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1/27/2015

Control Surveying
Lecture 1B

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Objectives
By the end of the class, students must be able to:
Integrate the concepts of horizontal and vertical
positioning for the purpose of control surveying.
Know control survey accuracy standards.
Create a control survey plan.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

1/27/2015

Outline
Definition
General Types
Horizontal Control
Vertical Control
Classes
Project Control
Geodetic Control
Control Stations
Control Survey Process
Accuracy Standards and Specifications
Philippine Reference Datum
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Control Surveying -- Definition


Determination of the precise position of a number
of stations distributed over an area to serve as origin
or for checking of other subsequent surveys to be
used in engineering projects.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

1/27/2015

Control Surveying -- Purpose


To prevent the accumulation of errors, by
connecting surveys to a consistent geometrical
system of points which are accurate enough for the
task.
Essential as reference framework for giving
locations of data entered into Land Information
Systems (LIS) and Geographic Information Systems
(GIS).
Required to augment photogrammetric and remote
sensing methods of mapping.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Horizontal Control Surveys


A horizontal control is provided by two or more
points in the ground, permanently or semipermanently monumented, and precisely fixed in
position horizontally by distance and direction, or
coordinates.
A horizontal position is the location of a point
relative to two axes: the equator and the prime
meridian on the globe, or x and y axes in a plane
coordinate system.
Horizontal control surveys over extensive areas
generally establish geodetic latitudes and
longitudes of stations.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

1/27/2015

Horizontal Control Surveys


Field procedures used in horizontal survey includes
the ff:
1. Control by Triangulation - survey consists of
networks of geometric figures with almost all of the
angles measured directly in the field and with
relatively few sides measured.
2. Control by Trilateration - more accurate in
establishing horizontal control because distances are
measured more accurately than angles.
3. Control by Traversing - series of horizontal distances
and directions are observed to connect points whose
positions are to be determined.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Vertical Control Surveys


A vertical control is provided by benchmarks in or
near the track to be surveyed, and it becomes the
basis for all elevations and in portraying the relief of
the area.
It is usually established by running lines of
differential levels.
In rugged areas, trigonometric leveling has been a
common and practical method.
GPS surveying may also be used, but elevations
must be converted to orthometric heights first.
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

1/27/2015

Classes of Control Surveys


Basis of classifying control surveys :
Accuracy of measuring lengths and azimuths
Extent of the survey

1. Geodetic Control Surveys


2. Project Control Surveys

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Geodetic Control Surveys

Determines accurate geographic position of points


on the earths surface taking into account the
curvature of the earth
It shall be made in accordance with the general
instruction contained in the special publications of
CGSD (HD) of NAMRIA for the different orders of
the control work:

First Order Geodetic Control


Second Order Geodetic Control
Third Order Geodetic Control

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

1/27/2015

Geodetic Control Surveys

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Geodetic Control Surveys

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

1/27/2015

Project Control Surveys

Determines the position of control points between


stations with geodetic accuracy over an area of
limited extent.
Classes of Project Controls:

Primary Control
Secondary Control
Tertiary Control

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Control Stations

A small mark set immovably into the ground such


that the instrument can be set up above it, to an
accuracy of 1 mm in the horizontal plane.
Includes the horizontal control points, vertical
control points, gravity values, and in sometimes,
crustal motion values.
In the past, vertical and horizontal control points
are separately and independently established.
Control points in the survey must be consistent
with all other points in the geodetic control and not
just within that particular survey.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

1/27/2015

Control Stations

Location of Control Stations must consider:

Relevance of the place/can be easily found


Secured from local disturbance
Visible from two or more stations (if conventional method
of positioning is used)
Open area (if GPS)
Well-conditioned shape (network)

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Control Stations

The type of marker is dependent on:

Type of soil or material at the market site


Degree of permanence required
Cost of replacement
Precision requirements

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

1/27/2015

Control Stations

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Control Stations

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

1/27/2015

Control Stations

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Control Survey Process


The process involved in carrying out the survey can
be itemized as follows:
1.

2.

3.

