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BitHydraulics Optimization

DrillingFluid Circulation
Purposes

Bit
Hydraulics

2
DP
7/14/2006

Control formation pressures

Drive motor/turbine

Cool the bit

Clean cuttings from the hole bottom

Clean cuttings from the bit

Transport cuttings to surface

BitHydraulics Optimization
Fluid Pressure
Fluid Flow Rate
Fluid Density and Viscosity

PxQ
PHP=
1714
Frictional
Pressure
Losses

Nozzle Flow Area (TFA - sq.in.)


Nozzle Pressure Drop (psi)
Nozzle Horsepower (HSI)
Nozzle Impact Force (lbf)
Nozzle Velocity (ft/sec)
3
DP
7/14/2006

PxQ
BHP=
1714

PressureLoss Factors
Pressure In
Pressure Out

Flow In

Flow Out

Equipment and Wellbore Geometry

Flow Rate
Mud Properties

4
DP
7/14/2006

Flow Area
Length
Constrictions

Weight
Plastic Viscosity
Yield Point

PStdpipe=PSurf.Eq.+PDrill String+PMWD/Motor+PBit+PAnnulus

PressureLosses
Surface

Standpipe
Kelly Hose
Swivel
Kelly

Drill

Equipment

String

Pipe
Collars
BHA

Motor/Turbine
Bit Nozzles
Annulus
5
DP
7/14/2006

PressureLosses SurfaceEquipment

Case

6
DP
7/14/2006

Stand Pipe

Hose

Swivel

Kelly

Length
(Ft.)

ID
(In.)

Length
(Ft.)

ID
(In.)

Length
(Ft.)

ID
(In.)

Length
(Ft.)

ID
(In.)

40

3.0

45

2.0

2.0

40

2.25

40

3.5

55

2.5

2.5

40

3.00

45

4.0

55

3.0

2.5

40

3.25

45

4.0

55

3.0

3.0

40

4.0

PressureLosses
Drill Pipe

DrillString
D1

D2

OD Nominal Weight
ID (in.)
(in.)
Body
Tool Joint
(lb/ft)
3
15.5
2.992 2 1/8 2 9/16

7
DP
7/14/2006

19.5

4.276

2 3

25.6

4.000

3 3

6 5/8

25.2

5.965

4 5/8 - 5

PressureLosses
Drill Pipe

D1

DrillString

D2

Heavy Weight Drill Pipe


OD Nominal Weight
ID (in.)
(in.)
Body
Tool Joint
(lb/ft)
3
25.3
2 1/16
2 3/16

8
DP
7/14/2006

41.0

2 7/8

49.3

3 1/16

DrillString

PressureLosses
Drill Pipe

D1

Heavy Weight Drill Pipe

D2

Drill Collars

9
DP
7/14/2006

OD
(in.)

Weigh t

OD
(in.)

Weigh t

ID

(lb/ft)
ID
(in.)

(lb/ft)
54.0

44.0

165.0

143.0

PressureLosses
MWD
PDM
Turbine
RSS

10 DP
7/14/2006

MWDand
DownholeDrives

PressureLosses

Bit

Flow

Rate
Mud Weight
Nozzle TFA
Pressure Drop
HSI
JIF
11 DP
7/14/2006

PressureLosses

Flow

Annulus

Rate
Mud Weight
Casing ID
Drill String OD
Length

12 DP
7/14/2006

Exampleof PressureLosses
Hole Size =8-1/2"
Depth Out = 15,000 feet
Max. Standpipe Pressure = 3000 psi
Flow Rate = 238 GPM
Mud Weight = 14.5 ppg
At Maximum HSI
Surface Equipment Loss = 20 psi
Internal Drill String Loss = 968 psi
MWD/Motor Loss = 0
Bit Pressure Drop = 1890 psi
Annulus Loss = 122 psi
Total Loss = 3000

PStdpipe=PSurf.Eq.+PDrill String+PMWD/Motor+PBit+PAnnulus
13 DP
7/14/2006

HydraulicsOptimization
3000 psi StandpipePressure
Standpipe HP
System Loss HP
Bit Nozzle HP
JIF/sq. in.

14 DP
7/14/2006

HydraulicRecommendations
FlowRate Requirements

Flow Rate must be high enough to


transport cuttings. Back-reaming, bit body
balling and lack of chips at surface
indicate cuttings transport or sloughing
problems.

Flow Rate must be low enough to avoid


hole erosion, equipment wear, and
excessive standpipe pressure.

High flow rates often require large or


open nozzles.

Bits with large junk slots, high open face


volume, widely spaced teeth/inserts and
numerous jets are helpful.

15 DP
7/14/2006

HydraulicRecommendations
MaximumHydraulic Horsepower

Maximize nozzle HSI when cutting


structure or bottom hole balling is the
limitation.

Deep holes, high mud weights, waterbased mud and reactive formations,
cuttings packed on teeth indicate static or
dynamic chip hold down problems.

Maximum HSI obtained when nozzle


pressure drop is 65% of standpipe
pressure.

Aggressive designs with widely-spaced


blades and teeth are helpful.

16 DP
7/14/2006

HydraulicRecommendations
MaximumJet ImpactForce

Maximize JIF in shallow holes


where cuttings return and bit/hole
balling are both potential
limitations.

Common in shallow holes with high


ROP in reactive formations.

Obtained when the pressure drop


across the bit is 50% of the total
pump pressure.

17 DP
7/14/2006

HydraulicRecommendations
OtherGuidelines

18 DP
7/14/2006

30 to 50 gpm per inch of hole


diameter.

3 to 7 HSI recommended (not


always possible).

18% or less flow through centerjet


(=18% of TFA).

Blank nozzles generate crossflow.


Blank the nozzle pointing to the
cone with fewest gauge row inserts.

HydraulicProgram Design
Goal: Determine nozzle sizes and flow rate
to deliver maximum HSI or JIF within
specified operatingconstraints.
Constraints:
1. Maximum Standpipe Pressure
2. Minimum and Maximum Flow Rate
3. Maximum Pump Horsepower
4. Mud Weight
5. MWD and Motor Considerations
6. Fixed Flow Rate
7. Fixed TFA
19 DP
7/14/2006

HydraulicProgram CalculationMethod

Nozzles ?
Flow Rate ?

1. Identify Maximum Standpipe Pressure.


2. Specify HSI or JIF optimization and TFA/GPM constraints.
3. Find GPM giving maximum HSI or JIF based on frictional losses.
4. Derive Nozzles from TFA at optimum GPM.

20 DP
7/14/2006

HydraulicProgram Cases

Case 1

Case 3

21 DP
7/14/2006

Case 2

Case 4

Case 5

HydraulicProgram Demo

22 DP
7/14/2006

HydraulicOptimization
FieldResults
Carboniferous Formation
Oil Base Mud in North Sea

23 DP
7/14/2006

Shale Formation
Water Base Mud in Columbia