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IEEE Std 625-1979

IEEE Recommended Practices to


Improve Electrical Maintenance and
Safety in the Cement Industry
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Published by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 345 East 47th Street, New York, New York 10017
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IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE Recommended Practices to


Improve Electrical Maintenance and
Safety in the Cement Industry

Sponsor
Cement Industry Committee
of the
IEEE Industry Applications Society

0Copyright

1 9 7 9 by

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc


No part of this publicafion may be reproduced in any f o r m ,
in an electronic retrieval system o r otherwise,
without the prior written permission o f the publisher.

Approved June 16,1978

IEEE Standards Board


Joseph L. Koepfinger, Chairman

Irvin N. Howell, Jr, Vice Chairman


Ivan G. Easton, Secretary

William E. Andrus
C. N. Berglund
Edward J. Cohen
Warren H. Cook
David B. Dobson
R. 0. Duncan
Charles W. Flint

Jay Forster
Ralph I. Hauser
Loering M. Johnson
Irving Kolodny
William R. Kruesi
Thomas J. Martin
John E. May

Donald T. Michael
Voss A. Moore
William S. Morgan
Robert L. Pritchard
Blair A. Rowley
Ralph M. Showers
B. W. Whittington

Foreword
(This Foreword is not a part of IEEE Std 625-1979, Recommended Practices to Improve Electrical Maintenance and
Safety in the Cement Industry.)

The continuing efforts to improve safety and working conditions in the cement industry have
made safety increasingly important to the management of every cement plant. Proliferating federal,
state, and local laws have placed even greater stress on the need for a good maintenance and safety
program. The Cement Industry Committee has analyzed many areas to which safety requirements
pertain, and through the working groups, recommended practices have evolved for the industry.
Several years ago the Safety Committee Working Group published its safety recommendations
for the cement industry. At that time no attempt was made to cover recommended maintenance
practices in cement plants; the present document, however, combines both maintenance and safety
practices. This approach was agreed on by the working group and is based on the belief that sound
maintenance practices go, of necessity, hand-in-hand with safety. As in the previous documents, the
recommendations contained in this document are advisory and should be considered in that light.
These recommendations have been agreed on by the working group, but they will certainly be
altered to suit specific plant conditions. In general, however, it is hoped that these practices will
provide sound, basic guidelines for the industry.
For these recommendations to be of maximum use to the cement industry, the users comments
are required. Comments should be concerned with areas not covered in this document, as well as
with those requiring greater coverage in subsequent reports.
The working group wishes to acknowledge the guidance obtained from ANSI/NFPA No 70-1978;
American National Standard National Electrical Code; Westinghouse Electric Corporations Maintenance Hints; and the IEEE Cement Industry Committee Standards, IEEE S t d 277-1975, Recommended Practice for Cement Plant Power Distribution, and IEEE Std 499-1974, Recommended
Practices for Cement Plant Electric Drives and Related Electrical Equipment.
This document was prepared by the Maintenance and Safety Working Group of the Cement Industry Committee. The members of the working group were:
C . W. Grube, Chairman

C . W. Paine, Vice Chairman

J. A. Allan
F . J . Bauer
F. W . Cohrs
R. J. Curran
R. W . Englund
J . F. Hower
Marshall Hunt, Jr
D. A. Johnson
A. C. Lordi

G . E. MacDonald
E. L. Mengel
F . J. Renn
E. A. E. Rich
H . S. Robinson
N. Roistacher
L. 0. Warner
R. C. White
K . C. Wiles

M. E. Wrinkle

Contents
SECTION

PAGE

1.

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
Scope ..........................................................
1.3
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
5
5
5

2.

Plant Equipment Numbers

.................................................
Equipment Manufacturers Data .............................................
Spare-Parts Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1
Maintenance Department Objectives ..................................
5.2
Maintenanceschedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3
Maintenance Work Orders ..........................................
5.4
Maintenance Inspection and Repair Records ............................
5.5
Repair and Maintenance Cost Records .................................
Equipment Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1
Oil Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2
Power Transformers ...............................................

3.
4.

5.

6.

6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15

Medium-Voltage Switchgear .........................................


Storage Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary-Unit Substations .........................................
Medium-Voltage Motor Controllers ...................................
Controller Mechanism .............................................
SCRControllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor Control Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motors and Generators .............................................
Control Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instniments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grounding System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lighting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.

Safety Precautions and Procedures ...........................................


7.1
Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3
Working Procedures on Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.

Bibliography

............................................................

6
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
8

10
10
11
12
13
13
13
13
14

15
15
20
20
21
22
22
22
23
24

FIGURES

Fig 1
Fig 2
Fig 3

Sample Spare-Parts List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Sample Work Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample Maintenance Inspection and Repair Record Card ........................

6
8
9

IEEE Recommended Practices to


Improve Electrical Maintenance and
Safety in the Cement Industry

1. General

can be used. Consider a computer-compatible


system to aid inventory and cost control. A
simple system is suggested here. The equipment numbers consist of a department letter
or number as a prefix and a threedigit number
assigned according to the material flow. The
motors and controllers for the same item
usually carry the same basic number. The
auxiliary equipment for the item, an oil pump,
for example, can carry a suffix such as point
one ( . l )or
, can have a separate identification
number. For example:
Kiln No 3 Coal Mill
K-325 or
25-325 (suitable for computer entry)

1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this recommended practice is to define and recommend practices for improving electrical maintenance and
safety in the cement industry in order to promote:
(1) Safety to personnel and equipment.
( 2 ) Maximum reliability with minimum loss
of production
(3) Reduced maintenance and increased
equipment life
(4) Clarification of needs and conditions to
reduce special engineering and chance of error
in specification
(5) Overall economy

Kiln No 3 Coal Mill Feeder


K-325.1 or
25-325.1 (suitable for computer entry)
The numbers for the auxiliary devices, for
example, limit switches or pressures switches,
could be the equipment numbers with a suffix
such as LS or PS. For example:
K-326 LSO or
Bucket gate open limit switch
25-325 LSO
Electrical equipment servicing more than one
item in the same department, for example,
control centers, secondary-unit substations, or
operators panels, can be identified with an
abbreviated description and the department
letter. For example:
CC KIA Kiln N o 1 A Control Center

1.2 Scope. These recommendations apply to


all electrical equipment such as substations,
power transformers, motor controls, generators, distribution systems, instruments, and
storage batteries commonly used in cement
plants. They are intended as a guide and may
be supplemented where special needs exist.
1.3 Objectives. It is urged that users and
manufacturers cooperate with the working
group to help formulate final recommendations
that will ensure the use of proven equipment
and methods. The ultimate objective is to
establish recommendations that will assist in
improving electrical maintenance and safety.

LC KI

2. Plant Equipment Numbers

Kiln No 1 Secondary Unit Substation

OP KI
Kiln N o 1 Operators Panel
Electrical equipment that is common to all
departments, for example, power transformers
or main switchgear, can be identified with
abbreviated descriptions such as 10 MVA transformer or main 5 kV switchgear.

In order to facilitate the maintenance procedures, spare-parts inventory, and the filing
system of the manufacturers information, it is
important that each machine and piece of
equipment be assigned an identification number. There are many numbering systems that

IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

The equipment manufacturers data files


should be indexed, both according to the
identification numbers and general category for
easy access. It is also recommended that the
original documents be kept in the file room
and copies made for outside use, as required.

3. Equipment Manufacturers Data


It is necessary t o acquire from each manufacturer a complete data file of the specific
equipment used in the plant. This will include
a list of recommended spare parts, a set of
drawings, operating instructions, part numbers
for reordering replacement parts, troubleshooting instructions, and suggested maintenance procedures. Practically all equipment
manufacturers have this information available.
This information is a definite prerequisite for
a maintenance program. The manufacturers
data should include the following:
(1) Drawings
(a) Schematic and wiring diagrams
(b) Operating description
(c) Outline and installation drawings
(d) Bill of material
(2) Instructions
(a) Handling and storage instructions
(b) Installation instructions
(c) Operating instructions
(d) Trouble-shooting instructions
(e) Maintenance procedures
(3) Spare Parts
(a) Part numbers
(b) Recommended spare parts
(c) Ordering instructions
This file will be set up for all electrical equipment, with every piece of information marked
with the equipment identification numbers.
This rule, in regard to setting up maintenance
programs, shall be followed even more strictly
if the equipment is old or not in good condition, or was hastily and improperly installed.

4. Spare-Parts Inventory
Spare parts are an important part of any
maintenance department. Good maintenance
records will help to determine what and how
many parts are needed.
An accurate spare-parts inventory should be
kept and made available for maintenance repairmen at all times. The spare-parts quantities
should be maintained, with minimum quantities
set depending on the availability of each item.
A sample of a good spare-parts list is shown
in Fig 1.

