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Learners Guide

Implement and monitor work


health and safety practices
SITXWHS401

2014 Edition

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Version number 1.0

Copyright 2014
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reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written consent of Didasko. All rights reserved.

Contents

TEXT
Overview ................................................................................................................. 3
Provide information on health, safety and security ................................................... 3
Monitor safe work practices ....................................................................................17
Coordinate consultative arrangements for the management of health, safety
and security issues .................................................................................................23
Implement and monitor procedures for identifying hazards, assessing and
controlling risks .......................................................................................................29
Implement and monitor health, safety and security training .....................................51
Maintain work health and safety records and reports ..............................................57

Glossary .............................................................................................................. 65

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The Didasko learning resource provided here should be used as a training tool for students
and trainers. While the information contained within addresses the elements, performance
criteria, required skills and knowledge of individual competencies it remains the responsibility
of the training organisation to ensure it meets training framework requirements and to
provide additional documentation where necessary.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

Overview
Under occupational health and safety legislation, the employer and all staff have a
responsibility to ensure safety in the workplace.
As a manager or supervisor, you have a particular obligation to monitor work practices
and ensure that your team is trained to work safely.
Failing to comply with the legislation can lead to serious penalties (large fines or even
imprisonment) for your employer or you.
Complacency and accidents in the workplace are often caused because employees dont
understand the reasoning behind the work practices required of them.
You have an obligation to ensure that staff are regularly consulted about safety and
security issues, receive adequate training, and that they understand procedures for
identifying and reporting workplace hazards.
Lets look at what you will learn on completion of this unit.
Section 1: Provide information on health, safety and security
Section 2: Monitor safe work practices
Section 3: Coordinate consultative arrangements for the management of health, safety
and security issues
Section 4: Implement and monitor procedures for identifying hazards, assessing and
controlling risks
Section 5: Implement and monitor health, safety and security training
Section 6: Maintain work health and safety records and reports

1.0

Provide information on
health, safety and security

Lets look at what you will learn on completion of this section.

Explain relevant work health and safety information to personnel.


Make all current work health and safety information readily accessible to staff.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

What are the costs associated with accidents and injuries?


Click on the dollar signs to check out some of the costs associated with accidents
and injuries in the workplace.

Loss of life or serious injury

An increase in workers compensation premiums

Loss of productivity during and after the accident, for example, dealing with the
injury, damage repairs, finding and training replacement staff

Time and costs associated with accident investigation and reporting

Managing the rehabilitation and return to work of the injured worker

Negative effect on team morale

Possible financial penalties (or imprisonment) to the company and to individuals


where management negligence or misconduct is proven

To prevent workplace accidents, you need a good understanding of the factors that
contribute to these events. Lets look at some of these now.

Why do accidents occur?


Click on the dot points to see some common factors that contribute to workplace
accidents.

Human error

Lack of training or poor training and supervision of staff

Employees lack of awareness of hazards associated with various tasks

Unsafe or faulty equipment and inadequate personal protective equipment

Peer pressure not to conform with safety procedures or use safety equipment

A poor or high risk work environment, for example, poor housekeeping, inadequate
lighting, ventilation

Short cuts or complacency due to over-familiarity with the work in completing


hazardous tasks

Modifying or altering a piece of equipment or machinery

What are the most common accidents?


In every industry there are certain types of accidents that occur due to the nature of the
work. Lets look at some common accidents in the hospitality, tourism and events industry.
Click on the tabs to find out more.
Muscle strains
From carrying cases of alcohol to re-arranging furniture, and carrying or moving heavy
objects as part of your work. If these tasks are not performed correctly and help called for
when needed you can easily strain muscles.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

Trips, slips and falls


Steps, frayed carpets, flooring with holes and uneven surfaces all create opportunities for
trips and falls. Obstructions like trolleys, boxes, rubbish or debris left in traffic areas are
also easy to trip over. Slippery surfaces are commonly found behind the bar, kitchen and
dishwasher areas. Poor lighting can also contribute to these kinds of accidents.
Cuts and abrasions
The incorrect use of equipment and the sharp corners on benches and tables have the
potential to break the skin and cause serious damage.
Mechanical injuries
Unguarded machinery like meat slicers and mix-masters can cause serious injury if not
used properly.
Burns
Working with hot liquids, steam, ovens, cook tops and gas flames can increase the risk of
burn-related injuries.
Cleaning chemicals can also damage or burn your skin, blood and respiratory system if
they are mixed, used or stored incorrectly.

Extend your learning


You may like to research the most common type of injuries or causes of injuries that occur
in your workplace. This information should be available in an injury or near miss register.

Should you be concerned about security?


Many areas of hospitality, tourism and events establishments are accessible to members
of the public. This makes it easy for people to float around and remain unnoticed. In such
an environment security breaches can occur.
Click on the pictures to see examples of possible security breaches.
Suspicious behaviour
Its is often very difficult to tell the difference between customers and unauthorised
visitors.
The best thing you can do is keep an eye open for people acting suspiciously. Look out
for people who are aimlessly floating around without any real purpose or acting nervous or
anxious.
Loss or theft of property, goods or materials
Look out for guests who steal glasses, ashtrays, bathrobes and even menus. Theft is not
just restricted to outsiders; sometimes staff members also steal.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

Here are some ways hospitality enterprises protect against theft.

Encourage staff to keep valuables and personal property in lockers.


Educate guests and staff about the risk of leaving valuables in unsecured places.
Inform guests of any security arrangements, for example, safety deposit boxes.
Do not give guests access to back of house areas.
Do not give guests access to rooms using a staff/master key, even if a guest claims to
have lost their key.
Use surveillance equipment.
Theft policy
Most establishments have a policy dealing with theft by employees. The policy is usually
issued to staff on commencement of employment or during induction and spells out the
consequences of such actions. In most cases, the result is instant dismissal. In some
instances, the police may be alerted.
However, a more useful approach to theft is preventative procedures that dissuade
employees from stealing in the first place. A prevention procedure sets out how each
asset (for example, food, beverages, linen, utensils, equipment and furnishings) is
accounted for.
This can be done via stock requisitioning systems, stock auditing and ordering controls,
access restrictions to various areas, and accounting systems to monitor purchases and
sales of goods.
Crowd control
You have the right to ask people to leave the premises due to unacceptable behaviour.
However, if youre not comfortable dealing with the situation yourself, it may be best to call
your manager for assistance. In some work environments, particularly in high risk areas,
licensed venues and public events, security personnel may be on hand to assist you.
Key control
Follow these simple rules.

Never lend your keys to another person.


Return any keys you find to the front desk or designated lost property area.
Never let anyone into a room for which you are responsible. If they have a legitimate
reason for being in that room, they should get their own key.
Keep keys in a designated area or with an authorised staff member.
Dont put keys down; keep them attached to your uniform.
Utilise a key register where possible so you can keep track of who you have issued
keys to.
Ensure employees return keys when their employment is terminated.

Security of staff property


You are tempting thieves if you leave personal bags and belongings in an area that is not
secure. How often have you seen staff bags thrown underneath a counter or in a
storeroom that has no security whatsoever? It happens all the time.
Where possible, staff should have lockers that can be securely locked, out of sight of the
public. Always keep your key with you or in a secure place.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

Damage to property or fittings


Due to the high level of traffic, hospitality establishments can, after a period of time, look a
little old and worn. Constant wear and tear of floor coverings, furniture and equipment can
take its toll.
You can help minimise this by ensuring that customers and staff do not use furniture and
equipment other than for what they are intended. Keeping feet off chairs and away from
walls, as well as cleaning up spills immediately, will prolong the life of items.
Housekeeping and room service attendants who have access to guest rooms should also
keep a lookout for property damage to furniture or fittings and report if damage occurs
immediately. Misuse and damage to property is a major expense to an establishment. If
guests are caught intentionally causing damage, establishments can seek monetary
reimbursement.

What safety and security information should you provide to


staff?
Provide staff with all of the safety and security information relevant to their responsibilities,
duties and obligations as an employee for your establishment.
Click on the checkboxes to see what this includes.

Safety and security policies and procedures

Legal obligations and the ramifications of failure to comply

Roles and responsibilities of employers and employees in WHS management


practices

Consultative arrangements for WHS

Use of hazard identification reporting documents and risk assessment templates

Specific risk control measures relevant to the workplace

Specific regulations and codes of practice

WHS training information and updates

Location of first aid kit and emergency evacuation plan

Food hygiene and food handling procedures

Youll learn more about each of these areas throughout the remainder of this unit.

How do you convey health and safety information to your


staff?
Liaising with your staff involves using your communication skills to explain work health
and safety information. Remember, youre a team! Work together. Invite the input of
everyone involved and consider what they say in relation to health and safety practices.
Click on the supervisors to find out more.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

Ask questions

Are you aware of the legal obligations?


Can you identify any hazards in your work area?
Do you know how to report a hazard?

Listen actively

Give your staff your full attention.


Show sincere interest in what they have to say.
Maintain eye contact.

Paraphrase and ask more questions

You mentioned that the kitchen floor is slippery and poses a risk. Is it slippery all the
time or only after busy times such as the lunch hour?
I heard you say that your workstation loses power and switches off. Is your equipment
plugged into a power board and does it only happen at the beginning of the day when
you start everything?
Confirm youve understood

OK, I didnt realise you were having trouble with the power source at various times of
the day. It sounds like its best to get a new power board.
So if I understand you right, youd like me to do a complete hazard assessment of this
area?

Where can you put your communication skills into action?


Good communication skills are important in any day-to-day exchanges but are especially
critical in relation to work health and safety. Being clear, accurate and sometimes forceful
in how you communicate may very well prevent or ensure an accident does not happen.
Good communication is required in any of these situations.

Explaining issues of work health and safety responsibilities to staff


Disciplining non-compliant staff
Conducting work health and safety consultation activities
Explaining procedures and information on safe work practices
Explaining the law

Lets look at the different health and safety procedures. Click to the next screen.

