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Chapter 3.

Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table


The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
In the early 1800's many elements had been discovered and found to have
different properties. In 1817 Dbreiner's triads with regularly varying properties:
(Mg, Ca, Ba) (F, Cl, Br) and (S Se Te).1865: Newlands
"law of octaves", about 55 elements: pattern of reactivity
follows after 8 elements. However, no one had found a clear
"order" in their properties until Mendeleev, Dmitri (18341907) arranged 63 then known elements in the order of
increasing atomic mass in a periodic table and showed some
chemical properties would reappear periodically. In certain
cases, he placed a lighter slightly heavier element before a
lighter element so that the chemical properties of the vertical
columns would be preserved. Even though in a different and
much less clear form Meyer, Lothar (18301895) also came
up with a graph showing periodic properties similar to Medeleev.
In Mendeleev's table, there was a gap. He purposely left blank position in his
table so that the consistent vertical columns with the same chemical properties would be
preserved. These missing elements were later discovered.
The periodic law is an organized "map" of the elements that relates their
structure to their chemical and physical properties. The periodic table is the result of the
periodic law, and provides the basis for prediction of such properties as relative atomic
and ionic size, ionization energy, and electron affinity, as well as metallic or
non-metallic character and reactivity.
The modern periodic table exists in several forms. The most important variation
is in group numbering. The tables in the text use the two most commonly accepted
numbering systems.
Numbering Groups in the Periodic Table
Periods and Groups
Periods are the horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table; the columns
represent groups or families.
Elements in a vertical group have similar chemical properties. The vertical groups are
currently named by numbers ranging from 1 to 18. An older way to identify the vertical
groups is to use a Roman number and the capital letters A or B. Vertical groups of main
group elements (or representative elements) were given a Roman numeral plus the
letter A. Vertical groups of transition elements were given a Roman numeral plus the
letter B.
Representative elements are elements that always lose or gain the same number of
electrons in chemical reactions.
Transition elements are elements that can lose or gain variable numbers of electrons
in chemical reactions.
The lanthanide series and the actinide series are parts of periods 6 and 7, respectively,
and groups that have been named include the alkali metals, the alkaline earth metals, the
halogens, and the noble gases. Group A elements are called representative elements;

Group B elements are transition elements. Metals, metalloids, and nonmetals can be
identified by their location on the periodic table.
These groups are number from 1 - 18, left to right and groups have their Roman
numbers and A or B classification..
Name

Elements

Common Valence
Electron Configuration

Group 1 (IA) -

Alkali metal:

Li, Na, K Rb, Cs, Fr

ns1

Group 2 (IIA) -

Alkaline earth metals: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra ns2

Group 13 (IIIA) - No specific name

B, Al, Ga, In, Tl

ns2 3p1

Group 14 (IVA) -

No specific name

C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb

ns2 3p2

Group 15 (VA) -

No specific name

N, P, As, Sb, Bi

ns2 np3

Group 16 (VIA) - No specific name

O, S, Se, Te, Po

ns2 np4

Group 17 (VIIA) - Halogens:

Cl, Br, I, At

ns2 np5

Group 18 (VIIIA) - Noble gases:

He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn ns2 np6

In addition to groups in the periodic table there are three blocks of elements called
transition elements (which are labeled with B), Lanthanides and Actinides ( placed
bottom of the table.
Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids
Most of the elements in the periodic table are metals. Note the stair step line in the
periodic table. Elements to the left of the line are metals. Elements to the right of the
line are nonmetals. In between metal and non-metals there are semi-metals or
metalloids. Metals lose electrons and nonmetals gain electrons.
Ionic Compounds are formed when electrons are exchanged in this way between
metals and nonmetals.
Covalent or Molecular Compounds are formed between non metals and non metals
react by sharing electrons.
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
The atomic number (Z) of an element represents the number of protons in the
nucleus of atoms of that specific element. No two element has that same number of
protons. Atomic number after it was discovered proved to be the best order without any
discrepancies to arrange the elements in the periodic table and is shown on top of the
space for each element. The atomic number will always be a whole number value
without decimals. At the bottom average atomic mass calculated based on isotopes of
each elements is written.

Problem: Pick the a) representative elements, b) transition elements, c) inert gas


elements, d) elements that from anions, e) semi- metals, and f) elements that from
cations from the following list: Ca, Si, K, Ar, Cu, Fe Zn, Ge, Kr, Cl, O, F.
Answer:
a) representative elements: Ca, Cl, O, F
b) transition elements: Cu, Fe
c) inert gas elements: Ar, Kr
d) elements that from anions: O, F
e) semi- metals: Si, Ge
f) elements that from cations: Ca, K, Cu, Fe Zn

Look on a periodic chart at the elements listed below. Do you know how to find an
elements atomic number?
Problem: Use your periodic table to find the symbol, atomic number and atomic mass
rounded to two decimal place of each of the following elements:
a) Magnesium b) Neon c) Selenium d) Gold
Answer
Mg, atomic number = 12, mass = 24.31 amu

Ne, atomic number = 10, mass = 20.18 amu


Se, atomic number = 34, mass 78.96 amu
Au, atomic number 79, mass 197.0 amu
Electron Arrangement and the Periodic Table
Bohr concluded that the energy levels of an atom can handle only a certain
number of electrons at a time.
The Quantum Mechanical Atom
J. J. Thomson had demonstrated the particle properties of the electron earlier.
Because electrons can exhibit diffraction patterns, they have a dual nature of both wave
and particle.
In 1924, Louis de Broglie suggested that the electron should have wave properties.
Light waves exhibit "diffraction."
Erwin Schrodinger developed equations to describe the regions around the nucleus
where electrons had the probability of being 95% of the time.
These regions of high probability for finding an electron around the nucleus were called
orbitals. Three dimensional models of the probability regions or orbitals can be
constructed. Electron cloud representations are used to show the space that can be
occupied by electrons in different energy levels.
Building Atoms by Orbital Filling
Schrodinger's work showed that each orbital could have a maximum of two electrons.
Energy levels could contain different numbers of orbitals. Energy levels further from
the nucleus can accommodate more orbitals than energy levels nearer the nucleus.
Energy levels can have sublevels when multiple orbitals are present.
Energy Levels
number of sublevels
Sublevel Names
Sublevels and orbitals
Number orbitals
maximum number of
electrons per sublevel

Orbital Shapes
Shape
s
spherical
p
dumbbell
d
complex
f
very complex

n=1
one
s
1s (1)
1

n=2
two
s and p
2s(1) 2p(3)
4

n=3
three
s, p and d
3s(1) 3p(3) 3d(5)
9

2(2n2)

2 + 6= 9(2n2)

2 + 6 + 10= 18 (2n2) 2 + 6 + 10 + 14 = 32 (2n2)

# of orbitals / energy level


1
3
5
7

n=4
four
s. p, d and f
4s(1) 4p(3) 4d(5) 4f(7)
16

f- orbitals- seven different orbitals


The maximum number of electrons that can be in an energy
level is 2n2, where n is equal to the energy level being considered.
Energy
Level
n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4

maximum number of
electrons
in an Energy Level
2
8
18
32

# of
sublevels
Sublevels names

maximum number of electrons


per sublevel

1
2
3
4

2
2, 6 =8
2, 6, 10 =18
2, 6, 10, 14 =32

s
s, p
s, p, d
s, p, d, f

Problem:
How many electrons are found:
Within principle shells? a) n = 1 b) n = 2 c) n = 3 d) n =4 e) n = 5
Answer:
a. n = 1; 2n2 = 2(1)2 = 2
b. n = 2; 2n2 = 2(2)2 = 8
c. n = 3; 2n2 = 2(3)2 = 18
d. n = 4; 2n2 = 2(4)2 = 32
e. n = 5; 2n2 = 2(5)2 = 50
Problem: With in a sub-shells: a) s, b) p c) d,
Answer: a) s = 2, b) p=6 c) d=10, d) f= 14

d) f

Problem: With in a Orbital?


Answer: Two electrons.
Energy Levels and Sublevels
A sublevel is a part of a principal energy level and is designated s, p, d, and f.
Each sublevel may contain one or more orbitals, regions of space containing a
maximum of two electrons with their spins paired.
Schrodinger's work showed that
Eeach orbital could have a maximum of two electrons.

Energy levels could contain different numbers of orbitals.


Energy levels further from the nucleus can accommodate more orbitals than
energy levels nearer the nucleus.
Energy levels can have sublevels when multiple orbitals are present.

