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Milling(machining)
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Millingisthemachiningprocessofusingrotarycutterstoremove
material[1]fromaworkpiecebyadvancing(orfeeding)inadirectionat
ananglewiththeaxisofthetool.[2][3]Itcoversawidevarietyof
differentoperationsandmachines,onscalesfromsmallindividualparts
tolarge,heavydutygangmillingoperations.Itisoneofthemost
commonlyusedprocessesinindustryandmachineshopstodayfor
machiningpartstoprecisesizesandshapes.
Millingcanbedonewithawiderangeofmachinetools.Theoriginal
classofmachinetoolsformillingwasthemillingmachine(oftencalled
amill).Aftertheadventofcomputernumericalcontrol(CNC),milling
machinesevolvedintomachiningcenters(millingmachineswith
automatictoolchangers,toolmagazinesorcarousels,CNCcontrol,
coolantsystems,andenclosures),generallyclassifiedasvertical
machiningcenters(VMCs)andhorizontalmachiningcenters(HMCs).
Theintegrationofmillingintoturningenvironmentsandofturninginto
millingenvironments,begunwithlivetoolingforlathesandthe
occasionaluseofmillsforturningoperations,ledtoanewclassof
machinetools,multitaskingmachines(MTMs),whicharepurposebuilt
toprovideforadefaultmachiningstrategyofusinganycombinationof
millingandturningwithinthesameworkenvelope.

FullviewofaBridgeportclone.

Contents
1 Process
1.1 Millingcutters
1.2 Gangmilling
2 Equipment
2.1 Typesandnomenclature
2.1.1 Millorientation
2.1.1.1 Verticalmill
2.1.1.2 Horizontalmill
2.1.1.3 Comparativemerits
2.1.2 Alternativeclassifications
2.1.3 Variants
2.1.4 Alternativeterminology
2.2 ComputerNumericalControl
2.3 Tooling
2.4 Accessories
3 History
3.1 1810s1830s
3.2 1840s1860
3.3 1860s
3.4 1870stoWorldWarI
3.5 WorldWarIandinterwarperiod
3.5.1 Bridgeportmillingmachine
3.6 1940s1970s
3.7 1980spresent
4 MillingStandards
5 Seealso
6 References
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6 References
6.1 Notes
6.2 Bibliography
6.3 Furtherreading

Process
Millingisacuttingprocessthatusesamillingcuttertoremovematerial
fromthesurfaceofaworkpiece.Themillingcutterisarotarycutting
tool,oftenwithmultiplecuttingpoints.Asopposedtodrilling,where
thetoolisadvancedalongitsrotationaxis,thecutterinmillingis
usuallymovedperpendiculartoitsaxissothatcuttingoccursonthe
circumferenceofthecutter.Asthemillingcutterenterstheworkpiece,
thecuttingedges(flutesorteeth)ofthetoolrepeatedlycutintoandexit
fromthematerial,shavingoffchips(swarf)fromtheworkpiecewith
eachpass.Thecuttingactionissheardeformationmaterialispushed
offtheworkpieceintinyclumpsthathangtogethertoagreaterorlesser
extent(dependingonthematerial)toformchips.Thismakesmetal
cuttingsomewhatdifferent(initsmechanics)fromslicingsofter
materialswithablade.

Facemillingprocess(cutterrotation
axisisvertical)

Themillingprocessremovesmaterialbyperformingmanyseparate,smallcuts.Thisisaccomplishedbyusing
acutterwithmanyteeth,spinningthecutterathighspeed,oradvancingthematerialthroughthecutterslowly
mostoftenitissomecombinationofthesethreeapproaches.[2]Thespeedsandfeedsusedarevariedtosuita
combinationofvariables.Thespeedatwhichthepieceadvancesthroughthecutteriscalledfeedrate,orjust
feeditismostoftenmeasuredinlengthofmaterialperfullrevolutionofthecutter.
Therearetwomajorclassesofmillingprocess:
Infacemilling,thecuttingactionoccursprimarilyattheendcornersofthemillingcutter.Facemillingis
usedtocutflatsurfaces(faces)intotheworkpiece,ortocutflatbottomedcavities.
Inperipheralmilling,thecuttingactionoccursprimarilyalongthecircumferenceofthecutter,sothat
thecrosssectionofthemilledsurfaceendsupreceivingtheshapeofthecutter.Inthiscasethebladesof
thecuttercanbeseenasscoopingoutmaterialfromtheworkpiece.Peripheralmillingiswellsuitedto
thecuttingofdeepslots,threads,andgearteeth.

Millingcutters
Manydifferenttypesofcuttingtoolsareusedinthemillingprocess.Millingcutterssuchasendmillsmayhave
cuttingsurfacesacrosstheirentireendsurface,sothattheycanbedrilledintotheworkpiece(plunging).
Millingcuttersmayalsohaveextendedcuttingsurfacesontheirsidestoallowforperipheralmilling.Tools
optimizedforfacemillingtendtohaveonlysmallcuttersattheirendcorners.
Thecuttingsurfacesofamillingcutteraregenerallymadeofahardandtemperatureresistantmaterial,sothat
theywearslowly.Alowcostcuttermayhavesurfacesmadeofhighspeedsteel.Moreexpensivebutslower
wearingmaterialsincludecementedcarbide.Thinfilmcoatingsmaybeappliedtodecreasefrictionorfurther
increasehardness.
Theyarecuttingtoolstypicallyusedinmillingmachinesormachiningcentrestoperformmillingoperations
(andoccasionallyinothermachinetools).Theyremovematerialbytheirmovementwithinthemachine(e.g.,a
ballnosemill)ordirectlyfromthecutter'sshape(e.g.,aformtoolsuchasahobbingcutter).

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Asmaterialpassesthroughthecuttingareaofamillingmachine,the
bladesofthecuttertakeswarfsofmaterialatregularintervals.Surfaces
cutbythesideofthecutter(asinperipheralmilling)thereforealways
containregularridges.Thedistancebetweenridgesandtheheightofthe
ridgesdependonthefeedrate,numberofcuttingsurfaces,thecutter
diameter.[4]Withanarrowcutterandrapidfeedrate,theserevolution
ridgescanbesignificantvariationsinthesurfacefinish.

