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Mechanical Lab II manual

Mechanical Lab II manual

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SURATHKAL

Mechanical Lab II

Practical Manual

Name:

__________________________________________________________________________________

____________________

Roll no.:

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________

Batch:

__________________________________________________________________________________

____________________

Instructor:

__________________________________________________________________________________

_______________

AIM: To study the performance of a single stage air compressor at different

delivery pressures.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Elgi Single Stage Air Compressor with Receiver

a. Delivery pressure = 9.7 bar

b. Free air delivered = 10.73 m3/hr

c. Speed = 750 rpm

d. Bore = 70 mm

e. Stroke = 85 mm

f. Cooling: Air Cooled

2. Driving Motor

a. 3 phase Induction Motor

b. Power = 2 hp

c. Speed = 2880 rpm

d. Voltage = 420 V

e. Current = 3 A

3. Manometer

4. Energy meter; Constant = 150 rev/KWhr

5. Tachometer

6. Planimeter

DESCRIPTION:

The compressor outlet is connected to a storage tank which receivers the

compressed air and stores it. The air to the inlet is sucked through an orifice

across which the manometer is connected. The compressor is driven by an

electric motor. The speed of the compressor is measured by a mechanical type

tachometer.

PROCEDURE:

Energy meter is connected between two lines to measure the power input to the

motor. The outlet valve of the receiver is kept open to facilitate starting. Then the

motor is switched on. When the compressor reaches its normal speed, the outlet

valve or the receiver is closed and pressure is built up. When the pressures

reaches, say 2 bars the outlet valve adjusted is so that the delivery pressure

remains constant at 2 bars. At this point, manometer reader, speed of motor

(using tachometer) and energy meter readings are noted down. After the

pressure reaches the maximum value, the pressure is gradually decreased by

adjusting the outlet valve and all the readings at the same pressures of 8, 7, 6, 4,

2 bars are noted. The average of these two may be taken as the final reading.

Note: Sufficient time must be allowed for the compressor to adjust itself for the

steady state values of loads. The delivery pressure must not be allowed to

exceed the maximum rated value.

OBSERVATIONS:

Trial

No.

Spring strength of indicator = 15.2 10 -3 (N/mm2)/mm

Orifice constant, K = 0.02655

Length of Indicator Diagram in mm =

Efficiency of motor = 75%

Delivery

Pressure

(Pd)(bar)

Rev. (w)

CALCULATIONS:

Time (t)

(sec)

Manometer

Reading (h)

(cm) of H2O

Speed

(N)

(rpm)

Area of

Indicator

Diagram (a)

(mm2)

Trial

No.

Delivery

Pressure

(bar)

Shaft

Power

(KW)

MEP

(N/mm2)

Indicated

Power

(KW)

Free Air

Delivered

(m3/min)

Isotherma

l Power

(KW)

Isotherma

l

Efficiency

Mec

al

Effi

24

w

t

=

3. Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) (N/mm2) = Pm =

P m LAM

60000

4. IP (KW) =

a

S

l

5. Free Air Delivered (FAD) (m3/min)

V1 =

Ti

Po

h

Pi

To

Assuming Ti = To = T and Pi = Po = P

V=

k h

T

P

Where,

T = Ambient temperature of air (K)

P = Ambient pressure (cm of Hg)

h = Pressure head across the orifice (cm of H 2O)

6. Isothermal Power (KW) =

P1 V 1 ln ( r )

60000

r=

P1

P2

( P d + P1 )

P1|.|

7. Mechanical Efficiency =

IP

SP

9. Overall Efficiency = Isothermal Power/Shaft Power =

10.Volumetric Efficiency =

FAD /min

2

D ln

4

RESULTS:

The performance characteristic curves of the single stage air compressor are

obtained, tabulated and plotted on the graph sheet.

The performance characteristic curves are: FAD, SP, IP,

Centrifugal Blower

AIM: To determine the characteristics of a centrifugal blower.

