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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KARNATAKA,

SURATHKAL

Mechanical Lab II
Practical Manual

Name:
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Batch:
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Instructor:
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Single Stage Air Compressor


AIM: To study the performance of a single stage air compressor at different
delivery pressures.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Elgi Single Stage Air Compressor with Receiver
a. Delivery pressure = 9.7 bar
b. Free air delivered = 10.73 m3/hr
c. Speed = 750 rpm
d. Bore = 70 mm
e. Stroke = 85 mm
f. Cooling: Air Cooled
2. Driving Motor
a. 3 phase Induction Motor
b. Power = 2 hp
c. Speed = 2880 rpm
d. Voltage = 420 V
e. Current = 3 A
3. Manometer
4. Energy meter; Constant = 150 rev/KWhr
5. Tachometer
6. Planimeter

DESCRIPTION:
The compressor outlet is connected to a storage tank which receivers the
compressed air and stores it. The air to the inlet is sucked through an orifice
across which the manometer is connected. The compressor is driven by an
electric motor. The speed of the compressor is measured by a mechanical type
tachometer.

PROCEDURE:
Energy meter is connected between two lines to measure the power input to the
motor. The outlet valve of the receiver is kept open to facilitate starting. Then the
motor is switched on. When the compressor reaches its normal speed, the outlet
valve or the receiver is closed and pressure is built up. When the pressures
reaches, say 2 bars the outlet valve adjusted is so that the delivery pressure
remains constant at 2 bars. At this point, manometer reader, speed of motor
(using tachometer) and energy meter readings are noted down. After the
pressure reaches the maximum value, the pressure is gradually decreased by
adjusting the outlet valve and all the readings at the same pressures of 8, 7, 6, 4,
2 bars are noted. The average of these two may be taken as the final reading.
Note: Sufficient time must be allowed for the compressor to adjust itself for the
steady state values of loads. The delivery pressure must not be allowed to
exceed the maximum rated value.

OBSERVATIONS:

Trial
No.

Energy meter constant = 150 rev/KWhr


Spring strength of indicator = 15.2 10 -3 (N/mm2)/mm
Orifice constant, K = 0.02655
Length of Indicator Diagram in mm =
Efficiency of motor = 75%

Delivery
Pressure
(Pd)(bar)

Energy Meter Reading


Rev. (w)

CALCULATIONS:

Time (t)
(sec)

Manometer
Reading (h)
(cm) of H2O

Speed
(N)
(rpm)

Area of
Indicator
Diagram (a)
(mm2)

Trial
No.

Delivery
Pressure
(bar)

Shaft
Power
(KW)

MEP
(N/mm2)

Indicated
Power
(KW)

Free Air
Delivered
(m3/min)

Isotherma
l Power
(KW)

Isotherma
l
Efficiency

Mec
al
Effi

1. Input to motor (KW) =

24

w
t

2. Shaft Power (SP) (KW) = Efficiency of motor Input to motor


=
3. Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) (N/mm2) = Pm =

P m LAM
60000

4. IP (KW) =

a
S
l

Where A = area of piston (mm2) and L = length of stroke (m)


5. Free Air Delivered (FAD) (m3/min)

V1 =

Ti
Po
h
Pi
To

Assuming Ti = To = T and Pi = Po = P

V=

k h

T
P

Where,
T = Ambient temperature of air (K)
P = Ambient pressure (cm of Hg)
h = Pressure head across the orifice (cm of H 2O)
6. Isothermal Power (KW) =

P1 V 1 ln ( r )
60000

Where V1 is in m3/min, P1 = intake pressure = P/75 bar abs.

r=

P1
P2

( P d + P1 )
P1|.|

7. Mechanical Efficiency =

IP
SP

8. Isothermal Efficiency = Isothermal Power/Indicated Power =


9. Overall Efficiency = Isothermal Power/Shaft Power =

10.Volumetric Efficiency =

FAD /min
2
D ln
4

Where D = piston dia. (m) and L = stroke length (m)