Building Atoms by Orbital Filling


Amazingly, the "electron configurations" of the elements are "embedded" in the
Periodic Table.
Honk, if you can see this "embedded" information in the Periodic Table?
Analogy: The periodic table is actually a packing slip that tells how the electrons are
packed around the nucleus.
Electronic Configuration - the arrangement of electrons, in orbits or orbitals, around a
nucleus of an atom.
Electron Configuration and the Aufbau ( Building Up) Principle
A scheme used by chemist to obtain electronic configuration of a multi-electron
atom in the ground state by filling atomic orbital starting with lowest energy.
1s 2s 2p3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d (building up principle)
If two or more orbitals exist at the same energy level, they are degenerate. Do not pair
the electrons until you have to.

Problem: What is the electron configuration of a) K and b) P?


Answer:
Using Aufbau principle or periodic table
a. Potassium: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s1
b. Phosphorus: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p3
Problem: Examine the electron configurations below, and name the element.
1s2 2s2
1s2 2s2 2p3
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
Answer: Going through the periodic table.
1s2 2s2 (He)
1s2 2s2 2p3 (N)
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 (Al)
Problem: If a neutral atom in its ground state contains only 5 electrons in its outermost
p sublevel, it is an atom in what "vertical group" of elements?
Answer: group 17 or VIIB or Halogen family.
Problem: If a neutral atom in its ground state contains 2 electrons in its outermost s
sublevel, it is an atom in what "vertical group" of elements?
Answer: group 2 or IIA or Alkaline Earth family.
Problem: State what is similar and what is different about the electron configuration of
fluorine and chlorine.
Answer: F: 1s2 2s2 2p5 Cl: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 valance shell electron configuration is
similar but electron configurations are different.
Problem: Fluorine and chlorine have similar chemical properties. Oxygen and sulfur
have similar chemical properties. However, oxygen and sulfur have chemical properties
different from fluorine and chlorine. What does electron configuration have to do with
this observation?
Answer:
F:
1s2 2s2 2p5
Cl:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 both have same vala.nce
electron configurations and similar chemical properties.
O:
1s2 2s2 2p4
S:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 both have same valance
electron configurations and similar chemical properties..
However, two groups F, Cl: ns2 np5 and O, S: ns2 np4 have different valance electron
configurations creating different chemical properties.
Valence Electrons

The outermost electrons in an atom are valence electrons.


For representative elements, the number of valence electrons in an
atom corresponds to the group or family number. If atoms of different
elements have the same electron arrangement in their valence shell
electrons, then they can have similar chemical properties even if their
atomic numbers or atomic masses are quite different. Metals tend to
have fewer valence electrons than nonmetals. Valence electrons are
involved in chemical interactions and bonding (valence comes from
the Latin valere, "to be strong"). Valence shell electrons are available
to be lost, gained, or shared in chemical reactions.
Problem: How many total electrons and valance electrons are in the following atoms:
a) K, b) F, c) P, d) O and e) Ca
Answer
For counting valance electrons go to the period the element is found and count (
excluding transition element blocks) from left to right until element is found.
a. Total electrons = 19 (same as atomic number), valence electrons = 1
b. Total electrons = 9 (same as atomic number), valence electrons = 7
c. Total electrons = 15 (same as atomic number), valence electrons = 5
d. Total electrons = 8 (same as atomic number), valence electrons = 6
e. Total electrons = 20 (same as atomic number), valence electrons = 2
Abbreviated Electron Configurations
Abbreviated electronic configuration is separating valance electrons from core electrons
and designating core electrons as a noble gas.
E.g. What is the abbreviated electron configurations of a) K, b) P and Sn?
Answer
First, obtain the electron configuration then find the valence electrons.
a. Potassium (K):
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s1
b. Phosphorus (P):
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p3
c. Tin (Sn):
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6, 5s2, 4d10, 5p2
Second, lump all non valance electrons as core abbreviated as a noble gas con
figuration.
a. Ar:
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6
= [Ar]
b. Ne:
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2
= [Ne]
2
2
6
2
6
2
10
6
c. Kr:
1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 4s , 3d , 4p
= [Kr]
Final answer
a. Potassium (K): [Ar] 4s1
b. Phosphorous (P): [Ne] 3s2, 3p3
c. Tin (Sn):
[Kr] 5s2, 4d10, 5p2
Electron configuration of the elements is predictable, using the Aufbau Principle.
Knowing the electron configuration, we can identify valence electrons and begin to
predict the kinds of reactions that the elements will undergo.

Elements in the last family, the noble gases, have either two or eight valence
electrons. Their most important properties are their extreme stability and lack of
reactivity. A full energy level is responsible for this unique stability.
The Octet Rule
Noble gases are non-reactive because they all have a complete outer shell. An
atom chemically reacts to fill its valance shell. A full valance shell contains eight
electrons there fore the name octet. The octet rule tells us that in chemical reactions
atoms of elements will gain, lose or share the minimum number of electrons necessary
to achieve the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas.
octet rule - the rule which predicts that atoms form the most stable molecules or ions
when they are surrounded by eight electrons in their highest occupied energy (valance)
level.
Electronic configuration of ions
Series of negative ions, noble gas atom, and positive ions with the same number
electrons and electronic configuration. Electron configuration of ions is obtained by
adding more electrons (anions) or removing electrons (cations) from a neutral atom. In
the process atoms achieves a noble gas electron configuration.
Group 1 (or IA), Alkali Metals have one valence electron.
They all form +1 cations when the single valence electron is lost.
Metals lose electrons and achieve electron configuration of preceding noble gas.
E.g. Potassium (K):
K K+ (cation) + eOxygen (O):
O + 2e- O2- (anion)
Metallic elements tend to form cations and nonmetals form anions that are isoelectronic
with their nearest noble gas neighbor.
Isoelectronic electronic configurations
If atom and a cation or anion have same number of electrons they are called
isoelectronic.
E.g. K+ and Ar
O2- and Ne
Problem: Which of the following are isoelectronic: F,Cl, K+, Ar
Answer:
a. F, 10e; Cl, 18 e; Not isoelectronic
b. K+, 18 e; Ar, 18e; Isoelectronic
Ion Formation and the Octet Rule
Metals lose electrons and achieve a an octet of valance electrons similar to electron
configuration of preceding noble gas.
E.g. Potassium (K): [Ar] 4s1
K ([Ar] 4s1) K+ ([Ar]) + eOxygen (O): [He] 2s2 2p4
O ([He] 2s2 2p4) + 2e- O2- ([Ne])

I (54 e) = Xe= 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6, 5s2, 4d10, 5p6
b. Ba2+ (54 e)= Xe= 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6, 5s2, 4d10, 5p6
c. Se2 (36 e) =Kr = 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6
d. Al3+ (10 e)=Ne = 1s2, 2s2, 2p6
a.

Trends in the Periodic Table


Atomic Size
Atomic size increases from top to bottom but decreases from left to right in the periodic
table. Cations are smaller than the parent atom. Anions are larger than the parent atom.
Ions with multiple positive charge are even smaller than their corresponding
monopositive ion; ions with multiple negative charge are larger than their corresponding
less negative ion.
Problem: Arrange the following list of elements in order of increasing atomic size.
a) Al, Si, P, Cl, S
b) In, Ga, Al, B, Tl
c) Sr, Ca, Ba, Mg, Be
d) O,N, Sb, Bi, As
Answer:
a. (Smallest) Cl, S, P, Si, Al (Largest)
b. (Smallest) B, Al, Ga, In, Tl ( Largest)
c. (Smallest) Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba (Largest)
d.
(Smallest) N, P, As, Sb, Bi (Largest)
Ionization Energy
The energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.
The energy required to remove an electron from the atom is the ionization energy.
Descending a group, the ionization energy decreases. Proceeding across a period, the
ionization energy increases.
Problem: Arrange the following list of elements in order of increasing ionization
energy.
a) N,F, O
b) Li, K, Cs
c) Br, I, Cl
Answer:
a) (Smallest) N, O, F(Largest)
b) (Smallest) Cs, K, Li (largest)
d) (Smallest) Cl, Br, I (Largest)
Electron Affinity
The energy released when a single electron is added to neutral atom in the gaseous
state is known as the electron affinity. Electron affinities generally decrease proceeding
down a group and increase proceeding across a period.
Exceptions exist for periodic trends. They are generally small anomalies, and do not
detract from the predictive power of the periodic table.
Problem: Arrange the following list of elements in order of increasing ionization
energy.
a. Na, Li, K
b. Br, F, Cl

c. S, O, Se
Answer:
a.
b.
c.

(Smallest) Li, Na, K (Largest)


(Smallest) F, Br, Cl (Largest)
(Smallest) Se, S, O (Largest)

Ion Size
Ions follows same trends as for atomic radius in a group, fro example taking oxide and
sulfide ion: radius of O2- < S2-.
Cation or positive ions have fewer electrons than neutral atom and nuclear charge being
same attract remaining electrons strongly making cation smaller than the neutral atom
Anions or negative ions larger than neutral atom. Anions are larger than the atoms from
which there are formed. Adding electrons to an atom increases the repulsion between
electrons. Anion has a harder time holding on to the electrons.

