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SYNOPSIS

Of Proposed Ph.D Thesis Topic

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH STRENGTH


MASONRY UNITS & MORTAR

Submitted by
Arun.L, B.E. (Civil), M.Tech (CADS)
Structural Engineer, Mysore
To

Viswesvaraya Technological University (VTU), BELGAUM

Under Research Supervisor


Dr.G.Sarangapani
Professor and H.O.D. of Civil Engineering Dept.,
National Institute of Engineering,
Mysore.

Under Research Co-Supervisor


Dr.H.S.Prasanna
Professor of Civil Engineering Dept.,
National Institute of Engineering,
Mysore.

Structural Characteristics of High Strength Masonry Units And Mortar

Introduction
Masonry is commonly used for construction of foundation and super structures
throughout the world. Variety of masonry units (stones, burnt clay bricks, concrete blocks,
soil cement blocks) and mortars are used for masonry construction.
Masonry is an assemblage of masonry units and mortar. Behavior of masonry greatly
depends on the characteristics of masonry units mortar and the bond between them. In these
studies it has been planned to understand the behavior of masonry constructed using high
strength masonry units. It is also planned to design better masonry mortars which are suitable
to be used with high strength masonry units. The behavior of high strength masonry will be
investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Finite element analysis will be used to
understand the theoretical behavior. The experimental investigation will be done by
conducting the prism tests and bond strength tests. Characterization of materials used to
construct high strength masonry is also planned. Further the experimental results are
validated by Finite element analysis. High strength masonry units such as stones and concrete
blocks along with rich cement mortars shall be considered in the study. The water transport
studies in high strength masonry will also be considered.

Literature Survey
Strength Characteristics of Stone Masonry
Materials and structures, vol. 30, May 1997, pp 233-237,
K. Venu Madhava Rao, B.V.Venkatarama Reddy, K.S.Jagadish
This paper deals with an experimental investigation on the strength of stone and
stone masonry. Granitoid gneiss is commonly used for masonry construction in India. The
compressive strength of stone has been determined through 80mm size cubes. It has been
found that the compressive strength of granitoid is greater when the load is parallel to the
mineral bands. The compressive strength of stone masonry was studied through masonry
prisms using 1:4 and 1:8 cement mortars. These tests have revealed that masonry strength is
higher when load applied is parallel to the mineral band. The flexural bond strength of stone
masonry walls was studied through full scale tests. Flexural bond strength appears to play a
major role in the failure of stone masonry walls.

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Structural Characteristics of High Strength Masonry Units And Mortar


Strength Characteristics of Soil Cement Block Masonry
The Indian concrete journal, Feb 1995.
S. Srinivasa Roa, B.V.Venkatarama Reddy, K.S.Jagadish
This paper deals with the effect of bed joints thickness and block strength on the
strength of soil cement blocks masonry. The soil cement block masonry strength has been
determined by varying the block strength and mortars such as cement mortar and soil cement
mortar. Effect of bed joint thickness on masonry strength has been studied by varying the
bed thickness from 5mm to 30mm and considering two types of mortars leading to
combination such as strong mortar weak block and strong block weak mortar.
Compressive Strength and Shear bond Strength of Stone Masonry Prisms
National conference on materials and structures, Jan 2004,
G. Sarangapani, G. Ravi and S.A. Sajid.
This paper deals with the determination of compressive strength and shear bond
strength of stone masonry prisms in 1:6 cement mortar. Stones from 8 different locations
have been considered in this experimental investigation. It has been found that the
compressive strength of stone masonry in 1:6 cement mortar varies from 4.00 MPa to 9.00
MPa, whereas the shear bond strength varies from 1.00 MPa to 3,00 MPa.
Strength and Behavior of Concrete Hollow Block Masonry Walls in Compression
6th International Seminar on Structural masonry for developing countries, 11-13 Oct 2000,
pp102-106.
M.Bhaskar Matey
This paper includes the method of producing structurally efficient hollow blocks and
construction of wall panels with detailed test procedure and the test results. The main aim of
the investigations is to study slenderness ratio parameter for hollow block wall panels under
uniformly distributed compressive load. Total ten panels of different height are tested. The
end condition of all the wall panels is same. The relation between stress reduction factor and
slenderness ratio is compared with the values in I. S. and experimental results. The other
parameters studied are ratio of wall strength to block strength, ratio of experimental ultimate
load to theoretical permissible load, Stress-strain relationship, strain distribution in the
blocks, cracking and failure pattern of wall panels.
It was observed that the wall panels failed by vertical cracking followed by cracking
of mortar joints, blocks and stripping of face panels of blocks. It was also observed that the
strain along perpendicular mortar joints was more than that of bedding mortar joints. The
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Structural Characteristics of High Strength Masonry Units And Mortar


