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Notes on temperature and heat

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Notes on temperature and heat

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Is the energy associated with the microscopic components of a system (the

atoms and molecules of the system). The internal energy includes kinetic and

potential energy associated with the random translational, rotational, and

vibrational motion of the particles that make up the system, and any potential

energy bonding the particles together.

Heat (Q):

Is the transfer of energy between a system and its environment due to a

temperature difference between them.

Units of Heat

1- SI unit: Joule (J)

2- calorie (cal), where:

1 cal = 4.186 J

3- Calorie, with a capital C, used in describing the energy

content of foods, is actually a kilocalorie.

1 Cal = 1000 cal = 4186 J

SPECIFIC HEAT

If a quantity of energy Q is transferred to a substance of mass m, changing

its temperature by T = Tf - Ti , the specific heat c of the substance is

defined by:

(1)

SI unit: Joule per kilogram-degree Celsius ( J/kg . oC)

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

1C is 4 186 J. Then cwater = 4186 J/kg . oC.

The quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of copper

by 1C is only 387 J. Then ccopper = 387 J/kg . oC.

From the definition of specific heat, we can express the energy Q needed to

change the temperature of a system of mass m by T as:

Q=mcT

(2)

Example:

The energy required to raise the temperature of 0.5 kg of water by 3 C is:

Q=mcT

Q = (0.5 kg) (4186 J/ kg C) (3C) = 6.28 x 10 3 J.

Note:

When the temperature increases, then Tf > Ti , then T is positive, hence Q

is positive as well. This means that thermal energy (heat) transfers into the

system.

When the temperature decreases, then Tf < Ti , then T is negative, hence Q

is negative as well. This means that thermal energy (heat) transfers out of

the system.

The table below shows the specific heat for some substances.

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

CALORIMETRY

One technique for measuring the specific heat of an object (solid or liquid) of

known mass mx, is to raise its temperature to some known temperature T x,

placing it in a vessel containing water of known mass m w and temperature Tw

(Tw < Tx), and measuring the final temperature of the water after equilibrium

has been reached, Tf . This technique is called calorimetry, and devices in

which this energy transfer occurs are called calorimeters (calorimeter is an

insulated vessel, so that energy doesnt leave it).

If the system of the sample and the water is isolated, the principle of

conservation of energy requires that the amount of energy Q hot that leaves

the object (of unknown specific heat) equal the amount of energy Q cold that

enters the water. Then:

Qcold + Q hot = 0

Qcold is positive because energy is flowing into cooler objects, and Q hot is

negative because energy is leaving the hot object. Then

mwcw(Tf - Tw) = mxcx(Tf - Tx)

If cw is known, then cx can be determined.

Example:

A 125-g block of an unknown substance with a temperature of 90.0 oC is

placed in a Styrofoam cup containing 0.326 kg of water at 20.0 oC. The

system reaches an equilibrium temperature of 22.4 oC. What is the specific

heat, cx, of the unknown substance if the heat capacity of the cup is

neglected?

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

Solution:

A substance often undergoes a change in temperature when energy is

transferred between it and its surroundings. In some situations, however, the

transfer of energy does not result in a change in temperature. That is the

case whenever the substance changes its phase from one form to another.

Two common phase changes are; from solid to liquid (melting), from liquid to

gas (boiling).

All such phase changes involve a change in the system's internal energy but

no change in its temperature.

The energy Q needed to change the phase of a given pure substance is:

Q = mL

(3)

where L, called the latent heat of the substance, depends on the nature of

the phase change as well as on the substance. This parameter is called latent

heat (literally, the hidden heat) because this added or removed energy

does not result in a temperature change.

SI unit: The unit of latent heat is the joule per kilogram ( J/kg).

The latent heat of fusion Lf is used when a phase change occurs during

melting or freezing.

The latent heat of vaporization Lv is used when a phase change occurs during

boiling or condensing.

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

system, causing melting or vaporization.

The negative sign corresponds to energy leaving a system, such

that the system freezes (goes from liquid to solid) or

condenses (goes from gas to liquid).

