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Additional Maths 360 solutions

(Unofficial) [29 Sept 2014]


Visit sleightofmath.com for up-to-date pdf and video solutions.
Authors:
Daniel and Samuel from Sleight of Math
Disclaimer:
Sleight of Math has no affiliations with the publisher of Additional Maths 360 i.e. Marshall Cavendish

Table of Contents
Ex 1.1 ......................................................................................................... 3

Ex 6.1 ................................................................................................... 143

Ex 1.2 ......................................................................................................... 9

Ex 6.2 ................................................................................................... 149

Ex 1.3 .......................................................................................................20

Ex 6.3 ................................................................................................... 153

Ex 1.4 .......................................................................................................29

Ex 6.4 ................................................................................................... 162

Rev Ex 1..................................................................................................35

Rev Ex 6 .............................................................................................. 167

Ex 2.1 .......................................................................................................42

Ex 7.1 ................................................................................................... 174

Ex 2.2 .......................................................................................................51

Ex 7.2 ................................................................................................... 180

Ex 2.3 .......................................................................................................55

Ex 7.3 ................................................................................................... 184

Ex 2.4 .......................................................................................................60

Ex 7.4 ................................................................................................... 189

Rev Ex 2..................................................................................................63

Ex 7.5 ................................................................................................... 193


Rev Ex 7 .............................................................................................. 196

Ex 3.1 .......................................................................................................67
Ex 3.2 .......................................................................................................72

Ex 8.1 ................................................................................................... 202

Ex 3.3 .......................................................................................................78

Ex 8.2 ................................................................................................... 209

Ex 3.4 .......................................................................................................81

Rev Ex 8 .............................................................................................. 224

Ex 3.5 .......................................................................................................86
Ex 3.6 .......................................................................................................91

Ex 9.1 ................................................................................................... 233

Rev Ex 3..................................................................................................98

Ex 9.2 ................................................................................................... 242


Rev Ex 9 .............................................................................................. 252

Ex 4.1 .................................................................................................... 103


Ex 4.2 .................................................................................................... 108

Ex 10.1 ................................................................................................. 259

Rev Ex 4............................................................................................... 114

Ex 10.2 ................................................................................................. 266


Ex 10.3 ................................................................................................. 272

Ex 5.1 .................................................................................................... 118

Rev Ex 10............................................................................................ 280

Ex 5.2 .................................................................................................... 127


Rev Ex 5............................................................................................... 138

Ex 11.1 ................................................................................................. 288


Ex 11.2 ................................................................................................. 291
Ex 11.3 ................................................................................................. 298
Rev Ex 11............................................................................................ 319

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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Additional Maths 360 solutions


(Unofficial) [29 Sept 2014]
Visit sleightofmath.com for up-to-date pdf and video solutions.
Authors:
Daniel and Samuel from Sleight of Math
Disclaimer:
Sleight of Math has no affiliations with the publisher of Additional Maths 360 i.e. Marshall Cavendish
Ex 12.1 ................................................................................................. 326

Ex 18.1 ................................................................................................. 495

Ex 12.2 ................................................................................................. 330

Ex 18.2 ................................................................................................. 503

Rev Ex 12 ............................................................................................ 339

Ex 18.3 ................................................................................................. 509


Ex 18.4 ................................................................................................. 512

Ex 13.1 ................................................................................................. 347

Rev Ex 18............................................................................................ 517

Ex 13.2 ................................................................................................. 356


Ex 13.3 ................................................................................................. 366

Ex 19.1 ................................................................................................. 523

Rev Ex 13 ............................................................................................ 376

Ex 19.2 ................................................................................................. 530


Rev Ex 19............................................................................................ 535

Ex 14.1 ................................................................................................. 383


Ex 14.2 ................................................................................................. 390

Ex 20.1 ................................................................................................. 539

Ex 14.3 ................................................................................................. 396

Rev Ex 20............................................................................................ 548

Ex 14.4 ................................................................................................. 400


Rev Ex 14 ............................................................................................ 407
Ex 15.1 ................................................................................................. 410
Ex 15.2 ................................................................................................. 418
Ex 15.3 ................................................................................................. 421
Ex 15.4 ................................................................................................. 423
Rev Ex 15 ............................................................................................ 430
Ex 16.1 ................................................................................................. 436
Ex 16.2 ................................................................................................. 445
Rev Ex 16 ............................................................................................ 454
Ex 17.1 ................................................................................................. 460
Ex 17.2 ................................................................................................. 470
Ex 17.3 ................................................................................................. 479
Rev Ex 17 ............................................................................................ 488

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.1
2(a)

Ex 1.1
1(a)

y = 2x + 1
(1)
2
y = x + 2x 3 (2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x + 1
= x 2 + 2x 3
2
x 4
=0
(x + 2)(x 2) = 0
x = 2
or x = 2
y|x=2 = 2(2) + 1
y|x=2 = 2(2) + 1
= 3
=5

1(b)

y=2+x
y = 2x 2 5x 6

y=2x
2x 2 + xy + 1 = 0
sub (1) into (2):
2x 2 + x(2 x) + 1
2x 2 + 2x x 2 + 1
x 2 + 2x + 1
(x + 1)2
x = 1
y|x=1 = 2 (1)
(1,3)

2(b)

(1)
(2)

y = 1 3x
x2 + y2 = 5

(1)
(2)

=5
=5
=0
=0
=0
or

x=1

y|x=2 = 1 3 ( )

y|x=1 = 1 3(1)

11

= 2

5
2 11

2x + y = 4
y
= 4 2x (1)