average ratio of wall strength to block strength was found to be 0.71. The ratio of
experimental ultimate load to theoretical permissible load on walls found to be 7.32. The
stress reduction factor given in I. S. Code was found to be higher than experimental results
for corresponding slenderness ratio.
Compressive Strength and Geological Characteristics of Natural Buildings Stones
6th International Seminar on Structural masonry for developing countries, 11-13 Oct 2000,
pp107-109. G. Sarangapani, S. A. Sajid
This paper deals with the determination of compressive strength and geological
characteristics of natural building stones. Stones from twelve different locations have been
considered in this experimental investigation. An attempt has also been made to correlate the
geological characteristics to the compressive strength of the stones.
"Compressive Strength of Brick Masonry Walls from Prism Tests",
M.E. Thesis, Dept. of Applied Mechanics and Structural Engineering, Annamalai Univ.,
Madras, 1983.Elangonmani.,
Bricks in Chidambaram were studied by Elangonmani (1983) along with the
strength characteristics of masonry prisms using different mortars. The properties of bricks
that have been studied in detail include compressive strength, tensile strength, flexure
strength, suction rate and moisture absorption. Prism strengths have been studied for
various prism heights and for four mortars.
"Behavior of Brick Masonry in Compression",
Journal of Structural Engg., Vol. 22, No. 4, Jan. 1996, pp. 221-224.
Deodhar, S. V. and Patel, A. N.,
The strength of brick masonry with reference to the conventional bricks in Indore
(Madhya Pradesh) was studied by Deodhar and Patel (1996). They considered the effect of
various mortars and the influence of joint thickness. The brick masonry prisms used was
nearly cubical in size.

Structural Characteristics of Bricks, Mortars and Masonry


Journal of Structural Engg., Vol. 29, No. 2, July-Sep. 2002, pp. 101-107.
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Structural Characteristics of High Strength Masonry Units And Mortar


G. Sarangapani, B. V. Venkatarama Reddy and K. S. Jagadish
Burnt clay bricks are widely used for load bearing masonry in India. There is wide
variation in the characteristics of commonly used bricks from different geographical
locations of the country. For example the compressive strength varies between 2 and 24
MPa. This paper deals with the characterization of properties of local low modulus bricks,
mortars and masonry using these materials. Bricks procured from Bangalore were tested for
obtaining the properties such as compressive strength, flexure strength, water absorption,
Initial Rate of Absorption (IRA), porosity and pore size and stress-strain relationships.
Characteristics of two cement mortars (1:4 and 1:6) and three composite mortars (cementsoil and cement-lime mortars) were examined for their strength and elastic properties.
Stress-strain characteristics of masonry using these bricks and mortars were determined. A
simple analysis was carried out to understand the nature of stresses developed in the mortar
joint and brick in the masonry. The results reveal that the bricks around Bangalore have
rather low moduli compared to cement mortar. The brick modulus is in the range of about 5
to 10% of the modulus of 1:6 cement mortar. This kind of situation leads to a masonry
where mortar joints develop lateral tension while brick develops lateral compression
(triaxial) and this is an unfavorable situation due to the brittle nature of mortar.
Brick-Mortar Bond and Masonry Compressive Strength
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 2, March/April 2005, pp. 229-237
G. Sarangapani*, B. V. Venkatarama Reddy** and K. S. Jagadish***
This paper focuses on some issues pertaining to brick-mortar bond and masonry
compressive strength. Failure theories for masonry under compression make the assumption
that the bond between brick and mortar remains intact at the time of failure of the brick or
mortar. The influence of bond strength on masonry compressive strength is not fully
accounted for in these failure theories. In this investigation, the influence of bond strength
on masonry compressive strength has been examined through an experimental program
using local bricks and mortars. Masonry prism compressive strength has been determined
when the brick-mortar bond strength is varied over a wide range without altering the
strength and deformation characteristics of the brick and mortar. Brick-mortar bond strength
has been determined through flexure bond strength and shear bond strength tests. A
relationship between the masonry prism compressive strength and bond strength has been