When a piece of ice (solid) is heated, its temperature begins to rise. When

the temperature reaches its melting point (0 C), the solid ice starts to

melt into liquid water. Although heating continues the temperature of the

ice water mixture remains constant until all the solid has melted. Once all

the ice has melted the temperature of water starts to rise until the liquid

water begins to boil at a temperature of 100 C. With continued heating the

temperature remains constant until all the liquid water has been converted

to steam (gas). The temperature then continues to rise as the gas is in a

closed container.

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

Then, when there is phase change, the temperature remains constant. The

heat supplied to the substance is needed for: (i) molecules to overcome

attractive forces from other molecules. (ii) separate molecules to greater

distances (increase the potential energy of molecules), (iii) breaking bonds.

The speed of molecules (and hence the average kinetic energy) doesnt

change since the temperature is constant.

Example:

Find the heat required to transfer a 1.00-g cube of ice at -30.0C into steam

(water vapor) at 120.0C.

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

The total amount of energy that must be added to change 1.00 g of ice at

-30.0C to steam at 120.0C is the sum of the results from all five parts of

the curve = 3.11 x 103 J.

ENERGY TRANSFER

Thermal energy (heat) flows spontaneously (by itself) from hotter to colder

bodies, never the other way round. Heat continues to transfer from the

hotter body to the colder body until both bodies have the same temperature.

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

When this happens, the two bodies are said to be in thermal equilibrium.

Thermal energy is transferred by heat between a system and its

surroundings by three processes: thermal conduction, convection, and

radiation.

Thermal Conduction

Conduction is the flow of heat along matter without any flow of matter.

For heat to flow by conduction from one body to another, the two bodies

must be in contact.

Conduction is explained by means of the kinetic molecular theory. The fastmoving molecules in the hotter parts of matter collide with the slower-moving

molecules in the colder parts in contact with them, thus, passing on to them a

part of their kinetic energy. Therefore, kinetic energy travels across

molecule to molecule.

Metals are best conductors of heat because they have many free electrons

that are free to move throughout the body of the metal. If part of the

metallic object is hotter than another, free-moving fast electrons move

across the body of the metal, and thus carry thermal energy across the body,

much faster than it can be transferred from molecule to molecule by

molecular collision. Therefore metals are better conductors than non-metallic

solids.

Silver and copper are the best conductors of thermal energy. Water, glass,

air, plastic and wood are poor conductors of heat. Poor conductors of heat

are called insulators.

Consider a slab of material of thickness L and cross-sectional area A with its

opposite faces at different temperatures Tc and Th, where Th > Tc.

The slab allows energy to transfer from the region of higher temperature to

the region of lower temperature by thermal conduction.

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

area (A) of the slab and the temperature difference (T = T h - Tc) and is

inversely proportional to the thickness of the slab (L):

the thermal conductivity. Substances that are good conductors have large

thermal conductivities, whereas good insulators have low thermal

conductivities.

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

concrete wall 2.0 m high, 3.65 m long, and 0.20 m thick if one side of the wall

is held at 20C and the other side is at 5C.

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Convection

In fluids (liquids and gases) heat transfers partly by conduction, but more

importantly by a natural stirring phenomenon called convection.

Convection is the flow of heat through a fluid from places of higher

temperature to places of lower temperature by the movement of the fluid

itself.

When a quantity of fluid is heated it expands i.e. its volume increases. Its

mass, however remains constant, hence its density (density = mass/volume)

decreases, hence it tends to float upward. Other denser parts of the fluid

sink, thus moving downward. The result is that upward, downward and lateral

currents of fluid movement are created. These currents are called convection

currents.

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Convection examples:

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Radiation

Radiation is the transfer of heat energy in the form of an infra-red

radiation (waves) that is a part of electromagnetic spectrum.

The radiation of heat occurs from any hot body. Heat radiation travels in all

directions from a hot source with the speed of light 3x108 m/s.

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Dark dull surfaces are good emitters and good absorbers of heat

radiation.

Bright shiny surfaces are poor emitters AND poor absorbers of heat

radiation.

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As the temperature of a substance increases, its volume increases. This

phenomenon is known as thermal expansion. Thermal expansion is a

consequence of the change in the average separation between the atoms in an

object. Taking solids as an example, as the temperature of the solid

increases, the atoms oscillate with greater amplitudes; as a result, the

average separation between them increases. Consequently, the object

expands.