CHEM 120 Homework 3. Chapter 3


1. In the modern periodic table, the elements are arranged according to increasing ________.
a. atomic masses b. number of neutrons c. atomic number d. mass number
2. How many periods are found on the periodic table?
a. 2 b. 7 c. 18 d. 32
3. Which period contains the element Cesium?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d.
7
4. Where are the alkaline earth metals located on the periodic table?
a. Group 1 (IA) b. Group 2 (IIA) c. Group 13 (IIIA) d. Group 14 (IVA) e. Group 17 (VIIA)
5. Which one of the following is not a representative element
a. Na b. As c. Ca
d. Fe
e.
Cl
6. How many orbitals are in an s sublevel? How many in a p sublevel?
a. 2;6 b. 1;1 c. 1; 3 d. 3; 5
7. Which of the following correctly gives the electron capacity of a
principal energy level in terms of the number n?
a. n b. 2n c. 2n + 2
d. n2
e. 2n2
7. What requirement must be met in order for two electrons to coexist in
the same orbital?
a. they go to a s orbital
b. they go to a p orbital
c. they must have opposite spins
d. they must have parallel spins
8. How many valence electrons are present in an atom of silicon?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5
e. 7
9. The electronic configuration in an atom of argon,
a. 1s22s2
b. 1s22s22p6
c. 1s22s22p63s23p6
d. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6
10. Common valence electron configuration of halogens
a. ns1
b. ns2 c. ns2 3p2 d. ns2 np3 e. ns2 np5
11. What is not isoelectronic with K+?
a. S2b. Ar c. Cld. Na+ e. Ca2+
12. Which of the following atoms has the biggest size (radius)?
a. Na
b. Al
c. Cl
d. Rb e. I
13. Which of the following elements has the highest ionization energy?
a. Li b. B c. O d. F e. Ne
14. Which one of the following elements has the highest electron affinity?
a. Li
b. K
c. Kr
d. O
e. Cl
15. What charge is found on a ion from Al?
a. +1
b. -2
c. +3
d. -3

Sample Test Chapter 3

1. Which two scientists in 1869 arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic masses to form a
precursor of the modern periodic
table of elements?
Ans. Mendeleev and Meyer
2. Who stated that the elements, when arranged according to their atomic masses, showed a distinct
periodicity of their properties?
Ans. Dimitri Mendeleev
3. In the modern periodic table, the elements are arranged according to what system?
Ans. increasing atomic number
4. The modern periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic
functions of what property?
Ans. atomic number
5. What do we call the horizontal row of elements on the periodic table?
Ans. periods
6. How many periods are found on the periodic table?
Ans. seven
7. Which period contains the element sodium?
Ans. three
8. What do we call the columns of elements on the periodic table?
Ans. groups
9. What number for an atom gives the number of electrons and protons found in that atom?
Ans. atomic number
10. Where are the alkaline earth metals located on the periodic table?
Ans. Group IIA (2)
11. What is the general name given to the elements of Group VIIA (17)?
Ans. Halogens
12. What term is used for the elements straddling the "staircase" boundary between the metals and
nonmetals?
Ans. Metalloids or semi-metals
13. For a representative element, how can we deduce the number of valence electrons in a neutral atom
from the position of the element in the
Periodic Table?
Ans. the group number (Roman numbers with Bs) is also the number of valence electrons
14. How many orbitals are in an s sublevel? How many in a p sublevel?
Ans, 1; 3
15. In what way(s) are the three orbitals in the 2p sublevel similar; in
what way(s) are they different?
Ans. they have the same shape and the same energy; they are oriented
differently in space
16. What requirement must be met in order for two electrons to coexist in
the same orbital?
Ans. they must have opposite spins

17. State the Aufbau Principle.


Ans. Electrons occupy the available orbital of lowest energy first.
18. How many electrons are present in an atom of silicon?
Ans. Fourteen
19. Give the electronic configuration in an atom of argon, element number
18.
Ans. 1s22s22p63s23p6
20. Give the electronic arrangement in an atom of strontium, element number 38.
Ans. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s2
21. How many electrons are present in a chloride ion?
Ans. Eighteen
22. State the Octet Rule.
Ans. Elements tend to react in such a way as to attain the electron configuration of the atoms of the noble
gas nearest to them in the Periodic Table
23. Give the name of a Group IA (1) ion that has the following electronic arrangement: 1s22s22p6
Ans. sodium ion
24. Give the name of a VIIA (17) ion that has the following electronic
arrangement: 1s22s22p63s23p6
Ans. chloride
25. What ion carries a 2- charge and is isoelectronic with K+?
Ans. S226. Give the complete electronic arrangement of a sulfide ion, S2-.
Ans. 1s22s22p63s23p6
27. Atoms with the biggest radii occur in the _______ ____ region of the Periodic Table.
Ans. bottom left
28. How would you expect an Al3+ ion to compare in size with an Al atom? Explain why?
Ans. The ion will be much smaller. In forming the ion, the atom loses all its outermost electrons. The net
positive charge on the ion
ensures that all the electrons in the ion are strongly attracted to the nucleus, keeping the ion small.
29. Which group of elements has the highest ionization energies? Which group has the lowest?
Ans. Group VIIIA (18) are highest; Group IA (1) are the lowest.
30. Explain what is meant by electron affinity.
Ans. It is the energy released when a neutral atom gains an electron
to form an anion.
31. In Mendeleev's table of the elements, they were arranged according to
A. atomic number
B. mass number
C. atomic mass
D. neutron number
E. density
Ans. C. atomic mass
32. The modern periodic table is arranged according to what property?
A. atomic number
B. mass number
C. atomic mass

D. neutron number
E. density
Ans. A. atomic number
33. What do we call a complete horizontal row of elements on the periodic
table?
A. group
B. period
C. family
D. representative elements
E. transition elements
Ans, B
34. What are all the elements in the A-groups often called?
A. transition elements
B. lanthanides
C. metals
D. non-metals
E. representative elements
Ans. E
35. Which of the following elements is a metalloid?
A. C B. Ge C. Pb D. N E. P
Ans. B
36. Where are the alkali metals located on the periodic table?
A. representative elements
B. transition metals
C. Group IA (1)
D. Group IIA (2)
E. Group IIIA (3)
Ans. C
37. How many valence electrons are in an atom of carbon?
A.8 B. 6 C. 4 D. 1 E. 0
Ans. C
38. What is the lowest energy sublevel of a principal level?
A. d B. e C. f D. s E. p
Ans. D
39. How many sublevels are there in the third principal energy level?
A. 3 B. 2 C. 1 D. 0 E. 4
Ans. A
40. How many orbitals are there in a p sublevel?
A. 2 B. 3 C. 1 D. 0 E. 4
Ans. B
41. Which of the following correctly gives the electron capacity of a
principal energy level in terms of the number n?
A. n B. 2n C. 2n + 2 D. n2 E. 2n2
Ans. E
42. What is the electron configuration of sulfur, atomic number 16?
A. 1s21p62s22p6
B. 1s22s22p62d6
C. 1s22s22p63s23p4
D. 1s22s22p63s23d4
E. 1s22s22p63s22d4
Ans. C
43. Which one of the following electron configurations is appropriate for a
normal atom?
A. 1s12s1
B. 1s22s1
C. 1s22s22p8

D. 1s22s22p43s1
E. 1s22s22p63d1
Ans. B
44. Which of the following elements is most likely to form a 3+ ion?
A. Li B. K C. Al D. N E. Cu
Ans. C
45. Give the complete electronic configuration of a sodium ion.
A. 1s22s22p5
B. 1s22s22p6
C. 1s22s22p63s1
D. 1s22s22p63s2
E. 1s22s22p63s23p64s1
Ans. B
46. Which of the following ions does not follow the octet rule?
A. Na+ B. Ca2+ C. Al3+ D. N3- E. Cl2Ans. E
47. Which of the following atoms has the biggest size (radius)?
A. Na B. Al C. Cl D. Rb E. I
Ans. D
48. Which of the following elements has the highest ionization energy?
A. Li B. B C. O D. F E. Ne
Ans. E
49. Which of the following elements has the lowest ionization energy?
A. Li B. B C. O D. F E. Ne
Ans. A
50. The electron affinity is
A. the energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom
B. the force between two electrons in the same orbital
C. the force between two ions of opposite charge
D. the energy released when an isolated atom gains an electron
E. the attraction of an atom for an electron in a chemical bond
Ans. D
51. Which one of the following elements has the highest electron affinity?
A. Li B. K C. Kr D. O E. Cl
Ans. E
52. T F In Mendeleev's table, the elements were arranged according to
their atomic numbers.
Ans. F
53. T F There are nine periods on the periodic table.
Ans. F
54. T F Sulfur (S) is one of the representative elements.
Ans. T
55. T F Platinum (Pt) is a lanthanide element.
Ans. F
56. T F Tin (Sn) is a metalloid.
Ans F

