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INTRODUCTION TO

DESIGN ENGINEERING
IN OIL & GAS INDUSTRIES

PT. Erraenersi Konstruksindo

TOPIC COVERAGE











Brief Review of Oil & Gas Upstream Facilities


Project Lifecycle & Typical New Project Development
Engineering Stages in Process Facilities (typical)
Engineering Discipline Works & Activities
Most Common Engineering & Project Software
International Codes & Standards
Local Regulation on Environmental Issue
Inter-discipline Coordination in FEED Development
Engineering Procedures, Review & Approval Cycle (typical)
Engineering Progress Weigh Factor (typical)

TYPICAL BLOCK DIAGRAM


OIL & GAS UPSTREAM FACILITIES

FIELD OF OIL & GAS AND RELATED FACILITIES




Upstream Oil and Gas Industry


 Wellhead, Flowlines
 Production Facilities
 Gas Treating and Processing Facilities
 Enhanced Oil Recovery Facilities
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry
 Refinery
 Petrochemical Plant
Ancillary / Common Facilities
 Storage Facilities
 Utility Unit (Water Treatment, Waste Water Treatment, Air
Separation Units, IA/UA Units, Steam Generator, Power
Generation Unit, etc.)
 Ancillary facilities (Fire Fighting System, Fire Detection System)
Transportation / Distribution:


Pipelines, Flow-lines, Tanker, Trucking, etc.

UPSTREAM PRODUCTION, TREATING &


PROCESSING FACILITIES


PRODUCTION SEPARATION
 HP Separation
 MP Separation
 LP Separation
GAS SWEETENING
 Chemical (solvent) Absorption
 Other Process
GAS DEHYDRATION
 Liquid desiccant - Absorption
 Solid desiccant Adsorption
NGL/LPG RECOVERY
 Dew Point Control
 NGL/LPG Recovery
OIL TREATING

NATURAL GAS CLASSIFICATION

Typical Product Specification


Typical Sales Gas Specification *) :
H2S

Content : Maximum 4-10 ppm volume


CO2 content : Maximum 2 -5 % volume
Moisture
: Maximum 2 15 lb/MMSCF **)
GHV Range
: 950 1250 BTU/SCF
*) Subsequent process involving cryogenic system require much more
stringent specification
**) 2 lb/MMSCF corresponds to Dew Point of 0 degF @ 1000 psig

Typical LPG Specification:


C2

content : 0.2% Volume (max) (ASTM D-2163)


C3 & C4 content: 97.5 % Volume (ASTM D-2163)
C5 Content: 2% Volume (max) (ASTM D-2163)
Reid Vapor Pressure : 120 psig @ 100 F (ASTM D-1267)
Total Sulfur : 15 ppm Maximum (before adding Odorizer) (ASTM D-2784)
Water content : Nil

PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

TYPICAL PROJECT / ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT

TYPICAL PROJECT / ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT

TYPICAL ENGINEERING STAGES IN PROCESS


FACILITIES
ENGINEERING STAGES

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT STAGES

Conceptual Design & Process /


Technology Selection

Pre-Feasibility Study / Feasibility


Study

Basic Design Engineering & F.E.E.D. /


F.E.D (Front-End Engineering Design)

Feasibility Study / Bid Document


Preparation

Detail Design Engineering

Project (E-P-C) Execution Engineering Stages

Construction Assistance /
Installation Engineering

Project (E-P-C) Execution Construction / Installation Stage

TYPICAL FEED ACTIVITIES / DOCUMENT


 Process Description & Project Philosophies
(Design, Operating, Sparing) *)
 Process Simulation to develop Heat & Material
balance *)
 Other Process Analysis / Studies *)
 Hydraulic Analysis & Main Line Sizing Main *)
 Main Equipment Sizing *)
 Utility Flow Diagram *)
 Utility Consumption Estimation *)
 Utility Balance *)
 Utility Equipment Sizing
 P&ID for Main Process, Ancillary Facilities and
Utilities *)
 Design Basis (all Disciplines) *)
 Specification (all Disciplines) *)
 Process Datasheets & Equipment List *)
 Electrical Power Study / Analysis *)
 Electrical Single Line Diagram *)
















Control System Architectural *)