Because the linear dimensions of an object change with

temperature, it follows that surface area and volume change as well.

Suppose an object that has an initial length L o at some initial temperature To.

If its temperature increases to a final temperature T, its length increases to

a final length L. The increase in length L = L-Lo is given by:

of linear expansion for a given material and has units of (oC)-1.

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

Example:

A steel railroad track has a length of 30.0 m when the temperature is 0 oC.

What is its length on a hot day when the temperature is 40.0 oC?

Solution:

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

temperature changes because the two

metals

have

different

expansion

coefficients.

(b) A bimetallic strip used in a thermostat

to break or make electrical contact.

An ideal gas is a collection of atoms or molecules that move randomly and

exert no long-range forces on each other. Each particle of the ideal gas is

individually pointlike, occupying a negligible volume.

A gas usually consists of a very large number of particles, so its convenient

to express the amount of gas in a given volume in terms of the number of

moles, n. One mole of any substance is that amount of the substance that

contains Avogadros number NA = 6.02 x 1023 of constituent particles (atoms

or molecules).

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

expression:

where M is the molar mass of the substance (the molar mass of the

substance is defined as the mass of one mole of that substance, usually

expressed in grams per mole).

Note:

It turns out that Avogadros number was chosen so that the mass in grams of

one Avogadros number of an element is numerically the same as the mass of

one atom of the element, expressed in atomic mass units (u).

This relationship is very convenient. Looking at the periodic table of the

elements, we find that carbon has an atomic mass of 12 u, so, the molar mass

of carbon M = 12 g and 12 g of carbon consists of exactly 6.02 x 10 23 atoms

of carbon. The atomic mass of oxygen is 16 u, so in 16 g of oxygen there are

again 6.02 x 1023 atoms of oxygen.

The pressure P (Pa), volume V (m3), temperature T (K), and amount n of an

ideal gas in a container are related to each other by an equation of state:

PV = nRT

R is called the universal gas constant. In SI units, where pressure is

expressed in pascals and volume in cubic meters, R = 8.31 J/mol.K.

The ideal gas law is often expressed in terms of the total number of

molecules N. Because the number of moles n equals the ratio of the total

number of molecules N and Avogadros number NA, (n = N/NA), we can write

ideal gas law as:

Notes:

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

1- T (K) = T ( C) + 273.

-3

2- V (in liters: L) = 10 m .

3- The pressure of a gas is explained by the particles colliding with the

sides of the container (constant volume), in doing so they exert a

force, and hence a pressure.

Example:

An ideal gas at 20.0 oC and a pressure of 1.50 x 10 5 Pa is in a container having

a volume of 1.00 L. (a) Determine the number of moles of gas in the container.

(b) The gas pushes against a piston, expanding to twice its original volume,

while the pressure falls to atmospheric pressure. Find the final temperature

of the gas.

Solution:

(a)

(b)

Then:

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

The kinetic theory of gases model makes the following assumptions:

1. The number of molecules in the gas is large, and the average separation

between them is large compared with their dimensions.

2. The molecules obey Newtons laws of motion, but as a whole they move

randomly. By randomly we mean that any molecule can move in any direction

with equal probability, with a wide distribution of speeds.

3. The molecules interact only through short-range forces during elastic

collisions.

4. The molecules make elastic collisions with the walls.

5. All molecules in the gas are identical.

The average translational kinetic energy Kavg of a molecule of mass moving

at an average speed

in a gas of temperature T is given by:

This means that the temperature of a gas is a direct measure of the average

molecular kinetic energy of the gas. As the temperature of a gas increases,

the molecules move with higher average kinetic energy.

The total translational kinetic energy of N molecules of gas is simply N times

the average energy per molecule:

Since the mass of the gas m that has N molecules each of mass is: m = N,

then:

From this result, we see that the total translational kinetic energy of a

system of molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature of the

system.

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

If the temperature of the gas in the container increases, then the particles

gain kinetic energy and will move faster and collide with the side more

frequently and hit the walls harder, therefore exert a greater pressure.