Adiagramofrevolutionridgesona
surfacemilledbythesideofthe
cutter,showingthepositionofthe
cutterforeachcuttingpassandhowit
correspondswiththeridges(cutter
rotationaxisisperpendicularto
imageplane)

Thefacemillingprocesscanin
principleproduceveryflat
surfaces.However,inpractice
theresultalwaysshowsvisible
trochoidalmarksfollowingthe
Trochoidalmarks,characteristicof
motionofpointsonthecutter'sendface.Theserevolutionmarksgive
facemilling.
thecharacteristicfinishofafacemilledsurface.Revolutionmarkscan
havesignificantroughnessdependingonfactorssuchasflatnessofthe
cutter'sendfaceandthedegreeofperpendicularitybetweenthecutter'srotationaxisandfeeddirection.Oftena
finalpasswithaslowfeedrateisusedtoimprovethesurfacefinishafterthebulkofthematerialhasbeen
removed..Inaprecisefacemillingoperation,therevolutionmarkswillonlybemicroscopicscratchesdueto
imperfectionsinthecuttingedge.

Gangmilling
Gangmillingreferstotheuseoftwoormoremillingcuttersmounted
onthesamearbor(thatis,ganged)inahorizontalmillingsetup.Allof
thecuttersmayperformthesametypeofoperation,oreachcuttermay
performadifferenttypeofoperation.Forexample,ifseveral
workpiecesneedaslot,aflatsurface,andanangulargroove,agood
methodtocutthese(withinanonCNCcontext)wouldbegangmilling.
Allthecompletedworkpieceswouldbethesame,andmillingtimeper
piecewouldbeminimized.[5]
GangmillingwasespeciallyimportantbeforetheCNCera,becausefor
duplicatepartproduction,itwasasubstantialefficiencyimprovement
overmanualmillingonefeatureatanoperation,thenchanging
machines(orchangingsetupofthesamemachine)tocutthenextop.
Today,CNCmillswithautomatictoolchangeand4or5axiscontrol
obviategangmillingpracticetoalargeextent.

Heavygangmillingofmilling
machinetables

Equipment
Millingisperformedwithamillingcutterinvariousforms,heldinacollettorsimilarwhich,inturn,isheldin
thespindleofamillingmachine.

Typesandnomenclature
Millorientationistheprimaryclassificationformillingmachines.Thetwobasicconfigurationsareverticaland
horizontal.However,therearealternativeclassificationsaccordingtomethodofcontrol,size,purposeand
powersource.
Millorientation
Watchvideo(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U99asuDT97I)
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Verticalmill

Intheverticalmillthespindleaxisisverticallyoriented.Millingcuttersareheld
inthespindleandrotateonitsaxis.Thespindlecangenerallybeextended(orthe
tablecanberaised/lowered,givingthesameeffect),allowingplungecutsand
drilling.Therearetwosubcategoriesofverticalmills:thebedmillandtheturret
mill.
Aturretmillhasastationaryspindleandthetableismovedboth
perpendicularandparalleltothespindleaxistoaccomplishcutting.The
mostcommonexampleofthistypeistheBridgeport,describedbelow.
Turretmillsoftenhaveaquillwhichallowsthemillingcuttertoberaised
andloweredinamannersimilartoadrillpress.Thistypeofmachine
providestwomethodsofcuttinginthevertical(Z)direction:byraisingor
loweringthequill,andbymovingtheknee.
Inthebedmill,however,thetablemovesonlyperpendiculartothe
spindle'saxis,whilethespindleitselfmovesparalleltoitsownaxis.

Verticalmillingmachine.
1:millingcutter2:spindle
3:topslideoroverarm4:
column5:table6:Yaxis
slide7:knee8:base

Turretmillsaregenerallyconsideredbysometobemoreversatileofthetwodesigns.However,turretmillsare
onlypracticalaslongasthemachineremainsrelativelysmall.Asmachinesizeincreases,movingthekneeup
anddownrequiresconsiderableeffortanditalsobecomesdifficulttoreachthequillfeedhandle(ifequipped).
Therefore,largermillingmachinesareusuallyofthebedtype.
Athirdtypealsoexists,alightermachine,calledamilldrill,whichisacloserelativeoftheverticalmilland
quitepopularwithhobbyists.Amilldrillissimilarinbasicconfigurationtoasmalldrillpress,butequipped
withanXYtable.Theyalsotypicallyusemorepowerfulmotorsthanacomparablysizeddrillpress,with
potentiometercontrolledspeedandgenerallyhavemoreheavydutyspindlebearingsthanadrillpresstodeal
withthelateralloadingonthespindlethatiscreatedbyamillingoperation.Amilldrillalsotypicallyraisesand
lowerstheentirehead,includingmotor,oftenonadovetailedvertical,whereadrillpressmotorremains
stationary,whilethearborraisesandlowerswithinadrivingcollar.Otherdifferencesthatseparateamilldrill
fromadrillpressmaybeafinetuningadjustmentfortheZaxis,amoreprecisedepthstop,thecapabilityto
locktheX,YorZaxis,andoftenasystemoftiltingtheheadortheentireverticalcolumnandpowerhead
assemblytoallowangledcutting.Asidefromsizeandprecision,theprincipaldifferencebetweenthesehobby
typemachinesandlargertrueverticalmillsisthattheXYtableisatafixedelevationtheZaxisiscontrolled
inbasicallythesamefashionasdrillpress,wherealargerverticalorkneemillhasaverticallyfixedmilling
head,andchangestheXYtableelevation.Aswell,amilldrilloftenusesastandarddrillpresstypeJacob's
chuck,ratherthananinternallytaperedarborthatacceptscollets.Thesearefrequentlyoflowerqualitythan
othertypesofmachines,butstillfillthehobbyrolewellbecausetheytendtobebenchtopmachineswithsmall
footprintsandmodestpricetags.
Horizontalmill

