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System Transient Harmonics

L. Qi, S. Woodruff, L. Qian and D. Cartes

25.1 - Introduction

Proliferation of nonlinear loads in power systems has increased

harmonic pollution and deteriorated power quality. Not required to have prior

knowledge of existing harmonics, Prony analysis detects frequencies,

magnitudes, phases and especially damping factors of exponential decaying

or growing transient harmonics. Prony analysis is implemented to supervise

power system transient harmonics, or time varying harmonics. Further, to

improve power quality when transient harmonics appear, the dominant

harmonics identified from Prony analysis are used as the harmonic reference

for harmonic selective active filters. Simulation results of two test systems

during transformer energizing and induction motor starting confirm the

effectiveness of the Prony analysis in supervising and canceling power

system transient harmonics.

In todays power systems, the proliferation of nonlinear loads has

increased harmonic pollution. Harmonics cause many problems in connected

power systems, such as reactive power burden and low system efficiency.

Harmonic supervision is highly valuable in relieving these problems in power

transmission systems. Further, harmonic selective active filters can be

connected in power distribution systems to improve power quality. Normally,

Fourier transform-based approaches are used for supervising power system

harmonics. However, the accuracy of Fourier transform is affected when

these transient or time varying harmonics exist. Without prior knowledge of

frequency components, some of the harmonic filters require PLL (Phase

frequency before the corresponding reference is generated [1]-[4].

Prony analysis is applied as an analysis method for harmonic

supervisors and as a harmonic reference generation method for harmonic

selective active filters. Prony analysis, as an autoregressive spectrum

analysis method, does not require frequency information prior to filtering.

Therefore, additional PLL or frequency estimators described earlier are

necessary. Due to the ability to identify the damping factors, transient

harmonics can be correctly identified for the Prony based harmonic

supervision and harmonic cancellation. Two important operations in power

systems, energizing a transformer and starting of an induction motor [5]-[7],

can be studied for harmonic supervision and cancellation.

Since

Prony

analysis

was

first

introduced

into

power

system

applications in 1990, it has been widely used for power system transient

studies [8][9], but rarely used for power quality studies. Prony analysis is a

method of fitting a linear combination of exponential terms to a signal as

shown (25.1) [9]. Each term in (25.1) has four elements: the magnitude An ,

the damping factor n , the frequency f n , and the phase angle n . Each

exponential component with a different frequency is viewed as a unique

mode of the original signal y (t ) . The four elements of each mode can be

identified from the state space representation of an equally sampled data

record.

The

time

interval

between

each

sample

is

T.

n 1

rewritten as (25.2).

yM Bn nM

(25.2)

n 1

Bn

An jn

e

2

(25.3)

n e( n j 2f n )T

(25.4)

Prony analysis consists of three steps. In the first step, the coefficients

of a linear predication model are calculated. The linear predication model

(LPM) of order N, shown in (25.5), is built to fit the equally sampled data

record y (t ) with length M. Normally, the length M should be at least three

times larger than the order N.

yM a1 yM 1 a2 yM 2 L aN yM N (25.5)

Estimation of the LPM coefficients an is crucial for the derivation of the

frequency, damping, magnitude, and phase angle of a signal. To estimate

these coefficients accurately, many algorithms can be used. A matrix

representation of the signal at various sample times can be formed by

sequentially writing the linear prediction of yM repetitively. By inverting the

matrix representation, the linear coefficients an can be derived from (25.6).

An algorithm, which uses singular value decomposition for the matrix

inversion to derive the LPM coefficients, is called SVD algorithm.

yN

y N 1

y

N 1 y N

y M 1

y M 2

y N 2

y N 1

y M 3

a1

y1 a 2

y M N 1 a N

y0

(25.6)

as (25.7) associated with the LPM from the first step are derived. The

damping factor n and frequency f n are calculated from the root n according

to (25.4).

N a1 N 1 L aN 1 a N ( 1 )( 2 )L ( n )L ( N )

(25.7)

In the last step, the magnitudes and the phase angles of the signal are

solved in the least square sense. According to (25.2), equation (25.8) is built

using the solved roots n .

YB

(25.8)

Y y0

T

y1 y M 1 (25.9)

1

1

L

1

2 L

N

1

(25.10)

M

M M M

M 1

2M 1 L MN 1

1

B B1

T

B 2 B N (25.11)

The magnitude An and phase angle n are thus calculated from the variables

Bn according to (25.3).