Chapter 4. Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent


Compounds
Chemical Bonding
When two atoms are joined to make a chemical compound, the force of attraction
between the two atoms is the chemical bond.
Ionic bonding, electrons are transferred before bond formation, forming an ion
pair.
Covalent bonding, electrons are shared between atoms in the bonding process.
Polar covalent bonding, like covalent bonding, is based on the concept of
electron sharing; however, the sharing is unequal and based on the
electronegativity difference between joined
atoms
Lewis Symbols
The Lewis symbol, showing only valence
electrons, is a convenient way of representing atoms
to show their chemical bonding pattern. It shows how
many electrons will be shared , or lost/gain by an
atom. If too many electrons are to be lost/ gained or
shared atoms tend to share electrons forming covalent
bonding.
Principal Types of Chemical Bonds: Ionic and
Covalent
Ionic bonds - electrostatic forces that
exist between ions of opposite charge

typically involves a metal with a nonmetal

Sodium metal reacts with chlorine (non-metal) gas in a violently


exothermic reaction to produce NaCl (composed of Na+ and Cl- ions):
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) -> 2NaCl(s)
Problem: Predict number and kid of ions, and the formulas of the compounds formed
from the combination of ions of the following elements
a. Potassium and Chlorine
b. Magnesium and Bromine
c. Manesium and Nitrogen
Answer: Metal lose electrons and non-metal gain electrons. From the Lewis symbol
one can tell how many electrons are lost or gained. To get the formula of ionic
compound one need to balance the opposite charges. If they are equal already formula
has 1:1 anions and cation like in K+ and Cl-, therefore formula become KCl. If charges
are different like in Mg2+ and N3- to get the formula usually cross multiply with
charges to obtain 3 Mg2+ and 2 N3-) and drop the charges and write formula

Mg3N2
a.
b.
d.

(one K+ and one Cl-) KCl


(one Mg2+ and two Br-) MgBr2
(three Mg2+ and two N3-) Mg3N2

Covalent bonds - results from the sharing of electrons between two


atoms

typically involves two nonmetallic elements

Homo-nuclear covalent bonds- Covalent bond between identical


atoms are Non-polar covalent bonds there is no charge separation.
The diatomic hydrogen molecule (H2) is the simplest model of a
covalent bond, and is represented in Lewis structures as:

The shared pair of electrons provides each hydrogen atom with two
electrons in its valence shell (the 1s) orbital.
In a sense, it has the electron configuration of the noble gas
helium
When two chlorine atoms covalently bond to form Cl2, the following
sharing of electrons occurs:

Each chlorine atom shared the bonding pair of electrons and achieves
the electron configuration of the noble gas argon.
In Lewis structures the bonding pair of electrons is usually displayed
as a line, and the unshared electrons as dots:

The shared electrons are not located in a fixed position between the
nuclei. In the case of the H2 compound, the electron
Polar Covalent Bonding and Electronegativity
Hetero-nuclear covalent bonds- Covalent bond between two different atoms leads to
polar covalent bonds with a charge separation depending of the electronegativities of
atoms.

Electronegativity
"Electronegativity is the power of an atom when in a molecule to
attract electrons to itself." The electronegativity will depend upon a
number of factors including other atoms in the molecule. There are a
number of ways to produce a set of numbers which represent
electronegativity scales. The Pauling scale is perhaps the most
famous.
-> Atomic radius decreases -> Ionization energy increases ->
Electronegativity increases ->
Group

10 11

12 13 14

15

16

17

18

Period
1

H
2.1

He

Li Be
1.0 1.5

B
C
N
O
F Ne
2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

Na Mg
0.9 1.2

Al Si
P
S
Cl
1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0

Ar

K Ca Sc Ti
V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br
0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.8

Kr

Rb Sr Y ZrZr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te
I
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.2 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.5

Xe

Cs Ba
Lu
0.7 0.9

Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.4 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.2

Fr Ra Lr
0.7 0.9

Rf

Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Uuu Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo

Periodic table of Electronegitivity using the Pauling scale

Non-polar covalent bonds: Electron negativity difference between


0.2 - 0.5 to indicate non-polar covalent.

CS2 EN2.5-2.5= 0, non-polar

CH4 EN2.5-2.1 = 0.4, nonpolar

Polar Covalent bonds: Electron negativity difference between 0.5 1.6 to indicate polar covalent. This type of bond occurs when there is

unequal sharing (between the two atoms) of the electrons in the


bond. Molecules such as NH3 and H2O are the usual examples.

CS2 EN3.5-2.1= 1.4, polar


covalent

CH4 EN3.0-2.1 = 0.9, polar


covalent

Ionic bond : Electron negativity difference between 1.6 or higher


indicate ionic bond. If the EN is between 1.6 and 2.0 and if a metal is
involved, then the bond is considered ionic. If only nonmetals are
involved, the bond is considered polar covalent. This type of bond
occurs when there is complete transfer (between the two atoms) of
the electrons in the bond. Substances such as NaCl and MgCl 2 are the
usual examples.
Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas of Compounds
A substance is given systematic name of substance according to certain rules. Before
the rules are made common names was given without following systematic rules. The
"shorthand" symbol for a compound is its formula. Formula gives types atoms and
number each one in the Chemical compound.
Naming Ionic Compounds
Names of ionic compounds are based on names of the ions making them. Ions are
classified as monatomic or polyatomic.
In the Stock system a Roman numeral indicates the charge of the cation. This system is
preferred over the older "common nomenclature" system.
Charges on monatomic ions of metals and nonmetals
Symbols and Names of monoatomic ions:
"Representative = Fixed Charge " ions:
Symbol

Name

Symbol

Name

H+

Hydrogen ion

H-

Hydride ion

Li+

Lithium ion

F-

Fluoride ion

Sodium ion

Cl

Chloride ion

K+

Potassium ion

Br-

Bromide ion

Be2+

Beryllium ion

I-

Iodide ion

Na

Mg

2+

Ca2+

2-

Magnesium ion

calcium ion

S2-

Oxide ion
Sulfide ion

Ba2+

barium ion

N3-

Nitride ion

Zn2+

zinc ion

P3-

Phosphide ion

"Variable Charge" Cations


Symbol

(Stock system)

Common

Symbo
l

(Stock
system)

Common

Cu+

copper(I)

cuprous

Hg22+

mercury(I)

mercurous

mercury(II)

mercuric

2+

2+

Cu

copper(II)

cupric

Hg

Fe2+

iron(II)

ferrous

Pb2+

lead(II)

plumbous

Fe3+

iron(III)

ferric

Pb4+

lead(IV)

plumbic

cobalt(II)

cobaltous

2+

2+

Sn

tin(II)

stannous

Co

Sn4+

tin(IV)

stannic

Co3+

cobalt(III)

cobaltic

Cr2+

chromium(II)

chromous

Ni2+

nickel(II)

nickelous

nickel(IV)

nickelic

3+

Cr

chromium(III)

Mn2+
Mn3+

4+

Ni

manganese(II)

chromic
manganou
s

Au+

gold(I)

aurous

manganese(III)

manganic

Au3+

gold(III)

auric

Symbols and Charges for Polyatomic Anions


Formul
a

Name

Formula

Name

NO3-

nitrate

CO32-

carbonate

NO2-

nitrite

SO42-

sulfate

CN-

cyanide

SO32-

sulfite

MnO4-

permanganate

PO43-

phosphate

OH-

hydroxide

PO33-

phosphite

O22-

ClO4-

perchlorate

HCO3-

peroxide
hydrogen carbonate(bi
carbonate)

ClO3-

chlorate

HSO4-

hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate)

ClO2-

chlorite

HSO3-

hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite)

ClO-

hypochlorite

HPO42-

hydrogen phosphate

CrO42-

chromate

H2PO4-

dihydrogen phosphate

Cr2O72-

dichromate

C2H3O2-

acetate

Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds


For ionic compounds, the name of the positive ion (cation) is given first,

followed by the name of the negative ion (anion). There for conversion of name to
formula is easy if you know the metal and nonmetal ion symbols and charges. Use the
periodic table to decide the charge on both the cation and anion (or the tables) and
determine the formula of the compound(s) formed in each case. For transition metals
the common ionic charges are given in after the metal name in parenthesis.
Writing basic ionic compound formulas.
Examples: lithium sulfidelithium =Li+1 ; sulfide =S-2
Write ions on a line: Li+1 S-2
Then remove cation and anion charges and exchange them without charge as subscripts
on the metal and nonmetal
Li+1 S-2 becomes Li2S1
Remember we omit "1" from the subscript formula becomes Li2S
Problem: What is the formula of the following compounds given their names?
a. Potassium chloride
b. Magnesium bromide
c. Magnesium nitirde
Answer: First get the formula of ions in the compound. Potassium consists of cation K +
and chloride Cl-. Look in the table to get charges on the ions and one need to balance
the opposite charges. If charges are equal already formula has 1:1 anions and cation like
in K+ and Cl-, therefore formula become KCl. If charges are different like in Mg 2+
and N3- to get the formula usually cross multiply with charges to obtain 3 Mg 2+ and
2 N3-) and drop the charges and write formula Mg3N2.
a.
b.

Potassium chloride (one K+ and one Cl-) KCl


Magnesium bromide (one Mg2+ and two Br-) MgBr2

Magnesium nitride (three Mg2+ and two N3-) Mg3N2


Problem: Give formula of following ionic compounds
c.

a) sodium chloride

b) aluminum phosphate

c) magnesium fluoride

d) potassium nitrate

e) calcium sulfate

f) mercury(II) chloride

g) iron(II) chloride

h) cobalt(III) nitrate

i) potassium chromate

Answers:
a) NaCl

b) AlPO4

c) MgF2

d) KNO3

e) CaSO4

f) Hg Cl2

g) FeCl3

h) Co(NO3)3

i) KmnO4

Problem: Give names of following ionic compounds


a) iron(II) bromide

b) copper(II) sulfate

c) Sodium phospate

d) Sodium sulfite

e) Iron (II) nitrate

f) lithium carbonate

g) Gold (II) chloride

h) calcium bisulfate

i) potassium bicarbonate

Answers:
a) FeBr2

b) CuSO4

c) Na3PO4

d) Na2SO3

e) Fe(NO3)2

f) Li2CO3

g) AuCl2

h) Ca(HSO4)2

i) KHCO3

Covalent Compounds
Most covalent compounds are formed by the reaction of non-metals. Covalent
compounds exist as molecules and are named using prefixes that denote the number of
each element present in the compound.
Many familiar covalent compounds have common names. It is useful to
correlate both systematic and common names with the corresponding molecular
formula.
Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds
In the solid state, covalently bonded molecules are discrete units and have less
tendency to form an extended structure, while ionic compounds form a crystal lattice.
The melting and boiling temperatures for ionic compounds are generally higher than
those of covalent compounds. Ionic solids are crystalline, whereas covalent solids may
be either crystalline or amorphous. Many ionic solids dissolve in water, dissociating into
positive and negative ions (an electrolytic solution). Because these ions can carry
(conduct) a current of electricity, they are called electrolytes. Covalent solids in solution
usually retain their neutral character and are nonelectrolytes.
Physical State
Melting and Boiling Points
Structure of Compounds in the Solid State
Solutions of Ionic and Covalent Compounds
Drawing Lewis Structures of Molecules and Polyatomic Ions
Lewis Structures of Molecules
Lewis Structures of Polyatomic Ions
The electronic structure of atoms, ions, and molecules, which is closely allied to the
properties of these substances, can conveniently be represented using Lewis structures,
or electron-dot diagrams based on the octet rule.
Concepts of stability and polarity are better understood when viewed from the
perspective of a Lewis structure. The stability of a covalent compound is related to the
bond energy. The magnitude of the bond energy increases and the bond length decreases
in the order: single bond > double bond > triple bond.
The valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory helps to explain (or
predict) molecular geometry, including linear, trigonal planar, and tetrahedral
arrangements of attached atoms. Exceptions to the octet rule exist.

A polar covalent molecule has at least one polar covalent bond. An


understanding of the concept of electronegativity helps to assess the polarity of a bond.
A molecule containing only nonpolar bonds must be nonpolar. a molecule containing
polar bonds may be polar or nonpolar, depending on the relative position of the bonds.
Lewis Structure, Stability, Multiple Bonds, and Bond Energies
Lewis Structures and Resonance
Lewis Structures and Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Lewis Structures and Molecular Geometry; VSEPR Theory
Lewis Structures and Polarity
Properties Based on Electronic Structure and Molecular Geometry
Attractions between molecules are intermolecular forces. Intramolecular forces are the
attractive forces within molecules. It is the intermolecular forces which determine such
properties as the solubility of one substance in another and the freezing and boiling
points of liquids.
Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that dissolves in a given amount of
solvent at a specified temperature. The rule of "like dissolves like" describes solubility
of covalent compounds.
The amount of energy required to boil a liquid depends upon the strength of the
intermolecular attractive forces in the liquid, which, in turn, depends on the polarity of
the molecules. As a general rule, polar compounds have strong intermolecular forces,
and their boiling and melting points tend to be higher than nonpolar compounds of
similar molecular mass.
Solubility
Boiling Points of Liquids and Melting Points of Solids

What are the major categories of


intermolecular forces?
1. Electrostatic Interactions (salt bridges).
Positive ion attracts a negative ion.
The attraction is not directional.

2. Hydrogen Bonding
Hydrogen bond---an oxygen or nitrogen with a lone pair of electrons
attracts a "hydrogen" covalently bonded to another oxygen or
nitrogen.
The O or N with the lone pair, the hydrogen, and the other O or N
must be in a straight line.
This attraction is highly directional.
3. Dipole-Dipole Interactions
Two molecules with permanent NET dipoles can approach each other
and "align their permanent NET dipoles"
The + end of one molecule becomes attracted to the - end of the
other molecule.

4. Van der Waals Associations (your book calls these


"dispersion forces")
Molecules that have no net charge, no net dipole, and no lone pairs of
electrons can display attractions for each other.
Example: Ethane (CH3-CH3) is a gas, but hexane (CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2CH2-CH3) is a liquid.
What kind of "association" could be holding the hexane molecules
together?
When two uncharged atoms are brought close together (3 to 4 ),
they can induce transient electronic dipoles in each other which
result in very weak attraction.
Weak attractions between neutral atoms induced by transient
electronic asymmetry are called van der Waals interactions.
Covalent bonds versus Noncovalent Associations.
A covalent bond requires a chemical reaction for its formation or for it to be broken.
Noncovalent associations (electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds,
dipole-dipole associations, Van der Waals associatons) do NOT require
a chemical reaction to be either formed or broken.
What is the relative strength of the four kinds of noncovalent associations?
kcal

Relative Scale

C-C covalent

83.0

100

Electrostatic

20.6

25

Hydrogen Bond

4.8

Dipole-Dipole

2.2

London Forces

0.1

less than 1

NOTE: London Forces and dipole-dipole interactions are collectively known as


van der Waals Forces.

In-Chapter Questions and Problems


4.2

Problem: Give the names of following formulas from the names of following covalent
compunds names:
H2S
a.
CS2
b.
PCl5
c.
P2O5
d.
Answer:
a. hydrogen sulfide

b. carbon disulfide
c. phosphorus pentachloride
d. diphosphorus pentoxide
Problem: Give the formula of following covalent compounds:
a. Nitrogen trifluoride
b. Carbon monoxide
Answer:
a. NF3
b. CO
Draw Lewis structure of a. Ethane( CH3CH3 b. Nitrogen (N2)
H H

C C H
H H

b. :N:::N:
Draw Lewis structure of a. cyanide ion (CN-) b. carbonate ion (CO32-)
a.
CN
[:C:::N:]
[Note: 5 valence electrons from nitrogen, 4 from carbon, and one from the
-1 charge equals 10 valence electrons total.]
b. CO32
2-

O
O C O

[Note: 4 valence electrons from carbon, 6 from each of three oxygen atoms,
and two for the -2 charge equal 24 valence electrons total.]
4.16

a. The hydrogen atom is less electronegative than the sulfur atom, so a likely
skeletal structure is:
HS
The total number of valence electrons in the hydrogen sulfide ion is:
1 hydrogen atom x 1 valence electron
1 sulfur atom x 6 valence electrons
and 1 negative charge

= 1 electron
= 6 electrons
= 1 electron

for a total of 8 valence electrons.

These electrons can be distributed to produce the following Lewis structure:

b. The peroxide ion must have the following skeletal structure:

OO

The total number of valence electrons in the peroxide ion is:


2 oxygen atoms x 6 valence electrons
and 2 negative charges

= 12 electrons
= 2 electrons

for a total of 14 valence electrons.


These may be distributed to produce the following structure:
2-

O O
4.18

Look at the Lewis structure for


a. N2

:N:::N:

b. Cl2

Cl Cl

- a triple bond between the nitrogen atoms.

- a single bond between the chlorine atoms.

