find program shortcuts
You can do things in most programs by using the keyboard. To see which commands have keyboard shortcuts,
open a menu. The shortcuts (if available) are shown next to the menu items.
Choose menus, commands, and options
You can open menus and choose commands and other options
keyboard. In a program that has menus with underlined letters,
an underlined letter to open the corresponding menu. Press the
letter in a menu item to choose that command. For programs that
such as Paint and WordPad, pressing Alt overlays (rather than
letter that can be pressed.

press Alt and
use the ribbon,
underlines) a

Press Alt+F to open the File menu, then press P to choose the


This trick works

in dialog boxes too. Whenever you see an underlined letter attached to an
option in a dialog box, it means you can press Alt plus that letter to choose that option.

Useful shortcuts
The following table lists some of the most useful keyboard shortcuts.

Press this

To do this

Windows logo key

Open the Start menu


Switch between open programs or windows


Close the active item, or exit the active program


Save the current file or document (works in most programs)


Copy the selected item


Cut the selected item


Paste the selected item


Undo an action


Select all items in a document or window


Display Help for a program or Windows

Windows logo key


Can I do it now?


Display Windows Help and Support


Cancel the current task

Application key

Open a menu of commands related to a selection in a program. Equivalent to

right-clicking the selection.

Using navigation keys

The navigation keys allow you to move the cursor, move around in documents and webpages, and edit text. The following table lists some common
functions of these keys.

Press this

To do this

Left Arrow, Right Arrow, Up

Arrow, or Down Arrow

Move the cursor or selection one space or line in the direction of the arrow, or
scroll a webpage in the direction of the arrow


Move the cursor to the beginning of a line or move to the top of a webpage


Move the cursor to the end of a line or move to the bottom of a webpage


Move to the top of a document


Move to the bottom of a document

Page Up

Move the cursor or page up one screen

Page Down

Move the cursor or page down one screen


Can I do it now?


Delete the character after the cursor, or the selected text; in Windows, delete
the selected item and move it to the Recycle Bin
Turn Insert mode off or on. When Insert mode is on, text that you type is
inserted at the cursor. When Insert mode is off, text that you type replaces
existing characters.
Using the numeric keypad
The numeric keypad arranges the numerals 0 though 9, the arithmetic operators +
(addition), - (subtraction), * (multiplication), and / (division), and the decimal point as
they would appear on a calculator or adding machine. These characters are duplicated
elsewhere on the keyboard, of course, but the keypad arrangement allows you to rapidly
enter numerical data or mathematical operations with one hand.
To use the numeric keypad to enter numbers, press Num Lock. Most keyboards have a
light that indicates whether Num Lock is on or off. When Num Lock is off, the numeric
keypad functions as a second set of navigation keys (these functions are printed on the
keys next to the numerals or symbols).
You can use your numeric keypad to perform simple calculations with Calculator.
Three odd keys

So far, we've discussed almost every key you're likely to use. But for the truly inquisitive, let's explore the three most mysterious keys on the keyboard:
PrtScn, Scroll Lock, and Pause/Break.
1. PrtScn (or Print Screen)
A long time ago, this key actually did what it saysit sent the current screen of text to your printer. Nowadays, pressing PrtScn captures an image
of your entire screen (a "screen shot") and copies it to the Clipboard in your computer's memory. From there you can paste it (Ctrl+V) into
Microsoft Paint or another program and, if you want, print it from that program.
More obscure is SYS RQ, which shares the key with PrtScn on some keyboards. Historically, SYS RQ was designed to be a "system request," but
this command is not enabled in Windows.

Press Alt+PrtScn to capture an image of just the active window, instead of the entire screen.
2. ScrLk (or Scroll Lock)
In most programs, pressing Scroll Lock has no effect. In a few programs, pressing Scroll Lock changes the behavior of the arrow keys and the
Page Up and Page Down keys; pressing these keys causes the document to scroll without changing the position of the cursor or selection. Your
keyboard might have a light indicating whether Scroll Lock is on.
3. Pause/Break
This key is rarely used. In some older programs, pressing this key pauses the program or, in combination with Ctrl, stops it from running.
Other keys
Some modern keyboards come with "hot keys" or buttons that give you quick, one-press access to programs, files, or commands. Other models have
volume controls, scroll wheels, zoom wheels, and other gadgets. For details about these features, check the information that came with your keyboard or
computer, or go to the manufacturer's website.
Tips for using your keyboard safely
Using your keyboard properly can help avoid soreness or injury to your wrists, hands, and arms, particularly if you use your computer for long periods of
time. Here are some tips to help you avoid problems:

Place your keyboard at elbow level. Your upper arms should be relaxed at your sides.
Center your keyboard in front of you. If your keyboard has a numeric keypad, you can use the spacebar as the centering point.
Type with your hands and wrists floating above the keyboard, so that you can use your whole arm to reach for distant keys instead of
stretching your fingers.
Avoid resting your palms or wrists on any type of surface while typing. If your keyboard has a palm rest, use it only during breaks from typing.
While typing, use a light touch and keep your wrists straight.
When you're not typing, relax your arms and hands.
Take short breaks from computer use every 15 to 20 minutes.