The greatest advantage of Prony analysis is its ability to identify the

damping factor of each mode in the signal. Due to this advantage, transient

harmonics can be identified accurately.

Three normally used algorithms to derive the LPM coefficients, the Burg

algorithm, the Marple algorithm, and the SVD (Singular value decomposition)

algorithm [11]-[13], are compared for implementing Prony analysis in

transient harmonic studies. The non-recursive SVD algorithm utilized the

Matlab pseudo-inverse function pinv. This pinv function uses LAPACK routines

to compute the singular value decomposition for the matrix inversion [14]. To

choose the appropriate algorithm, the three algorithms are applied on the

same signals with the same Prony analysis parameters. The signals are

synthesized in the form of (25.1) plus a relatively low level of noise to

approximate real transient signals. The sampling frequency is selected equal

to four times of the highest harmonic and the length of data is six times of

one cycle of the lowest harmonic [15]. Table lists the estimation results from

the three algorithms on one transient signal. More estimation results on

synthesized power system signals were derived by the authors for different

studies [16]. From comparison on the estimation results of various signals to

approximate power system transient harmonics, the SVD algorithm has the

best overall performance on all estimation results and thus is selected as the

appropriate algorithm for Prony analysis.

Table 25.1: Estimated Dominant Harmonics (EDH) on A Nonstationary Signal

Frequencies (

Hz)

Damping

factors (s-1)

Magnitudes (

A)

ED

H

Ide

al

Burg

Marple

SVD

#1

60

60.169

0

59.998

6

59.998

7

#2

300

298.23

09

279.39

17

299.99

51

#3

420

419.30

31

420.00

81

420.01

38

#4

660

657.81

18

659.93

80

659.95

78

#5

780

779.15

04

779.99

14

780.01

37

#1

0.0037

0.0027

0.0012

#2

-6

1.3173

0.2127

6.0403

#3

-4

0.0940

0.1245

4.0638

#4

0.5625

0.1881

0.1097

#5

3.4003

0.6494

0.1752

#1

#2

1.0001

0.9997

1.0002

0.2

0.1478

0.1441

0.2002

#3

0.1

0.0819

0.0809

0.1003

Phase

Angles (Degr

ee)

#4

0.0

2

0.0184

0.0203

0.0204

#5

0.0

1

0.0104

0.0107

0.0103

#1

3.1693

0.0320

3.1693

#2

45

79.029

9

44.990

6

45.056

7

#3

30

41.437

6

30.215

0

29.915

8

#4

36.839

7

0.8574

0.7913

#5

12.756

7

0.1850

0.3631

Since the estimation of data is an ill-conditioned problem [12][13], one

algorithm

could

perform

completely

differently

on

different

signals.

achieve most accurate results at different situations. Although the parameter

tuning is a trial and error process, there are still some rules to follow. A

general guidance on parameter adjustment is given in the rest of this

section.

A technique of shifting time windows by Hauer [5] is adopted for

continuously detecting dominant harmonics in a Prony analysis based

harmonic supervisor. The shifting time window for Prony analysis has to be

filled with sampled data before correct estimation results are derived. The

selection of the equal sampling intervals between samples and the data

length in an analysis window depends on the simulation time step and the

estimated frequency range. The equal sampling frequency follows Nyquist

sampling theorem and should be at least two times of the highest frequency

in a signal. Since the Prony analysis results are not accurate for too high

sampling frequency [15], two or three times of the highest frequency is

of the Prony analysis window should be at least one and half times of one

cycle of the lowest frequency of a signal.

Besides the sampling frequency and the length of Prony analysis

window, the LPM order is another important Prony analysis parameter. A

common principle is the LPM order should be no more than one thirds of the

data length [8][15]. The data length and LPM order could be increased

together in order to accommodate more modes in simulated signals. It is

quite difficult to make the first selection of the LPM order since the exact

number of modes of a real system is hard to determine. In our case studies,

a guess of 14 is a good start. If the order is found not high enough, the data

length of the Prony analysis window should be increased in order to increase

the LPM order.

The general guidance for tuning Prony analysis parameters is

applicable to other applications of Prony analysis. Not requiring specific

frequency of a signal for Prony analysis, the tuning method is not sensitive to

fine details of the signal and thus extensive retuning for different types of

transients in the same system is unlikely to be necessary for Prony analysis.

As described earlier, the Fourier transform is widely used for spectrum

analysis in power systems. However, signals must be stationary and periodic

for the finite Fourier transform to be valid. The following analysis explains

why results from the Fourier transform are inaccurate for exponential signals.

