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Electronics is the science of how to control electric energy, energy in which

the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical


circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes,
transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive electrical
components and interconnection technologies.
The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control
electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible, and electronics
is widely used in information processing, telecommunication, and signal
processing. The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital
information processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit
boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of
communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform
the mixed components into a regular working system.
Modern physical measurements, communication, and computation rely on
electronic hardware and instrumentation. Electronic instrumentation is used
in all sub-fields of physics condensed matter, elementary particles, nuclear
physics, and atomic/molecular/optical physics. Electronic measurements are
no less common in the other physical sciences, and are essential in many
modern interdisciplinary areas such as satellite based environmental
monitoring, the experimental study of chaos, nanotechnology, and the
search for extra-terrestrial life.
Branches of Electronics
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that handle
digital signals, discrete bands of analog levels, rather than by continuous ranges (as
used in analogue electronics). All levels within a band of values represent the same
numeric value.
Analogue or Analog electronics are electronic systems with a continuously
variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two
levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal
and a voltage or current that represents the signal.
Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. As the name suggests,
microelectronics relates to the study and manufacture or microfabrication of very
small electronic designs and components. Usually, but not always, this means
micrometre-scale or smaller. These devices are typically made from semiconductor
materials. Many components of normal electronic design are available in a
microelectronic equivalent.
Fuzzy electronics is an electronic technology that uses fuzzy logic, instead of the
two-state Boolean logic more commonly used in digital electronics. Fuzzy

electronics is fuzzy logic implemented on dedicated hardware. This is to be


compared with fuzzy logic implemented in software running on a conventional
processor. Fuzzy electronics has a wide range of applications, including control
systems and artificial intelligence.
Circuit design can cover systems ranging from complex electronic systems all the
way down to the individual transistors within an integrated circuit.
Simple circuits the design process can often be done by one person without
needing a planned or structured design process, but for more complex
designs, teams of designers following a systematic approach with intelligently
guided computer simulation are becoming increasingly common.
Integrated circuit design automation, the term "circuit design" often refers to the
step of the design cycle which outputs the schematics of the integrated circuit.
Typically this is the step between logic design and physical design.
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that source,
detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics. In this context,
light often includes invisible forms of radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays,
ultraviolet and infrared, in addition to visible light. Optoelectronic devices are
electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical transducers, or instruments that use such
devices in their operation.
Semiconductors are crystalline or amorphous solids with distinct electrical
characteristics. They are of high resistance, higher than typical resistance materials,
but still of much lower resistance than insulators. Their resistance decreases as
their temperature increases, which is behaviour opposite to that of a metal.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic
properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium
arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors. Semiconductor devices have replaced
thermionic devices (vacuum tubes) in most applications. They use electronic
conduction in the solid state as opposed to the gaseous state or thermionic
emission in a high vacuum.
Electronic devices and components
An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to
affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the
intended function of the electronic system. Components are generally intended to
be connected together, usually by being soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB), to
create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio
receiver, or oscillator).
Types of Circuit

Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to


discrete levels as in digital circuits. Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio
receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits.
Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels.

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronics