Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

8/6/2016

GeographyIndiaDrainageSystem
We are hiring

GeographyIndiaDrainageSystem
Advertisements

PreviousPage

NextPage

Introduction
Theflowofwaterthroughwelldefinedchannelsisknownasdrainageandthenetworkofsuchchannelsisknownasdrainagesystem.
Thedrainagepatternofanareaistheresultofthegeologicaltimeperiod,nature,andstructureofrocks,topography,slope,etc.

About77%ofthedrainageareaconsistingoftheGanga,theBrahmaputra,theMahanadi,theKrishna,etc.isorientedtowardstheBayof
Bengal.
Ontheotherhand,23%comprisingtheIndus,theNarmada,theTapi, the Mahi, and the Periyar systems discharge their waters in the
ArabianSea.
Ariverdrainisaspecificarea,whichisknownasthecatchmentareaofthatriver.
Anareadrainedbyariveranditstributariesisknownasadrainagebasin.
Theboundarylineseparatingonedrainagebasinfromtheotheriscalledasthewatershedarea.

DrainagePattern
Followingarethemajordrainagepatterns
Dendritic
Radial
Centripetal
Trellis
AdrainagepatternwhichlooksliketreebrancheswithlotsoftwigsisknownasDendriticdrainagepattern.Forexample,theriversof
northernplain.
Radialdrainagepatternsformwhenriversoriginatefromahillandflowinalldirections.Forexample,theriversoriginatingfromthe

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/geography/geography_india_drainage_system.htm

1/6

8/6/2016

GeographyIndiaDrainageSystem

Amarkantak.
Centripetaldrainagepatternisformedwhenriversdischargetheirwatersfromalldirectionsintoalakeoradepression.Forexample,
LoktaklakeinManipur.
Trellisdrainagepatternisformedwhentheprimarytributariesofmainriversflowparalleltoeachotherandsecondarytributariesjoin
thematrightangles.Forexample,riversintheupperpartoftheHimalayanregion.

ClassificationofDrainage
Onthebasisofthemodeoforigin,nature,andcharacteristics,theIndiandrainageisclassifiedas
TheHimalayandrainageand
ThePeninsulardrainage.

HimalayanDrainage
MajorHimalayandrainagesystemsaretheIndus,theGanga,andtheBrahmaputrarivers.

TheIndus
ThetotallengthoftheIndusRiversystemis2,880km(inIndia1,114km).
TheIndus,whichisalsoknownastheSindhu,isthewesternmostoftheHimalayanRiversinIndia.
TheIndusoriginatesfromaglaciernearBokharChuintheTibetanregionatanaltitudeof4,164
mintheKailashMountainrange.
InTibet,theIndusisknownasSingiKhambanortheLionsmouth.
TheIndusentersintoPakistannearChillarintheDardistanregion.
MajortributariesofIndusaretheShyok,theGilgit,theZaskar,theHunza,theNubra,theShigar,
theGasting,andtheDrasintheupperpart.
In the lower part, the Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum are the major
tributariesoftheIndus.
Finally,theIndusdischargesintotheArabianSeanearKarachiinPakistan.
TheJhelum,animportanttributaryoftheIndus,risesfromaspringatVerinagsituatedatthefoot
ofthePirPanjal.
TheJhelumflowsthroughSrinagarandtheWularLakebeforeenteringintoPakistan.
JhelumjoinstheChenabnearJhanginPakistan.
Formedbytwostreamsi.e.theChandraandtheBhaga,theChenabisthelargesttributaryoftheIndus.
ChenabisalsoknownasChandrabhaga.
TheChenabflowsabout1,180kmbeforeenteringintoPakistan.
OriginatingfromtheRohtangpassintheKulluhillsofHimachalPradeshandflowingthroughtheChambavalleyofthestate,Raviisoneof
theimportanttributariesoftheIndus.
OriginatingfromtheBeasKundneartheRohtangPassatanelevationof4,000mabovethemeansealevel,Beasisalsoanimportant
tributariesoftheIndus.
BeasentersintothePunjabplainsandmeetswiththeSatlujnearHarike.
AlsopopularasLangchenKhambab(inTibet),theSatlujoriginatesfromtheRakaslakenearMansarovaratanaltitudeof4,555min
Tibet.
TheSatlujpassesthroughtheShipkiLaontheHimalayanrangesandentersintothePunjabplains.
TheSatlujistheriverthatfeedsthecanalsystemoftheBhakraNangalproject.