The general form of a nonstationary signal can be found in (25.1). If the

phase angle of the signal is equal to zero, and the magnitude is equal to

unity, then the general form can be simplified into the signal shown in

(25.12). The initial time of the Fourier analysis is taken to be t0 and the

duration of the Fourier analysis window is T, which is equal to the period of

the analysis signal for accurate spectrum analysis.

x(t ) et cos(2ft ) (25.12)

first term on the right-hand side of (25.13) is equal to zero according to

(25.14). Therefore, the magnitude of the signal in terms of the Fourier

transform is given in (25.15). The ratio k between the magnitude of the

Fourier transform in (25.15) and the actual magnitude et0 is shown as

(25.16), which indicates the average effect of the Fourier analysis window.

an

2A

T

t0 T

t0

A

T

t 0 T

t0

e t cos(4ft ) 1dt

A

T

t0 T

e t cos(4ft )dt

t0

A

T

t 0 T

e t dt (25.13)

t0

t0 T

1

T

t0 T

et cos(4ft )dt

t0

1

an

T

k

t0 T

t0

1

T

et

4

T

1 t

e dt

e

T

t

cos(4ft ) 4f sin(4ft )

0 (25.14)

t0 T

t0

t0

eT 1

1 ( t 0 T ) ( t0 )

t0

e

e e

(25.15)

T

T

e T 1

(25.16)

T

Lets consider a fast damping signal and a slow damping signal with

equal to 60Hz, then the duration T is equal to 0.0167s. According to (25.16),

the ratio k between the Fourier magnitude and the real magnitude are

derived as 0.4861 and 0.9999. Therefore, with rapid decaying factors, the

magnitude derived from Fourier transform is averaged by the analysis

window and not even close to its actual magnitude. If the damping factor is

equal to zero, the ratio k becomes one and the Fourier magnitude exactly

reflects the real signal magnitude. With rapidly decaying signals, Fourier

analysis results depend greatly on the length of the analysis window. For

example, if the time duration T of the analysis window is two cycles long and

the damping ratio is -100, then the ratio k decreases to 0.2888. Therefore,

prior knowledge of the frequency involved is quite important for selecting the

proper length of the Fourier analysis window and getting accurate results.

In order to reduce the error due to the average effect, the length of the

Fourier analysis window should decrease. However, the fewer periods there

are in the record, the less random noise gets averaged out and the less

accurate the result will be. Some compromise must be made between

reducing noise effects and increasing Fourier analysis accuracy. The length of

the Prony analysis window is not as sensitive as the Fourier analysis window.

If the frequency of an analyzed signal is within a certain range, it is not

necessary to change the length of the analysis window. A long window can

be used to deal with noise and still detect decaying modes accurately.

Using the SVD algorithm two cases were studied to implement Prony

analysis for power quality study. The first case studies the harmonic

supervision during transformer energizing. The second case studies the

harmonic cancellation during motor starting. The test systems are realized in

the simulation environment of PSIM and Matlab. The parameters of the test

systems can be found in the Appendix.

Case 1: Harmonic Supervision

Figure 25.1 shows the configuration of test system 1, which models a

part of a transmission system at the voltage level of 500 kV including a

voltage source, a local LC load bank, and three-phase transformer, and a

harmonic supervisor. The voltages and currents at the transformer primary

side are inputs of the harmonic supervisor; while the outputs are the

harmonic description of the voltages and currents, which can be harmonic

magnitudes and phase angles from Fourier analysis or harmonic waveforms

from Prony analysis.

In our study, the Fourier transform analysis utilizes the function FFT

provided in the SimPowerSystems Toolbox in Matlab. One cycle of simulation

has to be completed before the outputs give the correct magnitude and

angle since the FFT function uses a running average window [17]. As

described earlier, shifting time windows is used in Prony analysis for

continuously detecting dominant harmonics. In this Prony based harmonic

supervisor for transformer energizing, since the fundamental frequency is

considered as the lowest frequency, the time duration of Prony analysis

window is 0.036 seconds, which is longer than two cycles of the fundamental

frequency. The time interval between any two windows is 0.6 ms. The

sampling frequency is 833 Hz, which is sufficient enough for identifying up to

13th harmonic in the system. The data length within a time window is 60.

The order of linear prediction model is 20, which is equal to one third of the

data length.