5 . Maintenance Department

5.1 Maintenance Department Objectives. The


basic objective of any maintenance department
is to avoid unexpected production outages due
to equipment breakdowns. The usual cause of
breakdowns is neglect or prolonged periods of
operation without maintenance. The department interest should be focused on good preventive maintenance and the need for maximum utilization of time during normal
shutdown.

Fig 1
Sample Spare-Parts List
Spare-Parts List

Part
in use

Quantity
Recommended
Description

Max

Min

64

Scam panalarm division model 50-A1 plug-in


relay, 120 V, 60 Hz

Scam panalarm division model 50-F1 flasher,


120 V, 60 Hz

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

5.1.1 Maintenance Department Prime Responsibilities


(1) Maintain equipment in satisfactory condition for safe operation
(2) Maintain equipment at peak operating
efficiency at all times
(3) Provide maximum freedom from breakdowns during operation
(4) Reduce to a minimum the downtime
associated with breakdowns
(5) Control cost of maintenance
( 6 ) Maintain safety and efficiency in performance of work
(7) Formulate and establish maintenance
schedules based on equipment performance
repair records
(8) Recommend and control spare-parts
inventory requirements
(9) Be a consultant to plant management
when new equipment is being considered
(10) Meet regularly with management and
other departments t o review long-range maintenance requirements
Careful planning and scheduling of manpower
is an essential part of any maintenance department. Preventive maintenance requires many
man hours with a minimum amount of downtime.
Reliability is built into equipment but
requires maintenance to keep it there.
Occasional proof testing is a necessary function.

IEEE
Std 625-1979

edge of the current ANSI/NFPA No 70-1978


National Electrical Code and of local electrical
codes where applicable

5.2 Maintenance Schedules. The most important part of any maintenance schedule is t o
display at all times what equipment is due for
servicing. The maintenance schedule should be
in front of all maintenance and production
personnel at all times. In order to prepare a
preventive maintenance schedule, a complete
list of equipment, by departments, should be
made available. Then, each unit of equipment
should be analyzed t o identify its characteristics
of wear and its inherent weakness. It is very
important that the maintenance schedules be
prepared by the maintenance department and
management, t o take advantage of all scheduled
shutdowns. The servicing intervals may not
necessarily agree with the manufacturer's
recommendation. These intervals depend on
the operating conditions and environment.
All electrical equipment should be serviced
including cables, motors, starters, SCR assemblies, transformers, etc. In order to accomplish
this, the entire plant should be on the maintenance schedule and these schedules should be
updated weekly and monthly. Maintenance
schedules should be closely followed.
5.3 Maintenance Work Orders. The work order
should give the date, priority, name of originator, charge, equipment to be worked on,
and details of work to be done. This work
order is then given to the maintenance planner
and scheduler, and he gives it to the maintenance foreman. The maintenance foreman
should review the work orders daily, determine
whether a shutdown is necessary, and if a shutdown is needed, arrange with production. He
should also check the spare parts required and
their availability. The work orders are then
filed as:
(1) Ready to go
(2) Awaiting shutdown
(3) Awaiting parts
A sample work order is shown in Fig 2.

5.1.2 Maintenance Electrician 's Basic Qualifications


(1) Should be physically and mentally fit
to perform the job to which he is assigned
(2) Should obey all safety rules
( 3 ) Should have a good knowledge of tools
used for electrical work
(4) Should be able to follow schedules as
prepared by the maintenance department
(5) Should cooperate with all employees,
operators, and foremen at all times
(6) Should be able to read wiring diagrams
and prints on electrical equipment
(7) Should have a good knowledge of the
location of electrical equipment
(8) Should be able to install equipment and
diagnose trouble on lighting, motors, motor
controls, and power circuits
(9) Should be able to locate and repair
electrical equipment and repair or replace as
the situation merits
(10) Should be able and willing to learn
(11) Should have thorough working knowl-

5.4 Maintenance Inspection and Repair


Records. Good inspection and repair records
are essential to any maintenance program.
These record cards should indicate the nameplate data, purchase order date and number,
and complete life history. The maintenance
inspection and repair records should be in
duplicate and filed in separate parts of the
7

IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

plant to avoid their being lost. A sample maintenance inspection and repair record card is
shown in Fig 3.

6.1.3 A complete and accessible filing system should be maintained, accumulating all
information pertinent to all types and sizes of
circuit breakers. Also, instruction books,
drawings, and spare-parts manuals supplied
with the equipment should be kept on file and
available for use. As the equipment ages, these
books and drawings become more difficult to
replace.
6.1.4 The work to be done should be carefully planned, either by the supervisor or
qualified assistants, and all potential hazards
recognized and called to the work crews
attention.
6.1.5 Safety devices should be examined
before they are used to be sure they are in
working condition. Nothing should be taken
for granted.
6.1.6 The following factors determine when
a circuit breaker should be given a maintenance
inspection :
(1) Interval of time since the last inspection
(1yr maximum)

5.5 Repair and Maintenance Cost Records.


The repair and maintenance costs for each
piece of electrical equipment should be kept
at all times and maintained indefinitely. These
records can facilitate the decision as to whether
to replace or repair the equipment after a
number of years of service. These cost records
also help when purchasing new equipment.

6. Equipment Maintenance

6.1 Oil Circuit Breakers


6.1.1 Good maintenance of circuit breakers
is very important and necessary to obtain the
best service and performance.
6.1.2 Good records with data on circuit
breakers will help the maintenance man determine when to plan a maintenance inspection.

Fig 2
Sample Work Order
Priority

Originator

Charge

Foreman

Work

Date Completed

Work Performed - Major Materials

Work to be done (give details)

Maintenance

IEEE
Std 625-1979

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

and then isolated and grounded. For work on


the circuit, the circuit should be disconnected
by a visible disconnect means, locked out, and
grounded.
6.1.9 Circuit breakers should be manually
operated after an oubof-service maintenance
inspection t o ensure proper alignment of contacts, tightness of hardware, proper engagement
of trigger and latch, etc.
6.1.10 Oil samples should be taken and tested
on all oil-type circuit breakers at the time of
installation and retested annually. Deterioration of oil is caused by water, carbon, oxidation
from excessive temperature, and contact with
other foreign materials.
6.1.11 Oil for circuit breakers should be
maintained to 37 kV/mm test or above at all
times.
6.1.12 The trip mechanism and holding latch
should be blocked when breaker internal
adjustments are being checked, with the breaker
closed so that it cannot trip open.

(2) Number of switching and testing operations


(3) Number of fault operations
(4) Location and seventy of faults
(5) Cleanliness of the atmosphere surrounding the breaker
( 6 ) Accumulated experience of the breaker
characteristics and duty
(7) Preliminary external inspections
(8) Any unusual conditions such as noise,
temperature, smoke, or friction. These conditions demand immediate inspection.
6.1.7 A supply of correct replacement
parts should be available at all times.
6.1.8 For working on deenergized equipment, the following should pertain:
(1) No work should be done on circuit
breakers until clearance has been obtained from
the operations superintendent or his assistant
to proceed in accordance with existing plans.
(2) When a circuit breaker is taken out of
service, it should first be opened, discharged,

Fig 3
Sample Maintenance Inspection and Repair Record Card

Item No

Location

Purchase Order No
Make
RPM

Volts

Amperes

Type

Frame No

class

Phase

Form

Temperature

Hertz

Serial No

Model No

Enclosure

Brushes

Lubrication

Date Initial

Horsepower

Quantity
Size
Catalog No

iI

Bearings
Front
Pulley End

I
9

IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

6.1.13 Enough manpower should be available, along with the manufacturers specifications and the proper tools such as extension
light, flashlight, wrenches, ladders, tarpaulins,
oil filtering and test equipment, before a
breaker is taken out of service for a complete
maintenance inspection.

testing and treatment of transformer oil.


However, periodic load and temperature checks
should be made, as is the rule for conventional
transformers.
6.2.10 It is important that care be used
when cleaning dry-type transformers. Ventilated dry-type transformers circulate large
quantities of air through themselves for cooling.
Dust in such air is usually hygroscopic and may
be difficult to blow out completely when
attempts are made to clean the transformers.
In blowing out dirt with air in ventilated drytype transformers, air pressure should not
exceed 1 2 lbf/m2 (vacuum is best for air
cleaning). Air should not be used until it is
free from moisture that may have accumulated
in the line from condensation.