Health and safety procedures in the hospitality, tourism and


events industry
Health and safety procedures vary between workplaces, based on their specific needs
and operation. However, there are many which are common to most customer service
orientated businesses.
Click on the pictures to find out some of the most common procedures.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

Cash handling
Procedures for end-of-shift balance, storage of floats, skimming (glossary) cash registers,
foreign and gaming exchanges and banking.
Emergency
Fire and evacuation procedures, theft, robbery, accidents and injuries, including in the
workplace and when off-site at events or tours. Procedures for reporting incidents and
accidents and administering first aid.
Security
Procedures for handling disruptive or intoxicated customers, storage of customers money
and other valuables, theft of valuables, cash, stock, documents or keys, physical and
electronic key security, gaming security, VIP or special event areas.
Hazards
Procedures for identifying and reporting hazards, managing risk, conducting risk
assessments, operating equipment and machinery safely, stock storage and movement,
and using/storing chemicals.
Manual handling
Procedures for lifting and carrying items, reducing repetitive movements as well as the
safe use of mechanical aids/ladders.
Waste
Procedures for recycling and disposal of food, general and hazardous waste, both on-site
and off-site.
Personal protective equipment
Procedures for the safe use, cleaning and storage of protective clothing and equipment.
Chemicals
Procedures for the storage, dispensing, use and disposal of chemicals and other
dangerous substances.
Issue resolution
Consultative processes and procedures for conflict management, complaints handling and
stress management, for dealing with intoxicated guests or problem gamblers.
Personal
Procedures for personal safety and security in the workplace, or when off site at an event
or leading a tour.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

What is the law?


Currently all states, territories and the Commonwealth are responsible for making and
enforcing their own WHS laws. While they are similar in their approach, there are still
some inconsistencies in their application and detail of the laws.
Safe Work Australia has the primary responsibility for developing national policy to
improve WHS. Over the last 20 years, National WHS Standards and Codes of Practice
have been developed in an effort to make WHS regulations more consistent. The Model
Work Health and Safety (WHS) Act forms the basis of WHS Acts being enacted across
Australia to harmonise WHS law.
Each state and territory is required to pass their own laws that mirror the Model WHS Act.
In most cases, new local state and territory legislations are called the Work Health and
Safety Act and Work Health and Safety Regulation. The local Acts and regulations were
passed in 2011 and came into force on 1 January 2012. On the next screen, lets look at
which laws apply to your state or territory.

Which law currently applies to you?


Click on your state or territory to find out.
Commonwealth

Work Health and Safety Act 2011


Work Health and Safety Regulations 2011

ACT

Work Health and Safety Act 2011


Work Health and Safety Regulations 2011

NSW

Work Health and Safety Act 2011


Work Health and Safety Regulations 2011

Vic.

Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004


Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007

(Victoria have not yet adopted the new Model laws and have delayed harmonisation.)
QLD

Work Health and Safety Act 2011


Work Health and Safety Regulations 2011

SA

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Work Health and Safety Act 2012


Work Health and Safety Regulations 2012

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WA

Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984


Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996

(WorkSafe WA has not yet adopted the new Model laws and have delayed
harmonisation.)
Tas.

Work Health and Safety Act 2012


Work Health and Safety Regulations 2012

NT

Work Health and Safety (National Uniform Legislation) Act 2011


Work Health and Safety (National Uniform Legislation) Regulations 2011

Note
Some states have not adopted the changes and operate under their existing occupational
health and safety legislation. They are generally called the Occupational Health and Safety
Act.

Understanding the legal jargon


Its important you know and understand which documents to refer to in different situations.
Click on the words to learn what each one means and how they relate to the law
and safety in the workplace.
Act

A law made by either the State Parliament or the Federal Parliament.

Standards

These establish acceptable minimum levels or certain requirements


relating to a range of issues, such as quality, performance,
construction design, endurance, systems or processes, and certain
hazards and controls. They can arise out of commonly adopted
practices in certain industries, agreements between management and
workers, or because of recommendations from advisory bodies.
These are law and set out mandatory requirements under the Acts.
They provide more detailed information than the Act and support its
general requirements.

Regulations

Codes of
practice or
compliance
codes

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They are not made by Parliament but by other statutory authorities or


government departments.
These provide practical guidance and advice on how to achieve the
standard of health, safety and welfare required by the act and
regulations. They are developed through consultation, involving
industry, employee and employer representation, special interest
groups and government representation.
They are not law.

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Guidance notes

Safety alert

These are explanatory documents issued by various organisations


including WorkCover, Worksafe and Standards Australia. They
provide detailed information to support the various requirements of
legislation, codes and standards.
These emphasise dangers in relation to a specific risk for a particular
job. They highlight the hazard, provide background information, and
then make recommendations or suggestions on how to control the
hazard.

Employer roles and responsibilities


Employers have a duty of care to make sure no one is injured while at work, or affected by
the activities of the workplace. The WHS Act places the primary duty of care on a person
conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU), formerly referred to as the employer.
However, this duty of care extends to employees, customers, contractors (glossary) and
other visitors to the establishment, regardless of whether or not they are casual, full-time,
part-time or even whether or not they are being paid.
Click on the pictures to learn more about your duty of care and legal obligations.
Duty of care
In regard to their duty of care, an employer must do the following (as far as is practicable).

Provide and maintain a safe and healthy working environment.


Provide and maintain safe plant and work systems.
Ensure that the use, handling and storage and transport of plant and substances are
safe and without risk to health.
Provide facilities for the welfare of employees.
Provide information, instruction, training and supervision as necessary to enable
employees to work safely and without risks to health and safety.
Provide personal protective equipment, such as lifting harness, back support braces,
gloves, etc.
Employer obligations
Employers are obliged, as far as is practicable, to do the following.

Maintain the health of their employees.


Monitor conditions in the workplace.
Maintain health and safety records of employees at the workplace.
Engage persons suitably qualified in occupational health and safety to provide
appropriate advice.
Nominate a person with an appropriate level of seniority and training to be the
employers WHS representative when health and safety issues arise.
Where appropriate, provide information about health and safety in different languages.

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How is the workplace defined?


The information provided in this resource relates to all tourism, hospitality and events
environments. This includes heritage venues, holiday parks and resorts, hotels, motels,
clubs, event, meeting and exhibition venues, restaurants, retail outlets, retail travel
agencies, office environments for tour operators, event organisers and tour wholesalers. It
can also include any location where a tour is delivered, for example, on board a coach or
cruise vessel, a tourist precinct where talking tours are operated, and in a national park.
In some cases contractors might share your work space when undertaking their work. Its
essential to discuss and define safety responsibilities in these situations. Never assume
safety is being taken care of by someone else.

Employee roles and responsibilities


The manager is not solely responsible for safety in the workplace; employees have legal
responsibilities too.
Click on the tabs to find out more.
Employee duties and obligations
Following safety directions is one of an employees basic duties and obligations under
OHS and WHS legislation.
This is what employees must do.
You must comply, so far as you are reasonably able, with any reasonable instruction
given by the person conducting a business or undertaking so as to comply with OHS and
WHS Acts and Regulations.
What does this mean?
All employees must follow safety directions from supervisors and managers if its
reasonably practicable to do so.
This means, if an employee is not following a safe work practice correctly, or is not
following them at all, they must obey a supervisor or managers request to comply with the
organisations health and safety policies and procedures.
If an employee does not comply with a safety direction, and an accident occurs, they
could be found to be negligent and held liable in the event of legal proceedings.

In a nutshell
Every employee, regardless of their status within the organisation, has a duty of care to
ensure that health and safety is maintained in the workplace.

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What are the consequences of not following WHS policies


and procedures?
There can be consequences for you, your manager, employer and company if WHS
policies and procedures are not implemented and followed by everyone.
Click on the tabs to find out what the consequences are.
You (the worker)
If you dont follow your workplaces health and safety procedures, you increase the risk of
injury and illness to yourself and to others around you.
You can also be personally fined, prosecuted and even sent to jail if youre negligent in
following your workplaces health and safety polices appropriately when you know what
you should be doing.
Others
Others in the business can also be fined, prosecuted and imprisoned for not complying
with health and safety legislation and regulations. This includes the person conducting a
business undertaking or employer, team leaders, supervisors, self-employed persons,
individual business owners and officers in a corporation or association.
The business
The business, corporation or unincorporated association can also be penalised with heavy
monetary fines. In addition, it can suffer financially from loss of reputation, loss of
business and the impact of a workplace accident on production and their workers.

What information do employees need access to?


All current work health and safety information must be readily accessible to staff. How you
do this depends on the type and size of workplace, the nature of duties performed and
consultative practices undertaken.
Click on the books to see some ways you can keep your staff informed and ensure
they have ready access to current WHS information.

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Include WHS as part of your establishments induction procedures.

Encourage participation in WHS consultative practices.

Make health, safety and security inspections and hazard identification part of routine
housekeeping inspections.

Discuss security and safety issues, including the use of the risk control hierarchy, at
regular staff meetings.

Arrange training where required, and hold emergency evacuation drills.

Display safety posters and signs and safe operating procedures near potentially
hazardous equipment and machinery.

Distribute written documents, flyers or notices on changes in legislation, reporting


requirements or establishment procedures and have a plan to keep casual and parttime staff informed about health, safety and security issues.

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Communicate changes as well as information about health, safety and security


incidents should they occur.

Provide WHS training and refresher courses to ensure all employees have up-todate skills and knowledge.

Where can I go for further information?


For further information and updates about WHS and the role of Safe Work refer to the
website www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au.
To obtain a copy of the Act, regulations or codes of practice, refer to the relevant authority
in your state or territory.
Click on your state or territory to see who this is.
ACT
www.ors.act.gov.au
NSW
www.workcover.nsw.gov.au
Vic.
www.worksafe.vic.gov.au
QLD
www.justice.qld.gov.au
SA
www.workcover.com
WA
www.workcover.wa.gov.au
Tas.
www.workcover.tas.gov.au
NT
www.worksafe.nt.gov.au

End of section
You have reached the end of Section 1.
Click to the next section to continue.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

2.0

Monitor safe work practices

Lets look at what you will learn on completion of this section.

Monitor adherence to organisational work health and safety procedures.


Monitor ongoing compliance with safe work practices.
Take prompt action to address non-compliance with procedures and safe work
practice.
Monitor the day-to-day effectiveness of work health and safety practices in maintaining
the health, safety and security of personnel.