Reconnaisance a careful reconnaissance of the area is


first carried out to establish the most suitable positions
for the survey stations (intervisible, well-conditioned
triangles with angles >45o).
Laying the sections appropriate markers are laid out
depending on the location, environment and necessary
permanency of the control points.
Measurements

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

10

1/27/2015

Philippine Reference Datum


Horizontal datum
Luzon datum
(triangulation network)
Balanacan and Baltazar
stations

Vertical datum
MSL (19 years average
of tides)

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Philippine Reference Datum

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

11

1/27/2015

DAO 07-29 Sections 23 to 24

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

DAO 07-29 Section 25

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

12

1/27/2015

Accuracy Standards and Specifications


Depends on the purpose and extent of the survey.
Importance of standards:
To provide a uniform set of standards specifying minimum
acceptable accuracies of control survey for various
purposes.
To establish specifications for instruments, field
procedures, and misclosure checks to ensure that the
intended level of accuracy is achieved.

Factors affecting accuracy:


Type and condition of accuracy
Field procedure
Capabilities of survey personnel
Department of Geodetic Engineering
Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Accuracy Standards and Specifications

Geodetic Control

To integrate all surveys to the PRS-92, all subsequent


interconnections must be surveyed at the following
geometric relative positioning accuracy standards:
Positional Accuracy

1st Order

1/100,000

1 cm per km

50 km

2nd Order

1/50,000

2 cm per km

25 km

3rd Order

1/20,000

5 cm per km

4th Order

1/10,000

10 cm per km

Vertical Accuracy
1st Order

4.80 mm times square root of distance

2nd Order

8.4 mm times square root of distance

3rd Order

12.0 mm times square root of distance

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

13

1/27/2015

Accuracy Standards and Specifications

Project Control

= 3rd order
geodetic
control
= 4th order
geodetic
control

Primary
vertical
control

12.0 mm times
square root of
distance

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Accuracy Standards and Specifications


TRAVERSE

Horizontal Control

Specification

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Spacing of stations

100 m - 1000 m

100 m - 500 m

as required

* AEC not to exceed

2.5P

10.0S

30.0T

as required

No. of observations:
2
Positions w/ 1 Theodolite
Sets w/ 20 or 30 Transit

6 D/R for
interior and
exterior angles

4 D/R for interior


angle for circuit
Clamped
and loop traverse plate
clamped

* LEC not to exceed

0.0001 Pp

0.0002 Ps

0.0005 Pt

Azimuth reading

1.0

10 to 15

30 to 1

Instrument least reading

1 Theodolite;
1 Theodolite;
20 - 30 Transit 20 - 30 Transit

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

1 Transit

GE 12 General Surveying II

14

1/27/2015

Accuracy Standards and Specifications


TRAVERSE

Horizontal Control

Specification

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Astronomic observations: 8 or 4 (AM) and


No. of series night or day 4 (PM)

4 or 2 (AM) and
4 (PM)

PE of astronomical
observations not to
exceed

10

15

Azi. checks not to exceed

20

30

as required

Distance measurement

Nearest mm w/ Nearest mm w/ Nearest cm


Cs,Ct,Cp,Cg,Csl Cs,Ct,Cp,Cg,Csl measured
measured twice measured twice once

PE or dist. measurement
not to exceed

1:40,000

as required

as required

* RE after azi. adj.

1:20,000

1:10,000

1:5,000

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

Accuracy Standards and Specifications


TRIANGULATION

Horizontal Control

Specification

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Spacing of stations not to


exceed

1-3 km

1 km

consistent w/
good sighting

Angular observations
Positions w/ 1 Theodolite

as required

Set w/ 20-30 Transit

6 D/R for
interior and
exterior angles

4 D/R for
interior and
exterior angles

2 D/R

Triangle closure not to


5
exceed base measurement

10

30

PE not to exceed

1:40,000

as required

as required

Check on base not to


exceed

1:20,000

1:10,000

1:5,000

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GE 12 General Surveying II

15

1/27/2015

References
Anderson, James & E. Mikhail (1998), Surveying:
Theory and Practice 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
Davis, Raymond E., et.al. (1981), Surveying: Theory
and Practice 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc.
La Putt, Juny P. (1987), Higher Surveying 2nd Edition,
Cacho Hermanos Inc.
DENR Administrative Order 98-12. Revised Manual
of Land Surveying Regulations in the Philippines.

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GEGE
1212
General
Surveying
II II
General
Surveying

Thank you for listening!

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry

GEGE
1212
General
Surveying
II II
General
Surveying

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