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Structural Characteristics of High Strength Masonry Units And Mortar


obtained. The results clearly indicate that an increase in bond strength, while keeping the
mortar strength constant, leads to an increase in the compressive strength of masonry.
Water Loss from Fresh Mortars and Bond Strength Development in Low Strength
Masonry
Journal of Structural Engineering, INDIA (SERC), Vol. No.15, JULY-SEP 2002
G. SARANGAPANI*, B. V. VENKATARAMA REDDY**, and CASPAR J. W. P. GROOT***

Low strength bricks are commonly used for load bearing masonry structures in India
and other developing countries. Generally, dry bricks with cement mortars are the common
choice for such masonry structures. The ability of the masonry to resist loads depends upon
the bond between brick and mortar. This paper deals with studies on the flow of moisture
from water-rich fresh mortars into bricks and the development of bond strength in low
strength masonry.. Characteristics of local bricks (strength, water absorption, initial rate of
absorption (IRA), porosity, pore size) and three types of mortar are reported. Parameters
such as the rate of moisture absorption in the bricks, the transport of moisture from mortar to
brick in masonry and the influence of the duration of contact on the moisture in mortar have
been examined. The flexural bond strength of various mortar brick combinations has been
compared It has been concluded that for proper hydration conditions for the mortar and
better bond development, partially saturated bricks should be used for masonry construction.

"Studies on the Strength of Brick Masonry using Mud Mortar",


The 4th Int. Seminar on Structural Masonry for Developing Countries, Madras,
India, 1992, pp. 29-35.
Sarangapani, G,
Sarangapani (1992) also made a special study on the effect of using mud mortars on
the strength of brick masonry prisms. Using bricks of average strength 3.87 MPa he found
that a masonry prism strength of 1.80 MPa could be achieved when the mud mortar had a
clay content of about 15%, The masonry prism strength when such mud mortars are used
was not very different from the prism strengths when 1:6 cement mortar was used.

Objectives
There are several experimental and theoretical investigations conducted to understand the
behavior of low strength masonry. The information available on the high strength masonry is
scanty although a few good attempts have been made to assess the characteristics of high
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Structural Characteristics of High Strength Masonry Units And Mortar


strength masonry through laboratory tests for some specific high strength masonry units. This
investigation is intended to fill certain gaps in the knowledge about high strength masonry. In
particular these following aspects will be considered.
a

Factors affecting the bond between high strength masonry units and high strength

b
c
d
e

mortar.
Compressive strength of high strength masonry.
Designing a suitable mortar to match with high strength masonry units.
To understand the effect of water transport phenomena in high strength masonry.
Stress distribution in high strength masonry using 2D and 3D finite element analysis.

Methodology
The following methodology will be adopted in this investigation.
1) Characteristics of materials used
Different high strength masonry units such as stones and concrete blocks along with
rich cement mortars will be considered in this study. Further different characteristics such as
compressive strength, water absorption, initial rate of absorption, flexural strength, porosity,
pore size and stress strain relationships will be experimentally determined.
2) Water transport studies
This test will be conducted to know the rate of moisture absorption of high strength
masonry units and duration of soaking in water before construction.
3) Structural performance of high strength masonry
The performance of high strength masonry will be measured by conducting bond
strength tests and masonry prism strength tests for various combinations of high strength
masonry units and mortars.
4) Internal stress distribution in masonry under axial compression
The stress distribution in masonry will be studied in detail by using both 2D and 3D
finite element analysis.
5) Validation of Experimental results
The results obtained experimentally will be compared with that of the results of finite
element analysis.

Possible outcome
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Structural Characteristics of High Strength Masonry Units And Mortar


Following may be possible outcomes from this study.
1. Feasibility of using high strength masonry for construction of multi-storey buildings,
avoiding framed structure in earth quake zone can be known.
2. Type of mortar to be used to go with high strength masonry can be arrived at.
3. The effect of bond strength on the high strength masonry can be understood to achieve
high masonry efficiency.
4. Duration of soaking of high strength masonry units can be assessed to get high masonry
efficiency.