When you're finished using your computer, it's important to turn it off properlynot only to save energy, but also to help keep your computer more
secure and to ensure that your data is saved. There are three ways to turn off your computer: pressing your computer's power button, using the Shut
down button (sometimes called the Power button) on the Start menu, and, if you have a laptop, closing the lid.
Use the Shut down button on the Start menu
To turn off your computer using the Start menu, click the Start button
of the Start menu, click Shut down.

, and then, in the lower-right corner

When you click Shut down, your computer closes all open programs, along with Windows itself, and then
completely turns off your computer and display. Shutting down doesn't save your work, so you must save
your files first.
There's one other form that the Shut down button can take. If you've set your computer to receive
automatic updates, and the updates are ready to be installed, the Shut down button will look like this:
The Shut down button (install updates and shut down)

In this case, when you click the Shut down button, Windows installs the
updates and then shuts down your computer.
Starting your computer after it has been shut down takes longer than
waking your computer from sleep.

Definition of Term
Updates Additions to software that can prevent or fix problems,
enhance the security of a computer, or improve the computers

Using sleep
You can put your computer into sleep mode instead of shutting it down. When your computer is asleep, the display turns off and often the computer's fan
stops. Usually, a light on the outside of your computer case blinks or turns yellow to indicate that the computer is asleep. The whole process takes only a
few seconds.
Because Windows will remember what you were doing, there's no need to close your programs and files before putting your computer into sleep mode.
But it's always a good idea to save your work before putting the computer into any low-power mode. The next time you turn on your computer (and enter
your password, if required), the screen will look exactly as it did when you turned off your computer.
To wake your computer, press the power button on your computer case. Because you don't have to wait for Windows to start, your computer wakes
within seconds and you can resume work almost immediately.
When your computer is asleep, it uses a very small amount of power to maintain your work in its memory. If you're using a laptop, don't worrythe
battery won't be drained. After the computer has been sleeping for several hours, or if the battery is running low, your work is saved to the hard disk, and
then your computer turns off completely, drawing no power.
When to shut down
Even though putting your computer into sleep mode is the fastest way to turn it off and the best option for resuming work quickly, there are certain times
when you need to shut down:


When you're adding or upgrading the hardware inside your computersuch as installing memory, a disk drive, a sound card, or a video card.
Shut down the computer, and then disconnect it from its power source before proceeding with the upgrade.
When you're adding a printer, monitor, external drive, or other hardware device that doesn't connect to a USB or IEEE 1394 port on your
computer. Shut down the computer before connecting the device.

When adding hardware that uses a USB cable, you don't need to turn off the computer first. Most newer devices
use USB cables. A USB cable looks like this:
The desktop is the main screen area that you see after you turn on your computer and log on to Windows. Like
the top of an actual desk, it serves as a surface for your work. When you open programs or folders, they appear
on the desktop. You can also put things on the desktop, such as files and folders, and arrange them however you
The desktop is sometimes defined more broadly to include the taskbar. The taskbar sits at the bottom of your screen. It shows you which programs are
running and allows you to switch between them. It also contains the Start button

, which you can use to access programs, folders, and computer

Working with desktop icons
Icons are small pictures that represent files, folders, programs, and
other items. When you first start Windows, you'll see at least one
icon on your desktop: The Recycle Bin (more on that later). Your
computer manufacturer might have added other icons to the
desktop. Some examples of desktop icons are shown below.

Double-clicking a desktop icon starts or opens the item it represents.

Adding and removing icons from the desktop
You can choose which icons appear on the desktopyou can add or remove an icon at any time. Some people like a
clean, uncluttered desktop with few or no icons. Others place dozens of icons on their desktop to give them quick access
to frequently used programs, files, and folders.
If you want easy access from the desktop to your favorite files or programs, you can create shortcuts to them. A shortcut
is an icon that represents a link to an item, rather than the item itself. When you double-click a shortcut, the item opens.
If you delete a shortcut, only the shortcut is removed, not the original item. You can identify shortcuts by the arrow on
their icon.
To add a shortcut to the desktop
1. Locate the item that you want to create a shortcut for.
2. Right-click the item, click Send to, and then click Desktop (create shortcut). The shortcut icon appears on your desktop.
To add or remove common desktop icons
Common desktop icons include Computer, your personal folder, the Recycle Bin, and Control Panel.
1. Right-click an empty area of the desktop, and then click Personalize.
2. In the left pane, click Change desktop icons.
3. Under Desktop icons, select the check box for each icon that you want to add to the desktop, or clear the check box for each icon that you
want to remove from the desktop, and then click OK.
To move a file from a folder to the desktop
1. Open the folder that contains the file.
2. Drag the file to the desktop.
To remove an icon from the desktop

