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12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

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Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions
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Elements
a 1 =valueofthefirstterm
a m =valueofanytermafterthefirsttermbutbeforethelastterm
a n =valueofthelastterm
n=totalnumberofterms
m=m th termafterthefirstbutbeforen th
d=commondifferenceofarithmeticprogression
r=commonratioofgeometricprogression
S=sum
ArithmeticProgression,AP
Arithmeticprogressionisasequenceofnumbersinwhichthedifferenceofanytwoadjacenttermsisconstant.Theconstantdifferenceis
commonlyknownascommondifferenceandisdenotedbyd.Examplesofarithmeticprogressionareasfollows:
Example1:3,8,13,18,23,2833,38,43,48
Theabovesequenceofnumbersiscomposedofn=10terms(orelements).Thefirstterma 1 =3,andthelastterma n =a 10 =48.The
commondifferenceoftheaboveAPisd=8­3=13­8= =5.
Example2:5,2,­1,
ThisAPhasacommondifferenceof­3andiscomposedofinfinitenumberoftermsasindicatedbythethreeellipsesattheend.

12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

FormulasforArithmeticProgression

Commondifference,d

Thecommondifferencecanbefoundbysubtractinganytwoadjacentterms.

d = a − m+1 a m or d = a 2 − a 1
d = a
m+1
a m
or
d = a
2 −
a 1
=
a 3
a 2
=
a 4
a 3
=

Valueofeachterm

Eachtermafterthefirstcanbefoundbyaddingrecursivelythecommondifferencedtotheprecedingterm.

a m+1

=

a m

+ d

n th termofAP

Then th termofarithmeticprogressionisgivenby

a

n

=

a 1

+ (n − 1)d

orinmoregeneralterm,itcanbewrittenas

a

n

=

a m

+ (n m)d

SumofntermsofAP

Thesumofthefirstntermsofarithmeticprogressionisntimestheaverageofthefirsttermandthelastterm.

 

n

 

S =

2

(

a 1

+

a n

)

Ifthelasttermanisnotgiven,thefollowingmaybeuseful

 

n

 

S =

2

[ 2

a

1

+ (n − 1)d ]

Ifrequiredforthepartialsumfromm th ton th terms,thefollowingformulacanbeused

n m + 1

n m + 1

S =

(

a m

+

a n

)

or

S =

[ 2

a m

+ (n m)d ]

2

2

12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

GeometricProgression,GP

Geometricprogressionisasequenceofnumbersinwhichanytwoadjacenttermshasacommonratiodenotedbyr.Exampleofgeometric

progressionis

1,3,9,27,

whichiscomposedofinfinitenumberoftermsandwithcommonratioequalto3.

FormulasforGeometricProgression

Commonratio

Thecommonratiocanbefoundbytakingthequotientofanytwoadjacentterms.

 

r =

a m+1

=

a

2

=

a

3

=

a

4

=

 

a

m

a

1

a

2

a

3

n th termofGP

Then th termofthegeometricprogressionisgivenby

 
 

a

n

=

a 1 r n−1

 

or

a

n

=

a m r nm

SumofntermsofGP

Thesumofthefirstntermsofgeometricprogressionis

 
 

S =

 

a

1

(1 −

r

n

)

   

1

r

 

SumofInfiniteGeometricProgression

AfinitesumcanbeobtainedfromGPwithinfinitetermsifandonlyif­1.0≤r≤1.0andr≠0.

S =

a 1

1 − r

HarmonicProgression,HP

Harmonicprogressionisasequenceofnumbersinwhichthereciprocalsoftheelementsareinarithmeticprogression.Exampleofharmonic

progressionis

1/3,1/6,1/9,

IfyoutakethereciprocalofeachtermfromtheaboveHP,thesequencewillbecome

12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

3,6,9,

whichisanAPwithacommondifferenceof3.

AnotherexampleofHPis6,3,2.Thereciprocalsofeachtermare1/6,1/3,1/2whichisanAPwithacommondifferenceof1/6.

TofindthetermofHP,convertthesequenceintoAPthendothecalculationsusingtheAPformulas.Thentakethereciprocaloftheanswerin

APtogetthecorrectterminHP.

Relationshipbetweenarithmetic,geometric,andharmonicmeans

A M × HM = GM 2

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12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

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