TheGanga
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/geography/geography_india_drainage_system.htm

2/6

8/6/2016

GeographyIndiaDrainageSystem

TheGangaoriginatesfromtheGangotriglaciernearGaumukh(3,900m)intheUttarkashidistrict
ofUttarakhand.

However,theriver,whenitoriginatesfromtheGangotriglacierisknownastheBhagirathi.
AtDevprayag,theBhagirathimergeswithanotherriver,i.e.,theAlaknandaandfromhere,itisknownastheGanga.
TheAlaknandaoriginatesfromtheSatopanthglacieraboveBadrinath.
ThemajortributariesoftheAlaknandaaretheDhauliandtheVishnuGangathesetworiversmeetatJoshimath/VishnuPrayag.
SomeothertributariesoftheAlaknandaarethePindar(joinsatKarnaPrayag),theMandakiniorKaliGanga(joinsatRudraPrayag).
ThetotallengthoftheGangainIndiais2,525km,whichissharedbyUttarakhand(110km)UttarPradesh(1,450km)Bihar(445km)
andWestBengal(520km).
TheGangariversystemisthelargestriversysteminIndia.
TheSonisamajorrightbanktributaryoftheGangahowever,majorleftbanktributariesaretheRamganga,theGomati,theGhaghara,
theGandak,theKosi,andtheMahananda.
OriginatingfromtheYamunotriglacieronthewesternslopesofBanderpunchrange(6,316km),theYamunaisthelongesttributaryofthe
Ganga.
TheYamunajoinstheGangaatAllahabad(Prayag),UttarPradesh.
TheChambal,theSind,theBetwa,andtheKenonaretherightbanktributariesoftheYamunaandtheHindan,theRind,theSengar, the
Varuna,etc.aretheleftbanktributaries.
TheChambalrisesnearMhowintheMalwaplateauofMadhyaPradesh.
TheChambalisfamousforitsbadlandtopography,knownastheChambalravines(asshownintheimagegivenbelow).

OriginatingfromtheNepalHimalayasbetweentheDhaulagiriandMountEverest,theGandakconsistsoftwostreams,namelyKaligandak

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/geography/geography_india_drainage_system.htm

3/6

8/6/2016

GeographyIndiaDrainageSystem

andTrishulganga.
TheGandakjoinstheGangaatSonpurnearPatna,Bihar.
TheGhagharaoriginatesfromtheMapchachungoglaciersandjoinstheGangaatChhapra,Bihar.
TheKosioriginatesfromthenorthofMountEverestinTibetwhereitisknownastheArun.
OriginatingfromtheGarhwalhillsnearGairsain,theRamgangajoinstheGanganearKannauj.
TheDamodardrainstheeasternmarginsoftheChottanagpurplateau,whereitflowsthroughariftvalleyandfinallyjoinstheHugli.
TheBarakaristhemaintributaryoftheDamodar.
TheSardaorSaryuRiverrisesfromtheMilamglacierintheNepalHimalayaswhereitisknownastheGoriganga.However,alongthe
IndoNepalborder,itiscalledasKaliorChauk,whereitjoinstheGhaghara.
OriginatingfromtheDarjeelinghills,theMahanandajoinstheGangaasitslastleftbanktributaryinWestBengal.
OriginatingfromtheAmarkantakplateau,theSonisalargesouthbanktributaryoftheGangaitjoinstheGangaatArrah,Bihar.

TheBrahmaputra
TheBrahmaputraoriginatesfromtheChemayungdungglacieroftheKailashrangeneartheMansarovarLake.
InTibet,theBrahmaputraisknownastheTsangpo(meansthepurifier).
TheRangoTsangpoisthemajorrightbanktributaryoftheBrahmaputrainTibet.
TheBrahmaputraentersintoIndianearthewestofSadiyatowninArunachalPradesh.
MajorleftbanktributariesoftheBrahmaputraareLohit,DibangorSikang,BurhiDihing,andDhansari.
MajorrightbanktributariesoftheBrahmaputraaretheSubansiri,Kameng,Manas,andSankosh.
TheTistajoinstheBrahmaputraonitsrightbankinBangladeshandfromhere,theriverisknownastheYamuna.

Finally,theBrahmaputramergeswiththeriverPadmaandfallsintheBayofBengal.