For a monatomic gas, translational kinetic energy is the only type of energy

the molecules can have, so the internal energy U for a monatomic gas:

molecules

This equation shows that, at a given temperature, lighter molecules tend to

move faster than heavier molecules.

For example, if gas in a vessel consists of a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen,

the hydrogen (H2) molecules, with a molar mass of 2.0 x 10 -3 kg/mol, move

four times faster than the oxygen (O 2) molecules, with molar mass 32 x 10 -3

kg/mol. If we calculate the rms speed for hydrogen at room temperature

(300 K), we find

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

Energy can be transferred to a system by heat and by work done on the

system.

Consider a gas contained by a cylinder fitted with a movable piston and in

equilibrium. The gas occupies a volume V and exerts a uniform pressure P on

the cylinder walls and the piston. The gas is compressed slowly enough so the

system remains essentially in thermodynamic equilibrium at all times. As the

piston is pushed downward by an external force F through a distance y, the

work done on the gas is (Note that F = PA and V = A y).

W = - F y = - PA y

W = - P V

Where P is the pressure throughout the gas and V (Vf Vi) is the change in

volume of the gas during the process.

If the gas is compressed, V is negative (Vf < Vi) and the work done on the

gas is positive. If the gas expands, V is positive (Vf > Vi) and the work done

on the gas is negative. If V doesnt change (Vf = Vi), the work is zero.

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

remains constant is called an

isobaric process.

The pressure vs. volume graph, or

PV diagram, of an isobaric

process is shown in the figure.

compressed at constant pressure.

The shaded area represents the

work done on the gas.

The curve on such a graph is called the path taken between the initial and

final states, with the arrow indicating the direction the process is going, in

this case from smaller to larger volume. The area under the graph is:

The work done on the gas equals the negative of the area under the

graph in a PV diagram.

Example:

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

Quick Quiz

By visual inspection, order the PV diagrams shown below from the most

negative work done on the system to the most positive work done on the

system.

(a)a,b,c,d (b) a,c,b,d (c) d,b,c,a (d) d,a,c,b

Notice that the graphs in the above figure all have the same starting and

endpoints, but the areas beneath the curves are different. The work done

on a system depends on the path taken in the PV diagram.

EXAMPLE

Find the work done on the gas in Figures a and b above.

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

If a system undergoes a change from an initial state to a final state, where Q

is the energy transferred to the system by heat and W is the work done on

the system, the change in the internal energy of the system, U, is given by:

U = Uf - Ui = Q + W

The quantity Q is positive when energy is transferred into the gas by heat

and negative when energy is transferred out of the gas by heat. The quantity

W is positive when work is done on the gas and negative when work is done

by the gas on its environment.

There are four basic types of thermal processes, which will be studied and

illustrated by their effect on an ideal gas.

Isobaric Processes

In an isobaric process the pressure remains constant as the gas expands or is

compressed.

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

Isobaric expansion

Isobaric compression

Adiabatic Processes

In an adiabatic process, no energy enters or leaves the system by heat. Such

a system is insulatedthermally isolated from its environment. In general,

however, the system isnt mechanically isolated, so it can still do work. A

sufficiently rapid process may be considered approximately adiabatic because

there isnt time for any significant transfer of energy by heat.

For adiabatic processes Q = 0, so the first law becomes:

Isovolumetric Processes

U = W

constant volume, corresponding to vertical lines in a PV diagram. If the

volume doesnt change, no work is done on or by the system, so W = 0, and the

first law of thermodynamics reads:

U = Q

This result tells us that in an isovolumetric process, the change in internal

energy of a system equals the energy transferred to the system by heat.

Isothermal Processes

During an isothermal process, the temperature of a system doesnt change. In

an ideal gas the internal energy U depends only on the temperature, so it

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

thermodynamics gives:

W=-Q

A plot of P versus V at constant temperature for an ideal gas yields a

hyperbolic curve called an isotherm.

Isobaric expansion

Isobaric compression

Cyclic Processes

During a cyclic process, the gas starts at some state and returns back to it.

Then Ui = Uf, so it follows that U = 0. In this case, the first law of

thermodynamics gives:

W=-Q

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

The magnitude of the work done in a cyclic process equals the area enclosed

by the cycle.