RESULTS:
The performance characteristic curves of the single stage air compressor are
obtained, tabulated and plotted on the graph sheet.
The performance characteristic curves are: FAD, SP, IP,

mech, iso, overall, vol vs Pd

Centrifugal Blower
AIM: To determine the characteristics of a centrifugal blower.
APPARATUS:
The motor-blower setup with flow measurement devices

SPECIFICATIONS:
Blower:
Flow rate =
Pressure =
Outlet dia. = 10cm
Speed = 2880rpm
Energy meter constant = 320 rev/KWhr
Motor:
Power = 2hp
Efficiency = 90%

DESCRIPTION:
The centrifugal blower is directly coupled to an induction motor. The outlet of the
blower is connected to a pipe in which there is a tapping to measure the delivery
head. The delivery head is changed by means of a butterfly valve placed in the
delivery pipe. The motor is connected to the mains through an energy meter to
measure the input to the motor.

PROCEDURE:
The butterfly valve is fully closed and the motor is switched on. Due to the
leakage past the valve there may be a small air flow and this is indicated by the
manometer reading. The delivery head, the pressure difference across the orifice
place and the energy meter readings are noted down. The experiment is
repeated for different delivery heads by opening the valve.

OBSERVATIONS:
Position of
valve

Energy Meter
Reading

Delivery
Pressure (h1)

Head across
flow meter (h)

Flow rate
(Q) (m3/hr)

Rev
(w)

(cm) of H2O

Time (t)
(sec)

(cm) of H2O

Fully
closed
closed
closed
closed
Fully open

CALCULATIONS:
1. Input power to motor (IP)(KW) =

3600 w
320 t

2. Input to blower (SP)(KW) = IPmotor =


3. Output of the blower (OP)(KW) =

a QH

3600 10 3

a. a = sp. weight of air (N/m3)


b. Q = Volume of air delivered (m3/hr) =
c. H = head in metres of air =

4. Output (KW) =

Q h 1 9810
3600 10 100

5. Blower efficiency =

RESULTS:

h1 water
100 air

171 h / a =

2.725 Qh 1 105

Input
Output of Blower
Blower

100

Position of
valve

Output of blower
(KW)

Input to blower
(KW)

Fully closed
closed
closed
closed
Fully open

The following characteristic curves of the blower are drawn:


1. Discharge volume vs. Delivery head
2. Blower efficiency vs. Delivery head
3. SP vs. Delivery head

Blower Efficiency

Test on Heat Exchangers


AIM: To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient and effectiveness of a
double pipe heat exchanger under conditions of parallel flow and counter flow.

THEORY:
Heat transfer from one fluid to another fluid is given by the expression,

Q= A U ( T )m
Where,

( T )m is the mean temperature difference


U is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the inside area
A is the inside area of the heat exchanger

Temperature Profiles for Parallel and Counter Flow Heat Exchangers

For which ( T )m =

i o
log ( i /o )
Parallel Flow

Counter Flow

Thi - Tci

Thi - Tco

Tho - Tco

Tho - Tci

This expression for the mean temperature difference is known as the Log Mean
Temperature Difference (LMTD).

U=

Q
( T )m A

In order to make comparisons between various types of heat exchangers, the


term Heat Exchanger Effectiveness is used, which is defined as:

Actual heat transfer


Maximum possible heat transfer

Actual heat transfer may be computed by calculating the energy lost by


the hot fluid or the energy gained by the cold fluid as
Q=C c ( T co T ci )

Q=C h ( T hi T ho )

Both for parallel and counter flow heat exchanger where


C c =W c C p

or

Ch =W h C p

and

Wh = weight of hot fluid flowing per unit time


Wc = weight of cold fluid flowing per unit time
Cph and Cpc are the specific heats of the hot and cold fluid respectively
Maximum possible heat transfer is given by

Qmax =Cmin ( T hi T ci )

Where Cmin is either Cph or Cpc, whichever is lesser.