Who is responsible for monitoring work practices?


Monitoring work practices for compliance with safety policies and procedures is your
responsibility and for the benefit of all your staff and customers.
Most managers and supervisors are effective in monitoring performance outcomes and
are quick to take action when customer service standards or profits start to fall. Health and
safety should be a priority when monitoring work practices, but often its the last thing
managers think about when they are assessing staff performance levels.
Adherence to safety policies and procedures is extremely important. Failure to monitor
them can result in serious injuries, large fines and, in serious circumstances,
imprisonment for your employer or you.

What to look out for


When monitoring staff look for the following.
1.

Compliance with organisational WHS policies and procedures

2.

Adherence to WHS signage

3.

Safe work practices

Click to the next screen to learn how to monitor adherence to these three areas.

Note
Its essential that youre familiar with the WHS requirements of your organisation. Being
actively involved in WHS discussions, planning and reviews ensures that youre always
up-to-date with safety changes and practices to look out for.

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STEP 1: COMPLIANCE WITH


ORGANISATIONAL WHS POLICIES
AND PROCEDURES
Most mangers understand that they have a legal responsibility to document WHS policies
and procedures to protect the health and safety of their staff and customers.
Click on the icon to find out more.
Some managers have large manuals or folders filled with professionally researched
information and thorough instructions relevant to their workplace and the practices
performed by staff. But how valuable is this information if its left sitting in the managers
office or only handed to staff to read on their first day during induction?
Staff need regular instruction, training, updates and consultation about WHS policies and
procedures that affect their duties. Plan and organise regular monitoring of staff practices
to ensure you identify non-compliances before an incident or accident occurs.

What policies and procedures relate to organisational WHS?


Are you familiar with the type of policies and procedures used to manage WHS? These
were covered in great detail in the unit Participate in safe work practices. How many can
you think of from your workplace or training environment? You have 30 seconds to list as
many as you can.
Click start to begin.
List the policies and procedures used to manage organisational WHS?
How did you go? Compare your list to the following examples commonly used in
hospitality, tourism and events industries.

WHS consultation policies and procedures


Emergency and evacuation procedures
Handling, transportation and storage of chemicals and hazardous substances
Incident and accident reporting
Hazard identification and reporting
Risk assessment, risk control and reporting procedures
Safe work practices and methods
Security procedures relating to cash, documents, equipment, keys and people

If you had difficulty compiling a list or cant remember what information is included in each
of these policies and procedures, refer to the unit Participate in safe work practices.

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STEP 2: ADHERENCE TO WHS SIGNAGE


WHS signs are put in place to protect the health and safety of employees and customers
in the workplace. They are used as caution alerts or reminders about what needs to take
place to ensure that work practices are carried out safely.
Click on the pictures to see some of the WHS signs youre likely to find in the
workplace.

Cleaning hazard signs such as Cleaning in progress or Caution: Wet floor

Signs to remind staff about personal hygiene or food handling procedures

Hazchem warning signs

Faulty equipment signs

Emergency exit signs

Emergency evacuation plans

Personal protective clothing or equipment signs

Signs instructing staff on the correct use of equipment

Other warning signs such as Forklift operating in area, Caution: reversing vehicles
or Alarm in operation

Hot tip
Sometimes staff become complacent, so its important that you regularly monitor their
adherence to signage. This practice minimises the number of incidents and accidents in
the workplace.

STEP 3: SAFE WORK PRACTICES


Some safe work practices are the same across a range of workplaces and some are
different. Lets have a look at examples of safe work practices for different job roles.
Consider what other procedures these workers could be following and which ones are
used in your workplace.
Click on the pictures to see the different practices people use.
Cook

Handle, clean and store knives carefully and safely.


Use dry cloths to handle hot equipment or tools.
Use protective equipment or clothing when using or dismantling sharp equipment such
as slicers.
Use correct manual handling techniques when lifting and carrying heavy or bulky items
such as stockpots or boxes of stock.
Wear safety shoes in kitchens, due to wet and greasy floors.

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Wear little or no jewellery when working, so it doesnt get caught in machinery or cause
burns when using hot equipment.
Use trolleys to move large items or quantities.
Follow manufacturers instructions when using and storing chemicals.
Waiter/bar person

Keep cash and cash registers secure at all times.


Use correct manual handling techniques when lifting and carrying heavy or bulky items
such as small equipment, stock or kegs of beer.
Use personal safety and security procedures when dealing with disruptive, abusive or
intoxicated persons.
Use a trolley to move stacks of chairs or tables.
Follow suppliers safety instructions when handling inert gas in beverage dispensing
machines.
Clean up and dispose of broken glass safely.

Tour desk attendant

Keep cash and cash registers secure at all times.


Make sure workstations and furniture are designed ergonomically (glossary) and free
of hazards.
Use safe posture and movements when sitting, standing and bending.
Take short breaks from repetitive tasks to reduce the risk of repetitive strains.
Use correct manual handling techniques when lifting and carrying heavy or bulky items
such as boxes of brochures or pamphlets.
Use personal safety and security procedures when dealing with disruptive, abusive or
intoxicated persons.

Ride operator

Rotate tasks to reduce the risk of repetitive strains, loss of focus or fatigue.
Use correct manual handling techniques when assisting people on/off or in/out of rides
and attractions.
Use personal safety and security procedures when dealing with disruptive, abusive or
intoxicated persons.
Use personal protective clothing and equipment to protect from the weather (sun, cold),
the equipment (gloves, jackets, shoes), chemicals (chlorine, oil, grease) or for safety
(high visibility clothing, safety harnesses).
Follow manufacturers instructions when operating and maintaining equipment.
Ensure customers follow all safety instructions when using rides and attractions.

Tour guide

Take short breaks from potentially stressful situations involving difficult customers.
Use correct manual handling techniques when assisting people on/off or in/out of
buses, buildings or attractions.
Use personal safety and security procedures when dealing with disruptive, abusive or
intoxicated persons.
Use catering, camping or recreational equipment safely.
Recognise local hazards and warning signs and their terminology.

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How do you monitor safe work practices?


Monitoring staff work practices means monitoring everything they do during the course of
regular day-to-day operations. Its not simply checking the end result; it is observing the
whole process from start to finish and identifying areas where staff may be placing
themselves or others at risk of injury or illness.
Click on the magnifying glasses for some questions you can use to help you monitor
compliance with safe work practices.

Are staff using appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment for the task
being performed?

Are staff using safe posture when sitting, standing and bending and using safe
manual handling techniques?

Do staff utilise equipment designed to assist with or replace manual handling?

Are staff operating beverage dispensing systems correctly, taking account of the
dangers associated with inert gases?

Are staff taking designated breaks?

Are tasks rotated between employees or work teams?

Are staff taking short breaks away from stressful situations involving difficult
colleagues and customers?

Is equipment (knives, hot surfaces, computers or electronic equipment) handled and


used safely?

Are staff using safe techniques for handling chemicals, poisons and dangerous
materials?

Are staff using ergonomically sound furniture and workstations?

Do staff identify and clear hazards from their immediate work area?

Do staff adhere to safety signage and follow the direction of supervisors and
managers?

What action should you take to address non-compliance?


Staff are often complacent when it comes to WHS matters. Through your regular
monitoring youll identify incidents of non-compliance with WHS procedures, safe work
practices and non-adherence to signage. When this occurs, its essential you take prompt
and appropriate action to address the situation and minimise the risk of an accident
occurring.
Lets look at three examples of how managers have identified issues of non-compliance
with WHS procedures, practices and signage, and the action they took to rectify the
situation.
Click on the managers to find out more.

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Manager 1
Unfortunately my staff only complete incident reports when an accident occurs. I recently
held a staff meeting to discuss the issue. Staff informed me that the form is too detailed
and time-consuming to complete for situations when an accident has not even occurred.
We are currently looking at simplifying the process.
Manager 2
At the end of the shift, staff often take shortcuts, ignore warning signs and expose their
skin to harsh cleaning chemicals. I discussed the matter with my staff and decided that the
best course of action would be to store the gloves alongside the cleaning chemicals. This
seems to work as a second reminder to wear the gloves and makes the task of obtaining
them quick and easy when in a hurry.
Manager 3
I recently observed an employee storing stock in the cool-room. He was bending and
lifting in all sorts of strained and uncomfortable positions. After speaking to the employee,
I was surprised that he had never been trained in manual handling techniques. I have
given him some useful brochures to read over and scheduled a training session with one
of the senior employees at our workplace.

Why is it important to maintain close contact with day-to-day


operations?
Monitoring work practices is not a one-off event, its something that needs to occur on a
daily basis. Dont sit in your office and expect health and safety issues to be brought to
your attention. Interact with staff as they perform their duties and maintain close contact
with day-to-day operations.
When observing staff, question whether or not existing practices are effective in
maintaining health, safety and security. Do you need to review existing procedures,
provide additional training or purchase new equipment?
Maintaining close contact with staff and daily operations helps you address these
questions and ensures you identify issues of non-compliance or ineffectiveness of
procedures, before an incident or accident occurs.

End of section
You have reached the end of Section 2.
Click to the next section to continue.

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3.0

Coordinate consultative
arrangements for the
management of health,
safety and security issues

Lets look at what you will learn on completion of this section.

Coordinate the operation of all consultative processes.


Provide the opportunity for staff members to contribute their views on current and
future work health and safety management practices.
Resolve or refer issues raised through work health and safety consultation to the
appropriate person.
Provide timely staff and own feedback on work health and safety management
practices to the designated person.

Why is consultation with employees important?


As a supervisor, your responsibility extends beyond instructing team members what they
should and should not do in the workplace. You have an obligation to ensure that they are
regularly consulted about safety and security-related issues. This means giving staff
access to establishment policies and procedures and ensuring they understand the
information contained within them.
Complacency and accidents in the workplace are often caused because employees dont
understand the reasoning behind the work practices required of them. You can only
expect your team to consult with you about safety and security issues they identify if you
provide the means and opportunity for them to do so.

How can you motivate team members to commit to WHS?