APPARATUS:

The motor-blower setup with flow measurement devices

SPECIFICATIONS:

Blower:

Flow rate =

Pressure =

Outlet dia. = 10cm

Speed = 2880rpm

Energy meter constant = 320 rev/KWhr

Motor:

Power = 2hp

Efficiency = 90%

DESCRIPTION:

The centrifugal blower is directly coupled to an induction motor. The outlet of the

blower is connected to a pipe in which there is a tapping to measure the delivery

head. The delivery head is changed by means of a butterfly valve placed in the

delivery pipe. The motor is connected to the mains through an energy meter to

measure the input to the motor.

PROCEDURE:

The butterfly valve is fully closed and the motor is switched on. Due to the

leakage past the valve there may be a small air flow and this is indicated by the

manometer reading. The delivery head, the pressure difference across the orifice

place and the energy meter readings are noted down. The experiment is

repeated for different delivery heads by opening the valve.

OBSERVATIONS:

Position of

valve

Energy Meter

Reading

Delivery

Pressure (h1)

Head across

flow meter (h)

Flow rate

(Q) (m3/hr)

Rev

(w)

(cm) of H2O

Time (t)

(sec)

(cm) of H2O

Fully

closed

closed

closed

closed

Fully open

CALCULATIONS:

1. Input power to motor (IP)(KW) =

3600 w

320 t

3. Output of the blower (OP)(KW) =

a QH

3600 10 3

b. Q = Volume of air delivered (m3/hr) =

c. H = head in metres of air =

4. Output (KW) =

Q h 1 9810

3600 10 100

5. Blower efficiency =

RESULTS:

h1 water

100 air

171 h / a =

2.725 Qh 1 105

Input

Output of Blower

Blower

100

Position of

valve

Output of blower

(KW)

Input to blower

(KW)

Fully closed

closed

closed

closed

Fully open

1. Discharge volume vs. Delivery head

2. Blower efficiency vs. Delivery head

3. SP vs. Delivery head

Blower Efficiency

AIM: To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient and effectiveness of a

double pipe heat exchanger under conditions of parallel flow and counter flow.

THEORY:

Heat transfer from one fluid to another fluid is given by the expression,

Q= A U ( T )m

Where,

U is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the inside area

A is the inside area of the heat exchanger

For which ( T )m =

i o

log ( i /o )

Parallel Flow

Counter Flow

Thi - Tci

Thi - Tco

Tho - Tco

Tho - Tci

This expression for the mean temperature difference is known as the Log Mean

Temperature Difference (LMTD).

U=

Q

( T )m A

term Heat Exchanger Effectiveness is used, which is defined as:

Maximum possible heat transfer

the hot fluid or the energy gained by the cold fluid as

Q=C c ( T co T ci )

Q=C h ( T hi T ho )

C c =W c C p

or

Ch =W h C p

and

Wc = weight of cold fluid flowing per unit time

Cph and Cpc are the specific heats of the hot and cold fluid respectively

Maximum possible heat transfer is given by

Qmax =Cmin ( T hi T ci )

Hence, effectiveness

=C h ( T hi T ho ) / C min ( T hi T ci )

=C c ( T co T ci ) /C min ( T hi T ci )

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

It consists of two concentric pipes of specific length through which hot and cold

fluids pass. By opening and closing suitable valves the heat exchangers can be

operated either in parallel or counter flow configurations. Provision has to be

made to measure flow rates as well as inlet and outlet temperatures for both

fluids. The heat exchanger is insulated from outside to prevent any loss to

atmosphere. The entire setup is mounted on a frame.

PROCEDURE:

The heat exchanger is set for parallel flow operation by suitably manipulating the

valves. After steady state is reached the flow rate and temperature are recorded.

Next, the heat exchanger is set for counter flow operation and after steady state

conditions are reached, the required data is recorded. The experiment can be

repeated for different flow rates and with different fluids. The values of U and E

are calculated for each set of specific conditions.