The bond strength parallels the bond order. N2 has a bond order of 3, and is a
stronger bond than that found in Cl2, a single bond, bond order of 1.
4.20

Since both S and Se are in the same family (Group VIA), they have the same
number of valence electrons, and therefore, should form the same kinds of
bonds.

4.22

a. C2H4
H
C

H
C
H

Three groups around each carbon; trigonal planar around each carbon.
b. H:C:::C:H

HCCH

Two groups around each carbon; linear geometry

4.24

4.26

a. Si Cl

Chlorine is more electronegative than silicon; the bond is polar


and the electrons are pulled toward chlorine.

b. S Cl

Chlorine is more electronegative than sulfur; the bond is polar


and the electrons are pulled toward chlorine.

c. H C

Carbon is more electronegative than hydrogen; the bond is polar


and the electrons are pulled toward carbon.

d. C C

There is no electronegativity difference between two identical


atoms; the bond is nonpolar.

a. CO2
O

There are two identical groups around the central atom. The molecule has
linear geometry and the polarity of the groups cancel. The molecule is
nonpolar.
b. SCl2

Cl

Cl

Sulfur and oxygen are in the same group of the periodic table. SCl2 is
analogous to H2O: a bent molecule. The effect of two lone pairs causes the
molecule to be polar.
c. Br-Cl

Br Cl
The Br-Cl bond is polar due to the electronegativity difference between
bromine and chlorine. Since Br-Cl is the only bond in the molecule, the
molecule is polar.
d. CS2
S

There are two identical groups around the central atom. The molecule has
linear geometry and the polarity of the groups cancel. The molecule is
nonpolar.

4.28

a. C2H6 is nonpolar, heavier molecule


CH4 is nonpolar, lighter molecule
The heavier nonpolar molecule, C2H6, is predicted to have the higher
melting and boiling point.
b. CO is polar
NO is polar
CO is the more polar molecule because there is a greater difference in the
electronegativities of carbon and oxygen than that which exists between
nitrogen and oxygen. Therefore CO is expected to have the higher melting
and boiling points.
c. F2 is nonpolar, lighter molecule
Br2 is nonpolar, heavier molecule
The heavier nonpolar molecule, Br2, is predicted to have the higher melting
and boiling point.
d. CHCl3 is polar.
It has a higher melting point and boiling point when compared to CCl4
which is nonpolar.

End-of-Chapter Questions and Problems


4.30

a.
b.
c.
d.

4.32

a.

Ionic (NaCl is formed from a metal and a nonmetal.)


Covalent (CO is formed from two nonmetals.)
Covalent (ICl is formed from two nonmetals.)
Covalent (H2) is formed from two identical atoms.)
2-

2 Na +

2 Na

b.
2-

2 Na +
4.34

2 Na

a. HNO3
H
= 1 valence electron
N
= 5 valence electrons
O x 3 = 6 x 3 = 18 valence electrons
Total of 24 valence electrons

O
This structure satisfies the octet rule for N and O.

N O H
O

b. CCl4
C
= 4 valence electrons
4 x Cl = 4 x 7 = 28 valence electrons
Total of 32 valence electrons

Cl
Cl C Cl
Cl

This structure satisfies the octet rule for C and Cl.

c. PBr3
P
= 5 valence electrons
3 x Br = 3 x 7 = 21 valence electrons
Total of 26 valence electrons
Br

Br

Br

This structure satisfies the octet rule for P and Br.

4.36

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

4.38

a. SO42

c. PO43

b. NO3

d. HCO3

4.40

sulfide ion
chloride ion
carbonate ion
ammonium ion
acetate ion

a. AgCN

[one 1+ ion cancels one 1- ion]

b. NH4Cl

[one 1+ ion cancels one 1- ion]

c. Ag2O

[two 1+ ions cancel one 2- ion]

d. MgCO3

[one 2+ ion cancels one 2- ion]

e. Mg(HCO3)2
4.42

[one 2+ ion cancels two 1- ions]

a. Nitrogen dioxide
b. Sulfur trioxide
c. Phosphorus trichloride
d. Dinitrogen tetraoxide
e. Carbon tetrachloride

4.44

4.46

4.48

a. CO or CO2

c. CaO

b. SO2 or SO3

d. SiH4

a. NH4I

c. NH4C2H3O2

b. (NH4)2SO4

d. NH4CN

a. sodium hypochlorite

c. sodium chlorate

b. sodium chlorite

d. sodium perchlorate

4.50

The attractive forces among positive and negative ions are quite strong; a great
deal of energy is needed to overcome these forces. As a result, the melting
points of ionic compounds are quite high when compared to those of covalent
compounds that have weaker attractive forces among the uncharged molecules.

4.52

Water will have a higher boiling point. Water is a polar molecule with strong
intermolecular attractive forces, whereas carbon tetrachloride is a nonpolar
molecule with weak intermolecular attractive forces. More energy, hence, a
higher temperature is required to overcome the attractive forces among the water
molecules.

4.54

a.

Be

b.

c.

d.

2-

4.56

a. Be2+

b. Al3+

c.

d.

2-

S
4.58

Resonance is important in bonding because it accounts for the unusual stability


and bond lengths of some molecules. For instance, for the nitrite ion, two
resonance forms can be drawn:
O N O

and

N O

If resonance did not occur, the bond lengths between N and O would not be
identical. The nitrogen oxygen double bond length would be shorter than the
nitrogen oxygen single bond length. Experimentally, we find the nitrogen
oxygen bond lengths to be identical. This is attributed to the resonance hybrid.
O
4.60

formaldehyde

H C H

H H
H

C C
H H

H
N
H

4.62

ethylamine

4.64

a. Cl and Cl

nonpolar; since there is no electronegativity difference


between the atoms sharing the electrons, the electrons are
shared equally.

b. H and H

nonpolar; there is no electronegativity difference between the


atoms sharing the electrons, the electrons are shared equally.

c. C and H

nonpolar or only very slightly polar; the electronegativity


difference between carbon and hydrogen is negligibly small,
thus the electrons are shared essentially equally.

d. Li and F

ionic; the bond is between a metal and a nonmetal.

e. O and O

nonpolar; since there is no electronegativity difference


between the atoms sharing the electrons, the electrons are
shared equally.

4.66

a. Cl and Cl

b. H and H

c. C and H

H
Cl Cl

H
H H

C H
H

d. Li and F form an ionic compound, lithium fluoride.


e. O and O

4.68

The rule of "like dissolves like" applies to the question of solubility. Molecules
of similar polarity will be mutually soluble. Water is a polar molecule; therefore
one would predict that polar molecules would dissolve in water.

4.70

Polar compounds have strong intermolecular attractive forces. High


temperatures are needed to overcome these forces and convert the liquid to a
gas; hence, we predict higher boiling points for polar compounds when
compared to non-polar compounds.

1. Which two scientists in 1869 arranged the elements in order of


increasing atomic masses to form a precursor of the modern periodic
table of elements?
Ans. Mendeleev and Meyer
2. Who stated that the elements, when arranged according to their atomic
masses, showed a distinct periodicity of their properties?
Ans. Dimitri Mendeleev
3. In the modern periodic table, the elements are arranged according to
what system?
Ans. increasing atomic number
4. The modern periodic law states that the physical and chemical
properties of the elements are periodic functions of what property?
Ans. atomic number
5. What do we call the horizontal row of elements on the periodic table?
Ans. periods
3 6 6 seven
3 7 7 three
3 8 8 groups
3 9 9 atomic number
3 10 10 Group IIA (2)
3 11 11 halogens
3 12 12 metalloids
3 13 13 the group number is also the number of valence electrons
3 14 14 1;3
3 15 15 they have the same shape and the same energy; they are oriented
differently in space

6. How many periods are found on the periodic table?


7. Which period contains the element sodium?
8. What do we call the columns of elements on the periodic table?
9. What number for an atom gives the number of electrons and protons found
in that atom?
10. Where are the alkaline earth metals located on the periodic table?
11. What is the general name given to the elements of Group VIIA (17)?
12. What term is used for the elements straddling the "staircase" boundary
between the metals and nonmetals?
13. For a representative element, how can we deduce the number of valence
electrons in a neutral atom from the position of the element in the
Periodic Table?
14. How many orbitals are in an s sublevel? How many in a p sublevel?
15. In what way(s) are the three orbitals in the 2p sublevel similar; in
what way(s) are they different?
16. What requirement must be met in order for two electrons to coexist in
the same orbital?
17. State the Aufbau Principle.
18. How many electrons are present in an atom of silicon?
19. Give the electronic configuration in an atom of argon, element number
18.
20. Give the electronic arrangement in an atom of strontium, element number
38.
21. How many electrons are present in a chloride ion?
22. State the Octet Rule.
23. Give the name of a Group IA (1) ion that has the following electronic
arrangement: 1s22s22p6
Page 1
24. Give the name of a VIIA (17) ion that has the following electronic
arrangement: 1s22s22p63s23p6
25. What ion carries a 2- charge and is isoelectronic with K+?
26. Give the complete electronic arrangement of a sulfide ion, S2-.
27. Atoms with the biggest radii occur in the _______ _______ region of the
Periodic Table.
28. How would you expect an Al3+ ion to compare in size with an Al atom?
Explain why.
29. Which group of elements has the highest ionization energies? Which
group has the lowest?
30. Explain what is meant by electron affinity.
31. In Mendeleev's table of the elements, they were arranged according to
A. atomic number
B. mass number
C. atomic mass
D. neutron number
E. density
32. The modern periodic table is arranged according to what property?
A. atomic number