As youve learned, workplace health, safety and security is the obligation of all employees
and the employer.
Click on the icon to find out more.
As a leader, you can motivate staff to commit to health, safety and security by involving
them in decision-making, problem-solving and goal-setting.
Consultation with employees is essential to ensure they understand whats required of
them, and are committed to achieving optimum health, safety and security goals set by
the organisation.

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What consultative process should you use?


How many different ways can you think of to consult with employees about WHS? What
opportunities can you provide for staff members to contribute their views on current and
future WHS management practices?
You have 30 seconds to think of as many consultative practices as you can.
Click start to begin.
List the different ways you can consult with employees about WHS and provide
opportunities for them to contribute their views on WHS management practices.
How did you go? There are many options you can use depending on the number of
employees at your workplace. These methods were discussed in the unit Participate in
safe work practices. Click to the next screen to refresh your memory.

How do you consult with staff?


Click on the checkboxes for some ideas on how you can regularly consult with staff
at your workplace.

WHS discussions with employees during the course of each day

A diary, whiteboard or suggestion box used by staff to report issues of concern

Regular staff meetings that involve WHS discussions

Special staff meetings or workshops to specifically address WHS issues

Fact sheets to inform personnel about WHS rights and responsibilities

Formal meetings with agendas, minutes and action plans

Informal meetings with notes

Formal WHS representatives and committees

Involvement of staff in writing parts of WHS policies and procedures

Recording issues in a management diary

Seeking staff suggestions for content of work health and safety policies and
procedures

Staff handbook which includes work health and safety information

Surveys or questionnaires that invite staff feedback on WHS issues

Which method is best?


There is no best way to consult with staff. Use a method thats suited to your workplace
size and the needs of staff. Whats important is that you choose a method that provides
staff with the opportunity to contribute their views on current and future WHS management
practices.
Remember, consultation involves not only giving information to employees but also
listening and considering their opinions before making any decisions.

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Consultative processes for workplace health and safety


One of the legal obligations of employers, PCBUs (glossary) and employees is to take
part in consultative processes to maintain, improve and implement health and safety
policies and procedures. This is a collaborative process that involves sharing information
about health and safety and providing staff with the opportunity to contribute their views
on current and future work health and safety management practices.
Click on the tabs to find out more.
Health and Safety Representatives (HSR)
The law requires that an employee from the workplace be appointed to act as the HSR.
The HSR acts as the employers representative when health and safety issues arise or
when safety information needs to be communicated to staff. HSRs are chosen from each
department within the enterprise to ensure an objective representation of the whole
enterprise. This role is generally additional to their main role in the organisation.
While its not compulsory for HSRs to be trained to perform their role, many are. Trained
HSRs can issue Provisional Improvement Notices (PINs) (glossary) and direct work to
cease, should they identify a serious risk.
Health and Safety Committee (HSC)
A HSC provides a forum for consultation on work health and safety issues. PCBUs and
HSR meet regularly to work together on developing policies and procedures and
improving health and safety outcomes. Representatives from industry associations may
also be included in a HSC.
Here are some of the roles and responsibilities of a HSC.

Develops and re-evaluates policies, procedures and work practices.


Ensures that these practices are put in place.
Advises on health and safety training in the workplace.
Ensures employees are informed about rules, standards and work practices. Monitors
to see that these are carried out.
Investigates the circumstances of work-related accidents, injuries and near misses.
Carefully examines any work health and safety issues in the workplace and makes
recommendations for corrective action.
Specialist WHS providers
Some organisations may choose to consult specialist WHS companies and individuals
who provide assistance in establishing hazard identification and risk management
systems. They can also provide training on all areas of WHS.
Suppliers and contractors
Many event and tourism organisations work closely with contractors, suppliers and
complementary service providers. In these situations it is appropriate to consult with key
people from these organisations to ensure appropriate management of health, safety and
security issues.

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Extend your learning


When youre ready to establish or review a WHS committee at your workplace, refer to the
Safe Work Australia website where you will find access to a Worker Representation and
Participation Guide. This guide provides information on the functions performed by HSCs
and HSRs, how to establish a committee and elect committee members.

What does the law say about consultation?


Consultation is not an option; its the law. The WHS Act requires every workplace to take
a systematic approach to WHS consultation in a number of situations.
Click on the dot points to find out what they are.

Before the premises are used for the first time

Before and during the installation or alteration of any plant

When making initial and ongoing decisions on how best to consult with personnel

When proposing to make changes to the premises, equipment materials and


systems of work

When conducting or reviewing hazard identification and risk assessments

When making decisions about actions to eliminate or control risks

When introducing or altering procedures for monitoring workplace risks

When introducing or altering facilities for the welfare of personnel

When any new information relating to health and safety risks becomes available

Note
The duty to consult applies to all employers regardless of the number of employees in the
workplace or whether there is an HSC in place.

How can staff help you eliminate and control risks?


The best way to eliminate risks in the workplace is by communicating with your staff. They
are the ones who are operating equipment, utilising the work space, cleaning and
interacting with customers, so it makes good sense to listen to their ideas.
You cannot expect to identify risks by simply looking at the work area; you must be
involved in the process of carrying out duties. You may notice that an electrical cord is
frayed, for example, or that the floor near the entrance is slippery, but its your staff who
will alert you to risks such as blunt cutting tools in the kitchen, aggravated back pain from
heavy lifting, or difficulty removing hot items from a rotisserie.

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How do you report health and safety issues?


Your establishments policies and procedures should document the methods used to
resolve and report on WHS issues. You may have several different reporting mechanisms
depending on the type of incident.
Click on the icon to find out more.
Reporting methods include completion of First Aid incident/injury reports in the event of a
workplace accident, or completion of a hazard identification checklist prior to commencing
work.
All staff should know how and when to report safety issues, what action to take in the
event of an emergency, who to advise, how to do this, and what paperwork to complete.
Research the reporting requirements of your establishment or training environment. What
forms are used? Who is on the WHS committee and how often do they meet? How do
they communicate meeting outcomes with employees?

What should you do when a safety or security issue is


brought to your attention?
When a health, safety or security issue is brought to your attention, investigate and
respond promptly.
Click on the icon to find out why.

Its part of your responsibility for maintaining good working relationships with staff.

Prompt action indicates the importance you place on health, safety and security.

Failure to address an issue could result in an accident and/or injury.

Should the matter involve legal proceedings you could be deemed negligent if you
failed to respond appropriately.

Hot tip
Depending on the establishments policy, your level of authority and the situation, you may
be able to resolve the problem yourself. Or you may need to refer the issue to a
designated person or the health and safety committee. In the latter case, ensure that the
matter is documented and followed through promptly.

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Who should you provide feedback to?


Keep staff informed of the progress and outcomes of safety and security issues raised.
Click on the megaphones to find out why.

Providing feedback alleviates concerns staff may have about health, safety or
security.

It enables staff to focus on their work knowing that the issue is being taken care of.

Ongoing communication and feedback helps maintain good working relationships.

It reinforces to staff, your commitment to maintaining a healthy, safe and secure


workplace.

Why is feedback important?


Your feedback is equally important. The health and safety representative or manager
responsible for the WHS management systems will want to know which systems are
working effectively and which can be improved. Highlight your teams successes and
communicate any concerns or issues raised in your consultation with staff. Your feedback
is valuable for reviewing existing health, safety and security management practices.

In a nutshell
Ongoing communication and consultation also allows you to gain feedback on staff
satisfaction with safety management practices and the action taken. Encourage and
recognise your staff for their efforts and initiative in raising health, safety and security
issues.

End of section
You have reached the end of Section 3.
Click to the next section to continue.

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4.0

Implement and monitor


procedures for identifying
hazards, assessing and
controlling risks

Lets look at what you will learn on completion of this section.

Coordinate scheduled hazard identification activities ensuring hazards are identified at


times designated by legislation.
Identify any hazards on an ongoing basis through own day-to-day workplace
operations.
React to reports of hazards by other workers, coordinate and participate in risk
assessments.
Implement any risk control methods or refer to appropriate person if control is outside
scope of responsibility.
Monitor the effectiveness of control measures, promptly identify any inadequacies and
resolve or report them to the appropriate person.

What does the law say about managing risks?


Anyone who is responsible for ensuring health and safety must eliminate risks to health
and safety so far as is reasonably practicable. If its not reasonably practicable to
eliminate the risk, then you must minimise those risks so far as is reasonably practicable.

What does reasonably practicable mean?


Reasonably practicable means that which is reasonably able to be done in relation to
ensuring health and safety, taking into account and weighing up all relevant matters. This
will include some of these factors.

The likelihood of the hazard or the risk occurring.


The degree of harm that might result from the hazard or the risk.
Knowledge about the hazard or risk or ways of eliminating or minimising the risk.
The availability and suitability of ways to eliminate or minimise the risk.
After assessing the extent of the risk and the available ways of eliminating or
minimising the risk, the cost associated with available ways of eliminating or minimising
the risk, including whether the cost is grossly disproportionate to the risk.
Source: WorkSafe Act, Safe Work Australia. www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au accessed 24/3/14

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What is risk management?


Risk management is all about reducing the risk of injury, illness or damage by identifying
hazards and controlling risks. There are four steps to risk management.
Click on the steps to learn what they are.
Step 1: Identify hazards
Step 2: Assess risks
Step 3: Control risks
Step 4: Review control measures
Youll learn how to perform each of these steps throughout the remainder of this section.

When should you use a risk management approach?


The workplace environment rarely stays the same. With each change a re-assessment
must take place to ensure that all safety hazards and risks are identified.
Its easier to undertake a risk assessment of new systems, products and places during the
planning stage, rather than waiting until theyve already been introduced into the
workplace.
Click on the icon to see the recommendations outlined in The Code of Practice:
How to Manage Work Health and Safety Risks.
You should follow a risk management approach in the following situations.

When starting a new business or purchasing a business


When changing work practices, procedures or the work environment
When purchasing new or used equipment or using new substances
When planning to improve productivity or reduce costs
When new information about workplace risks becomes available
When responding to workplace incidents
When responding to concerns raised by workers, health and safety representatives or
others at the workplace
When required by the WHS regulations for specific hazards

Extend your learning


Download and read this Code of Practice from Safe Work Australia
www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au. Search in the publications and resources tab search for
Model Code of Practice How to Manage Work Health and Safety Risks Code of Practice.
Complete the case studies located in the appendix.