6.2 Power Transformers


6.2.1 It should not be assumed that a transformer is deenergized. Before work is done it
should be made certain that the breaker or
switch is open and the transformer is discharged. After the work is completed, it shall
be made certain that all is clear for energizing.
6.2.2 Before work is started on any transformer, all tools should be counted (listed).
This list should be checked after the end of
work t o make sure no tool has been left inside
the transformer. It is good practice for each
tool to be tied outside the transformer tank
by means of a long string.
6.2.3 Tap changers should all be on the same
position. A tap changer left between points
may cause a transformer failure.
6.2.4 All connections, both inside and outside the transformers, should be inspected
every 5 years for tightness and discoloration,
which would indicate hot connections
(turns-ratio test).
6.2.5 All power transformers should be
thoroughly checked for voltage ratio, impedance, and polarity before being installed.
6.2.6 Power transformer tanks should be
grounded to eliminate the possibility of personnels obtaining static shocks from them or
being injured by the accidental grounding of
the winding to the case.
6.2.7 Oil used with a transformer should be
either that originally supplied or an oil especially
approved by the manufacturer. Oil should be
checked every year for the presence of moisture.
If moisture is present (test below 37 kV/mm),
the oil should be dried in a suitable filter press
or centrifuge. Few maintenance men realize
that a minute quantity of water may spoil the
insulating quality of transformer oil.
6.2.8 Yearly inspections are recommended
for ground resistance, circulating current, plant
connections, oil test, and Megger test of the
windings, with a record chart of the values
maintained from year t o year.
6.2.9 The elimination of cooling and insulating liquids in the ventilated dry-type transformer does away with the need for periodic

6.3 Medium-Voltage Switchgear. Medium-voltage switchgear (5 and 15 kV) generally consist


of air circuit breakers, protective relays, storage
batteries, and battery chargers.
6.3.1 Air Circuit Breakers. To obtain maximum reliability, an air circuit breaker should
be inspected periodically. Breakers are designed
to operate 5000 times for the 1200 A size and
3000 times for the 2000 A size at rated capacity
before replacement parts are required. Breakers
should be inspected each 2000 operations or
once per year, whichever comes first. If a circuit
breaker interrupts a current at its rated interrupting capacity, it should be scheduled for
inspection and service as soon thereafter as
possible.
6.3.2 Interrupters. Since they are not moving
parts, the interrupters of a breaker will normally require little or no maintenance unless
there is evidence of damage to the arc chute
sides or contamination in the throat area.
6.3.3 Breaker Contacts. The stationary contacts can be inspected only after the interrupter
is removed. If the contacts are burned or
pitted, they should be made smooth with a
fine file. After inspection of the contacts is
completed, their adjustment should be checked.
6.3.4 Mechanism. A careful inspection should
be made to check for loose nuts and bolts, and
for loose or damaged set screws and other
devices.
6.3.5 Bushings and Insulation. The surface
of the bushings should be kept clean and unmarred to prevent moisture absorption.
Damaged insulation surfaces should be sanded,
cleaned, and refinished with either clear varnish
or clear resin. These surfaces should be allowed
10

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

IEEE
Std 625-1979

voltage. Its purpose is to compensate for any


irregularities, such as low floating voltages,
that may have occurred for a prolonged period
of time owing to faulty adjustments of the
charger or to a panel voltmeter that is improperly calibrated on the high side, or to compensate for the difference between individual
cells in a string. It is also useful in restoring the
battery to full charge in minimum time after
an emergency discharge.
6.4.1 Storage-Battery Types
6.4.1.1 Lead-Antimony Batteries. Antimony batteries require an equalizing charge,
usually about every 3 months, using the same
procedure as for a freshening charge.
6.4.1.2 Lead-Calcium Batteries. Usually
calcium batteries do not need equalizing
charges when floated at the recommended
value. However, lead-calcium batteries that
operate at the minimum float value should
be given an equalizing charge whenever the
worst cell in the string drops more than 0.04 V
below minimum float voltage.
6.4.2 Recommended Storage-Battery Maintenance
6.4.2.1 Watering. Approved or distilled
water should be added as required to keep the
electrolyte level between the high- and the lowlevel lines on the container.
6.4.2.2 Cleaning. The outside of the cells
should be kept clean and dry by wiping with a
water-damp cloth as required. Any acid on the
covers or connectors should be neutralized
with a cloth moistened with a solution of
baking soda and water; then traces of the soda
should be wiped off. Solvents, cleaning compounds, oils, waxes, or polishes should never
be used on plastic containers or covers, since
such materials may attack the plastic and cause
it to craze or crack. Corroded or pitted connectors should be replaced to minimize the
possibility of nonavailability of the battery
when it is really needed (to help avoid substation bumdowns).

to dry smooth and hard before insulation is


returned to operation.
6.3.6 Insulation Test. When insulation has
been repaired or replaced, or when the circuit
breaker has been operating under adverse
moisture conditions, it is recommended that
the insulation be checked before the breaker
is put back into service. A standard 60 Hz
high-potential test is 14.25 kV rms for 1 minute which will normally indicate whether the
5 kV breaker is satisfactory for service. With
the breaker contacts in the fully open position,
the test potential should be applied to each
terminal individually, with all other terminals
and the frame grounded. After high-potential
tests are made on organic insulating materials,
these materials should be inspected for visible
leakage current paths, and necessary action
should be taken to repair or replace insulation
that may have been affected by moisture
absorption.
6.3.7 Protective Relays. The purpose of a
protective relay is to detect destructive or
abnormally operating power system components, such as generators, motors, transformers, bus sections, distribution feeders, or
transmission lines, and initiate circuit opening
and isolation of these components. Annual
inspection and testing are recommended to
help ensure that all protective relays perform
properly. Technical assistance in the setting,
inspection, testing, and maintenance of the
protective relays can be obtained from the
manufacturer .

6.4 Storage Batteries. Most stationary batteries


are continuously connected to vital circuits
that should be energized at all times. This is
accomplished by connecting the battery in
parallel with a continuously operating charger
and the desired load circuits.
The charger is then adjusted to a voltage
that will enable the battery to absorb just
enough current to keep it fully charged. Under
certain conditions, for example, with leadantimony and lead-calcium batteries that are
floated below recommended voltage, periodic
equalizer charges may be necessary. The charges
also fumish currents for the connected load.
This is called floating operation. It ensures a
fully charged battery ready instantaneously
for an emergency.
The equalizing charge uses a higher voltage
than the floating charge for a definite number
of hours, depending on the value of the charge

6.4.3 Safety Rules


(1) Keep open flames away from storage
batteries, and post DANGER-NO SMOKING
signs in battery-charging areas. (Refer to
ANSI/NFPA No 70-1978,National Electrical
Code, for ventilation.)
(2) Shut off the charger when repairing
charging equipment.
(3) Never lay metal tools on top of the
battery.

11

IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

electrolyte level between the high and low level


by adding approved or distilled water as required. The quantity of water consumed by the
battery is proportional to the amount of
charge it receives. Record the date and the
total quantity of water added. If irregularities
occur, consult with the manufacturer, and
provide the latest report for analysis and
recommendation.
6.4.4.4 Battery Chargers. Battery chargers
are essentially maintenance free and require
only periodic dust removal from the top of the
screen-type cover and interior.
Ventilation is of prime importance. The
area around the charger should be checked, and
it should be made certain that nothing interferes
with the free flow of air.
Checks should be made for dust deposits.
Dust on the heat-radiating surfaces and contacts
of the charger will greatly reduce heat dissipation. Dust and other accumulations should be
removed regularly. The area around the charger
should be kept dry. On occasion, condensation may form, especially when the unit is
idle; this should be cleaned to prevent fungus
growth.
Connections at the terminals should be clean
and tight. The heating of terminals is a definite
indication of corroded or loose terminal connections. Fuse clips particularly are subject to
overheating and corroding. They should be
checked regularly for proper tension and
cleanliness of the contact area.
Float and equalize voltage should be checked
occasionally and readjusted if necessary.
When possible, the current-limit operation
should be checked. If current limit occurs
when the load current is too high, overloads
may damage the unit.
To ensure accurate voltage readings, the
floating voltage as shown on the chargers
panel voltmeter should be checked periodically
by means of a portable standard voltmeter. If
necessary, the panel voltmeter should be adjusted to agree with the standard voltmeter by
means of the zero adjustment located on the
face of the chargers panel voltmeter.
6.5 Secondary-Unit Substations
6.5.1 General. A secondary-unit substation
consists of the following:
(1) Primary air-interrupter switch
(2) Transformer
(3) Low-voltage distribution section
These three sections should receive an inspection annually.