B. mass number
C. atomic mass
D. neutron number
E. density
33. What do we call a complete horizontal row of elements on the periodic
table?
A. group
B. period
C. family
D. representative elements
E. transition elements
34. What are all the elements in the A-groups often called?
A. transition elements
B. lanthanides
C. metals
D. non-metals
E. representative elements
35. Which of the following elements is a metalloid?
A. C B. Ge C. Pb D. N E. P
Page 2
36. Where are the alkali metals located on the periodic table?
A. representative elements
B. transition metals
C. Group IA (1)
D. Group IIA (2)
E. Group IIIA (3)
37. How many valence electrons are in an atom of carbon?
A. 8 B. 6 C. 4 D. 1 E. 0
38. What is the lowest energy sublevel of a principal level?
A. d B. e C. f D. s E. p
39. How many sublevels are there in the third principal energy level?
A. 3 B. 2 C. 1 D. 0 E. 4
40. How many orbitals are there in a p sublevel?
A. 2 B. 3 C. 1 D. 0 E. 4
41. Which of the following correctly gives the electron capacity of a
principal energy level in terms of the number n?
A. n B. 2n C. 2n + 2 D. n2 E. 2n2
42. What is the electron configuration of sulfur, atomic number 16?
A. 1s21p62s22p6
B. 1s22s22p62d6
C. 1s22s22p63s23p4
D. 1s22s22p63s23d4
E. 1s22s22p63s22d4
43. Which one of the following electron configurations is appropriate for a
normal atom?
A. 1s12s1
B. 1s22s1
C. 1s22s22p8

D. 1s22s22p43s1
E. 1s22s22p63d1
44. Which of the following elements is most likely to form a 3+ ion?
A. Li B. K C. Al D. N E. Cu
Page 3
45. Give the complete electronic configuration of a sodium ion.
A. 1s22s22p5
B. 1s22s22p6
C. 1s22s22p63s1
D. 1s22s22p63s2
E. 1s22s22p63s23p64s1
46. Which of the following ions does not follow the octet rule?
A. Na+ B. Ca2+ C. Al3+ D. N3- E. Cl247. Which of the following atoms has the biggest size (radius)?
A. Na B. Al C. Cl D. Rb E. I
48. Which of the following elements has the highest ionization energy?
A. Li B. B C. O D. F E. Ne
49. Which of the following elements has the lowest ionization energy?
A. Li B. B C. O D. F E. Ne
50. The electron affinity is
A. the energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom
B. the force between two electrons in the same orbital
C. the force between two ions of opposite charge
D. the energy released when an isolated atom gains an electron
E. the attraction of an atom for an electron in a chemical bond
51. Which one of the following elements has the highest electron affinity?
A. Li B. K C. Kr D. O E. Cl
52. T F In Mendeleev's table, the elements were arranged according to
their atomic numbers.
53. T F There are nine periods on the periodic table.
54. T F Sulfur (S) is one of the representative elements.
55. T F Platinum (Pt) is a lanthanide element.
56. T F Tin (Sn) is a metalloid.
57. T F Valence electrons are involved when atoms form bonds.
58. T F There are a maximum of 50 electrons in principal energy level
number five.
59. T F Atoms of the noble gas elements, Group VIII A (18), do not form
bonds with any other elements.
60. T F There are eight valence electrons in a chloride ion.
61. T F The ions formed from Group IIA (2) atoms have charges of 2+.
Page 4
62. T F Cations tend to be formed from metal atoms, while anions are
formed from non-metal atoms.
63. T F The atoms of smallest radius are those of elements in top left
hand part of the periodic table.
64. T F The halogens (Group VII A (17)) have the lowest ionization
energies of any group in the periodic table.
Page 5

Answer Key for Test "chapter3.tst", 8/17/04


No. in
Q-Bank
No. on
Test Correct Answer
3 1 1 Mendeleev and Meyer
3 2 2 Dimitri Mendeleev
3 3 3 increasing atomic number
3 4 4 atomic number
3 5 5 periods
3 6 6 seven
3 7 7 three
3 8 8 groups
3 9 9 atomic number
3 10 10 Group IIA (2)
3 11 11 halogens
3 12 12 metalloids
3 13 13 the group number is also the number of valence electrons
3 14 14 1;3
3 15 15 they have the same shape and the same energy; they are oriented
differently in space
3 16 16 they must have opposite spins
3 17 17 Electrons occupy the available orbital of lowest energy first.
3 18 18 Fourteen
3 19 19 1s22s22p63s23p6
3 20 20 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s2
3 21 21 Eighteen
3 22 22 Elements tend to react in such a way as to attain the electron
configuration of the atoms of the noble gas nearest to them in
the Periodic Table.
3 23 23 sodium ion
3 24 24 chloride
3 25 25 S23 26 26 1s22s22p63s23p6
3 27 27 bottom left
3 28 28 The ion will be much smaller. In forming the ion, the atom loses
all its outermost electrons. The net positive charge on the ion
ensures that all the electrons in the ion are strongly attracted
to the nucleus, keeping the ion small.
3 29 29 Group VIIIA (18) are highest; Group IA (1) are the lowest.
3 30 30 It is the energy released when a neutral atom gains an electron
to form an anion.
3 31 31 C
3 32 32 A
3 33 33 B
3 34 34 E
3 35 35 B
3 36 36 C

3 37 37 C
3 38 38 D
3 39 39 A
3 40 40 B
3 41 41 E
3 42 42 C
3 43 43 B
3 44 44 C
3 45 45 B
3 46 46 E
Page 1
Answer Key for Test "chapter3.tst", 8/17/04
No. in
Q-Bank
No. on
Test Correct Answer
3 47 47 D
3 48 48 E
3 49 49 A
3 50 50 D
3 51 51 E
3 52 52 F
3 53 53 F
3 54 54 T
3 55 55 F
3 56 56 F
3 57 57 T
3 58 58 T
3 59 59 F
3 60 60 T
3 61 61 T
3 62 62 T
3 63 63 F
3 64 64 F
Page 2
1. In a Lewis structure, what do the dots represent?
2. Draw the Lewis structure of the bromine atom.
3. How many dots are shown in the Lewis structure for the sulfur atom?
4. What are the two principal types of bonding called?
5. Name the two classes of element which are most likely to form an ionic
compound if they are allowed to react with each other.
6. Draw the Lewis structure of the Pb2+ ion.
7. What constitutes a covalent bond between two atoms?
8. In what way is a polar covalent bond similar to a nonpolar covalent
bond? In what way are they different?
9. What does it mean if an atom is said to have a high electronegativity?
10. The elements with the lowest electronegativities are found in the
_______ _______ region of the periodic table.

11. Who first assigned electronegativity values to many of the elements?


12. What do we call the three-dimensional arrangement of positive and
negative ions in an ionic solid?
13. Predict the formula of the compound formed when ions of sodium and
sulfur combine.
14. Predict the formula of the compound formed when ions of barium and
nitrogen combine.
15. What is the name of Fe2+ in the Stock system?
16. What does the suffix "-ous" on the common names of ions mean?
17. What is the term used for ions that are composed of two or more atoms
bonded together?
18. What is the formula of the sulfate ion?
19. What is the name of the ion HCO3-?
20. What is the name of the ion NH4+?
21. Provide the name of Na3PO4.
22. What is the name of Cu2O in the Stock system?
23. Write the formula of sodium carbonate.
24. What kind of compound results when two or more different nonmetals
share electrons?
25. What kind of bonding exists in substances which consist of discrete
molecules?
Page 1
26. Provide the formula of sulfur trioxide.
27. Write the formula of ammonia.
28. Provide the name of CCl4.
29. Provide the name of the compound whose formula is N2O5.
30. At what temperature is a liquid converted into a gas?
31. What is the term that describes a solid with no regular structure?
32. What is the term that describes a compound that, when dissolved in
water conducts an electric current?
33. What is the term that describes a compound that, when dissolved in
water does not conduct an electric current?
34. What kind of bonding is present in substances which are
nonelectrolytes?
35. How many bonding electrons are shown in the Lewis structure for the
bicarbonate ion, HCO3-?
36. Draw the Lewis structure of methylamine, CH3NH2.
37. Draw the Lewis structure of hydrogen sulfide, H2S.
38. What is wrong with the Lewis structure shown below for sulfur trioxide,
SO3?
SO
O
O
39. Ozone, O3, has two resonance forms. Draw them, given the skeletal
arrangement O-O-O
40. What is defined as the amount of energy needed to break a bond holding
two atoms together?
41. What is defined as the distance of separation of two nuclei in a