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STEP 1: IDENTIFY HAZARDS


A hazard is any situation or thing that has the potential to harm a person.

What is hazard identification?


Hazard identification is the process used to identify all of the possible situations in the
workplace where people may be exposed to injury, illness or disease.
Make hazard inspections a planned, regular event to ensure that hazards are identified at
times designated by legislation.
Lets begin by looking at the type of hazards to watch out for.

What are the different types of hazards?


Types of hazards differ depending on the size and type of establishment and the
equipment, machinery and stock used.
Look at the environment around you. Are there any hazards that are immediately obvious
to you?
You have 30 seconds to identify at least three workplace hazards.
Click start to begin.
Look at the environment around you and identify at least three workplace hazards. Type
the hazards youve identified in the space below.
How did you go?
Hazards usually relate to one of six areas. Lets look at what they are on the next screen.

Types of hazards
Click on the pictures to learn about the many hazards to look out for and the
categories they typically belong to.
Physical environment

Crowds
Electrical items
Exposure to weather and natural disasters
Flooring that is slippery or loose. Blocked walkways
Hot and cold work environments
Lighting conditions
Noise levels
Pests
Touring activities to be undertaken
Wild animals and local wildlife

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Working spaces of workers


Appliances, tools, equipment and machinery
Customer ability to fully engage in all activities, eg. health issues

Working practices

Length of time spent at certain tasks and allocation of breaks


Rostering and shift allocation
Opening and closing procedures
Standard operating procedures for work-related tasks
Performing manual tasks that require a person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or restrain
any object, animal or person

Security issues

Storage of cash, documents and keys


Theft and robbery
Customer behaviour, such as aggressive, drunk, disorderly and disturbed customers

Chemical hazards

Chemicals can exist as vapours, gases, mists, dusts, fumes, liquids and smoke
Exposure can occur through skin contact, inhalation or ingestion
Chemicals can be acids, alkaline, corrosive, oxidising and combustible

Biological hazards

Moulds and fungi


Bacteria and viruses, such as food-poisoning bacteria, hepatitis and HIV/Aids
Human and animal waste

Psychosocial hazards
Psychosocial hazards are those which affect the mental health and personal well-being.

Bullying and harassment


Customer aggression
Shift work, fatigue
Working alone
Work-related mental stress
Poor leadership, lack of motivation, poor job design, no procedures or systems in place

Plant

Appliances
Beverage dispensing systems using inert gases
Equipment
Machinery
Tools

Are hazards obvious?


Not always. Some hazards may be obvious because they are common to your industry, or
involve using dangerous tools and equipment, or are performed in a physically dangerous
environment. However, some potential hazards are far less obvious.

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Some hazards cause injury that is only discovered over a period of time. Examples
include exposure to certain chemicals, repetitive movement strains, back injury and
hearing deterioration. Work-related back and neck pain and injury are the most commonly
cited of the musculoskeletal disorders recorded by Safe Work Australia. This type of injury
is often caused by poor manual handling, poor posture, prolonged sitting and repetitive
movements.
Click on the signs for some examples of hazards

Operation of kitchen tools and equipment such as meat slicers, knives, blenders,
ovens and steamers

Tasks which require personal protective clothing and/or equipment, such as for
cleaning guest rooms, ovens and other work areas

Stock such as dangerous goods that require special handling, storage or disposal

Work areas where moving equipment or vehicles are operating, for example,
loading or receiving bays

The area and chemicals used to clean equipment

Dealing with customers who may be intoxicated, violent or deranged

Emergency situations such as a fire or bomb scare

Spread of disease and/or sickness from contaminated food, waste or sick


customers and staff

Pests such as rats or mice

How do you identify hazards?


The best way to identify hazards is to actively look for them. Carry out an inspection of the
work area and make a list of everything that could be harmful.
Observe the movement of staff and customers and pay attention to the processes and
equipment that might place them at risk of injury or illness.
Click on the checkboxes for some useful questions to ask as you look around the
workplace.

Are staff following recommended safety and security procedures?

Are staff taking shortcuts?

Are staff having difficulty operating plant or equipment?

How suitable are the tools and equipment for the task undertaken?

Does the movement of staff and customers place anyone at risk in the work area?

Have suitable controls been put in place to protect staff from manual handling
injuries?

Is the environment suitable (adequate lighting, space, ventilation)?

Is there a code of conduct for employee behaviour?

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What are some good tips to remember?


Remember the value of listening to your staff. They are the ones who are operating
equipment, utilising the work space, cleaning and interacting with customers, so it makes
good sense to actively listen to their concerns about safety and security.
Dont forget, some hazards are obvious; others are not. Look carefully for those which
might cause damage over a long period of time, such as fatigue, repetitive strain injury
(RSI) and stress.

Extend your learning


Visit Safe Work SA www.safework.sa.gov.au. Go to the resources tab and search under
Activities and Education' for online activities and tests. Here you should find several
activities that involve identifying hazards. Try the virtual hotel, office and supermarket
hazard identification activities.

How are hazards reported?


Every establishment has different methods for reporting hazards. Some take a formal
approach and require a written report to be submitted. Others accept a verbal report or
written notes in a logbook, suggestion box or on a safety noticeboard.
Whichever system is used in your workplace, take prompt action. Never ignore any issue
that is brought to your attention. A risk assessment will help you decide what action to
take. Well discuss how shortly.

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Hazard identification checklist example

Hazard Identification Checklist


Department Food and beverage department dry goods storage area.
Name of person completing inspection: Lisa Ashton
Item

Shelves
Clean
Neatly stacked
No sign of pests or rodents

Y/N
Y
N
Y

Comment

Corrective action taken

Stock is poorly
stacked on
storeroom shelf.
There is too
much excess
stock and it is
stacked too high.

Staff on shift
alerted. Stock
temporarily
adjusted to minimise
short-term risk.

Risk of stock
falling and
injuring staff
member.

Floors
Clean and hygienic
Free of clutter and obstructions
No sign of pests or rodents
Temperature
Appropriate for type of goods
stored
Temperature logs maintained and
up to date
Manual handling
Shelves appropriate height
Storage methods appropriate
Equipment available (if applicable

Risk assessment
completed.

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Y
Y
N/A

Extend your learning


How are hazards reported in your workplace? Does your establishment use self-designed
tools or templates, or templates developed by industry associations or an external
consultant?
Type hazard identification template into your Internet search engine to look at the many
options available.

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Hazards and associated risks


Can you identify all the workplace hazards and risks? Click on each item you think poses
a risk to the safety of customers and staff. Each time you eliminate a hazard, the hazard
counter will drop. Make sure you get the counter to zero before you move to the next
screen.
Click on the hazards.
Spill on floor
Well done! This hazard could cause serious injury. Take a look at some of the other
hazards under this category.
Hazards

Risks

Spilt drinks or cleaning fluids

Slips, trips and falls

Steps and stairs


Slippery floor surfaces
Frayed carpet
Uneven flooring
Boxes or debris left in traffic areas
Ladders, trolleys, handcarts or other working tools
left in traffic areas
Electrical cord with exposed wires
If you dont eliminate that hazard, it could give someone a nasty zap! The other hazards in
this category are just as dangerous. Take a look.
Hazards

Risks

Frayed electrical cords

Electrocution, fire, explosion

Power cables
Gas
Boxes in front of door with Fire Exit sign above it
Imagine if there was a fire and people couldnt get out because the fire exit was blocked.
The consequences could be fatal. As you can see from the table below, failing to place
appropriate signage on exits can also be a hazard.
Hazards

Risks

Blocked fire exits

Inability to safely evacuate staff and


customers in the event of a fire or
other emergency, risking serious
injury or even death

Exits not identified with signage

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Person picking up a box with bent back


It looks like that employee has forgotten the correct manual handling technique. Better
step in and remind them before they end up with an injury.
Hazards

Risks

Poor manual handing techniques

Sprains and strains

Light out
Good spotting! The light thats out makes it very dark. If people have difficulty seeing,
there is a higher likelihood of an accident occurring.
Hazards

Risks

Poor lighting

Slips, trips, falls, cuts, abrasions

A utility knife with the blade exposed is sitting on the counter


Thats right! The utility knife is definitely a hazard, and has the potential to really hurt
someone. Take a look at the other hazards in this category.
Hazards

Risks

Broken glass

Cuts and abrasions

Sharp corners on display fixtures and fittings


Utility knives
Scissors
Other sharp objects/cutting implements
Boxes stacked badly in the storeroom
Youre right, those boxes are a hazard. Unfortunately, this happens too often. Busy
employees become careless and stack boxes hurriedly, intending to do it properly later.
However, that time rarely comes and someone ends up hurt.
Hazards

Risks

Boxes poorly stacked in storeroom

Crushing-related injuries and


damage

A staff member looking at a stock trolley and scratching their head


Good work! An untrained staff member can be a serious hazard, especially if they try to
use equipment they havent been trained to use.
Hazards

Risks

Untrained staff

Minor to serious injuries to staff and


customers depending on the nature
of the training required

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STEP 2: ASSESS RISKS


Whenever a hazard is brought to your attention you must conduct a risk assessment. This
helps you identify which hazards pose the greatest risk to health and safety.
Click on the question marks to learn more about the risk assessment process.
What is a risk?
A risk is the likelihood of a hazard actually causing harm.
What is a risk assessment?
Risk assessment is the process used to determine:

the severity of a risk (potential to cause injury or illness)


the effectiveness of existing control measures
action you should take to control the risk
the urgency to take action.

When should you do a risk assessment?


The Code of Practice for managing WHS risks recommends you undertake a risk
assessment in the following situations.

When there is uncertainty about how a hazard may result in injury or illness.
When the task involves a number of different hazards and youre not sure how the
hazards impact on each other to produce new or greater risks.
When changes occur in the workplace that may impact on the effectiveness of control
measures.