Shutdown Hierarchy Diagram *)
Cause & Effect Diagram
Plot Plan *)
Main Piping Layout *)
Hazardous Area Classification *)
Main Electrical Equipment Datasheet *)
Civil Drawings: Foundation/Piling Layout,
Drainage Layout, Gate & Fencing layout, Building
Architectural, etc.
Electrical Equipment, Lighting & Main Cable
Layout
Instrument Location & Main Cable Layout
F&G Detection, CCTV layout
Instrument Index & I/O List
BOQ for Piping / Instrument / Electrical / Civil
Materials

TYPICAL PROJECT ORGANIZATION (EPC)

DISCIPLINE ENGINEERING WORKS AND ACTIVITIES


Process :




















Basic Engineering & Design Data (BEDD)


Process Design Basis & Criteria / Basis for Design
Process Description
Process Philosophy : Operation, Control and Safeguarding; Sparing; Drainage &
Venting; Waste (Water) Treatment & Disposal, etc.
Process simulation and analysis to develop heat & material balance
Hydraulic analysis (steady state / dynamic), Settle Out and other flow assurance
analysis
PFD (Process Flow Diagram) and HMB ( Heat and Material Balance)
Calculation/summary for utility consumption, chemical, catalyst, process waste, etc.
Pump NPSH /circuit hydraulic analysis, HE thermal rating/design, fractionation
column sizing, vessel/storage tank sizing and other process equipment sizing
Equipment Selection Study
Process equipment load (data) sheet
PSV relief load analysis and sizing
Flare network analysis and sizing
P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Diagram), including HAZOPS/HAZIDS
Cause & Effect Diagram; SAFE Chart
Line List / Line designation Table

DISCIPLINE ENGINEERING WORKS AND ACTIVITIES


Instrument & Automation:














Instrument Design Basis Philosophy: process control & shutdown, fiscal


metering, power consumption, telecommunication, fire & gas detection,
shutdown system, etc.
Instrument specifications: instrument installation, field instrument, control
system, shutdown system, package equipment instrumentation, F&G, fiscal
metering, control valve/shutdown valve & actuators, wellhead control panel,
telecom, PSV, Analyzer, etc.
Instrument sizing / calculation: Flow element, RO, control valve, PSV
Instrument Datasheets (Field Instruments, Control Valves, Pressure Relief
Valves , Shutdown Valves , Fiscal Metering, Analyzer, Transmitter, etc.)
Instrument Control & Shutdown Architecture Diagram
Shutdown Hierarchy Diagram
Telecom Schematic Diagrams
Cause & Effect Diagrams
Instrument Index, I/O List for control, shutdown system, F &G, telecom
Instrument Drawings : Instrument Location Layout, Control Room Layout,
Instrument Hook-up/Impulse Line, Junction Box and Cable Routing Layouts,
Junction Box Termination and Wiring Diagrams, Logic Diagrams, Loop
Diagrams, Logic Diagrams
Instrument material MTO, Cable Schedule, etc.
Material Requisition (MR), Technical Bid Evaluation, Vendor Design review

DISCIPLINE ENGINEERING WORKS AND ACTIVITIES


Mechanical/Piping:











Mechanical/piping design basis & criteria


Mechanical Specifications: pressure vessel, pumps, Heat Exchangers, Fired
Heater, Compressors, Tanks, Package Equipments, Pipings, Cooling Tower, Air
Coolers, etc.
Mechanical Datasheets: mechanical equipment, package equipment, SP item
datasheet.
Analysis/Calculation : Pressure Vessel mechanical calculation, Pipe wall
thickness calculation, Pipe Stress Analysis, HVAC calculation, Acoustic/Flow
Induced Analysis, firewater hydraulic calculation (sometimes done by Process),
Compressor dynamic (surge) analysis (review).
Studies : Material selection studies, Noise Studies.
Drawings: Mechanical GA, Plot Plan, Equipment Layout, Piping Plan, Pipe
Support detail & typical, pipe support layout, Piping Isometric.
3D Modeling: Piping/Mechanical Equipment 3-D Modeling
Equipment List, SP Item List, Line List
Piping MTO
Material Requisition (MR), Technical Bid Evaluation, Vendor Design review

DISCIPLINE ENGINEERING WORKS AND ACTIVITIES


Electrical:














Electrical Design Basis & Criteria


Electrical Philosophy
Single Line Diagram
Calculation, Sizing & Study: Power generator, Voltage Drop, Short Circuit,
Cable sizing , UPS sizing, Illumination, Equipment Heat Loss, Load Shedding,
Cathodic Protection, Hazardous Area, storm water calculations, sanitary water
consumption calculation, etc.
Electrical Specification: HV/MV/LV Switchgear, Motor Control Center (MCC),
Power Transformer, Distribution Panel, AC & DC UPS, Motors, etc.
Electrical Datasheet: Switchgear / MCC, UPS, Induction Motors, Generator,
Electrical Cables, Lighting Grounding/Lightning protection System, Cathodic
Protection, etc.
Electrical Load List
Drawings: Electrical Equipment Layout, Cable Layout, Schematic Drawings,
Wiring & interconnecting Drawings, Lighting layout, lightning layout,
grounding layout.
Electrical material MTO, Cable Schedule, etc.
Material Requisition (MR), technical bid evaluation, vendor design review

DISCIPLINE ENGINEERING WORKS AND ACTIVITIES


Civil & Structural:



Civil & Structural Design Basis & Criteria


Civil & Structural Specifications: Earthwork, Concrete works, Structural Steel
works, Sewer & Drainage, Road & Pavement, Fencing & Gate, Building and
Architectural Works, Equipment Foundation, Pilling, Landscaping, etc.
Calculations/Analysis: Structural Steel Calculation, Foundation Calculation,
Storm water ditch calculation, sanitary water consumption calculation, storage
tank bund-wall capacity calculation, etc.
Drawings: Overall Plot Plan, Drainage Layout, fence & gate Layout, Piling Plan,
piling schedule, foundation plan, standard/details & typical for building parts,
standard/details & typical for all other civil/structural parts,
plan,/section/details for Shelter/buildings and all civil facilities, pipe
support/pipe sleeper typical, structural drawings, foundation detail drawings,
etc.
MTO for civil/structural bulk materials

DISCIPLINE ENGINEERING WORKS AND ACTIVITIES


Pipeline:



Design Basis & Criteria


Specifications: Line pipe, 3-Layer Polypropylene External Coating, Heat Shrink
Sleeves for Corrosion Protection of Field Girth Welds and Piping, Monolithic
Isolating Joint, Pipeline Construction, Flanges and Anchor Flanges, Flange
Insulation Kits, Induction Bends, Polyethylene and Polypropylene Coatings for
Bends & Fittings , Submerged-Arc Welded (SAW) Pipe to API 5L , Welding of
Sour Service Pipelines, Sacrificial Anode, etc.
Study/Analysis: Route Study, Sizing and Hydraulic Analysis (by process), Wall
Thickness Calculation, Collapse & Bucking Analysis, In-situ Stress Analysis,
On-bottom Stability Analysis, Spanning Analysis, end expansion analysis,
Riser Span analysis, Riser in-place stress analysis, Crossing Analysis, etc.
Drawings: Typical Details (Pipeline Construction Right of Way, Trench Cross
Section, Pipeline Cased Asphalt/Rig/Rail Road and Vehicle Track Crossing,
Existing Underground Pipe or Cable Crossing, Pipeline Marker, Bar Tee),
Overall Route Layout, Alignment Sheets, Schematic Diagram, bend details, line
pipe /riser details, Hanger Flange Details, Sacrificial Anode Details, Field Joint
Coating Details, Riser General Arrangements & isometric, Load Bearing
Clamps Details , Riser Sliding Clamp Details, Typical Riser Knee Brace Details,
Expansion Spool General Arrangements, Expansion Spool Isometric, Subsea
Cable Crossing Details, Typical Pipeline and Riser Installation Drawings.
MTO pipeline

MOST COMMON ENGINEERING & PROJECT SOFTWARE


Discipline

Software

Purpose

Process

Aspen HYSIS / Pro-II

Process Modeling & Simulation

Aspen FLARENET

Flare/vent Network Analysis

FLARESIM

Flare Sizing / Analysis

PIPESIM /PIPEFLO

SS Hydraulic Pipeline (Multiphase) / Piping Network

Pipeline Studio TG-Net/TL-Net

SS/Dynamic Hydraulic Analysis Pipeline (Single Phase)

OLGA

SS/Dynamic Hydraulic Analysis Pipeline (Multiphase)

HTRI / HTFS

Heat Exchanger Thermal Rating / Design

DNV PHAST / FRED

Gas Dispersion Analysis

Caesar-II / Autopipe

Piping Stress Analysis

PDMS / PDS

3-D Piping Modeling & Design

PV-Elite / Compress

Pressure Vessel Design

TANK

Storage Tank Design

Offpipe

Pipeline Installation Analysis - Offshore

Caesar-II / Autopipe

Pipeline Stress Analysis

AGA Level-2

On-Bottom Stability Analysis - Offshore

Instrument

Instrucal

Instrument sizing

Civil

Staad PRO / SAP

Structural Analysis - Onshore

SACS

Structural Analysis - Offshore

Drafting

AutoCAD / Microstation

Engineering drafting

Project Ctrl.