OBSERVATIONS:

Heat transfer area of the pipe = 0.0612m2

Data Recorded

Parallel Flow

Counter Flow

Parallel Flow

Counter Flow

Hot Fluid

Flow rate (kg/min)

(Wh)

Inlet Temperature (C)

(Thi)

Outlet Temperature

(C) (Tho)

Cold Fluid

Flow rate (kg/min)

(Wh)

Inlet Temperature (C)

(Tci)

Outlet Temperature

(C) (Tco)

RESULTS:

Calculated Values

LMTD (C)

U (W/m2K)

Effectiveness ()

Rig

AIM: To find the coefficient of performance (COP) of a standard vapor

compression cycle refrigeration system using computerized refrigeration test rig.

THEORY:

The coefficient of performance (COP) of a refrigerator is defined as follows:

COP=

Compressor Work (input )

OBSERVATIONS:

1. Efficiency of motor ( m) = 0.9

2. Mechanical efficiency of compressor ( c) = 0.85

Parameter

Trial 1

(W)

Suction pressure (P1)(psi)

Discharge pressure (P2)

(psi)

Refrigerant temperature

at inlet to compressor

(T1)(C)

Refrigerant temperature

at outlet from

compressor (T2)(C)

Refrigerant temperature

at outlet from condenser

(T3)(C)

Refrigerant temperature

at inlet to evaporator (T4)

(C)

Water temperature in

chiller (T5)(C)

CALCULATIONS:

1. 1.01325 bar = 14.7 psi

Trial 2

Pressure = 0.068 pressure gauge reading + 1 atm (bar) =

2. Work done by compressor (W) = Wattmeter reading m c =

3. Refrigeration effect (N)(kW) =

mw C p T

Time taken

b. Cp = specific heat of water = 4.1868J/kgC

c. T = drop in water temp.

4. COPactual =

Refrigeration Effect (N )

Compressor Work (W )

RESULTS:

The coefficient of performance of the given VCRS is

Whirling of Shafts

AIM: To verify experimentally that the critical speeds of rotating systems are

the natural frequencies of their transverse vibrations.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

electric motor with a rheostat for varying the speed

A stroboscope for measurement of speed

Standard discs of known weights

THEORY:

Centrifugal forces resulting from unbalance in the rotating masses produce

lateral vibrations of the rotating shafts. When a rotating system has a speed

equal to the natural frequency of the system, the system is said to be in a state

of resonance and the amplitude of vibration may become very large. If the shaft

runs at this speed or near this speed, fatigue failure is likely to occur. In addition ,

the vibration this produced will cause undue wear of moving parts and noise.

This speed is known as Critical Speed, Whirling Speed, or Whipping Speed.

G = centre of gravity of the disc

O = point where the bearing centre line and the plane of the disc intersect

r = distance between O and S lateral deflection of the shaft

e = distance between S and G

m = mass of the disc

= angular velocity of the shaft

K = lateral stiffness of the shaft

Restoring force of the shaft = Centrifugal force

kr = m2(r+e) or

Where

n= k / m

disc. When the speed of rotation equals the natural frequency of the system, the

deflection r approaches infinity leading to instability. Thus this speed of rotation

is called critical speed. r is positive below the critical speed and negative for

speeds greater than the critical speed. Natural frequency of transverse vibrations

of the following systems is considered:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Simply supported shaft with a single disc

Simply supported shaft with two discs

Simply supported shaft with three discs

PROCEDURE:

1. Determine theoretically the natural frequency of the given system using

the relevant equations. Measure the diameter of the cross section of the

shaft and the length of the shaft between the bearings.