(4) Wear rubber apron, gloves, boots, and


goggles when handling, checking, filling, charging, or repairing batteries.
( 5 ) Have water available if the electrolyte
has been splashed on skin or clothing. Call a
doctor immediately. Never use an alkali to
counter the effect of acid, or vice versa.
(6) Apply a strong alkali such as baking
soda when acid is spilled on the floor, and
clean up promptly.
(7) Wear protective clothing and goggles
when mixing acid and water. Always ADD
CONCENTRATED ACID TO WATER and
NOT WATER TO CONCENTRATED ACID.
Stir constantly to mix well.
(8) Lift the batteries by means of mechanical equipment, such as a hoist, crane, or lift
truck. Move the batteries horizontally by
means of power trucks, conveyors, or rollers.
(9) Make sure that the battery connections
are tight.
(10) Restrict the battery area to authorized
personnel.
(11) Familiarize yourself with batteries and
the proper rules for their charging, handling,
and maintenance.
(12) Check the batteries for cracked jars
and covers.
(13) When batteries are scrapped at the end
of their useful life, drain the electrolyte and
flush them out with water.
(14) Make certain that adequate ventilation
has been provided in the battery-charging
area.
6.4.4 Periodic Inspection
6.4.4.1 Daily Readings. Record daily or at
other specified intervals the battery floating
bus voltage, pilot cell hydrometer reading,
and adjacent cell temperature. Keep the panel
voltmeter in correct calibration by checking
with a known standard every 12 months.
6.4.4.2 Monthly Readings. Record monthly, or at other specified intervals, the floating
voltage and hydrometer reading of each cell
and the temperatures of two cells in each row.
6.4.4.3 Water Additions. In addition to
normal evaporation, as batteries are floated and
charged, a small quantity of the water in the
electrolyte is broken down into hydrogen and
oxygen by the charging current. These gases
are dissipated through the opening in the vents.
As this takes place the electrolyte level gradually
lowers, so that from time to time it is necessary to replace this loss with water. Keep the

12

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

6.5.2 Medium- Voltage Switch. The mediumvoltage air-interrupter switch requires very little
maintenance. Annual inspection will determine
what maintenance is required.
6.5.3 Transformer Section. See 6.2.
6.5.4 Low- Voltage Distribution Section
6.5.4.1 Switchgear. An annual inspection
should be scheduled for the switchgear.
6.5.4.2 Air Circuit Breakers
(1) Each breaker should be operated several
times while in the TEST position and all functions checked. This is particularly important
for breakers that normally remain in either the
same open or closed position for long periods
of time.
(2) The breaker should be removed from its
compartment to a clean maintenance area for
complete cleaning and inspection.
(3) A complete contact inspection, including
contact wipe and pressure should be made.
Arcing contacts and arc quencher barriers
should be replaced when they are eroded to
half their original thickness.
( 4 ) Mechanical bearing points and sliding
surfaces should be lubricated with a thin film
of manufacturers approved grease. Hardened
grease and dirt should be removed with kerosene. All excess lubricant should be removed to
help avoid accumulation of dirt or dust.
(5) Trip units for low-voltage switchgear
should be set only after a system study has
been made.

IEEE
Std 625-1979

( 5 ) Check the contacts for wear.


(6) Clean the insulators.
(7) Check and adjust the power stabs. A
force gage should be used for this purpose.
(8) Check the dimensions of the isolating
mechanism and mechanical interlocks in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
(9) Thoroughly clean the mechanism before
returning it to service.
6.8 SCR Controllers. Annual maintenance
should be scheduled for SCR controllers and
should include:
(1) Complete deenergization of the equipment and installation of a ground chain.
(2) Cleaning of all compartments by brushing and vacuuming.
(3)Maintenance of medium-voltage switches,
starters, and transformers, where included, as
outlined in 6.3.
(4) Tightening of the power and control
connections. Connections showing indications
of local heating should be cleaned and repaired.
( 5 ) Replacement of failed or obviously
distressed components and insulation.
(6) Check of regulator card connections
and cleaning and repairing of loose connections, following manufacturers recommendations for electronic and solid-state devices.
Care should be taken not to change regulator
adjustments that have been preset for desired
operation.
(7) Inspection of all moving parts for wear,
corrosion, freedom of movement, and contact
pressure.
(8) Motor maintenance as outlined in 6.10.
(9) Verification that all space heating functions operate properly.
(10) Removal of ground chain, energization, and trial run of drive. Operation, stability,
and speed range should be observed and adjustments made in accordance with the vendors
recommendations.
6.9 Motor Control Centers. Semiannual maintenance should be scheduled for motor control
centers and should include:
(1) Complete deenergization of the equipment and installation of a ground chain. It
is recommended that special care be taken to
isolate all sources of energy, as there may be
voltage present from external sources.
(2) Cleaning of all compartments by brushing and vacuuming.
(3) Tightening of the power and control
connections. Connections showing indications

6.6 Medium-Voltage Motor Controllers


6.6.1 Protective relays for medium-voltage
controllers may be set using the manufacturers
instructions.
6.6.2 Calibration of these units should be
done by someone who performs this work
frequently and has the special equipment
required. This work is best left to professionals, such as service shops.
6.6.3 Medium-voltage motor controllers
should be scheduled for inspection every 6
months. Experience will show if this inspection should be made at more or less frequent
interValS.

6.7 Controller

Mechanism. The controller


mechanism should be checked as follows:
(1) Place the controller in the disconnect
position.
(2) Check for loosened screws, nuts, bolts,
clamps, and electrical interlocks.
(3) Blow out the contactor to remove dirt.
(4) Examine the arc chutes.

13

IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

This recommended practice is not intended


as a repair manual. The many types of motors,
motor voltages, and enclosures necessitate
that the treatment here be only general and in
the line of preventive maintenance. Refer to
the Bibliography for references to motor
maintenance.
6.10.1 AC Motors. Motors should be inspected and preventive maintenance scheduled
annually. Such inspection and maintenance
should be in accordance with 6.10.1.1 through

of local heating should be cleaned and repaired.


Fuse clips should be cleaned and tightened
where indicated.
(4) Replacement of failed or obviously
distressed components and insulation.
(5) Removal of draw-out units and check
of stabs and unit wiring.
(6) Inspection of all moving parts for
wear, corrosion, freedom of movement, and
contact pressure. Contacts that are beaded or
worn to anticipated failure prior to the next
inspection period should be replaced.
(7) Check of interlocks for alignment, overtravel, and wear.
(8) Replacement of failed light bulbs,
broken or sticking indicating meters, and pilot
devices.
(9) Careful replacement of failed fuses and
components with adequate capacity as initially
designed, especially with current-limiting fuses
or air circuit breakers of adequate interrupting
capacity.
(10) Observation of the following dos and
donts:
(a) Do keep a supply of spare parts for
immediate replacement, including fuses, circuit
breakers, overload relays, heaters, coils, pilot
devices, interlocks, terminal blocks, and complete draw-out assemblies in each size.
(b) Do check starter for proper fuses,
overload device, circuit breaker, and exercise
circuit breaker or disconnect switch.
(c) Do replace or check fuses, overloads, and circuit breakers for operation after
each fault. Circuit breakers and overloads
should be checked for tripping with a test
current source to meet manufacturers recommendations.
(d) Dont use lubricants on control
devices.
(e) Dont use emery paper or sandpaper
to clean contact devices.
(f) Do remove ground chain and close
doors before energizing motor control center.

6.10.1.8.
6.10.1.1 Lock-Out. All sources of energy
to the motor shall be disconnected and locked
out. It is not safe practice to lock out control
circuits only, in lieu of main power circuits, for
motor starters. For example, only locking out a
local start-stop pushbutton near the motor
for maintenance and inspection of the drive
or driven equipment without also locking out
the power supply to the main motor means
that several kinds of control wire failure or
misoperation of the starter contactor could
result in the motor being energized inadvertently.
6.10.1.2 Cleaning. The environment should
be examined for unusual water or dust and
their sources eliminated.
6.10.1.2.1 Motors with stator shift should
have their stators shifted and cleaned inside
and out.
6.10.1.2.2 Totally enclosed f ancooled
(TEFC) motors should have their exteriors
cleaned, ventilation passages opened, and fans
examined and cleaned.
6.10.1.2.3 Open drip-proof and splashproof motors should be blown out.
6.10.1.3 Examination. Motors should be
examined for loose or abraided windings,
broken bars or end rings, loose or broken fans,
scorched insulation or bearings and housings,
air-gap clearances, and areas of obvious distress.
6.10.1.4 Checking Insuhtion Resistance. A
rule of thumb is a minimum of 1 MLl/1000V
rating, that is, 0.5 M a for 480 V machines and
5MSl for 4000 V machines. Surge protective
devices shall be disconnected, as capacitor
discharge resistors will result in a low reading.
A record of important machines will indicate a
significant trend and is a better prediction of
failure than actual spot readings. Low-reading
machines should be dried with moisture-free
heat and varnished. Where feasible, baking is
desirable.
A nondestructive test instrument should be

6.10 Motors and Generators.

Any unusual
sounds, vibration, smoking, heating, and obvious distress should be investigated immediately
and repaired. Motor manufacturers recommendations should be followed and parts
replaced with original characteristics and
tolerances to maintain design integrity. Spare
rotors and armatures should be handled and
stored supported by the shaft to minimize
damage in handling.

