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Lessons learned and the status of

electric propulsion and all electric ship


within the U.S. Navy
Dr. John V. Amy Jr.
Harlans Seminar 2015
3 November 2015

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U.S.N. Electric Drive


CV 1, 2x3500HP induction motor, turbo electric, 1913, 1 ship
Maryland-class BBs, 31,000HP turbo electric, 1918, 5 ships
CV 2 & CV 3, 8x22,500HP induction motor, turbo electric, 1925, 2 ships
Fulton-class ASs, 11,800HP diesel electric, 1940, 6 ships
DEs, Rudderow/Buckley/Butler/Canon classes, 12,000HP and 6000HP,
turbo&diesel electric, WWII, 100 ships
SSs, Fleet Boats
USS Hunley, AS 31, 15,000HP synchronous, diesel electric, 1959
USS Tullibee, SSN 597, 2500HP, turbo electric, 1960
USS Lipscomb, SSN 685, turbo electric, 1973
AGSs, AGOR, T-ARC, T-AGOS, T-AGS, 800-5000HP ac-scr-dc motor, 1970spresent, ~80 ships
T-AKEs, USNS Lewis & Clark, 2x15,000HP synchronous, integrated diesel
electric, 2006-present, 11 ships (so far)
DDG 1000s, Zumwalt-class, 2x46,000HP induction motor, Integrated Power
System, launched Oct 2013 , to be 3 ships
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Lewis and Clarke-Class (T-AKE 1)

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Zumwalt-Class (DDG 1000)

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Electric Propulsion - Future

Typically two motors per


shaft for reliability
May share housing
Notionally powered from
port and starboard MVDC
buses
Requires control interface
for load management
With two motors per
shaft, consider contrarotating propellers for fuel
efficiency and minimizing
installed electrical power
generation capacity

To Bus Node

Drive
Normally open

Motor

Motor

Drive

To Bus Node

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Improve System Efficiency

A generator, motor drive


and motor will generally be
less efficient than a
reduction gear .
But electric drive enables
the prime mover and
propulsor to be more
efficient, as well as
reducing drag.

Mechanical
Drive

Electric
Drive

Gas Turbine

30%

35%

Reduction Gear

99%

Generator

96%

Drive

95%

Motor

98%

Propeller

70%

75%

Relative Drag Coefficient

100%

97%

Total

21%

24%

Ratio

116%

Representative values: not universally true


TRADE TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY TO REDUCE DRAG
AND IMPROVE PRIME MOVER AND PROPELLER EFFICIENCY

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Improve System Efficiency:


Contra-Rotating Propellers

Increased Efficiency
Recover Swirl Flow
10 15% improvement
Requires special bearings for
inner shaft if using common
shaft line
Recent examples feature
Pod for aft propeller

Anders Backlund and Jukka


Kuuskoski,
The Contra Rotating Propeller (CRP)
Concept with a Podded Drive

http://www.mhi.co.jp/ship/english/htm/crp01.htm

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U.S.S. Makin Island (LHD 8)

2 x LM2500+
Propulsion Gas
Turbines

35,000 HP each
2 stage reduction
gear
Controllable Pitch
Propeller

2 x 5000 HP
Auxiliary Propulsion
Motors

Integrated into
reduction gear
Variable speed
drive
12 knots possible

Propulsion Brakes

Line Shafting

MRG
Propulsion Gas
Turbine
Motor
Main Thrust
Bearing
Propulsion
Clutches

Turning
Gear

Steam auxiliaries replaced with electric powered equipment


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Basic Launch Configuration


Electro-Magnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS)
Concept

Power Inverters
Launch Motor

Power Converters

Energy Storage

System Controls

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Aircraft Launch Electrified, but same


Operational Interfaces

Aircraft Interface is the same.


Flight Deck crew interface is the
same.
Differences are in controls interfaces
and below-decks equipment.

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First Full Scale System is on CVN 78

Full set of equipment, 4 launchers and


3 energy storage groups
Land-based test site, 1 launcher, 1
energy storage group
Shipboard testing pierside is far along.
Integration with/interaction with other
shipboard systems
Other systems replaced with electric equipment, e.g. Advanced Weapons Elevators
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Aircraft Recovery Electrified, but


same Operational Interfaces
Aircraft Interface is the
same.
Flight Deck crew interface
is the same.
Differences are in controls
interfaces and belowdecks equipment.