Ahorizontalmillhasthesamesortbutthecuttersaremountedonahorizontalarbor(seeArbormilling)across
thetable.Manyhorizontalmillsalsofeatureabuiltinrotarytablethatallowsmillingatvariousanglesthis
featureiscalledauniversaltable.Whileendmillsandtheothertypesoftoolsavailabletoaverticalmillmaybe
usedinahorizontalmill,theirrealadvantageliesinarbormountedcutters,calledsideandfacemills,which
haveacrosssectionratherlikeacircularsaw,butaregenerallywiderandsmallerindiameter.Becausethe
cuttershavegoodsupportfromthearborandhavealargercrosssectionalareathananendmill,quiteheavy
cutscanbetakenenablingrapidmaterialremovalrates.Theseareusedtomillgroovesandslots.Plainmillsare
usedtoshapeflatsurfaces.Severalcuttersmaybegangedtogetheronthearbortomillacomplexshapeofslots
andplanes.Specialcutterscanalsocutgrooves,bevels,radii,orindeedanysectiondesired.Thesespecialty
cutterstendtobeexpensive.Simplexmillshaveonespindle,andduplexmillshavetwo.Itisalsoeasiertocut
gearsonahorizontalmill.Somehorizontalmillingmachinesareequippedwithapowertakeoffprovisionon
thetable.Thisallowsthetablefeedtobesynchronizedtoarotaryfixture,enablingthemillingofspiralfeatures
suchashypoidgears.
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Comparativemerits

Thechoicebetweenverticalandhorizontalspindleorientationinmillingmachine
designusuallyhingesontheshapeandsizeofaworkpieceandthenumberof
sidesoftheworkpiecethatrequiremachining.Workinwhichthespindle'saxial
movementisnormaltooneplane,withanendmillasthecutter,lendsitselftoa
verticalmill,wheretheoperatorcanstandbeforethemachineandhaveeasy
accesstothecuttingactionbylookingdownuponit.Thusverticalmillsaremost
favoredfordiesinkingwork(machiningamouldintoablockofmetal).[6]
Heavierandlongerworkpieceslendthemselvestoplacementonthetableofa
horizontalmill.

Horizontalmilling
machine.1:base2:column
3:knee4&5:table(xaxis
slideisintegral)6:
overarm7:arbor(attached
tospindle)

Priortonumericalcontrol,horizontalmillingmachinesevolvedfirst,because
theyevolvedbyputtingmillingtablesunderlathelikeheadstocks.Verticalmills
appearedinsubsequentdecades,andaccessoriesintheformofaddonheadstochangehorizontalmillsto
verticalmills(andlaterviceversa)havebeencommonlyused.EvenintheCNCera,aheavyworkpiece
needingmachiningonmultiplesideslendsitselftoahorizontalmachiningcenter,whilediesinkinglendsitself
toaverticalone.
Alternativeclassifications
Inadditiontohorizontalversusvertical,otherdistinctionsarealsoimportant:

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Criterion

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Example
classification
scheme

Verticalversus
Spindleaxis horizontal
orientation Turretversus
nonturret

Control

Manual
Mechanically
automatedvia
cams
Digitally
automatedvia
NC/CNC

Comments
Amongverticalmills,"Bridgeportstyle"isawholeclassofmillsinspiredby
theBridgeportoriginal,ratherliketheIBMPCspawnedtheindustryofIBM
compatiblePCsbyotherbrands

IntheCNCera,averybasicdistinctionismanualversusCNC.
Amongmanualmachines,aworthwhiledistinctionisnonDROequipped
versusDROequipped

Withinthisscheme,also:
Control
Numberofaxes
(specifically
(e.g.,3axis,4
Palletchangingversusnonpalletchanging
amongCNC
axis,ormore)
Fullautotoolchangingversussemiautoormanualtoolchanging
machines)

Purpose

General
purposeversus
specialpurpose
orsingle
purpose

Purpose

Toolroom
machineversus
Overlapswithabove
production
machine

Purpose

"Plain"versus
"universal"

Adistinctionwhosemeaningevolvedoverdecadesastechnologyprogressed,
andoverlapswithotherpurposeclassificationsabove.Notrelevanttotoday's
CNCmills.Regardingmanualmills,thecommonthemeisthat"plain"mills
wereproductionmachineswithfeweraxesthan"universal"millsforexample,
whereasaplainmillhadnoindexingheadandanonrotatingtable,auniversal
millwouldhavethose.Thusitwassuitedtouniversalservice,thatis,awider
rangeofpossibletoolpaths.Machinetoolbuildersnolongerusethe"plain"
versus"universal"labeling.

Size

Micro,mini,
benchtop,
standingon
floor,large,
verylarge,
gigantic

Power
source

Lineshaftdrive
versus
Mostlineshaftdrivemachines,ubiquitouscirca18801930,havebeen
individual
scrappedbynow
electricmotor
drive
Handcrank
powerversus
electric