Note
Some work activities are classified as high-risk and under WHS regulations have specific
risk assessment requirements. These are mandatory requirements that might apply to you
if you work in confined spaces or conduct diving tours.

Coordinating the risk assessment process?


Its important that every risk assessment is thorough and complete. Its easy to overlook
hazards or underestimate the severity of risks, especially in an environment you are
unfamiliar with.
Click on the icon to find out more.
Consulting with other personnel is worthwhile as they may be aware of potential dangers
you havent considered or processes youre unaware of. This is particularly the case if you
are new to the workplace or if others are likely to have more industry or workplace
experience.
The right personnel can work with you to assess risks and plan appropriate short-term and
long-term solutions to eliminate or minimise the likelihood of an incident occurring.

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What are some tools that help coordinate the process?


There are many risk assessment tools and templates available. They are all very similar in
design and some have been drawn up to help you address industry-specific hazards and
risks.
When choosing or developing a risk assessment template, ensure that it incorporates
assessment criteria for assessing risks and consequences. A template for simply
recording a list of hazards and risks is not a complete risk assessment document.
Lets look at an example on the next screen.

Risk assessment template


Click on each number to learn more about each section of the risk assessment
template.

Risk assessment
1 Date of assessment: _____________________________________________________
2
Name of person completing assessment: ______________________________________
3 Department/work area/task assessed: _________________________________________

(1)

Risk priority

Level of
risk

Severity

Potential harm
or
consequences

Likelihood

Hazards
identified

Risk
controls

Person
responsible
for action

Date
completed

Date of assessment

The date of assessment is needed so you can monitor how much time has elapsed
between conducting the assessment and taking action. It also allows management to look
at the frequency of assessments being conducted throughout the establishment.

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(2)

Name of person completing assessment

The person conducting the assessment may not be the department supervisor or
manager. It could be an employee or WHS representative. Include this information in case
the report needs to be followed up or more detailed information is required.
(3)

Department/work area/task assessed

A risk assessment may relate to an entire department, one particular work area such as a
kitchen or front office, or a specific work task such as clean-up procedures. Management
need specific information about what areas or tasks are included in the risk assessment.
(4)

Hazards identified

This is where you list all of the hazards you identify. If youve already completed a hazard
identification checklist, you can transfer the information from your checklist directly into the
risk assessment template.
(5)

Potential harm or consequences

Collect sufficient evidence of the type of risk posed by the identified hazard. Consider the
injury, illness or consequences that could result (burns, cuts, muscle strain, stress, death,
etc.).
(6)

Level of risk

The level of risk is determined by following 3 steps.


Step 1: Determine how likely it is that someone may be exposed to the hazard and the
probability that an incident or injury will occur.
Step 2: Determine how severe a potential injury or illness could be.
Step 3: Using a risk priority chart, match the severity and likelihood of exposure to
determine the hazards overall risk level.
Sounds complicated? Youll see how to assess the level of risk in more detail shortly.
(7)

Risk controls

Risk controls are the steps you plan to take to eliminate or minimise the risk. You may
recall the hierarchy of control from previous WHS units. We will discuss risk control
options in more detail shortly.
(8)

Person responsible for action

The person responsible for taking action may not be the person completing the risk
assessment. For example, a WHS representative might conduct a risk assessment and
record the action to be taken by the department supervisor or manager. Recording these
details makes someone accountable for the action required.
(9)

Date completed

Once the required action is taken, its necessary to close off the report by inserting the
completion date. Management can then see that the hazards have been appropriately
controlled and determine if any further action is required.

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How do you use a risk priority chart?


A risk priority chart uses a ranking scale to help you identify the risks that need immediate
attention. There are three simple steps to follow.
Click on the pictures to learn more about each one.
Step 1
Collect sufficient evidence to determine how likely it is that someone may be exposed to
the hazard. What is the probability that an incident or injury will occur?

Very likely (could happen any time).


Likely (could happen occasionally).
Unlikely (could happen, but only rarely).
Very unlikely (could happen, but probably never will).

Consider how often the task is performed, how near people get to the hazard, whether the
hazard is known to have caused injuries in the past, and the effectiveness of existing
controls. Can environmental changes impact on the likelihood?
Step 2
Determine how severe a potential injury or illness could be.

Fatal: a person could be killed.


Critical: a person may suffer a permanent disability or ill health.
Major: a person may suffer long-term illness or serious injury and time off work.
Minor: a person may require treatment by a doctor and some time off work.
Negligible: a person may require first aid treatment and no time off work.

Step 3
Using a risk priority chart, match the severity and likelihood of exposure, to determine the
hazards overall risk level.
Likelihood
Severity
Fatal
Critical
Major
Minor
Negligible

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Very likely

Likely

Unlikely

Very unlikely

1
1
1
2
3

1
1
2
3
4

2
2
3
4
5

3
3
4
5
6

The numbers 1 to 6 in the


chart indicate the level of risk.
1 to 2 = High (take action
immediately)
3 to 4 = Medium (take action
as soon as possible
5 to 6 = Low (may not need to
take action

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Completing the risk assessment


Click on the tabs to see the risk assessment process in action.
Hazard identification
Do you remember the hazard identification checklist we looked at in earlier in this section?
The employee identified one hazard in their work environment that needs further
investigation.

Hazard Identification Checklist


Department: Food and beverage department dry goods storage area
Name of person completing inspection: Lisa Ashton
Item

Y/N

Shelves

Clean
Neatly stacked
No sign of pests or rodents

Y
N
Y

Floors

Clean and hygienic


Free of clutter and obstructions
No sign of pests or rodents

Y
Y
Y

Temperature

Appropriate for type of goods


stored
Temperature logs maintained and
up to date

Y
Y

Manual handling

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Shelves appropriate height


Storage methods appropriate
Equipment available (if
applicable)

42

Y
Y
N/A

Comment

Corrective
taken

action

Stock is poorly
stacked on
storeroom shelf.
There is too
much excess
stock and it is
stacked too high.

Staff on shift
alerted. Stock
temporarily
adjusted to
minimise short-term
risk.

Risk of stock
falling and
injuring staff
member.

Risk assessment
completed.

SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

Commence risk assessment


The employee now completes a risk assessment for the hazard she identified.

Risk assessment
Date of assessment: 20 April 20xx
Name of person completing assessment: Lisa Ashton
Department/work area/task assessed: Food and beverage department dry goods
storage area
Risk
controls

Person
responsible
for action

Date
completed

Risk priority

Level of
risk

Severity

Potential harm
or
consequences

Likelihood

Hazards
identified

Poorly stacked
stock on
storeroom
shelf

Potential harm or consequences


The employee assesses the potential harm or consequences based on the nature of
duties carried out in the area.

Risk assessment
Date of assessment: 20 April 20xx
Name of person completing assessment: Lisa Ashton
Department/work area/task assessed: Food and beverage department dry goods
storage area

Stock could fall


on an
employee and
cause bruising,
cuts, neck
strain, head
injury or
concussion.

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Risk
controls

Person
responsible
for action

Date
completed

Risk priority

Poorly
stacked stock
on storeroom
shelf

Level of
risk

Severity

Potential harm
or
consequences

Likelihood

Hazards
identified

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Risk priority
Using the establishments risk priority chart, she ranked the risk as Medium because if
the stock fell from the shelf and injured an employee, they may need medical attention
and time off work. Looking at the poorly stacked shelves, and knowing the number of staff
who access the area during the course of their work day, an incident is likely to occur if
action is not taken soon.
Likelihood
Severity
Very likely

Likely

Unlikely

Very unlikely

1
1
1
2
3

1
1
2
3
4

2
2
3
4
5

3
3
4
5
6

Fatal
Critical
Major
Minor
Negligible

The numbers 1 to 6 in the


chart indicate the level of risk.
1 to 2 = High (take action
immediately)
3 to 4 = Medium (take action
as soon as possible
5 to 6 = Low (may not need to
take action

Click on the icon to see the next step in the risk assessment process.

Risk assessment
Date of assessment: 20 April 20xx
Name of person completing assessment: Lisa Ashton
Department/work area/task assessed: Food and beverage department dry goods
storage area

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Risk priority

Medium

Severity

Stock could
fall on an
employee and
cause
bruising,
cuts, neck
strain, head
injury or
concussion.

Minor

Poorly stacked
stock on
storeroom
shelf

Level of
risk
Likelihood

Potential harm
or
consequences

Likely

Hazards
identified

Risk
controls

Person
responsible
for action

Date
completed

SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

Risk controls
Risk control is the process used to identify all practical measures for eliminating or
reducing the likelihood of injury, illness or disease in the workplace. It also involves
implementing the measures and continually reviewing them to ensure their effectiveness.
Youll learn more about the hierarchy of control shortly. For now, lets look at the outcome
of the risk assessment example and suggested actions for eliminating or controlling the
risks.

Risk assessment
Date of assessment: 20 April 20xx
Name of person completing assessment: Lisa Ashton
Department/work area/task assessed: Food and beverage department dry goods
storage area

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Likely

Risk controls

Person
responsible
for action

Short-term:
stack stock on
floor of store
room in such a
manner that it
won't block the
doorway.

Lisa Ashton

Arrange for
additional
shelving to be
installed for
excess stock.

Purchasing
Manager

Train staff in
manual
handling
techniques and
hazard
identification.

Human
Resource
Manager

Date
completed

Risk priority

Medium

Stock could
fall on an
employee and
cause
bruising,
cuts, neck
strain, head
injury or
concussion.

Severity

Poorly stacked
stock on
storeroom
shelf

Level of
risk

Minor

Potential harm
or
consequences

Likelihood

Hazards
identified

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STEP 3: CONTROL RISKS


Risk control is the process used to identify all practical measures for eliminating or
reducing the likelihood of injury, illness or disease in the workplace.
To find the best and most practical solution, WHS Regulations require you to use the
hierarchy of control.
Click on the pyramid sections to learn about the hierarchy of control.
Hierarchy of risk control from most to least effective

1. Eliminate
Most effective

2. Substitute

3. Isolate

4. Engineering

5. Administration

6. PPE

Least effective

Eliminate
Eliminate the hazard: repair or dispose of the item causing the hazard.
Substitute
Substitute the hazard with something that poses less risk. For example, replace cleaning
chemicals with non-toxic brands.
Isolate
Isolate the hazard from people. For example, put barriers around spills.
Engineering
Change or design the layout to make it safer for people. For example, use trolleys to move
heavy objects and fit safety guards to hazardous equipment.