2. Run the shaft and determine the whirling speed of the shaft.

3. Tabulate the results.

Diameter of the cross section of the shaft (d) = 0.8cm

Density of the shaft material (steel) () = 0.0078kg/cm 3

Weight of the shaft/unit length (W) = (d 2/4)* =

= d2/64

=

Case 1 - Uniformly distributed loaded shaft

Static deflection

s=( 5 /384 ) ( W L 4 / EI )

=

Natural frequency

f n=5.623 60/ s

cpm

=

Cases 2 to 4

Static deflection due to uniformly distributed load

s=( 5 /384 ) ( W L 4 / EI )

Similarly,

2=( w2 a22 b 22 ) /3 EI

f n=

4.987 60

cpm=

1 + 2+ + s

System

Deflection

() (cm)

(cpm)

Theoretical

Experimenta

l

RESULTS:

The comparisons of theoretical and experimental natural frequency are shown

for different loading conditions.

AIM: To determine the natural frequencies of the given spring-mass systems

theoretically and verify them experimentally.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Springs

Mass

Steel scale

Stopwatch

THEORY:

Spring or springs with a single mass attached constitute a single degree of free

system. The spring may be a single spring, two springs in series, springs in

parallel combination or a combination of the above configurations. Any

arrangement of the springs can be reduced to an equivalent single spring

system. The possible combinations are:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Two springs connected in series mass system

Two springs in parallel mass system

Two springs in parallel connected with third spring in series mass system

Two springs in series:

k=

k1 k2

k 1+ k 2

k =k 1 + k 2

Two springs in parallel and the third spring in series with the other two

springs:

k=

(k1 + k2 ) k3

k 1+ k 2 +k 3

the theoretical natural frequency of

the system is given by:

n=

60

2

g

60

n =

st

2

k

m

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s 2)

st = static deflection of the free end of the spring when the mass it attached to

it (m)

k = spring stiffness (N/m)

m = W/g where W = weight of the mass attached to the spring (N)

The following assumptions are made in deriving the natural frequency equation:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Mass is rigid

The mass is constrained to vibrate in a vertical plane

Damping effect of support and surrounding air is neglected

PROCEDURE:

1. The spring is suspended from the fixed support and its initial length is

measure. Its final length is also measured after the weight has been

attached to the spring. Then the stiffness of the spring is given by the ratio

of the weight in Newton to the deflection of the spring in meters. Stiffness

of all the springs is determined in the same way.

2. Springs in the required configurations are suspended from the support.

The equivalent stiffness is calculated from the formula corresponding to

the system configuration. The theoretical natural frequency is calculated.

3. The system is disturbed from its equilibrium position by pulling the weight

vertically and releasing it.

4. The number of oscillations completed in one minute is noted down with

the help of a stop watch. The results are tabulated.

OBSERVATIONS:

System

Stiffness of

the springs

(N/m)

Equivalent

spring stiffness

(N/m)

Theoretical

natural

frequency

(cpm)

Actual natural

frequency

(cpm)

RESULTS:

The theoretical and experimental natural frequencies of different spring mass

systems are determined and tabulated.

Rod

AIM: To determine the thermal conductivity of the given metal rod.

THEORY:

From Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction:

Q=kA

dT

dx

Where,

Q = rate of heat conduction (W)

A = area of heat transfer, (m2)

k = thermal conductivity of the material, (W/mK)

dT

dx

amount of heat conducted per unit time through unit area when a unit

temperature difference is maintained across unit thickness.

APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of a brass rod, one end of which is heated by an electric

heating coil while the other end projects into the cooling water jacket. The rod is

insulated with glass wool to minimize the radiation and convection loss from the

surface of the rod and this ensures nearly constant temperature gradient

throughout the length of the rod. The temperature of the rod is measure at five

different locations. The heater is provided with a dimmerstat for controlling the

heat input. Water is circulated through the jacket and its flow rate and

temperature rise can be measured.

SPECIFICATIONS:

Specimen material:

Size of the specimen:

Brass rod

20mm, 450mm long

Cylindrical shell:

300mm long

Voltmeter:

Ammeter:

Heater:

Thermocouple used:

Cr-Al, 11 nos.

Temperature indicator:

PROCEDURE:

1. Power supply is given to the apparatus.

2. Give heat input to the heater by slowly rotating the dimmer and adjust the

voltage to the required value.

3. Start the cooling water supply through the jacket and adjust its flow rate

so that the heat is taken away from the specimen constantly.