Handcrankednotusedinindustrybutsuitableforhobbyistmicromills

Variants

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BedmillThisreferstoanymillingmachinewherethespindleis
onapendantthatmovesupanddowntomovethecutterintothe
work,whilethetablesitsonastoutbedthatrestsonthefloor.
Thesearegenerallymorerigidthanakneemill.Gantrymillscan
beincludedinthisbedmillcategory.
BoxmillorcolumnmillVerybasichobbyistbenchmounted
millingmachinesthatfeatureaheadridingupanddownona
columnorboxway.
CframemillThesearelarger,industrialproductionmills.They
featureakneeandfixedspindleheadthatisonlymobile
vertically.Theyaretypicallymuchmorepowerfulthanaturret
mill,featuringaseparatehydraulicmotorforintegralhydraulic
powerfeedsinalldirections,andatwentytofiftyhorsepower
motor.Backlasheliminatorsarealmostalwaysstandard
equipment.TheyuselargeNMTB40or50tooling.Thetableson
Cframemillsareusually18"by68"orlarger,toallowmultiple
partstobemachinedatthesametime.
FloormillThesehavearowofrotarytables,andahorizontal
pendantspindlemountedonasetoftracksthatrunsparalleltothe
ASiegX2miniaturehobbyistmill
tablerow.Thesemillshavepredominantlybeenconvertedto
plainlyshowingthebasicpartsofa
CNC,butsomecanstillbefound(ifonecanevenfindaused
mill.
machineavailable)undermanualcontrol.Thespindlecarriage
movestoeachindividualtable,performsthemachining
operations,andmovestothenexttablewhiletheprevioustableisbeingsetupforthenextoperation.
Unlikeothermills,floormillshavemovablefloorunits.Acranedropsmassiverotarytables,XYtables,
etc.,intopositionformachining,allowinglargeandcomplexcustommillingoperations.
GantrymillThemillingheadridesovertworails(oftensteelshafts)whichlieateachsideofthework
surface.
HorizontalboringmillLarge,accuratebedhorizontalmillsthatincorporatemanyfeaturesfromvarious
machinetools.Theyarepredominantlyusedtocreatelargemanufacturingjigs,ortomodifylarge,high
precisionparts.Theyhaveaspindlestrokeofseveral(usuallybetweenfourandsix)feet,andmanyare
equippedwithatailstocktoperformverylongboringoperationswithoutlosingaccuracyasthebore
increasesindepth.AtypicalbedhasXandYtravel,andisbetweenthreeandfourfeetsquarewitha
rotarytableoralargerrectanglewithoutatable.Thependantusuallyprovidesbetweenfourandeight
feetofverticalmovement.Somemillshavealarge(30"ormore)integralfacinghead.Rightanglerotary
tablesandverticalmillingattachmentsareavailableforfurtherflexibility.
JigborerVerticalmillsthatarebuilttoboreholes,andverylightslotorfacemilling.Theyaretypically
bedmillswithalongspindlethrow.Thebedsaremoreaccurate,andthehandwheelsaregraduateddown
to.0001"forpreciseholeplacement.
Kneemillorkneeandcolumnmillreferstoanymillingmachinewhosexytableridesupanddown
thecolumnonaverticallyadjustableknee.ThisincludesBridgeports.
PlanerstylemillLargemillsbuiltinthesameconfigurationasplanersexceptwithamillingspindle
insteadofaplaninghead.Thistermisgrowingdatedasplanersthemselvesarelargelyathingofthepast.
RamtypemillThiscanrefertoanymillthathasacuttingheadmountedonaslidingram.Thespindle
canbeorientedeitherverticallyorhorizontally.Inpracticemostmillswithramsalsoinvolveswiveling
ability,whetherornotitiscalled"turret"mounting.TheBridgeportconfigurationcanbeclassifiedasa
verticalheadramtypemill.VanNormanspecializedinramtypemillsthroughmostofthe20thcentury.
SincethewidedisseminationofCNCmachines,ramtypemillsarestillmadeintheBridgeport
configuration(witheithermanualorCNCcontrol),butthelesscommonvariations(suchaswerebuiltby
VanNorman,Index,andothers)havediedout,theirworkbeingdonenowbyeitherBridgeportform
millsormachiningcenters.
TurretmillMorecommonlyreferredtoasBridgeporttypemillingmachines.Thespindlecanbealigned
inmanydifferentpositionsforaveryversatile,ifsomewhatlessrigidmachine.
Alternativeterminology

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Amillingmachineisoftencalledamillbymachinists.Thearchaictermmillerwascommonlyusedinthe19th
andearly20thcenturies.[7]
Sincethe1960stherehasdevelopedanoverlapofusagebetweenthetermsmillingmachineandmachining
center.NC/CNCmachiningcentersevolvedfrommillingmachines,whichiswhytheterminologyevolved
graduallywithconsiderableoverlapthatstillpersists.Thedistinction,whenoneismade,isthatamachining
centerisamillwithfeaturesthatpreCNCmillsneverhad,especiallyanautomatictoolchanger(ATC)that
includesatoolmagazine(carousel),andsometimesanautomaticpalletchanger(APC).Intypicalusage,all
machiningcentersaremills,butnotallmillsaremachiningcentersonlymillswithATCsaremachining
centers.

ComputerNumericalControl
MostCNCmillingmachines(alsocalledmachiningcenters)are
computercontrolledverticalmillswiththeabilitytomovethespindle
verticallyalongtheZaxis.Thisextradegreeoffreedompermitstheir
useindiesinking,engravingapplications,and2.5Dsurfacessuchas
reliefsculptures.Whencombinedwiththeuseofconicaltoolsoraball
nosecutter,italsosignificantlyimprovesmillingprecisionwithout
impactingspeed,providingacostefficientalternativetomostflat
surfacehandengravingwork.
CNCmachinescanexistinvirtuallyanyoftheformsofmanual
machinery,likehorizontalmills.ThemostadvancedCNCmilling
machines,themultiaxismachine,addtwomoreaxesinadditiontothe
threenormalaxes(XYZ).[8]HorizontalmillingmachinesalsohaveaC
orQaxis,allowingthehorizontallymountedworkpiecetoberotated,
essentiallyallowingasymmetricandeccentricturning.Thefifthaxis(B
axis)controlsthetiltofthetoolitself.Whenalloftheseaxesareusedin
conjunctionwitheachother,extremelycomplicatedgeometries,even
organicgeometriessuchasahumanheadcanbemadewithrelativeease
withthesemachines.Buttheskilltoprogramsuchgeometriesisbeyond
thatofmostoperators.Therefore,5axismillingmachinesare
practicallyalwaysprogrammedwithCAM.
Theoperatingsystemofsuchmachinesisaclosedloopsystemand
functionsonfeedback.Thesemachineshavedevelopedfromthebasic
NC(NUMERICCONTROL)machines.AcomputerizedformofNC
machinesisknownasCNCmachines.Asetofinstructions(calleda
program)isusedtoguidethemachinefordesiredoperations.Some
verycommonlyusedcodes,whichareusedintheprogramare:

Thinwallmillingofaluminumusing
awaterbasedcuttingfluidonthe
millingcutter

Fiveaxismachiningcenterwith
rotatingtableandcomputerinterface

G00rapidtraverse
G01linearinterpolationoftool.
G21dimensionsinmetricunits.
M03/M04spindlestart(clockwise/counterclockwise).
T01M06automatictoolchangetotool1
M30programend.