PeninsularRiverSystem
ThePeninsulardrainagesystemisolderthantheHimalayanRivers.
TheMahanadioriginatesfromSihawainRaipurdistrictofChhattisgarhandrunsthroughMadhyaPradeshandOdishaandfinallydischarges
itswaterintotheBayofBengal.
ThetotallengthofMahanadiis851km.
PopularlyknownastheDakshinGanga,theGodavariisthelargestpeninsularriversystem.
TheGodavarioriginatesfromNasikdistrictofMaharashtraanddischargesitswaterintotheBayofBengal.
Withtotal1,465kmlength,GodavaricoverstheareasofMaharashtra,MadhyaPradesh,Chhattisgarh,Odisha,andAndhraPradesh.
ThePenganga,theIndravati,thePranhita,andtheManjraarethemajortributariesofGodavari.

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/geography/geography_india_drainage_system.htm

4/6

8/6/2016

GeographyIndiaDrainageSystem

OriginatingfromMahabaleshwarinSahyadri,theKrishnaisthesecondlargesteastflowingPeninsularRiver.
TheKoyna,theTungabhadra,andtheBhimaarethemajortributariesoftheKrishna.
OfthetotalcatchmentareaoftheKrishna,27%liesinMaharashtra,44%inKarnataka,and29%inAndhraPradesh.
TheKaverioriginatesfromtheBrahmagirihills(1,341m)locatedinKogadudistrictofKarnataka.

TheriverKaveris total course of 770 km commands a basin area of 8.8 million hectare mha, of which, 3% lies in Kerala, 41% lies in
Karnataka,and56%liesinTamilNadu.
MajortributariesoftheKaveriaretheKabini,theBhavani,andtheAmravati.
TheNarmadaoriginatesfromthewesternflankoftheAmarkantakplateau(1,057m).
FlowingthroughariftvalleylocatedbetweentheSatpurainthesouthandtheVindhyarangeinthenorth,theNarmadaformsDhuandhar
waterfallandapicturesquegorgeofmarblerocksnearbyJabalpur.

ThetotallengthofNarmadais1,312km.
Flowinginthewestwarddirection,NarmadafinallyemptiesintotheArabianSeaintheBharuchdistrictofGujarat.
OriginatingfromMultaiintheBetuldistrictofMadhyaPradesh,TapiistheotherimportantwestwardflowingriveremptyingintotheArabian
Sea.
About79%oftheTapibasinliesinMaharashtra,15%inMadhyaPradesh,andtheremaining6%inGujarat.
LuniisthelongestriversystemofRajasthan.
Primarily,LunioriginatesinthePushkarvalleyoftheAravallirange,Rajasthanintwobranches,i.e.theSaraswatiandtheSabarmati
whichjoineachotheratGovindgarh.Fromhere,theriverisknownasLuni.
LunifinallydebouchesintotheArabianSeanearbytheRannofKachchh.
SomesmallriversflowingtowardstheWestaretheShetruniji,theBhadra,Dhadhar,Sabarmati,Mahi,Vaitarna,Kalinadi,Dedti,Sharavati,

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/geography/geography_india_drainage_system.htm

5/6

8/6/2016

GeographyIndiaDrainageSystem

Mandovi,Juari,Bharathapuzha,Periyar,etc.
SomesmallriversflowingtowardstheEastareSubarnarekha,Baitarni,Brahmani,Penner,andPalar.
ThefollowingtableillustratesthemajordifferencesbetweenHimalayanandthePeninsularRiversystem
Characteristics

HimalayanRiver

PeninsularRiver

Placeoforigin

Himalayanmountains(coveredwithglaciers).

Peninsularplateauandcentralhighland.

Natureofflow

Perennialreceivewaterfromglacierandrainfall.

Seasonaldependentonmonsoonrainfall.

Typeof
drainage

Antecedentandconsequentleadingtodendriticpatterninplains.

Superimposed,rejuvenatedresultingin
trellis,radial,andrectangularpatterns.

Natureofriver

Longcourse,flowingthroughtheruggedmountainsexperiencingheadward
erosionandrivercapturingInplains,meanderingandshiftingoffcourse.

Smaller,fixedcoursewithwelladjusted
valleys.

Catchmentarea

Verylargebasin.

Relativelysmallerbasin.

Ageoftheriver

Youngandyouthful,activeanddeepeninginthevalleys

Oldriverswithgradedprofile,andhave
almostreachedtheirbaselevels.

PreviousPage

NextPage
Advertisements

Write for us

FAQ's

Helping

Contact

Copyright 2016. All Rights Reserved.


Enter email for newsletter

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/geography/geography_india_drainage_system.htm

go

6/6

Оценить