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Administrative
Change the way the job is done, for example, training, equipment maintenance
procedures, job rotation, etc.
PPE
Use personal protective clothing or equipment, such as eye or hearing protection, gloves,
aprons or hard hats.

Implement risk control methods


Whether or not you can implement the control measures depends on your level of
authority and experience. It may be necessary to delegate the responsibility to a higher
level staff member, someone more experienced than you, or alternatively, to an external
consultant or service provider.
For example, you may identify action that is required by another department or needs
approval from upper management or the finance department. In such cases, refer the
matter to the appropriate person so that prompt action can be taken to deal with the risk
you identified.
Always refer to your establishments procedure and seek advice before taking any action
youre unsure about.

What can you do to support the implementation of control


measures?
The implementation of control measures often results in changes to systems of work,
equipment, the work environment or protective clothing.
Whenever changes are made, its important that staff are adequately supported and
receive the information and training they need to ensure their safety. Only with adequate
support will the control measures be effective in eliminating or minimising safety risks.
Click on the checkboxes to learn support strategies you can adopt in your
workplace.

Provide staff with adequate training or coaching.

Demonstrate how to use new equipment or undertake a task.

Provide staff with written procedures or safe work guidelines and support these
procedures with practical demonstration.

Ensure adequate supervision during the implementation period or in situations


where high risk activities are undertaken.

Provide safety induction for contractors or visitors who may be unaware of the
establishments control measures.

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STEP 4: REVIEW CONTROL MEASURES


Control measures must be reviewed to ensure their effectiveness.
Click on the icon to find out why.

You need to determine if existing controls are actually working to prevent injuries
and minimise risk.

Over time, staff may become complacent, forget required safety procedures, or start
taking short cuts.

Equipment may become damaged or faulty and protective clothing worn out.

New procedures may be introduced or changes may occur to safety legislation.

Note
Ensure you have up-to-date information from suppliers, industry regulators and WHS
authority websites. There may be new products or developments that are safer than the
ones youre currently using.

How do you identify inadequacies in risk control measures?


When any hazardous event occurs, promptly investigate the situation to find out what
caused the incident. Then evaluate if current risk control measures are adequate. This
can reveal how to avoid similar incidents occurring in the future.
Click on the managers to find out more.
Keep a written record of all accidents, incidents and near misses, including those in which
stock or equipment has been damaged.
Use your problem-solving and critical thinking skills to analyse these records to identify
trends. For example, records might show that hazardous events regularly occur in one
area or work situation. Or the same type of incident might occur often. This would suggest
that current risk control measures are not working and that better measures need to be
employed.
If you identify inadequacies that are the responsibility of another department within your
establishment, report them to the appropriate person so that prompt action can be taken
to improve existing control measures.

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Where can I find some helpful resources?


Many resources, codes of practice and guidance notes are available from your WHS
authority. These provide you with information on safe work practices and control
measures you can take to improve safety in certain situations. Where possible, discuss
these control measures with relevant personnel in your establishment. If appropriate, you
may choose to adopt the recommended control procedures, or alternatively, adapt them to
suit your unique workplace needs.

End of section
You have reached the end of Section 4.
Click to the next section to continue.

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5.0

Implement and monitor


health, safety and
security training

Lets look at what you will learn on completion of this section.

Identify work health and safety training needs based on regular staff monitoring.
Make arrangements for fulfilling training needs.
Monitor effectiveness of training and make required adjustments.

When do staff need training?


Staff need relevant training and supervision to perform a specific role or function. Its
important to identify staff knowledge and skill gaps so you can plan and organise for
training that is appropriate for their needs.
For example, it would not be necessary to provide staff with hazardous goods training if
theyre never exposed to such materials. On the other hand, if they have recently used
poor manual handling techniques when moving stock, it would be necessary to provide
manual handling training.

The process of implementing WHS training


Follow this simple process for implementing and monitoring WHS training.
Step 1: Identify training needs
Step 2: Identify the gap
Step 3: Confirm the reasons for the gap
Step 4: Close the gap
Step 5: Monitor the effectiveness of training

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STEP 1: IDENTIFY TRAINING NEEDS


To identify WHS training needs, regularly monitor staff as they undertake their daily
duties.
As you observe their actions you should consider two factors.
Click on the pictures to see what they are.

Training that is required by law

Training that is specific to the work being conducted

Click to the next screen to learn more about these factors.

Training that is required by law


The WHS Act requires employers to provide such training to employees as is necessary
to enable them to perform their work in a manner that is safe and without risks to health.
Click on the gavels to see some examples of training thats required by law.

Induction of new staff

Training for staff who are safety committee representatives or who have safety
responsibilities, for example, evacuation officers, wardens, staff designated to
provide first aid

Where a special licence is required to operate certain types of machinery, for


example, a fork lift

Where a certain qualification is required to perform a job role, for example, food
safety, responsible service of alcohol

Training staff in hazard identification, risk assessment and control

Where records reveal accident or injury trends associated with specific job roles or
tasks

Formal training programs in safe work practices

Training in food handling techniques and food related hygiene

Training that is specific to the work


To identify the training needs of your staff, consider the various tasks and functions they
are required to perform and review their position descriptions and responsibilities.
Click on the icon for a list of work tasks that will help you identify potential training
needs of your staff.

2014 Edition

Movement such as people, stock, equipment, tools, machinery, vehicles

Substances, for example, cleaning agents, waste products

Tools and equipment, such as machinery, ovens, knives, vacuum cleaners and
other electrical equipment

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

How and where the work is conducted, for example, in the open air, confined
spaces, closed rooms, methods of lifting or movement, type and weight of objects

Cleaning, maintenance and repairs, including procedures, tools and equipment


associated with these functions, dealing with spills or breakages, waste disposal,
how and when these duties are carried out

Hot tip
An effective way to identify specific safety training needs is to complete the task yourself
as part of carrying out a task breakdown.

STEP 2: IDENTIFY THE GAP


The gap is the difference between the employee or teams actual ability and the
requirements of the competent and safe performance of the task. Put simply, its the
difference between what actually happens and what should happen.
One way to confirm if a gap exists is to conduct a training needs analysis. This involves
recording all the required skills and knowledge to perform a specific work task, then
mapping it against the actual skills and abilities of an individual or team.
Click on the icon to see a training needs analysis example.
Training needs analysis example
Task breakdown or
skills/knowledge
required to perform
task:

Employee
skills/knowledge
displayed

Competency
demonstrated
in this task?

Further training
required?

Yes/No

Yes/No
(include details)

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes.
Emphasise risk of
lower back
injuries.

No

Yes. Demonstrate
the correct
position of feet
when lifting.

Stacking stock in store room

Test the load before


lifting.
Check for a clear path.

Stand close to box and


distribute weight evenly.

Stand with feet apart and


straddle the box.

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Employee looked at
load and tested
weight.
Observed the
employee look for
clear path to the
storeroom.
Employee was not
close to box when
demonstrating
knowledge of lifting
procedure.
Employee lifted box
with feet together.

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Task breakdown or
skills/knowledge
required to perform
task:

Employee
skills/knowledge
displayed

Competency
demonstrated
in this task?

Further training
required?

Yes/No

Yes/No
(include details)

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Stacking stock in store room

Grip with hands not just


fingertips.
Support back and use
legs to lift.
Avoid twisting.

Place box on shelf.

Do not lift above shoulder


height.

Observed employee
grip box with hands
firmly and securely.
Legs were
appropriately used for
the lift.
The box was carried
by the employee with
straight posture.
Box was appropriately
placed on the
storeroom shelf.
The box was carried
at waist height at all
times.

STEP 3: CONFIRM THE


REASONS FOR THE GAP
Click on the dot points to discover possible causes for a skills gap.

Inadequate tools or equipment


Poor attitude
Lack of skills or knowledge
Poor supervision

STEP 4: CLOSE THE GAP


The next step is to determine the most effective means of closing the gap. This could
involve new equipment, counselling, training or supervision. In this section, we will focus
on how to close the gap with training.
Click on the icon to learn the different ways you can fulfil training needs.
Start by documenting the skills and knowledge your staff require, based on the skills gap
you identified. Next, consult with management to arrange for training to take place as
soon as possible.

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This could include a combination of any of the following.

Coaching or mentoring in safe work practices


Arranging formal training programs in safe work practices
Providing training in hazard identification, risk assessment and control
Providing WHS policy and procedure induction
Arranging WHS representative or committee training
Provision of information, fact sheets and signage to ensure safe work practices
Utilising in-house trainers or safety officers to demonstrate, coach or mentor other
employees
Contracting external trainers to conduct specialised training at the workplace
Enrolling staff in external training courses for specific training requirements

STEP 5: MONITOR THE


EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING
When the training is complete, evaluate its effectiveness by observing staff perform their
duties and obtaining feedback from them. This may reveal that further training is required
or you may simply update personnel records to reflect the new qualification and training
received.
Act within your level of authority to make adjustments to training programs or plans where
required.

End of section
You have reached the end of Section 5.
Click to the next section to continue.

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SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

6.0

Maintain work health and


safety records and reports

Lets look at what you will learn on completion of this section.

Complete work health and safety records and reports accurately and legibly and store
according to organisation and legal requirements.
Use data and reports to provide reliable and timely input to the management of
workplace health, safety and security.
Minimise use of printed materials and maximise electronic transmission and filing of all
documents to reduce waste.

What type of records and reports do you need to maintain?


Maintaining WHS records and reports is not only a legal requirement, its an important
means of monitoring health and safety standards in the workplace. Depending on the type
of establishment, you may be required to complete additional records and reports. Your
manager should be able to advise you if this is the case.
Click on the folders to see examples of the type of records and reports youre
responsible for maintaining.