14

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

IEEE
Std 625-1979

and brush operation should be observed.


Unusual, unexplained poor commutation is an
indicator of impending failure and should be
investigated to remove the cause.
6.11 Control Devices. Control devices are subjected to repeated operation, and preventive
maintenance can only be ignored at the expense
of unplanned outages. Spare parts for replacement must be stocked. A replacement for each
different device and at least one spare for up to
10, and two for 10 t o 50, and three spares for
50 to 100 devices.
6.1 1.1 Inspection and Preventive Maintenance. Semiannual deenergized inspection and
preventive maintenance is recommended and
should include:
(1) Cleaning and critical inspection for corrosion, damage, freedom of movement, and
visual operation. Loose connections should
be tightened.
(2) Operation while energized on the test
bench to check for contact continuity, noise,
alignment, and freedom of movement. Local
heating should be looked for.
(3) Running, where feasible, a calibration
check of operation within desired limits on
the test bench.
(4) Reinstallation, taking special care to
replace damaged gaskets and remake connections.
6.11.2 Level Devices. On-off level devices
are checked as outlined in 6.11.1. Special care
is required for electronic devices where a visual
bench check does not describe actual operation. A comparison check against a new or
replacement device can help evaluate proper
performance.
6.1 1.3 Temperature, Pressure,Flow Switches,
Etc. On-off temperature, pressure, and flow
switches are also checked as outlined in 6.11.1.
A calibration check for operation within desired
limits is recommended, as these safety devices
are relied on to protect machinery. Controlled
temperatures, pressures, and flow test setups
should be provided to enable the testing of
these devices against standards to help ensure
proper operation.
6.12 Instruments. Proper operation of process
instrumentation is mandatory for the control
of the process. An out-of-calibration or improperly operating instrument can be worse
than no instrument at all, as misleading information can be catastrophic.
Past experience indicates that a semiannual
inspection and calibration check with un-

used to do the testing. A 500 V, dc megger or


limited-current hipot for testing is suggested
for 460 V motors and a 5000 V, dc source
for 4000 V motors. Readings should be observed after stabilizing or after 1 minute. As
with any voltage, care should be exercised
when testing, as shock hazards exist.
Refer to the Bibliography for details of insulation testing.
6.10.1.5 Lubrication. As much damage is
done by overgreasing as undergreasing. Bearings
that are greased should be purged and regreased
with recommended grease. (Severe duty may
require greasing on a 30-180 day schedule
depending on manufacturers recommendations.)
Oil lubrication should be drained, flushed,
and relubricated with recommended oil.
6.10.1.6 Reassembly. After the motor is
checked in accordance to 6.10.1.1 through
6.10.1.3, the disassembled motor should be
reassembled, housing covers replaced, and the
motor rotated, while still uncoupled, by hand,
to test for freedom of rotation.
6.10.1.7 Alignment Check. Axial and
angular alignment should be checked. Also,
sleeve bearing motors should be checked for
restrictions for operating within end float
limits. Belts should be checked for excessive
tension. Generally, coupled loads should not
exert axial loads on drive motors. Belted
drives should be adjusted for proper tension.
6.10.1.8 Dry Run. Once the motor is
ready to run, a final dry run is recommended
while it is uncoupled to check for vibration,
direction of rotation, bearing heating, oil ring
turning, operation on magnetic center, and
unusual sounds. Observations should be within
acceptable limits for the motor.
6.10.2 DC Motors and Generators. The
procedures outlined in 6.10.1 for ac motors
also apply to dc machines. In addition, some
special precautions are recommended for dc
machines.
6.10.2.1 On dc motors and generators
special care is urged regarding brush length,
brush tension and clearances, indications of
brush chatter and arcing, and insulator condition. Commutator condition should be observed for color, grooves, mica height, and
concentricity. Where noted, out-of-tolerance
conditions indicate future trouble and should
be repaired in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations.
6.10.2.2 In start-up, commutation sparking
15

IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

(2) Remove the radiation pyrometers from


the air-cooled support fitting for extemallens-surface cleaning. Advise the panel operator
before proceeding.
(3) Inspect the kiln thermocouples pantograph pickup carbon collector brushes for
chipping or excessive wear. Check the spring
tension to ensure proper tracking of the
pantograph guide wheels. Check the surface of
the collector rings for mechanical continuity,
alignment, and any evidence of oxide-film
formation. Note any unusual condition and
advise the supervisor that repairs may be
scheduled.
6.12.3.1.2 Monthly Inspection and Cali!ration. Check the calibration of the thermocouples and radiation pyrometers as follows:
(1) Alert the kiln operator to the scheduled
calibration. Remove the radiation pyrometer
from the support fitting. Using the portable
optical pyrometer, sight through the sighting
tube at the target area observed by the permanent radiation pyrometer. Take a minimum of three sightings and note the readings.
For example, they should be within f 20F
(5C) of each other at the temperature range
of 2700F (1450C) - 2800F (1500C). The
noted reading should be within k 50F (10C)
of the prior temperature recorded at the central panel. If there is any discrepancy, disassemble the permanent pyrometer optical system
and clean all lens surfaces. If a temperature
variation greater than f 50F (10C) persists,
proceed with the calibration of system components in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions.
(2) Utilizing the portable potentiometer,
check each thermocouple calibration right at
the connection block in the thermocouple
head. Advise the central operator before commencing any checks. Note any deviations, advise
the supervisor, and replace the defective
couple.
(3) Inspect the pantograph collector brushes
for wear. If they are uneven or chipped, dress
with a file. Remove any film deposit appearing
on the connector rings.
6.12.3.1.3 Yearly Inspection and Calibration. Check the thermocouple protection
tubes and optical pyrometer for physical
damage as follows:
(1) Remove the thermocouple protective
wall from its support fitting and check the
surface for abrasion, wear, and thermal fatigue
cracks. Replace if insufficient metal remains to
last through the next production cycle.

specified intermediate checks within the


6 month period are to be recommended. Any
suspected malfunction should be checked
immediately. Thermocouples and radiation
pyrometers, depending on severity of service,
need checking more often, as they usually
operate in a hostile environment.
6.12.1 Instrument Maintenance. Sophisticated modem analog and digital instrumentation requires equally sophisticated maintenance
personnel and test equipment. Where available,
test equipment especially built to test and calibrate a specific manufacturers equipment is
recommended. In addition to the regular
instrument-maintenance tools, the following
devices are recommended to enhance the
instrument-maintenance function:
(1) Test equipment, including: digital voltmeter or multimeters; digital frequency
counter; dual-beam oscilloscope; volt-ohm
milliammeters, both low impedance ( 2 2000
n/V) and high impedance ( 2 20 000 52/V);
depending on circuit impedance (for example,
a high-impedance meter is used to check highimpedance circuits where the instrument itself
can load and affect circuit operation); precision
milliammeter; portable potentiometer; current
calibrator; thermometers of trusted integrity;
portable optical pyrometer with calibration
facilities; portable manometers; and a precision timer.
(2) Back-up replacement instruments for each
different instrument, and 5% spares for multiple instruments.
(3) A complete set of manufacturers data
and instructions on the instrumentation used.
6.12.2 Instrument Calibration, Again, the
calibration of process instrumentation is necessary to maintain product quality and is stressed
as a requirement for safety and operation of
the cement plant. In particular, indications or
suspicions of malfunction are to be checked
immediately. Additional preventive maintenance is outlined in 6.12.3 through 6.12.5.
6.12.3 Sensors. Sensors consist of thermocouples, pyrometers, pressure elements, etc.
6.12.3.1 Thermocouples and Pyrometers.
Thermocouples, pyrometers, and their auxiliary
equipment require periodic inspection in accordance with 6.12.3.1.1 through 6.12.3.1.3.
6.12.3.1.1 Daily Inspection
(1) Visually check all thermocouples and
pyrometer heads for mechanical alignment and
loose or broken connections. Note and advise
the supervisor of their condition.
16

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

IEEE
Std 625-1979

(b) Check the terminal screws and wire


lugs for broken or loose wires and frayed or
burned insulation.
(2) Internal Chassis
(a) Before proceeding with any electrical
checks, notify the central panel operator.
(b) Look for visual indications of leaky
capacitors, discolored or broken resistors or
diodes, and any evidence of overheated components.
(c) Mechanically check for loose component leads at the point of insertion through
the printed circuit boards and on resistors,
capacitors, and diodes.
(3) Calibration
(a) Before proceeding with calibration,
notify the panel operator.
(b) Apply proper signals to the transmitter input by using a portable potentiometer
and precision milliammeter. Set the portable
potentiometer output to the millivoltage
corresponding to 0% of scale. Adjust transmitter zero adjustment until the milliammeter on the output shows the milliamperage
corresponding to 0% of scale. Next set the
potentiometer output to the millivoltage corresponding to 100% of scale. Adjust the span
adjustment until the milliammeter shows the
milliamperage corresponding to 100% of scale.
Then repeat the zero and span adjustments
until satisfactory results are obtained.
6.1 2.4.2 Pressure Tmnsm itters. Pressure
transmitters require periodic inspection in accordance with 6.12.4.2.1and 6.12.4.2.2.
6.12.4.2.1 Weekly Inspection
(1) For differential pressure transmitters,
close the high and low process pressure valves
and open the equalizing valve to the manifold
assembly.
(2) For static pressure transmitters, close
the transmitter shut-off valve and break open
the pressure connection at the transmitter
case.
(3) The milliammeter should show milliamperage corresponding to zero. If there is
any variation, adjust the zero screw on the
front of the transmitter.
(4) Always open valves slowly and at the
same time when placing the transmitter in
service.
6.12.4.2.2 Quarterly Inspection and Calibration. Check the transmitter calibration.
Utilizing an adjustable bellows, manometer,
and milliammeter on the output, adjust the
bellow pressure input to the transmitter to

(2) Inspect the thermocouple assembly.