Variousothercodesarealsoused.ACNCmachineisoperatedbyasingleoperatorcalledaprogrammer.This
machineiscapableofperformingvariousoperationsautomaticallyandeconomically.
WiththedecliningpriceofcomputersandopensourceCNCsoftware,theentrypriceofCNCmachineshas
plummeted.
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Tooling
Theaccessoriesandcuttingtoolsusedonmachinetools(including
millingmachines)arereferredtoinaggregatebythemassnoun
"tooling".Thereisahighdegreeofstandardizationofthetoolingused
withCNCmillingmachines,andalesserdegreewithmanualmilling
machines.ToeaseuptheorganizationofthetoolinginCNCproduction
manycompaniesuseatoolmanagementsolution.
Millingcuttersforspecificapplicationsareheldinvarioustooling
configurations.

Highspeedsteelwithcobaltendmills
usedforcuttingoperationsina
millingmachine.

CNCmillingmachinesnearlyalwaysuseSK(orISO),CAT,BTorHSKtooling.SKtoolingisthemost
commoninEurope,whileCATtooling,sometimescalledVFlangeTooling,istheoldestandprobablymost
commontypeintheUSA.CATtoolingwasinventedbyCaterpillarInc.ofPeoria,Illinois,inorderto
standardizethetoolingusedontheirmachinery.CATtoolingcomesinarangeofsizesdesignatedasCAT30,
CAT40,CAT50,etc.ThenumberreferstotheAssociationforManufacturingTechnology(formerlythe
NationalMachineToolBuildersAssociation(NMTB))Tapersizeofthetool.
AnimprovementonCATToolingisBTTooling,whichlookssimilar
andcaneasilybeconfusedwithCATtooling.LikeCATTooling,BT
ToolingcomesinarangeofsizesandusesthesameNMTBbodytaper.
However,BTtoolingissymmetricalaboutthespindleaxis,whichCAT
toolingisnot.ThisgivesBTtoolinggreaterstabilityandbalanceathigh
speeds.Oneothersubtledifferencebetweenthesetwotoolholdersisthe
threadusedtoholdthepullstud.CATToolingisallImperialthreadand
BTToolingisallMetricthread.Notethatthisaffectsthepullstudonly,
itdoesnotaffectthetoolthattheycanhold,bothtypesoftoolingare
soldtoacceptbothImperialandmetricsizedtools.

ACAT40toolholder

SKandHSKtooling,sometimescalled"HollowShankTooling",is
muchmorecommoninEuropewhereitwasinventedthanitisinthe
UnitedStates.ItisclaimedthatHSKtoolingisevenbetterthanBT
Toolingathighspeeds.TheholdingmechanismforHSKtoolingis
placedwithinthe(hollow)bodyofthetooland,asspindlespeed
increases,itexpands,grippingthetoolmoretightlywithincreasing
spindlespeed.Thereisnopullstudwiththistypeoftooling.
Formanualmillingmachines,thereislessstandardization,becausea
AboringheadonaMorsetaper
greaterpluralityofformerlycompetingstandardsexist.Newerand
shank
largermanualmachinesusuallyuseNMTBtooling.Thistoolingis
somewhatsimilartoCATtoolingbutrequiresadrawbarwithinthe
millingmachine.Furthermore,thereareanumberofvariationswithNMTBtoolingthatmake
interchangeabilitytroublesome.Theolderamachine,thegreaterthepluralityofstandardsthatmayapply(e.g.,
Morse,Jarno,Brown&Sharpe,VanNorman,andotherlesscommonbuilderspecifictapers).However,two
standardsthathaveseenespeciallywideusagearetheMorse#2andtheR8,whoseprevalencewasdrivenby
thepopularityofthemillsbuiltbyBridgeportMachinesofBridgeport,Connecticut.Thesemillssodominated
themarketforsuchalongtimethat"Bridgeport"isvirtuallysynonymouswith"manualmillingmachine".Most
ofthemachinesthatBridgeportmadebetween1938and1965usedaMorsetaper#2,andfromabout1965
onwardmostusedanR8taper.

Accessories
Arborsupport
Stopblock
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History
1810s1830s
Millingmachinesevolvedfromthepracticeofrotaryfilingthatis,
runningacircularcutterwithfileliketeethintheheadstockofalathe.
Rotaryfilingand,later,truemillingweredevelopedtoreducetimeand
effortspenthandfiling.Thefullstoryofmillingmachinedevelopment
mayneverbeknown,becausemuchearlydevelopmenttookplacein
individualshopswherefewrecordswerekeptforposterity.However,
thebroadoutlinesareknown,assummarizedbelow.Fromahistoryof
technologyviewpoint,itisclearthatthenamingofthisnewtypeof
machiningwiththeterm"milling"wasanextensionfromthatword's
earliersensesofprocessingmaterialsbyabradingtheminsomeway
(cutting,grinding,crushing,etc.).
Rotaryfilinglongpredatedmilling.ArotaryfilebyJacquesde
Vaucanson,circa1760,iswellknown.[9][10]Itisclearthatmilling
machinesasadistinctclassofmachinetool(separatefromlathes
runningrotaryfiles)firstappearedbetween1814and1818.Thecenters
ofearliestdevelopmentoftruemillingmachinesweretwofederal
armoriesoftheU.S.(SpringfieldandHarpersFerry)togetherwiththe
variousprivatearmoriesandinsidecontractorsthatsharedturnoverof
skilledworkmenwiththem.

Thismillingmachinewaslong
creditedtoEliWhitneyanddatedto
circa1818.Fromthe1910sthrough
the1940s,thisversionofits
provenancewaswidelypublished.In
the1950sand1960s,various
historiansoftechnologymostly
discreditedtheviewofthismachine
asthefirstmillerandpossiblyeven
ofWhitneyasitsbuilder.
Nonetheless,itisstillanimportant
earlymillingmachine,regardlessof
itsexactprovenance.