4. Allow sufficient time for the apparatus to reach steady state.

5. Take readings from the voltmeter and ammeter.

6. Note the temperatures along the length of the specimen rod at 5 different

locations.

7. Note down the inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water and measure

the flow rate of water.

8. Repeat the experiment with different heat inputs.

OBSERVATIONS:

Trial 1

Voltmeter reading (V)

(volts)

Ammeter reading (I)

(amps)

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

T9

T10

T11

(Vf) (cc/min)

Trial 2

Trial 3

CALCULATIONS:

Plot the variation of temperature along the length of the rod. From the graph,

obtain dT/dx, which is the slope of the straight line passing through/near the

points on the graph. Assuming no heat loss, heat conducted through the rod =

heat carried away by the cooling water.

Q=kA

dT

=mf C p ( T 11 T 10 )

dx

Where,

k = thermal conductivity of metal rod (W/mK)

A = cross sectional area of metal rod (m2) = (d2/4)

d = diameter of the specimen = 20mm

Cp = specific heat of water = 4.187kJ/kgK

Thus, the thermal conductivity k of metal rod can be evaluated.

dT

=

dx

k=

mf C p ( T 11 T 10 ) Q dT

=

=

dT

A

dx

A

dx

RESULTS:

1. Graph of variation of temperature along the length of the rod is plotted.

2. Thermal conductivity of the rod is

Pipe

AIM: To determine the heat flow rate through lagged pipe for known value of

thermal conductivity of lagging material.

DESCRIPTION:

To apparatus consists of two concentric pipe mounted on suitable stands. The

inside pipe consists of the heater. Between the first cylinders the insulating

material with which lagging is to be done is saw dust. The thermocouples are

attached to the surface of cylinders to measure the temperature. The input to

the heater is varied through a dimmerstat and measured on a wattmeter. The

experiment can be conducted at various values of input and calculations can be

made accordingly.

SPECIFICATIONS:

Inner pipe diameter (d1) =

45mm

75mm

500mm

Inner surface temperature on outer pipe T4 and T5

Heater control unit

2A

Wattmeter

1200W

Insulating materials

1. Thermal conductivity (asbestos), (K1) = 0.26W/mK

2. Thermal conductivity (saw dust), (K2) = 0.069W/mK

1.

2.

3.

4.

Increase voltage gradually.

Keep the assembly undisturbed while testing.

Read the temperature indicator.

PROCEDURE:

1. Switch on the apparatus and vary dimmerstat to desired value by using

voltmeter and ammeter.

2. Take readings of all the 5 thermocouples when steady state is reached.

OBSERVATIONS:

Sl. No.

(W)

T1

T2

T3

CALCULATIONS:

1. Mean temperature (C)

Ti=

T 1+ T 2 +T 3

=

3

T o=

T 4 +T 5

=

2

Q=

2 L ( T i T o )

ln ( r 2 /r 1 )

K1

K eff =

Q ln ( r 2 /r 1 )

2 L ( T iT o )

T=

Q ln ( r 2 /r 1 )

=

2 l K eff

RESULTS:

The effective thermal conductivity of the lagged pipe is

T4

T5

AIM: To determine the thermal conductivity of different wall material and

overall heat transfer coefficient of the composite wall.

THEORY:

Thermal conductivity of a composite wall is given by:

Q=

U=

UA T

L

1

L 1 L2 L3

+ +

K1 K2 K3

A = area of heat flow (m2)

T = temperature difference (C)

U = overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)

K = thermal conductivity of material (W/mK)

L = thickness of wall (m)

APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of three walls made of cast iron, press wood, and Bakelite

having the same thickness. The three walls are clamped on both sides using

bolts and nuts. On one side of the composite wall, a heater is provided. The

heater input can be varied using a dimmerstat. Thermocouples are embedded at

top and bottom wall sections to find out the average temperature.

SPECIFICATIONS:

Diameter of composite wall (D)

150mm

12mm

PROCEDURE:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Adjust power input to required value using dimmerstat.