Hence, effectiveness

=C h ( T hi T ho ) / C min ( T hi T ci )
=C c ( T co T ci ) /C min ( T hi T ci )

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
It consists of two concentric pipes of specific length through which hot and cold
fluids pass. By opening and closing suitable valves the heat exchangers can be
operated either in parallel or counter flow configurations. Provision has to be
made to measure flow rates as well as inlet and outlet temperatures for both

fluids. The heat exchanger is insulated from outside to prevent any loss to
atmosphere. The entire setup is mounted on a frame.

PROCEDURE:
The heat exchanger is set for parallel flow operation by suitably manipulating the
valves. After steady state is reached the flow rate and temperature are recorded.
Next, the heat exchanger is set for counter flow operation and after steady state
conditions are reached, the required data is recorded. The experiment can be
repeated for different flow rates and with different fluids. The values of U and E
are calculated for each set of specific conditions.

OBSERVATIONS:
Heat transfer area of the pipe = 0.0612m2
Data Recorded

Parallel Flow

Counter Flow

Parallel Flow

Counter Flow

Hot Fluid
Flow rate (kg/min)
(Wh)
Inlet Temperature (C)
(Thi)
Outlet Temperature
(C) (Tho)
Cold Fluid
Flow rate (kg/min)
(Wh)
Inlet Temperature (C)
(Tci)
Outlet Temperature
(C) (Tco)

RESULTS:
Calculated Values
LMTD (C)
U (W/m2K)
Effectiveness ()

Computerized Refrigeration Test


Rig
AIM: To find the coefficient of performance (COP) of a standard vapor
compression cycle refrigeration system using computerized refrigeration test rig.

THEORY:
The coefficient of performance (COP) of a refrigerator is defined as follows:

COP=

Refrigeration Effect (output )


Compressor Work (input )

OBSERVATIONS:
1. Efficiency of motor ( m) = 0.9
2. Mechanical efficiency of compressor ( c) = 0.85

Parameter

Trial 1

Energy meter readings


(W)
Suction pressure (P1)(psi)
Discharge pressure (P2)
(psi)
Refrigerant temperature
at inlet to compressor
(T1)(C)
Refrigerant temperature
at outlet from
compressor (T2)(C)
Refrigerant temperature
at outlet from condenser
(T3)(C)
Refrigerant temperature
at inlet to evaporator (T4)
(C)
Water temperature in
chiller (T5)(C)

CALCULATIONS:
1. 1.01325 bar = 14.7 psi

Trial 2

1 psi = 0.068 bar


Pressure = 0.068 pressure gauge reading + 1 atm (bar) =
2. Work done by compressor (W) = Wattmeter reading m c =
3. Refrigeration effect (N)(kW) =

mw C p T
Time taken

a. mw = mass of water in chiller


b. Cp = specific heat of water = 4.1868J/kgC
c. T = drop in water temp.
4. COPactual =

Refrigeration Effect (N )
Compressor Work (W )

RESULTS:
The coefficient of performance of the given VCRS is

Whirling of Shafts
AIM: To verify experimentally that the critical speeds of rotating systems are
the natural frequencies of their transverse vibrations.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

A shaft supported in two bearings and driven through belt drive by an


electric motor with a rheostat for varying the speed
A stroboscope for measurement of speed
Standard discs of known weights

THEORY:
Centrifugal forces resulting from unbalance in the rotating masses produce
lateral vibrations of the rotating shafts. When a rotating system has a speed
equal to the natural frequency of the system, the system is said to be in a state
of resonance and the amplitude of vibration may become very large. If the shaft
runs at this speed or near this speed, fatigue failure is likely to occur. In addition ,
the vibration this produced will cause undue wear of moving parts and noise.
This speed is known as Critical Speed, Whirling Speed, or Whipping Speed.