Between1912and1916,JosephW.Roe,arespectedfoundingfatherof
machinetoolhistorians,creditedEliWhitney(oneoftheprivatearms
makersmentionedabove)withproducingthefirsttruemilling
machine.[11][12]By1918,heconsideredit"Probablythefirstmilling
machineeverbuiltcertainlytheoldestnowinexistence[]."[13]
However,subsequentscholars,includingRobertS.Woodbury[14]and
others,[15]haveimproveduponRoe'searlyversionofthehistoryand
TheMiddletownmillingmachineof
suggestthatjustasmuchcreditinfact,probablymorebelongsto
circa1818,associatedwithRobert
variousotherinventors,includingRobertJohnsonofMiddletown,
JohnsonandSimeonNorth.
ConnecticutCaptainJohnH.HalloftheHarpersFerryarmorySimeon
NorthoftheStaddleHillfactoryinMiddletownRoswellLeeofthe
SpringfieldarmoryandThomasBlanchard.(Severalofthemenmentionedabovearesometimesdescribedon
theinternetas"theinventorofthefirstmillingmachine"or"theinventorofinterchangeableparts".Suchclaims
areoversimplified,asthesetechnologiesevolvedovertimeamongmanypeople.)
PeterBaida,[15]citingEdwardA.Battison'sarticle"EliWhitneyandtheMillingMachine,"whichwas
publishedintheSmithsonianJournalofHistoryin1966,exemplifiesthedispellingofthe"GreatMan"image
ofWhitneybyhistoriansoftechnologyworkinginthe1950sand1960s.HequotesBattisonasconcludingthat
"ThereisnoevidencethatWhitneydevelopedorusedatruemillingmachine."Baidasays,"Thesocalled
Whitneymachineof1818seemsactuallytohavebeenmadeafterWhitney'sdeathin1825."Baidacites
Battison'ssuggestionthatthefirsttruemillingmachinewasmadenotbyWhitney,butbyRobertJohnsonof
Middletown.[15]
Thelateteensofthe19thcenturywereapivotaltimeinthehistoryofmachinetools,astheperiodof1814to
1818isalsotheperiodduringwhichseveralcontemporarypioneers(Fox,Murray,andRoberts)were
developingtheplaner,[16]andaswiththemillingmachine,theworkbeingdoneinvariousshopswas
undocumentedforvariousreasons(partiallybecauseofproprietarysecrecy,andalsosimplybecausenoone
wastakingdownrecordsforposterity).
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JamesNasmythbuiltamillingmachineveryadvancedforitstime
between1829and1831.[17]Itwastooledtomillthesixsidesofahex
nutthatwasmountedinasixwayindexingfixture.
AmillingmachinebuiltandusedintheshopofGay&Silver(akaGay,
Silver,&Co)inthe1830swasinfluentialbecauseitemployedabetter
methodofverticalpositioningthanearliermachines.Forexample,
Whitney'smachine(theonethatRoeconsideredtheveryfirst)and
othersdidnotmakeprovisionforverticaltraveloftheknee.Evidently,
theworkflowassumptionbehindthiswasthatthemachinewouldbeset
upwithshims,vise,etc.foracertainpartdesign,andsuccessiveparts
didnotrequireverticaladjustment(oratmostwouldneedonly
shimming).Thisindicatesthatearlythinkingaboutmillingmachines
wasasproductionmachines,nottoolroommachines.
Intheseearlyyears,millingwasoftenviewedasonlyaroughing
operationtobefollowedbyfinishingwithahandfile.Theideaof
reducinghandfilingwasmoreimportantthanreplacingit.

ThemillingmachinebuiltbyJames
Nasmythbetween1829and1831for
millingthesixsidesofahexnut
usinganindexingfixture.

1840s1860
Someofthekeymeninmillingmachinedevelopmentduringthisera
includedFrederickW.Howe,FrancisA.Pratt,ElishaK.Root,and
others.(Thesesamemenduringthesameerawerealsobusydeveloping
thestateoftheartinturretlathes.Howe'sexperienceatGay&Silverin
the1840sacquaintedhimwithearlyversionsofbothmachinetools.His
machinetooldesignswerelaterbuiltatRobbins&Lawrence,the
ProvidenceToolCompany,andBrown&Sharpe.)Themostsuccessful
millingmachinedesigntoemergeduringthiserawastheLincoln
miller,whichratherthanbeingaspecificmakeandmodelofmachine
toolistrulyafamilyoftoolsbuiltbyvariouscompaniesonacommon
configurationoverseveraldecades.Ittookitsnamefromthefirst
companytoputoneonthemarket,GeorgeS.Lincoln&Company
(formerlythePhoenixIronWorks),whosefirstonewasbuiltin1855
fortheColtarmory.[18]

AtypicalLincolnmiller.The
configurationwasestablishedinthe
1850s.(Thisexamplewasbuiltby
Pratt&Whitney,probably1870sor
1880s.)

Duringthiseratherewasacontinuedblindspotinmillingmachine
design,asvariousdesignersfailedtodevelopatrulysimpleand
effectivemeansofprovidingslidetravelinallthreeofthearchetypal
millingaxes(X,Y,andZorastheywereknowninthepast,
longitudinal,traverse,andvertical).Verticalpositioningideaswere
eitherabsentorunderdeveloped.TheLincolnmiller'sspindlecouldberaisedandlowered,buttheoriginalidea
behinditspositioningwastobesetupinpositionandthenrun,asopposedtobeingmovedfrequentlywhile
running.Likeaturretlathe,itwasarepetitiveproductionmachine,witheachskilledsetupfollowedby
extensivefairlylowskilloperation.

1860s
In1861,FrederickW.Howe,whileworkingfortheProvidenceToolCompany,askedJosephR.Brownof
Brown&Sharpeforasolutiontotheproblemofmillingspirals,suchastheflutesoftwistdrills.Thesewere
usuallyfiledbyhandatthetime.[19](Helicalplaningexistedbutwasbynomeanscommon.)Browndesigneda
"universalmillingmachine"that,startingfromitsfirstsaleinMarch1862,waswildlysuccessful.Itsolvedthe
problemof3axistravel(i.e.,theaxesthatwenowcallXYZ)muchmoreelegantlythanhadbeendoneinthe
past,anditallowedforthemillingofspiralsusinganindexingheadfedincoordinationwiththetablefeed.The
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term"universal"wasappliedtoitbecauseitwasreadyforanykindof
work,includingtoolroomwork,andwasnotaslimitedinapplicationas
previousdesigns.(Howehaddesigneda"universalmiller"in1852,but
Brown'sof1861istheoneconsideredagroundbreakingsuccess.)[19]
Brownalsodevelopedandpatented(1864)thedesignofformedmilling
cuttersinwhichsuccessivesharpeningsoftheteethdonotdisturbthe
geometryoftheform.[10]
Theadvancesofthe1860sopenedthefloodgatesandusheredinmodern
millingpractice.