Right-click the icon, and then click Delete. If the icon is a shortcut, only the shortcut is removed; the original item is not deleted.
Moving icons around
Windows stacks icons in columns on the left side of the desktop. But you're not stuck with that arrangement. You can move an icon by dragging it to a
new place on the desktop.
You can also have Windows automatically arrange your icons. Right-click an empty area of the desktop, click View, and then click Auto arrange icons.
Windows stacks your icons in the upper-left corner and locks them in place. To unlock the icons so that you can move them again, click Auto arrange
icons again, clearing the check mark next to it.
By default, Windows spaces icons evenly on an invisible grid. To place icons closer together or with more precision, turn off the grid. Right-click an
empty area of the desktop, point to View, and then click Align icons to grid to clear the check mark. Repeat these steps to turn the grid back on.
Selecting multiple icons
To move or delete a bunch of icons at once, you must first select all of them. Click an empty
area of the desktop and drag the mouse. Surround the icons that you want to select with the
rectangle that appears. Then release the mouse button. Now you can drag the icons as a
group or delete them.
Hiding desktop icons
If you want to temporarily hide all of your desktop icons without actually removing them, rightclick an empty part of the desktop, click View, and then click Show desktop icons to clear
the check mark from that option. Now no icons are displayed on the desktop. You can get
them back by clicking Show desktop icons again.
The Recycle Bin
When you delete a file or folder, it doesn't actually get deleted right awayit goes to the Recycle Bin. That's a good
thing, because if you ever change your mind and decide you need a deleted file, you can get it back.
The Recycle Bin when empty (left) and full (right)
If you're sure that you won't need the deleted items again, you can empty the Recycle Bin. Doing that will permanently delete the items and reclaim any
disk space they were using.


Desktop area is where your Desktop icons and open programs appear. Here you can open programs and folders by double-clicking on their icons. To
minimize all program windows and display Desktop, press WINDOWS KEY + D on your keyboard.
Start button opens Start menu with recently used programs, Search box (in Windows Vista and 7), All Programs
list and shortcuts to common folders and places. You can press WINDOWS KEY to open Start menu (or Start
screen), or you can use the CTRL + ESC shortcut if there is no Windows Key on some keyboard.
Quick Launch Bar / Quick Launch Toolbar includes buttons to launch favorite programs. You can rearrange the
buttons using your mouse - just click and hold on a program button and drag it to a different position.
In Windows Vista, 7, 8 and 8.1, you can launch the first five programs or apps here using the WINDOWS
KEY+<number> shortcut. For example, if Windows Media Player is the third button from the left, open it
Taskbar contains buttons/icons of running (currently open) programs. You can bring programs to front or
minimize, maximize and close their windows here. To cycle through all open applications, use keyboard
shortcut ALT+TAB. Windows Vista and 7 allow using special 3D effects with keyboard shortcut WINDOWS
Notification area (aka System Tray) includes icons of some running programs and important messages. It also
includes current date (in Windows XP) or current time and date (in Windows Vista, 7 and 8/8.1).
On the top there is Title bar that you can use to bring folder or program to front by
clicking on it once. Double-clicking on Title bar maximizes the folder or program
window. Double-clicking again restores the window to its previous size. When you
click and hold left mouse button on Title bar, you can move the window by moving
your mouse and then releasing the left mouse button.
Menu bar is hidden by default in Windows Vista and 7. You can reveal it by
pressing ALT key on your keyboard once.
To the right of Address bar there is a Refresh button that you can use to reload
folder contents. You can also press F5 key on your keyboard for the refresh function.
Search box is a location-sensitive Windows Search box for finding files and folders
quickly. You can type in a part of a file or folder name, for
example win finds windows, edwin, a_winter_tale.mp3, etc. You can also search by
file type (type:jpg or kind:video), file properties (created:<30/06/09 or author:linus)
and any combination of search criterias, for example horse author:"linus benedict"
size:>10MB NOT kind:(video OR picture).
Toolbar or Ribbon is location-sensitive in Windows Vista, 7, 8 and 8.1 - its buttons change depending what type of folder or file is selected.
There are two common buttons always visible in the left side of Toolbar in Windows Vista:

Organize button includes file and folder management items, such as cut, copy, paste and layout options such as hiding or showing Menu Bar,
Search Pane, Details Pane, etc.
Views button allows you to switch between different folder views - icons, list, details, thumbnails, etc. You can use CTRL+mousewheel for this,

In Windows 7, there are always three buttons visible in the right side of Toolbar.

Preview pane button opens and closes Preview pane that you can use for viewing photos, videos, document properties, etc. You can also use
keyboard shortcut ALT+P for this
Help button opens Windows Help and Support Center, a place for finding information and answers to your Windows-related questions.
Pressing WINDOWS KEY+F1 on your keyboard does the same.

Navigation pane displays common folders for quick navigation.

Details pane in Windows Vista, 7, 8 and 8.1 shows properties of selected items or properties related to currently open folder. For example, when you
click on a local disk in Computer, you will see the disk's size, free space and other properties. Clicking on a photo will display date the photo was taken,

rating, dimensions, size, etc. Details pane is like a much improved Status bar (Status bar is still available in Windows Vista and 7, but it has no purpose
whatsoever compared to Details pane).