(a) Fabricated Assemblies Consisting of
Wire and Ceramic Beads-Examine the junction and beads. Replace any broken or cracked
beads.
(b) Swaged Ceramic Types-Check the
mechanical condition of the tip and sheath.
Check for wire-to-sheath grounding. Replace
if this condition is discovered.
6.12.3.2 Pressure Elements. The pressure
elements require periodic inspection in accordance with 6.12.3.2.1 through 6.12.3.2.3.
6.12.3.2.1 Weekly Inspection. Visually
check the impulse tubing, manifold assemblies,
and associated piping for leaks, plugging, or
mechanical damage. If any defect is observed,
note the c o n d i t i m notify the panel operator and maintenance supervisor.
6.12.3.2.2 Quarterly Inspection. Notify
the panel operator before removing any process
sensing tap from service. When the process
element system is removed, close the blocking
valves at the associated transmitter and rod or
blow down the tubing and piping from pipe
cross to pipe cross. When the cleaning process
is completed, replace all pipe plugs, tighten all
connections, close the equalizing valve, and
open the transmitter blocking valves.
6.12.3.2.3 Yearly Inspection. With the
process element system shut down, close the
blocking valves and open the equalizing valve at
the transmitter. Rod or blow down all piping
or tubing. Remove the primary sensor and
inspect for wear or damage.
(1) In the orifice plate, check the leading
edge for scouring or radii formation. Replace
if either condition is noted.
(2) In the pressure taps, check for wear or
buildup at the probe tip. Replace if necessary.
6.12.4 Controllers. This section covers temperature transmitters, pressure transmitters,
process controllers, process recorders, process
alarms, and gas analyzers.
6.12.4.1 Tempemtu re Transmitters. Temperature transmitters accept millivoltage input
and produce milliamperage output, such as
1-5 mA, 4-20 mA or 10-50 mA. Temperature
transmitters require periodic inspection in
accordance with 6.12.4.1.1.
6.12.4.1.1 Quarterly Inspection and Calibrat ion
(1) External Enclosure
(a) Visually check the enclosure and its
components for dust buildup. If they are dusty,
clean them.

17

WEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

read 100% of scale range on the manometer.


If the transmitter output displayed on the
milliammeter is not the value corresponding
to 100% of scale, adjust the transmitter output.
Next, set the bellow pressure input to the
transmitter to 0% scale range, as displayed
on the manometer. Adjust the transmitter for
zero until the milliammeter reading corresponds
to 0% of scale. Next, adjust the bellow pressure
input to the transmitter to read 100% of scale
range on the manometer, and adjust the transmitter for span until the milliammeter reading
corresponds to 100% of scale. Repeat the zero
and span adjustments until the required accuracy is obtained.
6.12.4.3 Process Controllers. Process controllers require inspections in accordance
with 6.12.4.3.1through 6.12.4.3.3.
6.12.4.3.1 Monthly Calibration. Using
controller manual bypass unit, disconnect the
controller from the process. Check the process
variable and controller output electrically by
means of a current calibrator. Reinstall the
controllers.
6.12.4.3.2 Monthly Controller Tuning.
Check the operation of the process controller
by introducing a 10% set-point change and
observing the control action correction. It is
preferable to have the central control operator
make the set-point changes. If the response is
too fast or slow, cycling will be noted on the
input. Should fine tuning of the controller
become necessary, reduce the proportional
band settings to 50% of the previous value.
Leave the adjustment setting long enough to
observe the control action. Continue the
reduction of the proportional band settings
until cycling is barely evident; then increase
slightly, eliminating cycling. Decrease the
setting of the reset rate dial until cycling is
evident; then remove cycling through a slight
increase of the reset rate time. If the controller contains the third control mode (derivative), set the reset time dial at maximum and
the derivative t i e dial at minimum. With the
proportional band adjustment completed as
described, increase the setting of the derivative
time dial until cycling stops. Reduce the
proportional dial setting slightly and increase
the derivative setting until cycling stops. Continue increasing the derivative time until cycling
resumes; then remove cycling by increasing the
proportional band setting. Set the reset time
dial to the same value noted on the derivative
dial. If cycling results, increase the reset time

setting in small increments until cycling stops.


Should this procedure fail to stabilize the
control action, notify the supervisor before
removing the control amplifier module.
6.12.4.3.3 Yearly Inspection and Calibration. Remove the controller from service
and bench test in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
6.12.4.4 Process Recorders. Process recorders require inspections in accordance
with 6.12.4.4.1and 6.12.4.4.2.
6.12.4.4.1 Weekly Inspection
(1)Check the chart and ink supply, and
replace them if necessary. Observe the inking
for proper pen tension. If the chart line displays
a break in continuity, increase the pressure of
the tension clip.
(2) Check the pen lifter (if not hinged) to
be certain it is not sprung out of shape. If it
is, the chart will show signs of snagging.
6.12.4.4.2 Yearly Inspection and Calibration
(1) Check pen overtravel, and if necessary,
adjust the metal stop bracket so that overtravel is equal at both ends. Utilizing the
current calibrator, check the recorder zero,
span, and linearity.
(2) Check the recorder chart drive and its
mechanical components.
6.12.4.5 Process Alarms. Process alarms
require periodic inspection in accordance
with 6.12.4.5.1.
6.12.4.5.1 Quarterly Inspection. Check
the process alarm trip points. Have the central
operator increase or decrease the set-point
signal and observe the indicator for the alarm
trip point. If any variation is noted, advise the
supervisor so that recalibration may be
scheduled.
(1) To adjust the set-point on the high alarm:
(a) Apply input of the same value below
the set-point value desired.
(b) Increase the input until the alarm just
triggers. Note the input value.
(c) Adjust the set-point until the alarm
just triggers at the input value desired.
(2)To adjust the set-point of the low
alarm:
(a) Apply input of the same value above
the set-point value desired.
(b) Decrease the input until the alarm just
triggers. Note the input value.
(c) Adjust set-point until alarm just
triggers at input value desired.

18

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

IEEE
Std 625-1979

(2) Span the adjustment t o one analyzer at


a time. Admit a calibration gas at the proper
flow rate. When the meter has reached its
final value, turn the span adjustment, if necessary, t o cause the indicator to agree with the
known concentration in the calibration gas.
6.12.5 Actuator. The actuator consists of a
position modulator and a drive unit and
linkages.
6.12.5.1 Position Modulator (Control Amplifier). The position modulator requires
periodic inspection in accordance with
6.12.5.1.1and 6.12.5.1.2.
6.12.5.1.1 Monthly Inspection. Remove
the cover and check for loose wires, loose
terminal screws, or evidence of burned circuit
components. Have the operator apply 10%
step change t o the drive position from the
operators panel to ensure proper operation. If
electromechanical relays are used, check the
relay sequencing for any overlap indicated by
arcing relay contacts. If adjustment is necessary, readjust in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
6.12.5.1.2 Yearly Inspection and Calibration. Utilizing the current calibrator and
precision milliammeter, connect the equipment in series to the input terminals of the
control amplifier (position modulator) and
proceed with the minimum and maximum
actuator position adjustments using the proper
input signals corresponding to the 0% and
100% positions, respectively. This calibration
should be done in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and recommendations.