Allow sufficient time to reach steady state.

Note down all the temperatures.

Repeat the experiment for different heat input.

OBSERVATIONS:

Sl. No.

Heat

input in

watts (W)

T1 (TH)

T2 (TC)

T3 (TP)

T4

CALCULATIONS:

1. Temperature at outer surface of Bakelite (TB) =

2. Heat transfer area (A) =

T 4 +T 5

=

2

D2

4 =

QL

A ( T H T C ) =

QL

A ( T C T P ) =

QL

A ( T PT B ) =

1

L 1 L 2 L3

+ +

K1 K2 K3

RESULTS:

The thermal conductivity each wall is found and the overall heat transfer

coefficient was calculated.

CI wall

Press wood

Bakelite

Overall heat transfer coefficient

T5

Measurement of Emissivity

AIM: To determine the emissivity of a gray surface.

THEORY:

When heat is supplied at a constant rate to a body, heat loss takes place by

conduction, convection and radiation. If two bodies of the same geometry are

heated under identical conditions, the heat loss by conduction and convection

can be assumed to be same for both the bodies. The heat loss by radiation

depends on:

a. Characteristic of the material

b. Geometry of the surface

c. Temperature of the surface

Q= A 1 1 ( T 14T 42 )

= Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.6710-8W/m2K4

A1 = surface area (m2)

1 = emissivity

T1 = surface temperature of the body (K)

T2 = surrounding atmospheric temperature (K)

APPARATUS:

Two circular plates of identical dimensions (150mm dia), one of which is made

black by applying a thick layer of lamp black while the other plate whose

emissivity is to be measured is a gray body. Heating coils are provided at the

bottom of the plates. The plates are mounted on an asbestos cement sheet and

kept in an enclosure to ensure undisturbed natural convection. Two

thermocouples are mounted on the same plate to measure the temperature. One

thermocouple is in the chamber to measure the chamber air temperature.

PROCEDURE:

1. Switch on the apparatus.

2. Adjust power input to required value using dimmerstat to both the plates,

giving equal power to each.

3. When steady state is achieved, note down all the thermocouple readings.

4. Repeat experiment for different values of input power.

OBSERVATIONS:

Sl. No.

Heat

Input (W)

Temperature of

black surface (C)

T1

Temperature of test

surface (C)

T2

CALCULATIONS:

1. Temperature of the black body (K)

T b=

T 1 +T 2

+273=

2

T g=

T 3 +T 4

+273=

2

T a=T 5+273=

4. Emissivity of test plate (gray body)

T 4bT 4a

=

T 4gT 4a

RESULTS:

The emissivity of the gray body is found to be

T3

T4

Ambient

temperature

(C)

T5

Surfaces

AIM:

1. To find out the temperature distribution along the given fin for constant

base temperature under natural and forced flow conditions.

2. To find out effectiveness, fin efficiency, heat transfer (theoretical and

experimental) of the fin under both conditions.

APPARATUS:

Set of fins of circular cross section of length L is fitted in the rectangular duct as

shown. The base of the fin is fixed to a heater plate for heating the fin.

Thermocouples are provided on the surface of the fin. The duct is provided with a

blower to control the air flow with the help of a valve at the suction end. A

multichannel temperature indicator is provided to monitor different temperature

points. An anemometer has been provided to measure the air velocity through

the duct. Digital ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter have been provided to

measure power input to the heater. Two heat regulators to vary power input to

the heaters are provided. The two heaters are sandwiched between metal plates.

Heater 1 regulates the heat flow of outer heater, heat input of which is

indicated by the voltmeter and ammeter. Heater 2 regulates the heat flow of

inner heater, heat input of which is indicated by the wattmeter. A total of 20

thermocouples have been provided in the experiment. Temperature can be read

by channel selector 3 by keeping the other two at 8 th point. CH1 reads

temperature from 1 to 7, CH2 reads from 8 to 15 and CH3 reads from 16 to 20.