The simulated system is designed to be resonant at forth harmonic

[17]. Both even and odd harmonic components are produced during the

transformer energizing. Among them, the second harmonic is dominant

harmonic. The magnitudes of the harmonics during energizing vary with time

[5]. No abrupt changes are found in time varying harmonic magnitudes. An

exponential function thus is able to approximate these time varying

harmonics.

Figure 25.2 shows the harmonic supervision results of test system 1

using the Prony analysis and Fourier transform based harmonic supervisors.

Figure 25.2 (a) and Figure 25.2 (b) show the fundamental and 4th harmonic

voltage waveform derived from Prony and the magnitudes from FFT. Because

there is no decaying or growing in the fundamental component, the

magnitude obtained from FFT agrees with the magnitude of the fundamental

voltage waveform from Prony. However, for the 4 th harmonic, the magnitude

from FFT is much smaller than that from Prony since the 4 th harmonic decays

fast. Figure 25.2 (c) and Figure 25.2 (d) show the fundamental and 2 nd

harmonic current from Prony analysis and the magnitudes from FFT. Due to

the slow decaying and growing speeds, the magnitudes from Prony analysis

agree well with the magnitudes from FFT.

500

50

Prony

FFT

Voltage (KV)

Voltage (KV)

Prony

FFT

-500

0.04

0.06

0.08

Time (S)

0.1

-50

0.12

0.04

(Phase A)

0.06

(b)

0.08

Time (S)

4th

0.1

0.12

Harmonic

Voltage

300

Prony

FFT

1000

500

100

Current (A)

Current (A)

Prony

FFT

200

0

-100

-500

-200

-1000

0.05

0.1

0.15

Time (S)

0.2

0.25

-300

(Phase A)

0.05

0.1

(d)

0.15

Time (S)

2nd

0.2

0.25

Harmonic

Current

The effectiveness of the Prony based harmonic supervisor is verified

from the results shown earlier. From the comparison shown above, without

damping or with small damping, the harmonic supervision results from Prony

analysis and FFT are almost equal in the sense of harmonic magnitudes. With

fast damping, Prony analysis derives more accurate harmonic supervision

results than FFT does.

Harmonic Cancellation

Figure shows the configuration of test system 2, which models a part

of a distribution system at the voltage level of 480 V. The test system

includes a voltage source, a nonlinear load including an induction motor and

a diode rectifier load, a harmonic selective active filter using a three-phase

active voltage source IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) converter, and

controller systems associated with the active filter. The nonlinear load

represents a type of load combination, induction motors plus power

electronic loads, in power distribution systems. To describe the detailed

motor starting dynamics, the induction motor is modeled by a set of

nonlinear equations [17], which are different from the commonly used linear

equivalent circuit to model induction motors in power quality studies [5]. The

motor has a constant load torque of 0.2N.m.

Rs

is

Ls

iLD

RLD

LLD

Vs

Nonlinear

Load

iLA

R AF

Prony for Phase

A

iLB

i AF

L AF

B

iLC

C

Harmonic Detection

Vdc*

Vdc

PI

DC Voltage regulator

Limiter

0

2 3

Trans .

in Syn.

Frame

i AFa

i *AFa

i *AFb

i dc*

DC Linkage

current reference

i *AFc

i AFb

Gate

Signal 1

Gate

Signal 2

C dc

i AFc

Gate

Signal 3

HysteresisCurrent

Controller

The control system of the active filter can be separated into two parts,

one for controlling harmonic reference generation using Prony analysis or

Fourier transform and one for controlling the DC link bus voltage. The

dominant harmonics of the three phase load currents are derived from Prony

analysis or Fourier transform and used as the reference for the harmonic

selective active filter. To control DC bus voltage, a PI (Proportional Integral)

controller is used to generate the DC link current reference. Three hysteresis

controllers then generate gate signals for the IGBT converter.

As described earlier, some Prony analysis parameters used earlier in

transformer energizing are adjusted by trial and error to achieve most

accurate results in motor starting. In this Prony based active filter to cancel

transient harmonics during motor starting, since there could be subharmonics during motor starting, the time duration of the Prony analysis

window is 0.024 seconds. The sampling frequency is 2500 Hz, which is

sufficient to identify up to the 20th harmonic in the system. With the careful

selection of these Prony analysis parameters, the spurious harmonics besides

the dominant harmonics are small enough that their effects can be

neglected.

During motor starting, the magnitude of the starting current can

become as high as several times of the rated current. This high motor

starting current contains mainly exponentially decaying fundamental current

and a small portion of decaying harmonic or sub-harmonic currents. Due to

the exponentially decaying fundamental current, the load voltage changes

exponentially. With this exponentially changing voltage supplied to the

rectifier load, the harmonic currents drawn by the rectifier load appear as

exponentially

changing

harmonic

currents.