6.12.4.6 Gas Analyzer. The gas analyzer


system consists of gas sampling and gas
analyzing.
6.12.4.7 Gas Sampling. Gas sampling requires periodic inspections in accordance
with 6.12.4.7.1 through 6.12.4.7.3.
6.12.4.7.1 Daily Inspection
(1) Check tubing and piping visually for
leaks or plugs.
(2) Check the sample-probe cooling-watersupply pressure at gage. Observe the sightfunnel dischargedrain-water flow. Check the
drain water for evidence of hot temperature.
If the water is hot, increase the flow rate.
(3) Observe the sample gas flow:
(a) Check for clarity of trap and tap
water.
(b) Check makeup and wash-water flow
rate.
(4) Check the sample gas flows. Observe
the flow meters controlling the gas-sample flow
into oxygen, combustibles, and carbon dioxide
analyzers. The flow rate should equal the
design rate. If the flow rate requires adjustment, notify the central operator and proceed
with the adjustment of the sample gas flow
rate.
6.12.4.7.2 Monthly Inspection. Clean the
components of the sample assembly as follows:
(1) Flush the water-cooling jacket of the
probe with water under high pressure. Clean
the interior of the probe.
(2) Clean the sample system of any scale or
built-up deposits; clean and check the mechanical components for proper operation.
6.12.4.7.3 Yearly Inspection. Take down
the complete system, check, and remove any
evidence of mineral deposits. Check sample
temperatures and moistures when starting up.
The sample gas should be clean and free of
moisture at a temperature not exceeding
100F.
6.12.4.8 Gas Analyzing System. Gas analyzing system requires periodic inspection in
accordance with 6.12.4.8.1.
6.12.4.8.1 Monthly Inspection. Check
the calibration of oxygen, combustible, and
carbon dioxide analyzers as follows:
(1) Zero the adjustment to one analyzer at
a time. Shut off the sample gas flowmeter,
allowing zero gas only to flow through each
analyzer. Turn the analyzer zero adjustment t o
obtain a reading of zero on the meter. Rcestablish the correct sample flow after the zero
adjustment is made.

6.12.5.2 Drive Unit and Linkages. The


drive unit and linkages require periodic inspection in accordance with 6.12.5.2.1.
6.12.5.2.1 Quarterly Inspection
(1) Motor:
(a) Check for excessive heating.
(b) Check to see if the motor is clean and
properly ventilated, and that there is no excessive vibration. If there is excessive vibration, note and check with the supervisor so
that maintenance may be scheduled.
(c) Check the position feedback slide
wire for wear and cleanliness. Adjust the wiper
tension.
(2) Bearings:
(a) If possible, check the lubrication of
the motor. See that the grease fittings or oil
cups, if used, are in place and in good condition.
19

IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

wiring should be replaced. The annual inspection should include lighting panelboards and
transformers.
Emergency lighting systems should be
exercised for proper operation, and the batteries
inspected and replaced where indicated.
6.14.1 Lighting Do S
(1) Include safety practices for lighting
cleaning, relamping, and repair as a prominent
part of the training program.
(2) Deenergize and lock out the lighting
circuits to be worked on.
(3) Check and adjust the lighting circuits
for the correct nominal voltage. Light sources
are designed to operate most economically
when supplied with rated voltage. Voltage
that is either too high or too low will affect the
life, efficiency, and economy of the lamps. Use
proper ballast taps for nominal voltage.
(4) Select the appropriate access equipment to provide safe, quick, easy access to
lighting equipment.
(5) Have the route electrician replace
failed lamps each day while making his rounds.
The system is economical in cement plants
where luminaires are readily accessible.
(6) Instruct the foremen to report outages
as they occur. Night watchmen should report
yard lighting outages.
(7) Replace flashing fluorescent lamps as
soon as feasible. Continuous flashing will
destroy the starter and may damage the ballasts.
(8) Use a group replacement plan in storage
and high-bay areas.
(9) Replace burned out lamps with lamps
of the same wattage and voltage called for by
the design.
(10) Replace blackened or discolored lamps
even though they may still be burning. Severe
blackening usually indicates burn-out is
imminent.
(11) Replace all damaged reflectors, broken
sockets, and faulty circuit breakers and
switches.
(12) Clean when periodic light-meter fc readings show a 15% to 20% drop in light intensity
from the reading taken just after the initial
cleaning.
(13) Lighting equipment should be washed,
not just wiped off with a dry cloth. Tests have
proved that thorough washing reclaims 10% to
15% more light than dry wiping. Also, dry
wiping causes grit to scratch the reflecting
surface.
(14) Test all fluorescent lamps before

(b) Check the bearings for excessive heating and also for any unusual sounds.
(3) Frame:
(a) Check for any missing or broken parts.
(b) Check for cracks.
(c) See that all bolts are tight.
(d) Check the ground connections and see
that they are tight.
(e) Check the flexible conduit and see that
the connectors are tight.
(f) Check the gear box lubrication and
renew in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions.
(4) Linkages: Check for any evidence of
binding and relief. Clean the swivel toggles
and check for sufficient lubrication. Clean
accumulated dust buildup.
6.13 Grounding System. The plant grounding
system provides equipment grounds for personnel safety and system electrical neutral
grounds, which are essential for the safe operation of surge suppressors and protective relays
for equipment protection. For these two important reasons, the grounding system should
be maintained and tested annually. The yearly
inspection and testing should be in accordance
with 6.13.1 and 6.13.2.
6.13.1 Visual Inspection
(1) Check for broken and loose cables. Any
broken or loose ground cable shall be repaired
as soon as possible. Especially check the
ground terminations on vibrating equipment
such as motors and switchgear.
(2) Check for corroded cables. The corroded
cables and the environment should be carefully
checked, and correction should be made in the
environment as well as by replacing the cables.
(3) Check the system grounding resistor for
physical damage and rated resistance.
6.13.2 Testing. Ground resistance of the
test ground rods should be checked and
recorded at least once a year by means of
acceptable earth-resistance measuring equipment. Any increase in the ground resistance
should be observed, and corrective action
should be taken if the resistance exceeds 4 52.
Independent testing companies are also available for periodic ground-resistance tests where
plant facilities are lacking.

6.14 Lighting System. Proper maintenance of


the lighting system is essential for preventive
maintenance and personnel safety. All fixtures
and receptacles should be inspected annually,
and damaged fixtures, receptacles, and burned
20

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

IEEE
Std 625-1979

installation to reveal faulty new lamps and


minimize wasted maintenance effort.
(15) Provide emergency lighting that will
operate in the event of a power failure, for
control rooms, electrical rooms, stairways,
and exit routes.

other connected alarm devices should be functioning; any interlocked equipment shall
shutdown and supplementary devices operating
on a fire condition shall respond.
( 5 ) Smoke and heat detectors are to be
cleaned.

6.15 Special Systems. All special systems

NOTE: Shut off the system by removing all ac and


dc power.

should be maintained properly and shall be


kept in operating condition at all times for personnel safety and equipment protection.
6.15.1 Fire Alarm System and Extinguishers
6.15.1.1 Fire Alarm System. The fire alarm
system consists of fire alarm pull stations, the
master control panel, and audible alarm devices
to warn people in case of fire. The fire alarm
system requires annual inspection as follows:
(1) Check the emergency circuits including
the circuit breakers feeding the system.
(2) Check every pull station for operation.
(3) Check and clean the fire alarm control
panel. Fire drills may also be required for
keeping personnel alert.
6.15.1.2 Fire Detection and Extinguishing
System. The fire detection and extinguishing
system consists of smoke and heat detectors,
agent storage containers (for such agents as
halogens or carbon dioxide), discharge nozzles,
master control unit, batteries, charger, etc.
The maintenance of the preceding items
should be carried out in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendations.
The following inspection or maintenance
procedures, or both, should be scheduled in
accordance with 6.15.1.2.1 and 6.15.1.2.2 or
performed upon the occurrence of any event
that may bias the reliability of the system.

6.15.1.2.2 Semiannual Inspection. Qualified personnel are to remove and weigh all the
agent storage containers. Losses in net weight
of the agent should not exceed 5%. Design
weights are indicated on the system drawing;
actual weights of the agent are marked on a leg
of the container.
The tare weight marked on the container
includes the container and fittings, the safety
cap (pipe plug with holes-removed when
piping is connected), and a cloth bag containing the valve handle. It does not include the
initiator, cable assembly, or brackets.
6.15.2 TV Systems. The closed-circuit TV
systems consist of TV cameras and TV monitors. They require periodic inspections in
accordance with 6.15.2.1through 6.15.2.3.
6.15.2.1 Daily Inspection
(1) Check the kiln hood viewing for dust
buildup or dust film on the window. Clean if
necessary.
(2) Check the camera for overheated condition or excessive vibration.
(3) Check the camera cooling system.
6.15.2.2 Monthly Inspection
(1) Check the camera settings for brightness,
target current, linearity, etc. Adjust as necessary.
(2) Check the monitor and clean the picturetube face mask. Adjust brightness, contrast,
horizontal linearity, vertical linearity, height,
etc.
6.15.2.3 Annual Inspection. Clean the interiors of the cameras and receivers.
6.15.3 Telephone System. It is very important that the plant telephone system be
operative at a l l times and especially when
needed in emergencies. Therefore, whenever it
fails, it should be repaired immediately.
The plant telephone equipment consists of
the main telephone equipment, back-up
batteries if used, a rectifier, telephone sets,
etc.
The preventive maintenance of the telephone
equipment should be semiannual and consist