References
1. Hendry AW (1998) Structural masonry. Macmillan Press, London
2. Lenczner D (1972) Elements of load bearing brickwork. Pergamon, Oxford
3. Matthana MHS (1996) Strength of brick masonry and masonry walls with openings. PhD
thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science. Bangalore, India
4. Sarangapani G, Venkatarama Reddy B.V, Jagadish K S (2005) Brick-mortar bond and
masonry compressive strength. J Mater- Civil Eng (ASCE) 17 2)229--237
5. Raghunath S, Jagadish KS (1998) Strength and elasticity of bricks in India. Workshop on
Recent Advances in Masonry Construction: WRAMC-98, Roorkee, India: 14l-150
6. Gumaste KS, Venkatarama Reddy BV, Nanjunda Rao KS, Jagadish KS (2004) Properties
of burnt bricks and mortars in India.. Masonry Int l7(2) 45-52
7. Varghese PC, Ashok Kumar (1965) Rcsults of some tests on ultimate strength of brick
piers made from hand molded bricks. J Institute Engg (India) Civil Engg Div 46(3 Part
CI4):381-390
8. Dayaratnam P, Ranganathan R, Mukhopadhyay, Dasgupta N, (1981) Experimental
investigation on behavior of brick and reinforced brickwork. Report NO. DST/427/3,
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India
9. Elangonmani C (1983) Compressive strength of brick masonry walls from prism
tests. M.E. Dissertation, Department of Applied Mechanics and Structural
Engineering, Annamalai University
10. Bhandari NM (1982) Strength of low-rise brick masonry construction. PhD thesis,
Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India
11. IS: 1905 1978, Code of practice for structural use of unreinforced masonry. Bureau
of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India

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Structural Characteristics of High Strength Masonry Units And Mortar


12. BS 5628- 1978, Code of practice for structural use of masonry, British Standards
Institution
13. IS: 8112 - 1989, Specification for 43 grade ordinary Portland cement, Bureau of
Indian Standards, New Delhi, India
14. IS: 2116 - 1980, Specification for sand for masonry mortars, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi, India
15. Raghunath S, (2003) Static and dynamic behavior of brick masonry with containment
reinforcement. PhD thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore, India
16. K.Venu Madhava Rao,

B.V.Venkatarama

Reddy,

K.S.Jagadish

Strength

Characteristics of Stone Masonry, Materials and structures, vol. 30, May 1997, pp
233-237
17. S.Srinivasa Roa, B.V.Venkatarama Reddy, K.S.Jagadish, Strength Characteristics of
Soil Cement Block Masonry, The Indian concrete journal, Feb 1995.
18. G Sarangapani, S. A. Sajid, Compressive Strength and Geological Characteristics of
Natural Buildings Stones, 6 th International Seminar on Structural masonry for
developing countries, 11-13 Oct 2000, pp107-109.
19. M Bhaskar Matey, Strength and Behavior of Concrete Hollow Block Masonry Walls in
Compression, 6th International Seminar on Structural masonry for developing countries,
11-13 Oct 2000, pp102-106.
20. Deodhar, S. V. and Patel, A. N., Behavior of Brick Masonry in Compression,
Journal of Structural Engg., Vol. 22, No. 4, Jan. 1996, pp. 221-224.
21. G. Sarangapani, B. V. Venkatarama Reddy and K. S. Jagadish, Structural Characteristics
of Bricks, Mortars and Masonry, Journal of Structural Engg., Vol. 29, No. 2, July-Sep.
2002, pp. 101-107.
22. G. Sarangapani, B. V. Venkatarama Reddy and K. S. Jagadish, Brick-Mortar Bond and
Masonry Compressive Strength, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 17, No.
2, March/April 2005, pp. 229-237.
23. Sarangapani G, Studies on the Strength of Brick Masonry using Mud Mortar, The
4th Int. Seminar on Structural Masonry for Developing Countries, Madras,
India, 1992, pp. 29-35.
24. T. P. Ganesan, K. Ramamurthy, Behavior of Concrete Hollow Block Masonry Prisms
under Axial Compression, J. Struct. Eng. 1992.118:1751-1769.
25. E. Y. Sayed-Ahmed, N.G. Shrive, Nonlinear Finite Element Model of Hollow
Masonry, J. Struct. Eng. 1996.122:683-690.
26. S. Ali, I.D. Moore, A. W. Page, Sub structuring Technique In Non Linear Analysis Of
Brick Masonry Subjected To Concentrated Load, Computers and Structures, Vol
27,No 3 pp. 417-425,1987.
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Name
:
Guide Name
:
Co -Guide Name :
Research Centre :
Year of Registration:

Arun.L

Arun.L
Dr. G Saragapani
Dr. H.S Prasanna
National Institute of Engineering College
2014-2015

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