1870stoWorldWarI
Inthesedecades,Brown&SharpeandtheCincinnatiMillingMachine
Companydominatedthemillingmachinefield.However,hundredsof
otherfirmsalsobuiltmillingmachinesatthetime,andmanywere
significantinvariousways.Besidesawidevarietyofspecialized
productionmachines,thearchetypalmultipurposemillingmachineof
thelate19thandearly20thcenturieswasaheavykneeandcolumn
horizontalspindledesignwithpowertablefeeds,indexinghead,anda
stoutoverarmtosupportthearbor.Theevolutionofmachinedesignwas
drivennotonlybyinventivespiritbutalsobytheconstantevolutionof
millingcuttersthatsawmilestoneaftermilestonefrom1860through
WorldWarI.[20][21]

Brown&Sharpe'sgroundbreaking
universalmillingmachine,1861

WorldWarIandinterwarperiod
AroundtheendofWorldWarI,machinetoolcontroladvancedin
variouswaysthatlaidthegroundworkforlaterCNCtechnology.Thejig
borerpopularizedtheideasofcoordinatedimensioning(dimensioning
ofalllocationsonthepartfromasinglereferencepoint)working
routinelyin"tenths"(tenthousandthsofaninch,0.0001")asan
everydaymachinecapabilityandusingthecontroltogostraightfrom
Atypicaluniversalmillingmachine
drawingtopart,circumventingjigmaking.In1920thenewtracer
oftheearly20thcentury.Suitablefor
designofJ.C.ShawwasappliedtoKellertracermillingmachinesfor
toolroom,jobbing,orproductionuse.
diesinkingviathethreedimensionalcopyingofatemplate.Thismade
diesinkingfasterandeasierjustasdieswereinhigherdemandthanever
before,andwasveryhelpfulforlargesteeldiessuchasthoseusedtostampsheetsinautomobile
manufacturing.Suchmachinestranslatedthetracermovementstoinputforservosthatworkedthemachine
leadscrewsorhydraulics.Theyalsospurredthedevelopmentofantibacklashleadscrewnuts.Alloftheabove
conceptswerenewinthe1920sbutbecameroutineintheNC/CNCera.Bythe1930s,incrediblylargeand
advancedmillingmachinesexisted,suchastheCincinnatiHydroTel,thatpresagedtoday'sCNCmillsinevery
respectexceptforCNCcontrolitself.
Bridgeportmillingmachine
In1936,RudolphBannow(18971962)conceivedofamajorimprovementtothemillingmachine.[22]His
companycommencedmanufacturinganewkneeandcolumnverticalmillin1938.ThiswastheBridgeport
millingmachine,oftencalledaramtypeorturrettypemillbecauseitsheadhasslidingramandrotatingturret
mounting.Themachinebecamesopopularthatmanyothermanufacturerscreatedcopiesandvariants.
Furthermore,itsnamecametoconnoteanysuchvariant.TheBridgeportofferedenduringadvantagesover
previousmodels.Itwassmallenough,lightenough,andaffordableenoughtobeapracticalacquisitionfor
eventhesmallestmachineshopbusinesses,yetitwasalsosmartlydesigned,versatile,wellbuilt,andrigid.Its
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variousdirectionsofslidingandpivotingmovementallowedtheheadtoapproachtheworkfromanyangle.
TheBridgeport'sdesignbecamethedominantformformanualmillingmachinesusedbyseveralgenerationsof
smallandmediumenterprisemachinists.Bythe1980sanestimatedquartermillionBridgeportmilling
machineshadbeenbuilt,[22]andthey(andtheirclones)arestillbeingproducedtoday.
Watchvideo(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jn0YRgvxF6c)

1940s1970s
By1940,automationviacams,suchasinscrewmachinesandautomaticchuckers,hadalreadybeenverywell
developedfordecades.Beginninginthe1930s,ideasinvolvingservomechanismshadbeenintheair,butitwas
especiallyduringandimmediatelyafterWorldWarIIthattheybegantogerminate(seealsoNumericalcontrol
>History).Theseweresooncombinedwiththeemergingtechnologyofdigitalcomputers.Thistechnological
developmentmilieu,spanningfromtheimmediatepreWorldWarIIperiodintothe1950s,waspoweredbythe
militarycapitalexpendituresthatpursuedcontemporaryadvancementsinthedirectingofgunandrocket
artilleryandinmissileguidanceotherapplicationsinwhichhumanswishedtocontrolthe
kinematics/dynamicsoflargemachinesquickly,precisely,andautomatically.SufficientR&Dspending
probablywouldnothavehappenedwithinthemachinetoolindustryalonebutitwasforthelatterapplications
thatthewillandabilitytospendwasavailable.Oncethedevelopmentwasunderway,itwaseagerlyappliedto
machinetoolcontrolinoneofthemanypostWWIIinstancesoftechnologytransfer.
In1952,numericalcontrolreachedthedevelopmentalstageoflaboratoryreality.ThefirstNCmachinetool
wasaCincinnatiHydrotelmillingmachineretrofittedwithascratchbuiltNCcontrolunit.Itwasreportedin
ScientificAmerican,[23]justasanothergroundbreakingmillingmachine,theBrown&Sharpeuniversal,had
beenin1862.
Duringthe1950s,numericalcontrolmovedslowlyfromthelaboratoryintocommercialservice.Foritsfirst
decade,ithadratherlimitedimpactoutsideofaerospacework.Butduringthe1960sand1970s,NCevolved
intoCNC,datastorageandinputmediaevolved,computerprocessingpowerandmemorycapacitysteadily
increased,andNCandCNCmachinetoolsgraduallydisseminatedfromanenvironmentofhugecorporations
andmainlyaerospaceworktothelevelofmediumsizedcorporationsandawidevarietyofproducts.NCand
CNC'sdrasticadvancementofmachinetoolcontroldeeplytransformedthecultureofmanufacturing.[24]The
details(whicharebeyondthescopeofthisarticle)haveevolvedimmenselywitheverypassingdecade.