covalent bond?
42. What do the letters VSEPR stand for?
43. If the shape of a molecule is trigonal planar, what are the values of
the bond angles?
44. In the molecule AX2, the central atom A has two lone pairs of electrons
in addition to the two bond pairs in the A-X bonds. What is the shape
of this molecule?
45. The ammonia molecule, NH3, is polar. Why does this fact suggest that its
shape is trigonal pyramidal, rather than trigonal planar?
Page 2
46. Which of the following Lewis structures of neutral atoms is correct?
K Sn O Ba Al
ABCDE
A. A B. B C. C D. D E. E
47. Which of the following Lewis structures of ions is incorrect?
Na Ca Sn N I
2+ 3- - + 2+
ABCDE
A. A B. B C. C D. D E. E
48. Which of the following has the greatest electronegativity?
A. H B. Cl C. O D. F E. Na
49. Which of the following has the greatest electronegativity?
A. Si B. P C. Cl D. Ar E. Br
50. In the compound CH3Cl the bond between carbon and chlorine is
A. intermolecular B. ionic
C. nonpolar covalent D. polar covalent
51. Which one of the following is NOT true about elements that form
cations?
A. The atoms lose electrons in forming ions.
B. The elements are metals.
C. They are located to the left of the periodic table.
D. They have low ionization energies.
E. They have high electron affinities.
1.

2.

Which of the following pairs of atoms are least likely to form an ionic compound?
a.

Ni, O

b.

Na, F

c.

Cu, Cl

d.

Li, Mg

e.

Li, F

The bond in dinitrogen (N2) is a:


a.

double bond.

b.

single bond.

c.

triple bond.

3.

4.

d.

lone pair.

e.

none of the above

Which of the following formulas are incorrect on the basis of simple Lewis dot structures?
a.

LiCl

b.

MgO

c.

Na2O

d.

CO2

e.

none of these

Which of the following bonds is most polar?


a.

H-F

b.

H-Cl

c.

H-H

d.

F-F

e.

H-I

52. Assuming reactions between the following pairs of elements, which pair
is most likely to form an ionic compound?
A. copper and tin
B. chlorine and oxygen
C. cesium and iodine
D. carbon and chlorine
E. fluorine and iodine
53. What kind of bond results when electron transfer occurs between atoms
of two different elements?
A. ionic
B. covalent
C. nonpolar
D. single
E. double
Page 3
54. What is the old name of Cu+?
A. cupric ion
B. cuprous ion
C. copper(I) ion
D. copper(II) ion
E. ferrous ion
55. Give the name of FeSO4 in the Stock system.
A. iron monosulfuric acid
B. iron(II) sulfate
C. iron(III) sulfate
D. ferrous sulfate

E. ferric sulfate
56. Assuming reactions between the following pairs of elements, which pair
is most likely to form a covalent compound?
A. lithium and iodine
B. sodium and oxygen
C. calcium and chlorine
D. copper and tin
E. carbon and oxygen
57. A double bond between two atoms, A and B
A. is longer than a single bond between the same two atoms
B. has a lower bond energy than a single bond between the same two
atoms
C. arises when two electrons are transferred from A to B
D. consists of two electrons shared between A and B
E. consists of four electrons shared between A and B
58. What is the correct formula of phosphorus pentachloride?
A. PCl B. PCl3 C. PCl5 D. P2Cl5 E. P5Cl
59. What term describes the temperature at which a solid is converted into
a liquid?
A. critical point
B. flash point
C. sublimation point
D. melting point
E. boiling point
60. What term describes a solution of a compound in water that conducts an
electric current?
A. amorphous solution
B. an electrolyte solution
C. a nonelectrolyte solution
D. superconducting solution
E. isoelectric solution
Page 4
61. How many bonding electrons are in CO2?
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 8
62. How many nonbonding electrons are in CH4?
A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 8
63. How many valence electrons are in SO42-?
A. 2 B. 64 C. 32 D. 12 E. 16
64. According to VSEPR theory, if the valence electrons on a central atom
are 3 bond pairs and one nonbonding (lone) pair, the geometry (shape)
at this atom will be
A. linear
B. bent (angular)
C. trigonal planar
D. trigonal pyramidal
E. tetrahedral
65. T F In Lewis structures, the chemical symbol of an element represents
both the nucleus and the lower energy (nonvalence) electrons.

66. T F The name of SnO2 is tin(I) oxide.


67. T F The old name of iron(III) chloride is ferrous chloride.
68. T F The are three atoms of iodine represented in the formula NaIO3.
69. T F In solid NaCl, no molecules of NaCl exist.
70. T F Ionic solids are amorphous.
71. T F Molecular compounds usually involve ionic bonding.
72. T F As a rule, ionic compounds tend to have lower melting and boiling
points than covalent compounds consisting of small molecules.
73. T F In the water molecule, the oxygen atom is an exception to the
octet rule.
74. T F The NO2 molecule can never satisfy the octet rule.
75. T F Six electrons shared between two atoms corresponds to a bond
order of three.
76. T F Resonance occurs when two or more different, valid Lewis
structures can be drawn for a molecule+.
77. T F The existence of resonance makes a molecule less stable than
would otherwise be the case.
78. T F Because the C-H bond in methane is polar, the CH4 molecule will
also be polar.
79. T F Chemical bonds are intramolecular forces.
Page 5
80. T F In determining properties such as solubility, melting point and
boiling point, intramolecular forces are more important than
intermolecular forces.
81. T F As a rule, a polar substance will be a good solvent for nonpolar
solutes, and vice versa.
Page 6
Answer Key for Test "chapter4.tst", 8/17/04
No. in
Q-Bank
No. on
Test Correct Answer
4 1 1 valence electrons
422
Br
4 3 3 six
4 4 4 ionic bonding and covalent bonding
4 5 5 metal, nonmetal
4 6 6 Pb 2
4 7 7 a shared pair of electrons
488
In each case, the bond consists of an electron pair shared between the
bonded atoms. The difference is that the sharing is unequal in the case
of the polar covalent bond, equal in a nonpolar covalent bond.
4 9 9 The atom has a strong attraction for shared electron pairs
(electrons in covalent bonds).
4 10 10 bottom left
4 11 11 Pauling

4 12 12 crystal lattice
4 13 13 Na2S
4 14 14 Ba3N2
4 15 15 iron(II) ion
4 16 16 lower positive charge
4 17 17 polyatomic
4 18 18 SO424 19 19 hydrogen carbonate
4 20 20 ammonium
4 21 21 sodium phosphate
4 22 22 copper(I) oxide
4 23 23 Na2CO3
4 24 24 covalent
4 25 25 Covalent
4 26 26 SO3
4 27 27 NH3
4 28 28 carbon tetrachloride
4 29 29 dinitrogen pentoxide
4 30 30 boiling point
4 31 31 amorphous
4 32 32 electrolyte
4 33 33 nonelectrolyte
4 34 34 covalent
4 35 35 ten
4 36 36
CN
HH
H
HH
4 37 37 H S H
4 38 38
Page 1
Answer Key for Test "chapter4.tst", 8/17/04
No. in
Q-Bank
No. on
Test Correct Answer
The structure shows 26 valence electrons, but there should only be 24.
4 39 39
OOOOOO
4 40 40 bond energy
4 41 41 bond length
4 42 42 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
4 43 43 120
4 44 44 bent or angular
4 45 45 If the molecule were trigonal planar, the symmetry would result
in a nonpolar molecule. The centers of positive and negative
charge would coincide.

4 46 46 C
4 47 47 C
4 48 48 D
4 49 49 C
4 50 50 D
4 51 51 E
4 52 52 C
4 53 53 A
4 54 54 B
4 55 55 B
4 56 56 E
4 57 57 E
4 58 58 C
4 59 59 D
4 60 60 B
4 61 61 E
4 62 62 A
4 63 63 C
4 64 64 D
4 65 65 T
4 66 66 F
4 67 67 F
4 68 68 F
4 69 69 T
4 70 70 F
4 71 71 F
4 72 72 F
4 73 73 F
4 74 74 T
4 75 75 T
4 76 76 T
4 77 77 F
4 78 78 F
4 79 79 T
4 80 80 F
4 81 81 F
Page 2