S = geometric centre of the disc


G = centre of gravity of the disc
O = point where the bearing centre line and the plane of the disc intersect
r = distance between O and S lateral deflection of the shaft
e = distance between S and G
m = mass of the disc
= angular velocity of the shaft
K = lateral stiffness of the shaft

When the shaft is rotating, for equilibrium:


Restoring force of the shaft = Centrifugal force
kr = m2(r+e) or

Where

r=( /n2 ) / ( 1( / n2) )

n= k / m

, the natural frequency of lateral vibrations of the shaft and

disc. When the speed of rotation equals the natural frequency of the system, the
deflection r approaches infinity leading to instability. Thus this speed of rotation
is called critical speed. r is positive below the critical speed and negative for
speeds greater than the critical speed. Natural frequency of transverse vibrations
of the following systems is considered:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Uniformly loaded shaft


Simply supported shaft with a single disc
Simply supported shaft with two discs
Simply supported shaft with three discs

PROCEDURE:
1. Determine theoretically the natural frequency of the given system using
the relevant equations. Measure the diameter of the cross section of the
shaft and the length of the shaft between the bearings.
2. Run the shaft and determine the whirling speed of the shaft.
3. Tabulate the results.

CALCULATIONS AND OBSERVATIONS:


Diameter of the cross section of the shaft (d) = 0.8cm
Density of the shaft material (steel) () = 0.0078kg/cm 3
Weight of the shaft/unit length (W) = (d 2/4)* =
= d2/64

Moment of inertia of the shaft (I)


=

Youngs modulus of the material (E) = 2.1 10 6kg/cm2 = 2.06 107N/cm2


Case 1 - Uniformly distributed loaded shaft
Static deflection

s=( 5 /384 ) ( W L 4 / EI )
=

Natural frequency

f n=5.623 60/ s

cpm

=
Cases 2 to 4
Static deflection due to uniformly distributed load

s=( 5 /384 ) ( W L 4 / EI )

Static deflection due to concentrated load

Similarly,

2=( w2 a22 b 22 ) /3 EI

1=( w1 a12 b12 ) /3 EI

Natural frequency of the system:

f n=

4.987 60
cpm=
1 + 2+ + s

Natural Frequency (fn)


System

Deflection
() (cm)

(cpm)
Theoretical

Experimenta
l

RESULTS:
The comparisons of theoretical and experimental natural frequency are shown
for different loading conditions.

Vibration of Spring Mass Systems


AIM: To determine the natural frequencies of the given spring-mass systems
theoretically and verify them experimentally.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Springs
Mass
Steel scale
Stopwatch

THEORY:
Spring or springs with a single mass attached constitute a single degree of free
system. The spring may be a single spring, two springs in series, springs in
parallel combination or a combination of the above configurations. Any
arrangement of the springs can be reduced to an equivalent single spring
system. The possible combinations are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Single spring mass system


Two springs connected in series mass system
Two springs in parallel mass system
Two springs in parallel connected with third spring in series mass system

Determination of equivalent spring constants in each case is done as follows:


Two springs in series:

k=

k1 k2
k 1+ k 2

Two springs in parallel:

k =k 1 + k 2

Two springs in parallel and the third spring in series with the other two
springs:

k=

(k1 + k2 ) k3
k 1+ k 2 +k 3

For single degree of freedom system


the theoretical natural frequency of
the system is given by:

n=

60
2

g
60
n =
st
2

k
m

n = natural frequency (cpm)


g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s 2)
st = static deflection of the free end of the spring when the mass it attached to
it (m)
k = spring stiffness (N/m)
m = W/g where W = weight of the mass attached to the spring (N)

The following assumptions are made in deriving the natural frequency equation:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The spring is linear and of negligible mass


Mass is rigid
The mass is constrained to vibrate in a vertical plane
Damping effect of support and surrounding air is neglected

PROCEDURE:
1. The spring is suspended from the fixed support and its initial length is
measure. Its final length is also measured after the weight has been
attached to the spring. Then the stiffness of the spring is given by the ratio
of the weight in Newton to the deflection of the spring in meters. Stiffness
of all the springs is determined in the same way.
2. Springs in the required configurations are suspended from the support.
The equivalent stiffness is calculated from the formula corresponding to
the system configuration. The theoretical natural frequency is calculated.
3. The system is disturbed from its equilibrium position by pulling the weight
vertically and releasing it.
4. The number of oscillations completed in one minute is noted down with
the help of a stop watch. The results are tabulated.