1980spresent
ComputersandCNCmachinetoolscontinuetodeveloprapidly.Thepersonalcomputerrevolutionhasagreat
impactonthisdevelopment.Bythelate1980ssmallmachineshopshaddesktopcomputersandCNCmachine
tools.Soonafter,hobbyists,artists,anddesignersbeganobtainingCNCmillsandlathes.Manufacturershave
startedproducingeconomicallypricedCNCsmachinessmallenoughtositonadesktopwhichcancutathigh
resolutionmaterialssofterthanstainlesssteel.Theycanbeusedtomakeanythingfromjewelrytoprinted
circuitboardstogunparts,evenfineart.

MillingStandards
Nationalandinternationalstandardsareusedtostandardizethedefinitions,environmentalrequirements,and
testmethodsusedformilling.Selectionofthestandardtobeusedisanagreementbetweenthesupplierandthe
userandhassomesignificanceinthedesignofthemill.IntheUnitedStates,ASMEhasdevelopedtheB5.45
1972Standardentitled"MillingMachines",B94.191997,MillingCuttersandEndMills.

Seealso
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milling_(machining)

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Arbormillingmachine
CNCrouter
Cryomilling
Millingcutter
Multiaxismachining
Photochemicalmilling
Printedcircuitboardmilling
3Dprinting
CNCpocketmilling

References
Notes
1.Brown&Sharpe1914,p.7.
2.CMMC1922,p.122.
3.Usher1896,p.142.
4.CMMC1992,pp.125127.
5."HowtouseaMillingMachine".AmericanMachineToolsCo.
6.EncyclopdiaBritannica2011
7.Currentlytheterm"miller"referstomachinesbuiltwhenthattermwascurrent,aswith"phonograph"and"horseless
carriage."
8."ACompleteGuideTotheCNCMillingMachine".CNCMachineHQ.20141020.
9.Woodbury1972,p.23.
10.Roe1916,p.206(http://books.google.com/books?id=XEJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA206#v=onepage&q&f=false).
11.Woodbury1972,p.17.
12.Roe1916,captionoffigurefacingp.142(http://books.google.com/books?id=XEJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA142IA1#v=o
nepage&q&f=false).
13.Roe1918,p.309(http://books.google.com/books?id=nC4YAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA309#v=onepage&q&f=false).
14.Woodbury1972,pp.1626.
15.Baida1987
16.Roe1916,ChapterV:InventorsofthePlaner,pp.5062(http://books.google.com/books?id=XEJAAAAIAAJ&pg=P
A50#v=onepage&f=false).
17.Woodbury1972,pp.2426.
18.Roe1916,p.165(http://books.google.com/books?id=XEJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA165#v=onepage&q&f=false).
19.Roe1916,pp.208209(http://books.google.com/books?id=XEJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA208#v=onepage&q&f=false).
20.Woodbury1972,pp.5155.
21.Woodbury1972,pp.7981.
22.AmericanPrecisionMuseum1992.
23.Pease1952
24.Noble1984,throughout.

Bibliography
Usher,JohnT.(1896).TheModernMachinist(2nded.).N.W.Henley.Retrieved20130201.
Practicaltreatiseonmillingandmillingmachines.Brown&SharpeManufacturingCompany.1914.Retrieved
20130128.
Atreatiseonmillingandmillingmachines.Cincinnati,Ohio:CincinnatiMillingMachineCompany.1922.Retrieved
20130128.
Noble,DavidF.(1984),ForcesofProduction:ASocialHistoryofIndustrialAutomation,NewYork,NewYork,
USA:Knopf,ISBN9780394512624,LCCN83048867.
Roe,JosephWickham(1916),EnglishandAmericanToolBuilders,NewHaven,Connecticut:YaleUniversityPress,
LCCN16011753.ReprintedbyMcGrawHill,NewYorkandLondon,1926(LCCN2724075(http://lccn.loc.gov/27
024075))andbyLindsayPublications,Inc.,Bradley,Illinois,(ISBN9780917914737).
Roe,JosephWickham(1918),Themechanicalequipment:Volume3:FactoryManagementCourse,3,NewYork,
NY,USA:IndustrialExtensionInstitute,Inc,LCCN18006648.
Pease,William(1952),"Anautomaticmachinetool",ScientificAmerican,187(3):101115,
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0952101,ISSN00368733.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milling_(machining)

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Woodbury,RobertS.(1972)[1960],HistoryoftheMillingMachine.InStudiesintheHistoryofMachineTools,
Cambridge,Massachusetts,USA,andLondon,England:MITPress,ISBN9780262730334,LCCN72006354.
Firstpublishedaloneasamonographin1960.
Baida,Peter(MayJune1987),"EliWhitney'sOtherTalent",AmericanHeritage,38(4),retrieved20101129.
AmericanPrecisionMuseum(1992),"RudolphBannow(18971962)",MachineToolHallofFame,American
PrecisionMuseum,retrieved20110101.
EncyclopdiaBritannica(2011),diesinking,retrieved20110102

Furtherreading
Hounshell,DavidA.(1984),FromtheAmericanSystemtoMassProduction,18001932:The
DevelopmentofManufacturingTechnologyintheUnitedStates,Baltimore,Maryland:JohnsHopkins
UniversityPress,ISBN9780801829758,LCCN83016269
Rolt,L.T.C.(1965),AShortHistoryofMachineTools,Cambridge,Massachusetts,USA:MITPress,
OCLC250074.CoeditionpublishedasRolt,L.T.C.(1965),ToolsfortheJob:aShortHistoryof
MachineTools,London:B.T.Batsford,LCCN65080822.(edit(https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?titl
e=Template:Rolt1965&action=edit))
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