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Introduction to Video Journalism 8

Vocabulary List #1
Anchor: The newscaster who hosts the studio portion of the newscast.
The anchor is the dominant voice in the presentation of the news to the
audience. S/he must be proficient in writing, producing, and editing the
Bites or Bytes: People speaking on tape. Called actualities or sound cuts
in radio. Called quotes in print. Also abbreviated SOT (sound on tape) in
broadcast script writing.
B-Roll: Video that is shot for a TV news story and used to visualize the
script the reporter/anchor has written. All the pictures taken for the piece
lacking featured sound; that is a bite or natural sound you want to use in
your story. These pictures are what the reporter uses to illustrate and voice
Back timing: A convenient way of counting down the length of a newscast.
This tells you when each story must run in order for your newscast to end
on time.
Beats: Specific public institutions or areas of concern for which specific
reporters in a newsroom are responsible watching (i.e., county reporter,
health reporter, education reporter, courts reporter).
Break: Place designated within broadcast programming during which
commercials run.
Bumpers: Small teases (with or without video) that come at the end of one
newscast segment often previewing what is coming up in the rest of the
Call Letters: A stations legal ID (for example, KMOV-St. Louis is a legal
ID, Z107.7 is not).

CGs: SUPERS Most television news programs use on-screen name and
title lines to identify speakers. Sometimes referred to as CHYRON,
because that is a specific machine that generates characters.
Closer: The concluding passage of a story, which should bring the story to
a conclusion. It includes the reporter sign-off and can typically be voicedover B-roll.
Cold Copy: Rip N Read a script not seen by an announcer until the
moment s/he reads it.
Control Room: Where the technical equipment for putting on a newscast
on the air is kept and operated.
Cue: usually a physical signal by an engineer or other technical crew
indicating to anchor to perform a task (starting reading, wrap up, or go to
break). Can also be written in script as IN CUE and OUT CUE in order to
let the anchor know where to expect a SOT to begin and end.
Feed: A live or recorded report, or set of recorded reports sent to a
station/newsroom via satellite, phone, or other device for inclusion in a news
Happy Talk: The casual banter that goes on between news anchors
and other on-air talent.
Jump Cut: Two bites from the same person spliced together typically
require a bit a B-Roll to cover the last few words of the first bite and the first
few words of the second bite. Otherwise, the image jumps between bites
on the screen and becomes what is called a jump cut. They also can
typically be avoided by using transitions such as dissolves, wipes, and
tumbles. Careful that you have not taken words out of context when using
jump cuts.

Introduction to Video Journalism 8

Vocabulary List #2
Kicker: An offbeat or humorous story that typically is used to mark the end of the
news segment and the beginning of the sports/weather segment. The kicker can also
be used to end a newscast.
Lead-in: Broadcasting term for beginning part of news story news anchor reads
introducing the story and/or person reporting the story.
NAT Sound: NAT SOT or ambient sound. Background voices, music, machinery,
waterfalls, and other environmental sounds that are recorded on-scene and used to
create a sound bed for a recorded or live report. Primarily used for setting a mood or
providing atmosphere for a report. This technique is frequently overused, but when
used properly, it adds immeasurably to a story.
Out Cue: Usually the last thing a reporter says in either a live or recorded news story
indicating the piece is ending.
Outtro: Usually the Goodbye or end segment of a newscast often during which news
and sports anchors engage in Happy Talk.
Package: PKG A complete story with B-roll, VO, SOTs, and a reporter stand-up. Can
sometimes also be referred to as a WRAP. SOT is usually included between the
beginning and the end (usually inserted after the reporters second or third sentence).
These need studio lead-ins from the anchor.
Reader: A story read by the anchor without any audio/video.
Rundown: LINEUP A chronological outline or order of stories or segments to be used
in a newscast. This is the producers blueprint for the newscast.
Running Time: Refers to either the estimated time or the actual time of the newscast.
Producers/editors should always estimate the running time of the newscast based on
the actual time of each recorded report and her or his best guess as to the time of each
intro and each story to be read by the anchor.
Sound bed: NATSOT A type of background audio that complements the news report.
For instance, the sound of protestors is played underneath the reporters in-studio story
concerning the opening of a nuclear plant.

Sound byte or bite: SOT Edited slice of a newsmaker speaking. Similar to an

actuality in radio except we can see the newsmaker. Often several SOTs can be
spliced together with the edits covered with video. These can be included in PKGs
and VO/SOTs or can stand alone.
Spots: Individual commercials that run during breaks.
Stand-Up: The stand-up is the reporter on-camera segment that typically is used as
1. A bridge, in which the reporter links elements of the story. Good writers use
these as transitions.
2. An explainer, where the reporter presents information on concepts, issues, or
emotions that are difficult to depict with even the best pictures.
3. A closer, in which the reporter concludes or sums up the story, and adds her or
her name.
Sometimes, a determining factor in deciding what our stand-up should be or where it
should be will be a lack of B-roll to cover a certain part of a story.
Tag: Closing to a story PKG, live shot, or on-set piece usually read by the story
reporter but can also be read by the anchor.
Verbatim: When writing a package, you must include the verbatim of sound bytes and
stand-ups in your story. You must check for facts still. When SOTs are written
verbatim, they are in sentence or mixed case. When the TALENT is to read, the
verbatim is written in ALL CAPS.
Voice Over (VO): A TV news story during which a news anchor or reporter reads a
script live as video is played. It is the voice track recorded OVER the B-Roll.
Voiceover-to-sound (VO/SOT): A TV news story during which a news anchor or
reporter reads a script live as video is played up to a place when a newsmaker
video/audio sound byte is played. At the end of the SOT, the reporter or anchor
resumes reading with or without additional video.