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LECTURE 4: WORKED OUT PROBLEMS ON INVOLUTE SPUR GEARS

CONTENTS OF EARLIER LECTURES

1. Interference
2. Methods of eliminating interference
3. Standard tooth systems for spur gears
4. Profile shifted gears
5. Involutometry
6. Design of gear blanks

GEAR CALCULATION QUESTION 1

In a drive, a velocity ratio of 2.5 with a centre distance of 70 mm is desired. (a) Determine the pitch
diameter of the gears with 20o full depth involute teeth, (b) Is there any interference in the system?
If so, how will you avoid it? (c) Determine the contact ratio, (d) Find the dedendum, addendum and
root diameters, and the tip clearance, (e) If the centre distance is increased by 1.5%, what will be the
new pressure angle?

Data: i = 2.5; C = 70 mm;

= 20o;
involute full depth tooth system ;
Q: m = ?; Z1 = ? ; Z2 = ?; d1 = ? and d2 = ?; Interference exists or not ?; CR = ?

Solution : C = (r1 +r2) = 0.5 m ( Z1 + Z2)

= 0.5 m (Z1 + i Z1)
= 70 mm
i.e., m x Z1 = 40
Possible solutions for standard modules as can be seen from the table are :
Solution I:
m = 2mm, Z1 = 20, Z2 = i. Z1 = 2.5 x 20 = 50
d1 = m Z1 = 2 x 20 = 40 mm
d2 =i d1 = 2.5 x 40 = 100 mm

STANDARD MODULES IN mm
0.3
1.25
3.5
7
14
26
45

0.4 0.5
0.6 0.7
0.8 1.0
1.5 1.75
2.0 2.25
2.5 3.0
4.0 4.5
5.0 5.5
6.0 6.5
8
9
10
11
12
13
15
16
18
20
22
24
28
30
33
36
39
42
50 Further increase is in terms of 5 mm

Minimum number of teeth that can engage with the gear of 50 teeth without interference is
given by
4k(z2 + k)
2
z1 + 2 z1 z2 =

sin 2

For full depth gears, k = 1. Substituting the values Z2 = 50, = 20oin the above equation,

z12 + 2 z1 x50 =

4 x 1( 50 + 1)
sin 2 20 o

z 2 + 100 z 1744 = 0
1
1

Since Z1 = 20 > Z1min (15) no interference will occur.

Contact ratio, CR :
Referring to the figure the path of contact :
La = ua + ur
L = ( r + a )2 r 2 cos 2 +
a
1
1

( r + a )2 r 2 cos 2 ( r + r ) sin
2
2
1 2

L = ( 20 + 2 ) 2 20 2 cos 2 20o +
a
= 9.798 mm

( 50 + 2 ) 2 50 2 cos 2 20o ( 20 + 50 ) sin 20o

CR =

L
L
9.798
9.798
a
a
=
=
=
= 1.660
p cos m cos x 2 x cos 20o
5.901

For full depth tooth addendum: a = 1m = 1x2

= 2mm
Dedendum : b = 1.25m = 1.25x2 = 2.5 mm
Clearance: c = 0.25 m = 0.25x2 = 0.5 mm
Pinion root circle diameter: dr1 = d1- 2b
= 40 2x2.5
= 35 mm
Pinion addendum diameter: da1 = d1+ 2a
= 40 + 2x2
= 44 mm
Gear root circle diameter: dr2 = d2- 2b
= 100 2x2.5
= 95 mm
Gear addendum diameter: da2 = d2+ 2a
= 100 + 2x2
= 104 mm

Solution II: C = (r1 +r2) = 0.5 m ( Z1 + Z2)

= 0.5 m (Z1 + i Z1) = 70 mm
Simplifying, m x Z1 = 40
another possible solution for std module
m = 2.5 mm, Z1 = 16, Z2 = i x Z1 = 40,
d1 = m Z1 = 2.5x16=40 mm,
d2 = m Z2 = 2.5 x 40 =100 mm
Minimum number of teeth that can engage the gear of 40 teeth without with interference is
given by
4k(z2 + k)
z12 + 2 z1 z2 =
sin 2

For full depth gears k = 1. Substituting Z2 = 40, = 20o, in the above equation,
4(40 + 1 )
z 2 + 2 z x 40 =
1
1
sin2 20o

z 2 + 80 z 1402 = 0
1
1

Since Z1 = 16 > Z1min (15) no interference will occur.

Contact ratio, CR :
Referring to the figure the path of contact:
La = ua + ur

L = ( r + a )2 r 2 cos 2 +
a
1
1

( r + a )2 r 2 cos 2 ( r + r ) sin
2
2
1 2

L = ( 20 + 2.5 )2 20 2 cos 2 20 o +
a
= 11.854 mm

CR =

L
L
11.854
11.854
a
a
=
=
=
= 1.607
p cos m cos
5.901
x 2.5 x cos 20o

For full depth tooth

Addendum : a =1m
= 1x2.5 =2.5mm
Dedendum : b =1.25m =1.25x2.5 = 3.125 mm
Clearance: c = 0.25 m = 0.25x2.5 = 0.625 mm
Pinion root circle diameter: dr1= d1- 2b
= 40 2x3.125 = 33.75 mm
Pinion addendum diameter:
da1= d1+ 2a = 40+2x2.5 = 45 mm
Gear root circle diameter:
dr2= d2- 2b = 100 2x3.125 = 93.75 mm
Pinion addendum diameter:
da2= d2+ 2a = 100 + 2x2.5 = 105 mm
New Pressure angle when C is increased by 1.5% is :
= cos-1( r1 cos20o / r1 1.015)
= 22.21o

GEAR CALCULATIONS- QUESTION 2

A 21 teeth gear has 20o full depth involute teeth with a module of 12mm . (a) Calculate the radii of
pitch circle, base circle and addendum circle (b) Determine the tooth thickness at base circle, pitch
circle and addendum circle. Comment on the top land thickness.

r=

rb
cos

inv = tan
t
t = 2 r ( 1 + inv inv )
2r
1

Data:
Pressure angle : =20o = 0.349 rad.
Z1 = 21, m= 12mm.
Solution:
r1 = 0.5.m.Z1 = 0.5 x 12 x 21=126 mm
rb = r1.Cos = 126 x cos 20o = 118.4 mm
a = 1m = 1 x 12 = 12 mm

ra = r1 + a = 126 + 12 = 138 mm
p1 = .m = . 12 = 37.14 mm
t1 = 0.5 p1 = 0.5 x 37.14 = 18.57 mm
inv = tan - = tan 0.349 0.349
= 0.015 rad
At the base circle b= 0, Hence tooth thickness tb at the base circle is:
t
t = 2 r ( 1 + inv inv )
b
b 2r
b
1
18.57
= 2 x 118.4 x(
+ 0.015 0 ) = 21.0 mm
2 x126

At the addendum circle the pressure angle :

a=cos-1(rb/ra) =cos-1( 118.4 /138) =0.54 rad
inv a = tan 0.54 0.54 = 0.059
Hence tooth thickness ta is given by:
t
t = 2 r 1 + inv inv
a
a 2r
a
1

Hence tooth thickness ta is:

18.57

t = 2 x 138 x
+ 0.015 0.059 = 8. 20 mm
a
2 x 126

Minimum recommended top land thickness:

tamin = 0.25 m = 0.25 x 12 = 3 mm
Since ta (8.2) > tamin (3 ), the tip thickness is permissible.