Detecting

and

canceling

harmonics in the total load currents during motor starting are thus critical to

overall power system reliability and power quality.

Table

Prony analysis at three selected time instants selected arbitrarily from the

time duration before, during and after motor starting transient. Because the

2nd harmonic current is induced by starting an induction motor [5], it is found

that the 2nd dominant harmonic current change from the 5 th harmonic current

before motor starting to the 2 nd harmonic current after motor starting. This

2nd harmonic current is damped out during motor starting with a high

damping factor. The magnitudes of the 5th and 7th harmonic currents change

exponentially during motor starting, but are almost kept constant before and

after motor starting transients. The magnitude of the fundamental current

increases after motor starting since the total load current increases with the

motor load added as a part of the system load.

Table 25.2: Estimated Dominant Harmonics (EDH) of Case 2

ED

H

#1

Frequencies

(Hz)

#2

#3

T=0.1

60.088

0

300.21

41

420.46

27

T=0.17

86

60.973

9

121.22

81

299.91

59

T=0.24

03

60.039

5

299.86

92

420.92

91

Magnitudes

(A)

Damping

factors (s-1)

Figure

#1

44.017

9

#2

8.8723

#3

3.0207

#1

0.0450

#2

0.2094

#3

0.4268

82.548

8

12.062

7

8.8103

14.605

7

116.47

42

-2.8884

58.901

1

9.2252

3.4445

0.1782

0.1920

0.5291

cancellation

by the Prony based active filter during motor starting. At first, the system

runs at steady state with only ideal diode rectifier load connected. After the

active filter takes action at 0.06 second, the induction motor is switched into

the test system at 0.12 second. The motor starting transient lasts for several

cycles and dies down approximately at 0.2 second. The test system finally

settles down at steady state with both motor and diode rectifier load

connected. The stationary harmonic cancellation before and after motor

starting has been verified by the authors [15]. The harmonic cancellation by

the Prony filter and the Fourier filter during motor starting is compared in

Figure (c) and Figure (d). It is seen that the improvement of the source

current by the Fourier based active filter is much less than the improvement

by the Prony based filter.

600

200

Phase A

Phase B

Phase C

400

Actual

Estimated

100

Current (A)

Current (A)

200

0

-200

-100

-200

-400

motor starting

-600

0.05

Time (S)

0.2

0.25

-300

0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24

Time (S)

300

300

250

250

200

200

150

150

Current (A)

Current (A)

100

50

100

50

-50

-50

with active filter

without active filter

-100

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.15 0.16

Time (S)

0.17

0.18

0.19

(Phase A)

During Motor Starting (Prony)

without active filter

-100

-150

0.12

(d)

0.14

0.16

Time (Current)

Source

0.18

0.2

Currents

Filter

(FFT)

Figure 25.4: Simulation Results of Case 2

The effectiveness of the Prony-based harmonic selective active filter to

cancel transient harmonics during motor starting is verified. Using the active

filter, the dominant 2nd, 5th and 7th harmonics in the load currents are

cancelled and the power quality during motor starting is improved. Due to

the length of Prony analysis window, it is observed in Figure (b) that there are

oscillations in the estimated load current at the beginning of motor starting.

The effectiveness of the Prony analysis is verified for the harmonic

supervision and cancellation when transient or time varying harmonics

exhibit in power systems. The unique features of Prony analysis, such as

frequency identification without prior knowledge of frequency and the ability

to identify damping factors, are useful to power system quality study. Further

studies can be carried out for power quality study. Just as Prony analysis was

used with harmonic selective active filters, Prony analysis may be applied to

other measures to improve power quality. In this study, the computational

speed of the non-recursive SVD algorithm for Prony is slow. With more

harmonic monitoring and harmonics cancellation using Real-Time Hardwarein-Loop (RT-HIL) technology. Due to the insufficient information input into

Prony analysis, inaccurate harmonic estimation from Prony analysis may

adversely affect controllers at the beginning of transient periods. These

disadvantages of applying Prony analysis are being considered and will be

improved in future studies.

25.8 References

[1]Po-Tai Cheng, Bhattacharya S., and Divan D., Operations of the dominant

harmonic active filter (DHAF) under realistic utility conditions, IEEE

Transactions on Industry Applications, Volume: 37, Issue: 4, July-Aug.

2001, Pages: 1037 1044

[2]Po-Tai Cheng, Subhashish Bhattacharya and Deepak M. Divan, Control of

Square-Wave Inverters in High-Power Hybrid Active Filter Systems, IEEE

Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.34, NO.3, May/June 1998.

[3]Po-Tai Cheng, Subhashish Bhattacharya and Deepak D. Divan, Line

Harmonics Reduction in High-Power Systems Using Square-Wave

Inverters-Based Dominant Harmonic Active Filter, IEEE Transactions on

Power Electronics, Vol. 14, NO.2, March 1999.

[4]Po-Tai Chen, Subhashish Bhattacharya and Deepak Divan, Experimental

Verification of Dominant Harmonic Active Filter for High-Power

Applications, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.36, NO.2,

March/April 2000.

[5]J. Arrillaga, B. C. Smith, N. R. Watson, A. R. Wood, Power System Harmonic

Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 1997.

[6]V. S. Moo, Y. N. Chang, P. P. Mok, A Digital Measurement Scheme for TimeVarying Transient Harmonics, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 10, Issue 2,

April, 1995, pp. 588-594.

[7]S. J. Huang, C. L. Huang, C. T. Hsieh, Application of Gabor Transform

Technique to Supervise Power System Transient Harmonics, IEE

Proceedings Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 143, Issue 5,

Sept 1996, pp. 461-466.

[8]J. F. Hauer, C. J. Demeure, and L. L. Scharf, "Initial Results in Prony

Analysis of Power System Response Signals," IEEE Trans. Power Systems,

Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 80-89, Feb. 1990.

for the Analysis of Earth Fault Currents in Petersen-coil-protected

Networks, IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, July 1995, Vol. 10, I. 3, pp.

1234-1242.

[10] F. B. Hildebrand, Introduction to Numerical Analysis, McGraw-Hill Book

Company, Inc., 1956.

[11] L. Marple, A New Autoregressive Spectrum Analysis Algorithm, IEEE

Trans. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. ASSP-28, No. 4,

August 1980.

[12] P. Barone, Some Practical Remarks on the Extended Pronys Method of

Spectrum Analysis, Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 76, No. 3, March 1988, pp.

284-285.

[13] S. M. Kay, S. L. Marple, Spectrum Analysis A Modern Perspective,

Proc., IEEE, Vol. 69, No. 11Nov. 1981, pp. 1380-1419.

[14] E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, et al., LAPACK User's Guide

[http://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug/lapack_lug.html], Third Edition, SIAM,

Philadelphia, 1999.

[15] M. A. Johnson, I. P. Zarafonitis, and M. Calligaris, Prony Analysis and

Power System Stability Some Recent Theoretical and Application

Research, Proceeding of 2000 IEEE PES General Meeting, Vol. 3, July

2000, pp. 1918-1923.

[16] L. Qi, L. Qian, D. Cartes, and S. Woodruff, Initial Results in Prony

Analysis for Harmonic Selective Active Filters, Proceeding Of 2006 IEEE

PES General Meeting, June 2006, Montreal, QC, Canada.

[17] Hydro-Quebec, TransEnergie, SymPowerSystems

Simulink, Online only, The Mathworks Inc, July 2002.

For

Use

With

[18] Powersim Inc., PSIM Users Guide Version 6.0, Powersim Inc., June

2003.

Appendix

Table A.1: Parameters of Source of Test System 1

VRMSLL (KV)

f (Hz)

500

60

RS ( ) LS (H)

5.55

0.22

1

R(

)

C (F)

0.66

0.00

06

11

R1 ( )

L1 (H)

R2 (

)

L2 (H)

RM ( )

Ratio

(KV/KV)

1.1111

44.444

4

0.235

1

9.404

4

0.041

500/230

(p.u.)

I

(p.u.)

1.20

0.00

24

1.52

1.0

VRMSLL

(V)

f (Hz)

RS (

)

LS (H)

480

60

10-5

10-6

Rs ( )

Ls (H)

Rr ( )

Lr (H)

J

LM (H) (kgm2

)

0.294

0.001

39

0.156

0.000

74

0.041

0.4

RL (

)

CL (F)

RLD (

)

LLD

(H)

15

0.00

4

0.001

0.00

3

VRef

(V)

Cdc

(F)

RAF (

)

LAF

(H)

800

0.00

0.000

0.00

KP

KI

1.0

1.0

Ton

(S)

Toff

(S)

Gon

Goff

0.00

1

0.00

1

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