OBSERVATIONS:
System

Stiffness of
the springs
(N/m)

Equivalent
spring stiffness
(N/m)

Theoretical
natural
frequency
(cpm)

Actual natural
frequency
(cpm)

RESULTS:
The theoretical and experimental natural frequencies of different spring mass
systems are determined and tabulated.

Thermal Conductivity of Metal


Rod
AIM: To determine the thermal conductivity of the given metal rod.

THEORY:
From Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction:

Q=kA

dT
dx

Where,
Q = rate of heat conduction (W)
A = area of heat transfer, (m2)
k = thermal conductivity of the material, (W/mK)

dT
dx

= thermal gradient (K/m)

Thermal conductivity is a property of the material and may be defined as the


amount of heat conducted per unit time through unit area when a unit
temperature difference is maintained across unit thickness.

APPARATUS:
The apparatus consists of a brass rod, one end of which is heated by an electric
heating coil while the other end projects into the cooling water jacket. The rod is
insulated with glass wool to minimize the radiation and convection loss from the
surface of the rod and this ensures nearly constant temperature gradient
throughout the length of the rod. The temperature of the rod is measure at five
different locations. The heater is provided with a dimmerstat for controlling the
heat input. Water is circulated through the jacket and its flow rate and
temperature rise can be measured.

SPECIFICATIONS:
Specimen material:
Size of the specimen:

Brass rod
20mm, 450mm long

Cylindrical shell:

300mm long

Voltmeter:

Digital type, 0-300V, AC

Ammeter:

Digital type, 0-2A, AC

Dimmer for heating coil: 0-230V, 12A

Heater:

Band type Nichrome heater, 250W

Thermocouple used:

Cr-Al, 11 nos.

Temperature indicator:

Digital type, 0-199.9

PROCEDURE:
1. Power supply is given to the apparatus.
2. Give heat input to the heater by slowly rotating the dimmer and adjust the
voltage to the required value.
3. Start the cooling water supply through the jacket and adjust its flow rate
so that the heat is taken away from the specimen constantly.
4. Allow sufficient time for the apparatus to reach steady state.
5. Take readings from the voltmeter and ammeter.
6. Note the temperatures along the length of the specimen rod at 5 different
locations.
7. Note down the inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water and measure
the flow rate of water.
8. Repeat the experiment with different heat inputs.

OBSERVATIONS:
Trial 1
Voltmeter reading (V)
(volts)
Ammeter reading (I)
(amps)

Metal Rod Thermocouple Readings (C)

Heat input (VI) (W)


T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
T10
T11

Volume flow rate of water


(Vf) (cc/min)

Trial 2

Trial 3

CALCULATIONS:
Plot the variation of temperature along the length of the rod. From the graph,
obtain dT/dx, which is the slope of the straight line passing through/near the
points on the graph. Assuming no heat loss, heat conducted through the rod =
heat carried away by the cooling water.

Q=kA

dT
=mf C p ( T 11 T 10 )
dx

Where,
k = thermal conductivity of metal rod (W/mK)
A = cross sectional area of metal rod (m2) = (d2/4)
d = diameter of the specimen = 20mm
Cp = specific heat of water = 4.187kJ/kgK
Thus, the thermal conductivity k of metal rod can be evaluated.

dT
=
dx

k=

mf C p ( T 11 T 10 ) Q dT
=
=
dT
A
dx
A
dx

RESULTS:
1. Graph of variation of temperature along the length of the rod is plotted.
2. Thermal conductivity of the rod is

Heat Transfer through Lagged


Pipe
AIM: To determine the heat flow rate through lagged pipe for known value of
thermal conductivity of lagging material.