Primavera, MS Project

Project Scheduling

Piping

Mech. Static
Equipment

Pipeline

INTERNATIONAL CODE & STANDARD


API

American Petroleum Institute

TEMA

Tabular Exchanger Manufacturer


Association

ASME /
ANSI

American Society of Mechanical Engineer/


American National Standards Institute

NFPA

National Fire Prevention Association


(National Fire Codes)

ASTM

American Society for Testing & Material

AGA

American Gas Association

ISO

International Organization for


Standardization

AASTHO

American Association of State


Highway and Transportation Officials

DNV-OS

Det Norske Veritas Offshore Standard

ASCE

American Society of Civil Engineers

BS

British Standard

MSS

Manufacturer Standardization Society

NEMA

National Electrical Manufacturers


Association

ACI

American Concrete Institute

IEC

International Electro-Technical
Commission

ABS

American Bureau of Shipping

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics


Engineers

NACE

National Association of Corrosion


Engineers

ISA

Instrument Society of America (now


International Society for Measurement and
Control)

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health


Administration

LOCAL GOVERNMENT REGULATION ON HSE /QA/QA-QC ISSUES RELEVANT TO OIL


OIL &
GAS AND POWER INDUSTRIES

PP- 41 / 1999

Pengendalaian Pencemaran Udara (Air Polution Control)

KEP-02/MENKLH/I/1988

Tentang Pedoman Penetapan Baku Mutu Lingkungan (Guidelines on the


Determination Environmental Standard Quality)

PP-19/1994

Tentang Pengeloaan Limbah Bahan Berbahaya Dan Beracun (Hazardous


and Toxic Waste Management)

PP-20/1994

Tentang Pengendalian Pencemaran Air (The Control of Water Pollution)

Permen LH No. 21 / 2008

Baku mutu emisi sumber tidak bergerak bagu usaha dan/atau kegiatan
pembangkit listrik thermal

Permen LH No. 122/ 2004

Baku mutu limbah cair bagi kegiatan industri

KEP-09/MENLH/4/1997 (Revision of KEP42/MENLH/10/1996)

Tentang Baku Mutu Limbah Cair Bagi Kegiatan Minyak dan Gas Serta Panas
Bumi (Liquid Effluent Standard Quality for Oil, Gas and Geothermal
Activities)

KEP-03/BAPEDAL/09/1995

Decree of the head of State Agency for Environmental Control (BAPEDAL) on


TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS & TOXIC WASTE

Kep. Kepala Bapedal No. 107 Tahun 1997

Perhitungan Dan Pelaporan Serta Informasi Indeks Standar Pencemar Udara

KEP-48/MENLH/11/1996

Keputusan Menneg LH Tentang Baku Tingkat Kebisingan

Kep Dir Jen MIGAS 84/1998

Inspection Guidelines for Safety on Facilities, Equipment, and Technology


used in O&G and Geothermal Activities

Kep Mentamben No. 300 K / 38 / M.PE /1997

Keselamatan Kerja Pipa Penyalur Minyak dan gas Bumi.

Per Menaker No. 13 / 2011

Tentang Nilai Ambang Batas Faktor Fisika dan Faktor Kimia di Tempat Kerja.

FEED DEVELOPMENT
-FACILITIES
FACILITIES--

FEED DEVELOPMENT
-PIPELINE
PIPELINE--

TYPICAL PROCEDURES IN DESIGN ENGINEERING












Engineering (Execution) Plan


Design Control Procedure
Review & Approval Procedure
Engineering Design Change Procedure
Field Change Procedure
HAZOPS Review Procedure
SIL Review Procedure
Equipment Numbering Procedure
Engineering Document Numbering Procedure

TYPICAL ENGINEERING PATH


(IN AN EPC PROJECT SCHEDULE)