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12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

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Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions
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Elements
a 1 =valueofthefirstterm
a m =valueofanytermafterthefirsttermbutbeforethelastterm
a n =valueofthelastterm
n=totalnumberofterms
m=m th termafterthefirstbutbeforen th
d=commondifferenceofarithmeticprogression
r=commonratioofgeometricprogression
S=sum
ArithmeticProgression,AP
commonlyknownascommondifferenceandisdenotedbyd.Examplesofarithmeticprogressionareasfollows:
Example1:3,8,13,18,23,2833,38,43,48
Theabovesequenceofnumbersiscomposedofn=10terms(orelements).Thefirstterma 1 =3,andthelastterma n =a 10 =48.The
commondifferenceoftheaboveAPisd=8­3=13­8= =5.
Example2:5,2,­1,
ThisAPhasacommondifferenceof­3andiscomposedofinfinitenumberoftermsasindicatedbythethreeellipsesattheend.

12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

FormulasforArithmeticProgression

Commondifference,d

d = a
m+1
a m
or
d = a
2 −
a 1
=
a 3
a 2
=
a 4
a 3
=

Valueofeachterm

a m+1

=

a m

+ d

n th termofAP

Then th termofarithmeticprogressionisgivenby

 a n = a 1 + (n − 1)d orinmoregeneralterm,itcanbewrittenas a n = a m + (n − m)d

SumofntermsofAP

Thesumofthefirstntermsofarithmeticprogressionisntimestheaverageofthefirsttermandthelastterm.

 n S = 2 ( a 1 + a n ) Ifthelasttermanisnotgiven,thefollowingmaybeuseful n S = 2 [ 2 a 1 + (n − 1)d ]

Ifrequiredforthepartialsumfromm th ton th terms,thefollowingformulacanbeused

n m + 1

n m + 1

 S = ( a m + a n ) or S = [ 2 a m + (n − m)d ]

2

2

12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

GeometricProgression,GP

progressionis

1,3,9,27,

whichiscomposedofinfinitenumberoftermsandwithcommonratioequalto3.

FormulasforGeometricProgression

Commonratio

 r = a m+1 = a 2 = a 3 = a 4 = a m a 1 a 2 a 3 n th termofGP Then th termofthegeometricprogressionisgivenby a n = a 1 r n−1 or a n = a m r n−m SumofntermsofGP Thesumofthefirstntermsofgeometricprogressionis S = a 1 (1 − r n ) 1 − r

SumofInfiniteGeometricProgression

AfinitesumcanbeobtainedfromGPwithinfinitetermsifandonlyif­1.0≤r≤1.0andr≠0.

S =

a 1

1 − r

HarmonicProgression,HP

Harmonicprogressionisasequenceofnumbersinwhichthereciprocalsoftheelementsareinarithmeticprogression.Exampleofharmonic

progressionis

1/3,1/6,1/9,

IfyoutakethereciprocalofeachtermfromtheaboveHP,thesequencewillbecome

12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

3,6,9,

whichisanAPwithacommondifferenceof3.

AnotherexampleofHPis6,3,2.Thereciprocalsofeachtermare1/6,1/3,1/2whichisanAPwithacommondifferenceof1/6.

APtogetthecorrectterminHP.

Relationshipbetweenarithmetic,geometric,andharmonicmeans

A M × HM = GM 2

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12/08/2016

Arithmetic,geometric,andharmonicprogressions|AlgebraReview

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