DESCRIPTION:
To apparatus consists of two concentric pipe mounted on suitable stands. The
inside pipe consists of the heater. Between the first cylinders the insulating
material with which lagging is to be done is saw dust. The thermocouples are
attached to the surface of cylinders to measure the temperature. The input to
the heater is varied through a dimmerstat and measured on a wattmeter. The
experiment can be conducted at various values of input and calculations can be
made accordingly.

SPECIFICATIONS:
Inner pipe diameter (d1) =

45mm

Outer pipe diameter (d2) =

75mm

Length of the pipe (l) =

500mm

Surface temperature on inner pipe T1, T2 and T3


Inner surface temperature on outer pipe T4 and T5
Heater control unit

2A

Wattmeter

1200W

Insulating materials
1. Thermal conductivity (asbestos), (K1) = 0.26W/mK
2. Thermal conductivity (saw dust), (K2) = 0.069W/mK

LIMITS AND PRECAUTIONS:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Keep dimmerstat at zero position before start.


Increase voltage gradually.
Keep the assembly undisturbed while testing.
Read the temperature indicator.

PROCEDURE:
1. Switch on the apparatus and vary dimmerstat to desired value by using
voltmeter and ammeter.
2. Take readings of all the 5 thermocouples when steady state is reached.

OBSERVATIONS:
Sl. No.

Thermocouple Readings (C)

Heat Input (Vi)


(W)

T1

T2

T3

CALCULATIONS:
1. Mean temperature (C)

Ti=

T 1+ T 2 +T 3
=
3

T o=

T 4 +T 5
=
2

2. Heat conducted through composite cylinder

Q=

2 L ( T i T o )
ln ( r 2 /r 1 )
K1

3. Effective thermal conductivity

K eff =

Q ln ( r 2 /r 1 )
2 L ( T iT o )

4. Temperature profile based on Keff

T=

Q ln ( r 2 /r 1 )
=
2 l K eff

RESULTS:
The effective thermal conductivity of the lagged pipe is

T4

T5

Composite Wall Apparatus


AIM: To determine the thermal conductivity of different wall material and
overall heat transfer coefficient of the composite wall.

THEORY:
Thermal conductivity of a composite wall is given by:

Q=

U=

UA T
L
1
L 1 L2 L3
+ +
K1 K2 K3

Q = heat input (W)


A = area of heat flow (m2)
T = temperature difference (C)
U = overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)
K = thermal conductivity of material (W/mK)
L = thickness of wall (m)

APPARATUS:
The apparatus consists of three walls made of cast iron, press wood, and Bakelite
having the same thickness. The three walls are clamped on both sides using
bolts and nuts. On one side of the composite wall, a heater is provided. The
heater input can be varied using a dimmerstat. Thermocouples are embedded at
top and bottom wall sections to find out the average temperature.

SPECIFICATIONS:
Diameter of composite wall (D)

150mm

Thickness of each wall (L)

12mm

PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Switch on the apparatus.


Adjust power input to required value using dimmerstat.
Allow sufficient time to reach steady state.
Note down all the temperatures.
Repeat the experiment for different heat input.

OBSERVATIONS:
Sl. No.

Heat
input in
watts (W)

Temperature readings (C)


T1 (TH)

T2 (TC)

T3 (TP)

T4

CALCULATIONS:
1. Temperature at outer surface of Bakelite (TB) =
2. Heat transfer area (A) =

T 4 +T 5
=
2

D2
4 =

3. Thermal conductivity of CI wall (KC) =

QL
A ( T H T C ) =

4. Thermal conductivity of press wood wall (KP) =

5. Thermal conductivity of Bakelite wall (KB) =

6. Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) =

QL
A ( T C T P ) =

QL
A ( T PT B ) =

1
L 1 L 2 L3
+ +
K1 K2 K3

RESULTS:
The thermal conductivity each wall is found and the overall heat transfer
coefficient was calculated.
CI wall
Press wood
Bakelite
Overall heat transfer coefficient