Training action plans and WHS training records

Hazard identification records

Risk assessments and risk control actions

Accident, illness and injuries register

Near miss or incidents register

Incident and accident notifications to WHS regulatory authorities

Agendas for and minutes of meetings

Equipment inspection and maintenance records

Consultation records and diaries of meetings

Monitoring reports and recommendations for change including effectiveness of risk


controls, safe work practices and the WHS information provided to staff

Reports on the effectiveness of meetings and committee members

Reports on the effectiveness of consultation decisions, processes and follow-up


actions

Extend your learning


WHS legislation states the type of information you need to report. Your establishment may
have internal forms that meet these requirements. For further advice refer to Safe Work
Australia website www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au

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The importance of accuracy


Click on the checkboxes to learn why its important to complete reports accurately
and legibly.

Inaccurate or illegible information can potentially contribute to future accidents,


injury or security breaches.

Other staff in the establishment may need to refer to this information from time to
time. They need to read handwritten information and also have confidence in the
accuracy of the data.

Health, safety and security records can be used as evidence should legal action
arise.

Medical experts may need the information at a later date in the case of recurring
injuries or follow-up treatment.

WorkCover authorities may need to refer to the reports.

Hot tip
Check all particulars when completing forms and always confirm the spelling of employee
and customers names. Ensure your descriptions are clear and your handwriting is legible.
Incorrect details, spelling mistakes and poor grammar are unprofessional. Proofread
documents prior to submitting. Dont rely on the computer spell-check function. Although
its helpful, it wont pick up every mistake you make.

What information do you record in the event of an injury or


accident?
You learned the type of information to record in the event of an injury or accident in the
unit Participate in safe work practices. Do you remember what you learned?
Click start to begin.
List the type of information you must record in the event of an injury, illness or accident in
the workplace.
You have 30 seconds to type your answer in the space below.
How did you go? Was there any information you left out?

2014 Edition

The employee or customers name (and job role/position if an employee)


Time and date of injury and exact location where injury or illness occurred
How it happened
The nature of the injury or illness and the body parts affected
Names of any witnesses and the person entering details in the register
Date employer was notified
Treatment provided, by whom and at what time
Follow-up treatment provided, i.e. by doctor or other health care and emergency
services

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What does an incident report look like?


There are many different types of incident reports you can use. Type incident report
template into your Internet search engine to see the many options available.
Click on the icon to see an example.

Incident report (example)


Reported by: ___________________________________________________________________
Date report completed: __________________________________________________________
Type of incident/accident (please tick)

Personal injury accident


Personal illness
Property damage accident
Environmental incident
Near miss accident/incident
Other: __________________

Description of incident/accident
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Date of incident/accident: ____/____/____
Time: ___________ am/pm
Witnesses:
______________________________________________________________________________
FOR ACCIDENTS: Fill out table below by ticking selection

Part of body

Accident type

Head injury___

Hand/wrist ___

Trip/fall___ Harmful contact/exposure____

Eye injury___

Leg ___

Falling/flying object___ Vehicle/plant work ____

Neck___

Foot/ankle ___

Caught in___ Journey to/from work ___

Trunk front ___

Internal ___

Struck by/object___ Psychological (eg., stress)____

Trunk back ___

Multiple ___

Manual handling___ Other:

Arm ___

Other ___

Treatment

Outcome

Nil ____

Doctor ____

First aid ____

Ambulance ____

Hospital ____

Return to work ____

Sent home _____

Time ____ am/pm

Date____/____/____

First aid administered by


Name: __________________ Position: _______________________ Time: ________________

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Incident report (example)


Factors contributing to the accident
Workplace hazards
Tools/vehicle/plant/equipment
Failure to follow safe operating work practice
Environmental factors (rain, ice, etc.)
Personal factors, eg., disability, hearing impairment, etc.
Other (specify)
Immediate action taken by first aider
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

Proposed action to be taken to prevent


recurrence
Reinstruction of person involved
Arrange job safety analysis
Improved personal protection
Reinstruction of others doing same job
Action to improve design/procedure
Regular pre-job instruction

Temporary relocation of person


Permanent relocation of person
Training/retraining
Equipment repair or replacement
Order use of safer materials
Elimination of product/equipment

Further notes or comments


Name of person completing report: __________________________________________________
Position: _______________________________________________________________________
Signature: __________________________________

Date: __________________________

Name of injured person (if different from above): _______________________________________


Position: _______________________________________________________________________
Signature: __________________________________

Date: __________________________

Name of First Aider: ______________________________________________________________


Signature: __________________________________

Date: __________________________

Hot tip
Familiarise yourself with the incident report used in your workplace or training
environment. Compare it to the ones you have observed on the Internet. Can yours be
improved in any way?

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How do you store WHS records and reports?


Your establishment will have strict filing and storage requirements for WHS records and
reports. This is to protect confidential information contained in the reports and to ensure
they are easy to locate and reference in the future.
Where possible, retain confidential records in locked filing cabinets or in storage cabinets
that can be secured by a locked door.
The Privacy Act 1988 obliges workplaces to follow very strict guidelines concerning the
use and protection of personal information contained in reports. This impacts the type of
information you retain and how that information must be stored and accessed. If you are
uncertain about your legal obligations, refer to the website www.privacy.gov.au.

How can WHS records and reports assist in risk assessment


and control?
Reviewing WHS records and reports gives you insight into injury trends and recurring
incidents. They can help you identify training needs, areas where greater supervision is
required, or the need for equipment repairs or upgrades.
For example, incident reports may show that 90 per cent of injuries occur in the kitchen
because staff are slipping on the greasy and sometimes wet floor. This tells you that there
is a need for improved housekeeping practices and training for staff.

How do you analyse health, safety and security reports?


The advantage of maintaining health, safety and security reports is that management can
use them to identify hazards, trends in accidents, injuries and security breaches and the
effectiveness of control measures.
Click on the icon to find out more.
Health and safety committees typically have a health and safety data review as a
permanent meeting agenda item. They should share the results of those meetings with
other staff where relevant to their duties.
Review the health, safety and security reports for your area of responsibility regularly.
Take a continuous improvement approach, as this helps you fulfil your legal obligation to
maintain a safe, secure and healthy workplace for staff and customers.
Where possible, involve your staff in WHS and security matters. When you identify and
respond to hazards and risks, act within your level of authority and, if necessary, report
matters to higher management to take the appropriate action.

Do your part for the environment


With all these records and reports youre required to maintain, youre likely to have a great
deal of paperwork sitting on your desk. Or are you? There must be a better way. Can you
think of ways to reduce the amount of paper you use for reporting and communicating with
staff?

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Click start to begin.


How many ways can you think of to reduce the amount of paper used in your
establishment? List as many as you can in the space provided.
You have 30 seconds to type your answer in the space below.
How did you go? Maximising electronic transmission and filing of all documents is the best
way to reduce the amount of paper you use. Lets look at why this is important on the next
screen.

What is a carbon footprint?


A carbon footprint is a measurement of how much greenhouse gas youre responsible for
in your business or domestic lifestyle. Activities that contribute to your carbon footprint can
be both direct and indirect (glossary).
Just about everything you do, use or buy results in the emission of greenhouse gases.
Reducing your carbon footprint is all about making responsible choices to reduce the
amount of carbon you are responsible for.
Basically, the more you buy, what you buy, where you buy it from, and how much you use
all makes a difference to environmental sustainability.

What is the waste management hierarchy?


The waste management hierarchy can be used in all areas of business.
Click on the pictures to see how you can use the hierarchy to learn how you can
minimise the use of printed materials.
Most effective

1. Refuse

2. Reduce

3. Reuse

4. Recycle

5. Recover
6.
Responsible
disposal

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Least effective

SITXWHS401 Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

Refuse

Refuse to print paper-based material when possible. Submit reports, documents and
files electronically instead. (This may not be possible in cases where signed
declarations are required.)
Use email as your primary form of communication with employees.
Set up reliable electronic filing systems to ensure records dont get lost in the system.
Reduce

When you do need to print, only print the pages you need, not the entire document.
Share printouts in meetings rather than distributing paper-based copies to all
attendees.
Print single-paged notices and flyers and display in a prominent area rather than
issuing a copy to every employee.
Reuse

Reuse the reverse side of printed documents rather than disposing of them in the
waste.

Recycle

Provide recycle bins for paper waste.


Recycle toner cartridges used for printing documents.
Buy recycled paper for the office and recycled toner cartridges.
Provide a shredder for confidential documents and ensure the paper waste is disposed
in your recycling bin.

Recover

The paper and toner cartridges you recycle are taken to a Material Recovery Facility
(MRF or murf). Here they are sorted, baled and transported to reprocessing or
treatment factories and made into new products.

Responsible disposal

Printing documents and throwing waste away is the least preferred option. In nearly all
cases, you can recycle paper waste. The exception to this is if the paper has been
contaminated with bacteria or chemicals in some way.

End of section
You have reached the end of Section 6.
Click to the next section to read the unit summary.

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Summary
Now that you have an understanding of the type of WHS information that needs to be
provided to employees, you can ensure that all of your staff are regularly updated and
trained in ways to maintain a safe and healthy work environment.
Remember the techniques youve learned for identifying hazards and controlling risks.
These techniques, combined with your effective leadership and communication skills, will
ensure a high standard of health, safety and security at your workplace.

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GLOSSARY

Glossary
Word

Meaning

Direct

Activities you have direct control over, such as electricity, food choices
(packaging), gas, etc.

Ergonomic

The science of designing furniture and work areas to create an efficient,


safe, user-friendly work area.

Indirect

Carbon emissions that result from manufacturing and producing the


activities, luxuries and products you consume.

PCBU

The abbreviation for a person conducting a business or undertaking


used in WHS legislation for someone who owns or operates a business.

Provisional
Improvement
Notices (PIN)

A PIN is a tool to improve health and safety in a workplace,


encouraging employers and workers to openly discuss health and
safety hazards and risks in their workplace. A PIN is a written direction
(after normal consultation has failed) from a health and safety
representative (HSR) requiring a person to fix a workplace health and
safety problem.

Skimming

Excess cash (especially larger notes) are removed, or skimmed, from


the cash register on a regular basis throughout the trading period.

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Copyright 2014 Didasko International


(Didasko Learning Resources)