6.15.1.2.1 Quarterly Inspection


(1) Check the pressure gages of each agent
storage container. If the pressure is less than
the recommended value, the container should
be removed by qualified personnel, inspected
carefully, and reconditioned, recharged, or
replaced as required. Pressure will increase
with temperature, and vice versa.
(2) Check all component-supporting hardware, and tighten or repair as required.
(3)Check all components visually for
evidence of physical abuse, and take whatever
action is indicated. Replace the component
if at all in doubt of its ability to perform
properly.
(4) Depress the Alarm Test button at the
panel of the control unit. The alarm light and
21

IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

with the location and operation of fire fighting


equipment. This is especially important when
performing work of a nature where the hazards
of fire may exist.
(6) In cleaning electrical machinery only
safety solvents of a nontoxic nature should be
used. Adequate ventilation should be maintained when using solvents of any nature.
(7) When cleaning live electrical equipment,
brushes, wipers, or dusters having insulated
handles and no exposed metal parts should be
used, that is, rubber set only.
(8) Contact with ground or grounded parts
shall be avoided when working on live circuits.
Extra precautions should be taken when
working in damp or wet areas; the use of added
protective equipment is necessary.
(9) Adequately sized breakers or switches
ahead of fuses should be opened before changing fuses. Approved-type fuse pullers should be
used to remove fuses after switch is opened.
(10) Caution should be used when employing compressed air for cleaning, dusting, or
drying apparatus. Solid particles from the air
stream or particles dislodged by the air stream
may cause serious injury. The use of goggles or
shields is imperative. Injuries have also been
caused by the whip of an air hose when the
operator has allowed the hose t o escape from
his grip. Safety nozzles should be used when
pressure exceeds 10 lbf/in2.
(11) Metal rules or steel tapes should never
be used in the area of live electrical equipment
or circuits.
(12) Portable electric tools shall be grounded
at all times when in use, with the exception of
double-insulated tools with a testing laboratory
approval as double-insulated type.
(13) Maintain all tools in good condition.
Mushroom heads of chisels, star drills, or
punches should be removed.
(14) All wire ropes, slings, and manila or
equivalent ropes used for lifting electrical
equipment should be visually inspected before
being used. It is further recommended that
suitable charts should be placed in a prominent
position indicating safe loads that can be carried
by the wire ropes, ropes, or slings normally
available for use by the electrical department
concerned.
(15) A portable ladder of a length suitable
for the job at hand, should be selected.
(16) Metal ladders should not be used by personnel when working around any electrical

of cleaning and inspection, servicing or replacing batteries, and the testing of the system
in accordance with the manufacturers dry-run
test.

7. Safety Precautions and Procedures

7.1 Safety Equipment. The following safety


equipment is minimum and is strongly recommended :
(1) Nonconductive hard hats, safety shoes,
and safety glasses for all workers.
(2) Eye protection equipment for workmen
engaged in grinding; chiseling; cutting metals,
concrete, stone, or brick; or welding.
(3) Rubber gloves, as approved under ANSI
56.6-1977, American National Standard Specification for Rubber Gloves, when working on
apparatus in excess of 600 V. Rubber gloves,
mats, or blankets should be electrically tested
every three months. In addition, they should
be carefully inspected before each use and discarded when found to be in an unsafe condition.
(4) Safety belts of suitable scaffolding equipment with toeboards and railing when working
in elevated positions. Safety belts and lanyards
should be tested monthly and maintained in
good condition. Safety straps should be
properly fastened and lanyards securely attached and properly anchored.
(5) Ear protection equipment in areas where
the established noise level exceeds 90 dBA.
7.2 Safety Precautions. All safety rules and
precautions should be obeyed, and all safety
procedures should be followed by the maintenance group at all times.
(1) Safety devices should be examined
before they are used to be sure they are in
working condition. Nothing should be taken
for granted.
(2) All circuits should be deenergized, if
feasible. If not feasible, rubber mats or blankets
should be used to cover exposed live parts in
adjacent areas when working on or near live
circuits of 50 V or over.
(3) Close-fitting, comfortable clothing,
with sleeves down and buttoned, and suitable
eye protection should be worn when working
on or close to live circuits or apparatus.
(4) All rings and metallic jewelry should be
removed from hands and arms when working
on or close to live circuits or apparatus.
(5) Electrical workers should be familiar
22

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY

IEEE
Std 625-1979

(8) Each worker is responsible for the


safety of the conditions under which he or she
works. Reliance should not be placed on the
care exercised by others.
(9) All circuits shall be considered alive
until proved otherwise.
(10) Only testers or voltmeters and accessories of the proper rating for the circuit in
question should be used to test circuits. Fatalities have resulted by using 600 V testers
on 2300 V circuits.
(11) The wearing of finger rings, key chains,
wrist watches, etc, which might contact live
parts or be caught in moving machinery, should
be avoided.
(12) When working within reach of lines
or equipment energized at 750 to 15 000 V,
each worker should wear 15 kV rated rubber
gloves with leather gauntlets and protective
footwear, or suitable barriers shall be installed
to prevent accidental contact.
(13) Whenever possible, circuits should be
deenergized, and the breaker or disconnect
device padlocked in the open position. Locking
or padlocking devices, circuits, or switches
should be tagged with a warning sign signed by
the person opening the switch. No other person
should be authorized to remove such locks or
warning signs except the person installing such
devices. Unless the disconnect device is of the
visible blade type, tests should be made on the
circuit before assuming that the device has
functioned properly.
(14) Before energizing a circuit on which
work has been performed, it should be ascertained that all workers are clear, ground connections have been reconnected, and all devices
are in their normal condition.
(15) Lockouts at pushbutton stations shall
not be considered adequate safety devices.
Power circuits should be locked out.
(16) The secondary terminals of a current
transformer should always be short circuited
before the circuit to the instrument is broken.
(17) First-aid treatment should be obtained
for all injuries no matter how minor. Minor
injuries left unattended often have serious
consequences.
(18) All persons engaged in electrical work
of any nature should be thoroughly familiar
with the approved methods of artifical
resuscitation. In the event of electrical shock,
quick action is of the utmost importance.
Artificial resuscitation should be started at

equipment. (All metal ladders should be outlawed.)


(17) A competent inspector should be
assigned to check ladders monthly. He should
check for cracked or broken rungs and side
rails, and for safety feet. Ladders found to be
defective should be discarded.
(18) Only ladders equipped with safety feet
should be used. It is apparent that the position
of a ladder may be insecure-it should be
lashed to afixed support.
(19) The base of the ladder should be placed
one-quarter of its length from the vertical to
secure a safe working angle.
(20) Using ladders in a strong wind or over
operating machinery should be avoided except
in emergencies, and then only when they are
securely lashed or tied into position and safety
belts are properly secured.

7.3 Working Procedures on Equipment


(1) No work shall be done on lines or equipment until clearance has been obtained from
the operations superintendent or the superintendents assistant to proceed in accordance
with the schedule.
(2) On all jobs a sufficient number of
qualified personnel should be present to do the
work safely. The number of workers required
shall be determined by the supervisor assigning
the work.
(3) In all cases where the work is hazardous,
at least two people should work together.
Should it become necessary for one person to
leave the area, leaving the other alone, the
remaining worker should only perform work
outside the danger zone.
(4) The work to be done should be carefully planned, either by the supervisor or
qualified assistants, and all potential hazards
recognized and called to the work crews
attention.
(5) The supervisor should account for all
persons in his or her group before leaving the
job for meals, at the end of the day, or for any
other reason.
(6) Whenever it becomes necessary to
replace a worker or supervisor during a job,
such replacement should be made only after
the replacing worker or supervisor has been
fully informed of existing conditions.
( 7 ) Each worker or supervisor should consider the possible consequences of each act.
There are no reasons for taking chances that
might endanger oneself or others.
23

IEEE
Std 625-1979

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL

IEEE Std 499-1974, Recommended Practices


for Cement Plant Electric Drives and Related
Equipment.
GET-l202C, General Electric Publication,
How to Maintain Motors and Generators.
GET-11950, General Electric Publication,
How to Maintain Industrial Control.
NFPA 70 B 1977, National Fire Protection
Association, Electrical Equipment Maintenance.
Maintenance Hints, Westinghouse Electric.

once and a doctor sent for immediately (call


the Fire Department).
(19) All accidents no matter how trivial
should be reported.

8. Bibliography
ANSI/NFPA N o 70-1978, American National
Standard National Electrical Code.
IEEE Std 277-1975, Recommended Practice
for Cement Plant Power Distribution.

24