T5

Measurement of Emissivity
AIM: To determine the emissivity of a gray surface.
THEORY:
When heat is supplied at a constant rate to a body, heat loss takes place by
conduction, convection and radiation. If two bodies of the same geometry are
heated under identical conditions, the heat loss by conduction and convection
can be assumed to be same for both the bodies. The heat loss by radiation
depends on:
a. Characteristic of the material
b. Geometry of the surface
c. Temperature of the surface

Rate of heat loss to surrounding air by radiation is given by:

Q= A 1 1 ( T 14T 42 )
= Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.6710-8W/m2K4
A1 = surface area (m2)
1 = emissivity
T1 = surface temperature of the body (K)
T2 = surrounding atmospheric temperature (K)

APPARATUS:
Two circular plates of identical dimensions (150mm dia), one of which is made
black by applying a thick layer of lamp black while the other plate whose
emissivity is to be measured is a gray body. Heating coils are provided at the
bottom of the plates. The plates are mounted on an asbestos cement sheet and
kept in an enclosure to ensure undisturbed natural convection. Two
thermocouples are mounted on the same plate to measure the temperature. One
thermocouple is in the chamber to measure the chamber air temperature.

PROCEDURE:
1. Switch on the apparatus.
2. Adjust power input to required value using dimmerstat to both the plates,
giving equal power to each.
3. When steady state is achieved, note down all the thermocouple readings.
4. Repeat experiment for different values of input power.

OBSERVATIONS:
Sl. No.

Heat
Input (W)

Temperature of
black surface (C)
T1

Temperature of test
surface (C)

T2

CALCULATIONS:
1. Temperature of the black body (K)

T b=

T 1 +T 2
+273=
2

2. Temperature of the gray body (K)

T g=

T 3 +T 4
+273=
2

3. Chamber air temperature (K)

T a=T 5+273=
4. Emissivity of test plate (gray body)

T 4bT 4a
=
T 4gT 4a

RESULTS:
The emissivity of the gray body is found to be

T3

T4

Ambient
temperature
(C)
T5

Heat Transfer through Extended


Surfaces
AIM:
1. To find out the temperature distribution along the given fin for constant
base temperature under natural and forced flow conditions.
2. To find out effectiveness, fin efficiency, heat transfer (theoretical and
experimental) of the fin under both conditions.

APPARATUS:
Set of fins of circular cross section of length L is fitted in the rectangular duct as
shown. The base of the fin is fixed to a heater plate for heating the fin.
Thermocouples are provided on the surface of the fin. The duct is provided with a
blower to control the air flow with the help of a valve at the suction end. A
multichannel temperature indicator is provided to monitor different temperature
points. An anemometer has been provided to measure the air velocity through
the duct. Digital ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter have been provided to
measure power input to the heater. Two heat regulators to vary power input to
the heaters are provided. The two heaters are sandwiched between metal plates.
Heater 1 regulates the heat flow of outer heater, heat input of which is
indicated by the voltmeter and ammeter. Heater 2 regulates the heat flow of
inner heater, heat input of which is indicated by the wattmeter. A total of 20
thermocouples have been provided in the experiment. Temperature can be read
by channel selector 3 by keeping the other two at 8 th point. CH1 reads
temperature from 1 to 7, CH2 reads from 8 to 15 and CH3 reads from 16 to 20.

SPECIFICATIONS:
1.
2.
3.
a.
b.
c.
4.
5.

Length of the pin fin (L)


150mm
Diameter of the pin fin (D)
12.5mm
Thermal conductivity of material (K)
Brass
111W/mK
Copper
327W/mK
Stainless steel
45W/mK
Duct size
100mm 200mm
Distance between each thermocouple on pin fin
45mm

PROCEDURE:
Natural Convection
1. Switch on the power supply to the apparatus.
2. Adjust Heater 1 and Heater 2 by observing voltmeter, ammeter and
wattmeter to obtain the required heat input.
3. Wait till steady state is reached.
4. Note down voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter and thermocouple readings.
5. Repeat the experiment for different values of heat input.