SPECIFICATIONS:

1.

2.

3.

a.

b.

c.

4.

5.

150mm

Diameter of the pin fin (D)

12.5mm

Thermal conductivity of material (K)

Brass

111W/mK

Copper

327W/mK

Stainless steel

45W/mK

Duct size

100mm 200mm

Distance between each thermocouple on pin fin

45mm

PROCEDURE:

Natural Convection

1. Switch on the power supply to the apparatus.

2. Adjust Heater 1 and Heater 2 by observing voltmeter, ammeter and

wattmeter to obtain the required heat input.

3. Wait till steady state is reached.

4. Note down voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter and thermocouple readings.

5. Repeat the experiment for different values of heat input.

Forced Convection

1. Switch on the power supply to the apparatus.

2. Adjust Heater 1 and Heater 2 by observing voltmeter, ammeter and

wattmeter to obtain the required heat input.

3. Start the blower and set the velocity to the required value.

4. Wait till steady state is reached.

5. Note down voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter, thermocouple and hot wire

anemometer readings.

6. Repeat the experiment for different values of heat input.

CALCULATIONS:

Natural Convection

1. Surface mean temperature

of temperaturesalong fin

Tmf =

no . of points

T mf +T a

=

2

3. Tm =

=

Cp =

Kair =

=

4. Prandtl number (Pr)

Pr

Cp

=

K air

3

Gr=

=

D g ( )

2

1

T m +273

=T mf T a

=

=

Nu = 0.59(Gr.Pr)0.25 where 104<Gr.Pr<109

Nu = 0.13(Gr.Pr)0.33 where 109<Gr.Pr<1012

7.

hth =

Nu K air

D

8. Perimeter (P) = D =

9. K = thermal conductivity of fin material =

10.Ac =

D

4

11.m =

hP

K Ac

12.Effectiveness of fin

tanh ( mL )

h Ac / KP

13.

Fin efficiency

tanh ( mL )

tan ( mL )

T x =T a + ( T oT a )

cosh ( m ( L X ) )

cosh ( mL )

(C)

To = fin base temperature (C)

Ta = ambient temperature (C)

15.Actual heat transfer rate

q= hPKA ( T o T a ) tanh ( mL )

Forced Convection

1. Surface mean temperature

Tmf =

of temperaturesalong fin

no . of points

3. Tm =

T mf +T a

2

air =

Kair =

=

Cp =

4. Reynolds number (Re)

V Deq

=

5. Nusselt number (Nu)=

Nu = 0.618(Re) 0.466 where 40<Re<4000

Nu = 0.174(Re) 0.618 where 4000<Re<40000

6. h =

Nu K air

D

D = diameter of fin

7. m =

hp

K Ac

8. Effectiveness of fin

9.

tanh ( mL )

h Ac / KP

Fin efficiency

tanh ( mL )

tan ( mL )

T x =T a + ( T oT a )

cosh ( m ( L X ) )

cosh ( mL )

(C)

To = fin base temperature (C)

Ta = ambient temperature (C)

11.Actual heat transfer rate

q= hPKA ( T o T a ) tanh ( mL )

Brass Fin

Heater 1

Type of

flow

SS fin

Heater 2

Voltmet

Ammet

Wattmet

T1

(top-left)

T2

T3

T4

(top middle)

T5

T6

er (V)

er (A)

er (W)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

Natural

Forced

A

Brass fin

Copper fin

Brass fin

(bottom-left)

(bottom-middle)

(bottom-right)

tem

T10

T11

T12

T13

T14

T15

T16

T17

T18

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

(C)

Fin

Type of

Power

hth

Material

flow

(W)

(W/m2K)

Brass

Natural

TL

Forced

SS

Natural

TM

Forced

Brass

Natural

TR

Forced

Brass

Natural

Measured temperature

Tbase

T45

T90

Theoretical tempe

Tbase

T45

BL

Forced

Copper

Natural

BM

Forced

Brass

Natural

BR

Forced

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