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DDG 1000 not just Electric Propulsion

Electrically actuated steering gear


Electrically actuated line-handling capstans
Electrically actuated replenishment equipment
Electrically actuated Advanced Gun System mount and
automated magazine

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Future Ships, Setting the Scene


In FY2030, the DON plans to start building an affordable followon, multi-mission, mid-sized future surface combatant to replace
the Flight IIA DDG 51s that will begin reaching their ESLs
[Estimated Service Life] in FY2040.
Report to Congress on the Annual Long-Range Plan for Construction of Naval Vessels for FY2015

Big differences from DDG 51:


High-energy weapons and
sensors
Flexibility for affordable
capability updates
Photo by CAPT Robert Lang, USN (Ret), from site
http://www.public.navy.mil/surfor/swmag/Pages/2014-SNA-Photo-Contest-Winners.aspx

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Mission Systems:
Increasing Electrical Power Demands
Available Power (Electric Power Installed)

2022+

2022

2020
2018

Free
Electron
Laser
ElectroMagnetic
Rail Gun
Solid
State
Laser

USS Trenton, 1877

Active
Denial
System
1877

Today

Sensor and Weapon System Power demands will soon rival Propulsion Power demands
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High Energy Mission Systems


Integration Challenge
Radar

Understanding how the combined load stresses the


power system is essential to prevent system failure or
failure at one of the loads

SSL

Combined
Load

Challenge

Power
Source

SEWIP

Ships cannot support High Power Systems without modifications to the ships Electric
Power System and other ship systems
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Future Operational Mode


Multi-Device Energy
Storage Sized for Peak and
Continuous Ride Through

Adv. Energy Storage

Mil Std
Power
Quality

+
Continuous
Generator loading

Power Generation Free to


Operate at Most Fuel
Efficient, Reliable Level

Generator

Load Profile

Optimize storage buffering prime movers to enable continuous DEW


operations with minimal effect on engine mechanicals and power quality
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Flexible Ship Design Features


Module Stations

Open Combat Systems

(Warfare Systems Superset)

Common Source Library

Flexible
Infrastructure

Pre-Engineered
Elements (PrEE)

Standard Interfaces,
Common Computing

Distributed Systems Ways

Aperture Stations

Functional Element Zones (FEZ)

Mission Bay

Module Access Routes

Energy Magazine

Approved for Public Release

Integrated Power
System (IPS)

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Stable Platforms, Dynamic Payloads


STABLE
Propulsion

DYNAMIC
Distributed Systems

Aircraft
Weapons

Sensors,
Antennas &
Arrays

Hull

Unmanned Vehicles
Messing & Berthing

Combat Systems & C4ISR

Damage Control

Hulls last 30 to 40 years - Combat Systems last about 8 years

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Flexible Design Today Enabling


Technologies & Approaches
LCC 19 SmartTrack
Submarine Acoustic Rapid COTS Insertion (ARCI)
Program
Common Radio Room
Open Architecture
CVN 78 Flexible Infrastructure
DDG 1000 Flexible Infrastructure & Electronic Modular
Enclosures
EME & Mission Module Interface Control Documents
MLP C4I System
LCS Mission Modules
Flexible Infrastructure NAVSEA Standard Drawing (Draft)
NSRP Standard Guidance for Interface (Proposed)

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Institutionalizing the Electric Warship

Early Technology
Demonstration
Incorporation into
Production Units

Historic Focus of
Electric Warship
Efforts

Standardization of
Architecture and Interfaces

NAVSEA
is addressing
all aspects of
Institutionalizing
the Electric Warship

Standardization of
Design Process
Integration into
Design Tools
Full Implementation
in Standards and Specifications
Part of Engineering
School Curriculum
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Take-Aways
Future

ship power systems must enable high


energy mission systems
Flexible ship design features will allow the future
surface combatant to affordably remain relevant
over a long service life
Years of focused effort required to develop,
engineer, and implement these concepts

Flexible, Survivable, Lethal, Affordable


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