Forced Convection
1. Switch on the power supply to the apparatus.
2. Adjust Heater 1 and Heater 2 by observing voltmeter, ammeter and
wattmeter to obtain the required heat input.
3. Start the blower and set the velocity to the required value.
4. Wait till steady state is reached.
5. Note down voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter, thermocouple and hot wire
anemometer readings.
6. Repeat the experiment for different values of heat input.

CALCULATIONS:
Natural Convection
1. Surface mean temperature

of temperaturesalong fin

Tmf =

no . of points

2. Air temperature (Ta) =

T mf +T a
=
2

3. Tm =

At which temperature air properties are to be read:


=
Cp =
Kair =
=
4. Prandtl number (Pr)

Pr

Cp
=
K air

5. Grashoff number (Gr)


3

Gr=
=

D g ( )
2

1
T m +273

=T mf T a

=
=

6. Nusselt number (Nu) =


Nu = 0.59(Gr.Pr)0.25 where 104<Gr.Pr<109
Nu = 0.13(Gr.Pr)0.33 where 109<Gr.Pr<1012
7.

hth =

Nu K air
D

8. Perimeter (P) = D =
9. K = thermal conductivity of fin material =

10.Ac =

D
4

11.m =

hP
K Ac

12.Effectiveness of fin

tanh ( mL )
h Ac / KP

13.

Fin efficiency

tanh ( mL )
tan ( mL )

14.Temperature distribution along the length of the fin:

T x =T a + ( T oT a )

cosh ( m ( L X ) )
cosh ( mL )

Tx = temperature of the fin at distance X on the fin measured from base


(C)
To = fin base temperature (C)
Ta = ambient temperature (C)
15.Actual heat transfer rate

q= hPKA ( T o T a ) tanh ( mL )
Forced Convection
1. Surface mean temperature
Tmf =

of temperaturesalong fin
no . of points

2. Air temperature (Ta) =


3. Tm =

T mf +T a
2

At which temperature air properties are to be read:


air =
Kair =
=
Cp =
4. Reynolds number (Re)

V Deq
=

V = velocity of air (m/s)

Deq = duct area (m2)


5. Nusselt number (Nu)=
Nu = 0.618(Re) 0.466 where 40<Re<4000
Nu = 0.174(Re) 0.618 where 4000<Re<40000
6. h =

Nu K air
D

D = diameter of fin
7. m =

hp
K Ac

8. Effectiveness of fin

9.

tanh ( mL )
h Ac / KP

Fin efficiency

tanh ( mL )
tan ( mL )

10.Temperature distribution along the length of the fin:

T x =T a + ( T oT a )

cosh ( m ( L X ) )
cosh ( mL )

Tx = temperature of the fin at distance X on the fin measured from base


(C)
To = fin base temperature (C)
Ta = ambient temperature (C)
11.Actual heat transfer rate

q= hPKA ( T o T a ) tanh ( mL )

Brass Fin
Heater 1

Type of
flow

SS fin

Heater 2

Voltmet

Ammet

Wattmet

T1

(top-left)
T2

T3

T4

(top middle)
T5

T6

er (V)

er (A)

er (W)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

Natural

Forced

A
Brass fin

Copper fin

Brass fin

(bottom-left)

(bottom-middle)

(bottom-right)

tem
T10

T11

T12

T13

T14

T15

T16

T17

T18

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

Fin

Type of

Power

hth

Material

flow

(W)

(W/m2K)

Brass

Natural

TL

Forced

SS

Natural

TM

Forced

Brass

Natural

TR

Forced

Brass

Natural

Measured temperature
Tbase

T45

T90

Theoretical tempe
Tbase

T45

BL

Forced

Copper

Natural

BM

Forced

Brass

Natural

BR

Forced