Example:

is given by the area enclosed by the cycle:

area = 0.5 x 4 x (6x103) = 12x103 J

Then Work = - 12x103 J. (because the gas is

expanding).

Example:

A quantity of 4.00 moles of a monatomic

ideal gas expands from an initial volume of

0.100 m3 to a final volume of 0.300 m3 and

pressure of 2.5 x 105 Pa as shown. Compute

(a) the work done on the gas, (b) the

change in internal energy of the gas, and

(c) the thermal energy transferred to the

gas.

Solution

(a)

Find the work done on the gas by computing the area under the

curve:

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

(b)

(c)

THERMODYNAMICS

THE

SECOND

LAW

OF

forms, such as electrical and mechanical energy. For example, in the internal

combustion engine in an automobile, energy enters the engine as fuel is

injected into the cylinder and combusted, and a fraction of this energy is

converted to mechanical energy.

In general, a heat engine carries some working substance (gas for example)

through a cyclic process during which (1) energy is transferred by heat from a

source at a high temperature, (2) work is done by the engine, and (3) energy is

expelled by the engine by heat to a source at lower temperature.

The engine absorbs energy Qh from the hot reservoir, does work Weng, then

gives up energy QC to the cold reservoir. (Note that negative work is done on

the engine, so that W = -Weng.)

Because the working substance goes through a cycle, always returning to its

initial thermodynamic state, its initial and final internal energies are equal, so

U = 0. From the first law of thermodynamics, therefore,

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

engine equals the net energy Qnet absorbed by the engine.

Weng = |Qh| - |Qc|

The thermal efficiency e of a heat engine is defined as the work done by the

engine, Weng, divided by the energy absorbed during one cycle, Qh:

Example:

During one cycle, an engine extracts 2.00 x 10 3 J of energy from a hot

reservoir and transfers 1.50 x 103 J to a cold reservoir. (a) Find the thermal

efficiency of the engine. (b) How much work does this engine do in one cycle?

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

(c) How much power does the engine generate if it goes through four cycles

in 2.50 s?

Solution

(a)

(b)

(c)

It is impossible to construct a heat engine that, operating in a cycle,

produces no effect other than the input of energy by heat from a

reservoir and the performance of an equal amount of work.

This statement of the second law means that during the operation of a heat

engine, Weng can never be equal to |Q h| or, alternatively, that some energy |

Qc| must be rejected to the environment.

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

In 1824, a French engineer named Sadi Carnot described a theoretical engine,

now called a Carnot engine. He showed that a heat engine operating in an

ideal, reversible cyclecalled a Carnot cyclebetween two energy reservoirs

is the most efficient engine possible. Such an ideal engine establishes an

upper limit on the efficiencies of all other engines. Carnots theorem can be

stated as follows:

No real heat engine operating between two energy reservoirs can be more

efficient than a Carnot engine operating between the same two reservoirs.

The Carnot cycle consists of two adiabatic processes and two isothermal

processes.

For a Carnot engine, the following relationship between the thermal energy

transfers and the absolute temperatures can be derived:

33

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

Example:

A steam engine has a boiler that operates at 500 K. The energy from the

boiler changes water to steam, which drives the piston. The temperature of

the exhaust is that of the outside air, 300 K. (a) What is the maximum

possible engines efficiency? (b) If a 3.50 x 103 J of energy is supplied from

the boiler, find the work done by the engine on its environment.

Solution

(a)

(b)

ENTROPY

Studies showed that isolated systems tend toward disorder, and entropy S is

a measure of this disorder. For example, if you could view gas molecules, you

34

Dr. M. IBRAHIM

would see that they move haphazardly in all directions, bumping into one

another, changing speed upon collision, some going fast and others going

slowly. This situation is highly disordered.

Let Q be the energy absorbed or expelled during a reversible, constant

temperature process between two equilibrium states. Then the change in

entropy during any constant temperature process connecting the two

equilibrium states is defined as:

Example:

Find the change in entropy of 3.00 x 10 2 g of lead when it melts at 327 oC.

Lead has a latent heat of fusion of 2.45 x 10 4 J/kg.

Solution

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Dr. M. IBRAHIM

Past AP Papers

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2008

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