Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

To Determine Catchment Area or Drainage Area

The catchment area of a river is determined by using contour map. The watershed line which indicates the drainage
basin of a river passes through the ridges and saddles of the terrain around the river. Thus, it is always perpendicular
to the contour lines. The catchment area contained between the watershed line and the river outlet is then measured
with a planimeter (Figure 18.4).

<< Back | Next >>


Storage capacity of a Reservoir
The storage capacity of a reservoir is determined from contour map. The contour line indicating the full reservoir level
(F.R.L) is drawn on the contour map. The area enclosed between successive contours are measured by planimeter
(Figure 18.5). The volume of water between F.R.L and the river bed is finally estimated by using either Trapezoidal
formula or Prismoidal formula.

<< Back | Next >>

Examples
Ex.18-1 In a hydro-electric project, the reservoir provides a storage of 5.9 million cubic meter between the lowest
draw down and the top water level. The areas contained within the stated contours and the upstream face of the dam
are as follows :
Contour (m)
Area (104 sq m)

200
44

195
34

190
28

185
23

180
20

175
16

170
11

165
8

If the R.L. of the lowest draw down is 167 m, find the reduced level of water at the full storage capacity of the
reservoir.
Solution :
The area contained in lowest draw down level i.e. at 167 m is as follows :
Given, contour interval = 5 m
The area contained between 165 m and 170 m level is (11 - 8) x 104 = 3 x 104 sq m
i.e., For a height of 5 m, difference in area = 3 x 104 sq m
Therefore between 165 m and 167 m, i.e. for a height drift of 2 m, the area difference

= 1.2 x 104 sq m
The area contained in 167 m contour = (8 + 1.2 ) x 104 sq m = 9.2x 104 sq m
Now from given and calculated data and using trapezoidal rule
Contour Area contained (104)Volume contained between (104)Volume contained by (104)
167

9.2
30.3

170

30.3

11.0
67.5

175

16.0

97.8
90.0

180

20.0

187.8
107.5

185

23.0

295.3
127.5

190

28.0

422.8

155.0
195

34.0

577.8
195.0

200

44.0

772.8

So, at full storage capacity, the height of water level lies between 195 m and 200 m.
The volume of water beyond 195 m height is
(5.9 x 106 - 5.778 x 106) = 1.22 x 105 cu.m
Let h be the height of water level above 195 m height. Then area contained in (195 + h) m contour is

= 34 x 104 +
The volume between 195 m and (195 + h) m contour is

or, h2 + 34 h -12.2 = 0
Solving, we get h = 0.355 m
Thus the reduced level of water at the full reservoir capacity is (195 + 0.355) = 195.355 m
<< Back | Next >>

Exercise 18

Ex.18-1 The areas enclosed by contours on the upstream face of dam in a hydroelectric project as

Contour (m)

800

790

780

770

760

750

740

730

Area (hectares)

31.41

26.74

24.89

22.23

19.37

17.74

12.91

5.35

The lowest draw down level is 733 m. compute the full reservoir capacity.

<Answers>

<< Back

Indian Topographic Maps


Topographic maps provides the graphical portrayal of objects present on the surface of the earth. These maps
provide the preliminary information about a terrain and thus very useful for engineering works. For most part of India,
topographic maps are available which are prepared by the Survey of India. To identify a map of a particular area, a
map numbering system has been adopted by Survey of India. The system of identification is as follows:
An International Series (within 4 N to 40 N Latitude and 44 E to 124 E Longitude) at the scale of 1: 1,000,000 is
being considered as base map. The base map is divided into sections of 4 latitude x 4 longitude and designated
from 1 (at the extreme north-west) to 136, covering only land areas and leaving any 4 square if it falls completely in
the sea (Figure 3.8).

For Indian Topographic maps, each section is further divided into 16 sections (4 rows by 4 columns), each of 1
latitude x 1 longitude (1:250,000), staring from a letter A (North-West corner) and ending on P, column-wise. These
degree sheets are designated by a number and an alphabet such as 53 C (Figure 3.9).

These degree sheets are further sub-divided in the following ways:


Each sheet is divided into four parts (2 rows by 2 columns),, each of 30' latitude x 30' longitude (1:100,000)
designating them by cardinal directions NW, NE, SW, and SE. Such sheets are identified as 53 M/SE (Figure 3.10).

Degree sheets have also been divided into 16 sheets (4 rows by 4 columns), each 15' latitude x 15' longitude
(1:50,000) and numbered from 1 (at the north-west corner of the particular degree sheet) to 16 columnwise and are
identified as 53 B/3 (Figure 3.11).

Each 1:50,000 scale sheet contains four (2 rows by 2 columns) 1:25,000 sheet ( 7' 1/2 latitude x 7' 1/2 longitude )
which are numbered NW, NE, SW, and SE. Such sheets are identified as 53 O/14/NE (Figure 3.12).

In this way, the topographic map of most of the area of India may be acqiured at the scale available and
subsequently can be updated and upgraded as required for a particular project. For large scale maps, further
surveying needs to carried out.
<< Back