( ,
5

2(c)

(1, 2)

3x + 2y = 1
2y
= 1 3x
y

13x
2

(1)

3x 2 + 2y 2 = 11 (2)
sub (1) into (2):
3x 2 + 2 (
3x 2 + 2 (

13x 2

2
16x+9x2
4

= 11
)

= 11

6x 2 + (1 6x + 9x 2 ) = 22
15x 2 6x 21
=0
5x 2 2x 7
=0
(5x 7)(x + 1)
=0
x=

or x = 1

y|x=7 =

7
5

13( )

=
7

2
8
5

( , )

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=3

x=

y 2 4x = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
(4 2x)2 4x
=0
2
(16 16x + 4x ) 4x = 0
4x 2 20x + 16
=0
2
x 5x + 4
=0
(x 1)(x 4)
=0
x=1
or x = 4
y|x=1 = 4 2(1)
y|x=4 = 4 2(4)
=2
= 4

=0
=0
=0
=0

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 + (1 3x)2
x 2 + (1 6x + 9x 2 )
10x 2 6x 4
5x 2 3x 2
(5x + 2)(x 1)

sub (1) into (2):


2+x
= 2x 2 5x 6
2
2x 6x 8 = 0
x 2 3x 4
=0
(x + 1)(x 4) = 0
x = 1
or x = 4
y|x=1 = 2 + (1)
y|x=4 = 2 + (4)
=1
=6
1(c)

(1)
(2)

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y|x=1 =

13(1)
2

=2
(1,2)

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3

x2

Ex 1.1

+ =3

(1)

x + y= 8
y
=8x

(2)

5(ii)

Perimeter
2x + 2y
x+y
y

sub (2) into (1):


x2
4

(8x)

(3x 2 ) + (32 4x) = 36


3x 2 4x 4
=0
(3x + 2)(x 2)
=0
2
3

4(i)

4x + 4y = 32
x+y
=8
y
=8x

(1)

x 2 + y 2 = 34

(2)

4(iii) sub (1) into (2):


x 2 + (8 x)2
= 34
2
2
x + (64 16x + x ) = 34
2x 2 16x + 30
=0
2
x 8x + 15
=0
(x 3)(x 5)
=0
x=3
or
x=5
y|x=3 = 5
y|x=5 = 3
the length of the sides are 3cm & 5cm
5(i)

= 60
= 60
= 30
= 30 x (2)

sub (2) into (1):


x(30 x)
= 216
2
(30x x )
= 216
2
x 30x + 216 = 0
(x 12)(x 18) = 0
x = 12
or
y|x=12 = 30 (12)
= 18
12 m by 18 m

x = or x = 2

4(ii)

(1)

=3

Area = 216
xy = 216

Area = xy
Perimeter = 2x + 2y

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

6(a)

x = 18
y|x=18 = 30 (18)
= 12

3x 2y = 1
2y
= 3x 1
y

3x1
2

(1)

(x 2)2 + (2y + 3)2 = 26


sub (1) into (2):
(x 2)2

+ [2 (

3x1
2

) + 3]

(2)
2

= 26

x 2 4x + 4 + (3x 1 + 3)2 = 26
x 2 4x + 4 + (3x + 2)2
= 26
2
2
(9x
x 4x + 4 +
+ 12x + 4) = 26
10x 2 + 8x + 8
= 26
10x 2 + 8x 18 = 0
5x 2 + 4x 9
=0
(5x + 9)(x 1) = 0
x=

or

y|x=9 =

9
3( )1
5

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2
16
5

x=1
y|x=1 =

3(1)1
2

=1

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

Ex 1.1

x 2 2xy + y 2 = 1
x 2y
2y

=2
= x + 2

= x1

7(a)

(1)

xy + 20 = 5x

(1)

x 2y 3 = 0
2y
= x + 3

(2)

= x

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


1

x 2 2x ( x 1) + ( x 1)
2

x x + 2x
2x
1 2
x
4
1 2
x
4
2

sub (2) into (1):

=1

+x

=0

y|x=0 = (0) 1

2
1 2
x
2
2

= 1

2
13
2

x + 20

y|x=5 = (5)

=0

= 3
7(b)

= x + 1 (1)

(5,1)

2
5

y|x=8 = (8)

=1

= (4) 1

3y x = 3
3y
=x+3
y

= 5x

x 13x + 40
=0
(x 5)(x 8)
=0
x=5
or x = 8

x = 4
y|x=4

2
3

=0
=0
or

( x 2 x) +20 = 5x

=1
=1

x ( x ) + 20

=1

+x+1

x + 4x
x(x + 4)
x=0

6(c)

2
1
+ ( x 2 x + 1)
4
1 2
+( x x + 1)
4

2
5

(8, )
2

2x y = 4
y
= 2x + 4
y
= 2x 4

(1)

2x 2 + 4xy 3y = 0

(2)

3y

=2

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2

1
3

3( x+1)
2

x+3

1
1

=2

2x
(x + 3)
2x
x 3
x3
0
2x 2 + 5x + 3
(2x + 3)(x + 1)
3

x=

= 2x(x + 3)
= 2x 2 + 6x
= 2x 2 + 6x
= 2x 2 + 5x + 3
=0
=0
or

3
1

y|x=3 = ( ) + 1
2

sub (1) into (2):


2x 2 + 4x(2x 4) 3(2x 4)
2x 2 + (8x 2 16x) 6x + 12
(10x 2 16x)
6x + 12
10x 2 22x + 12
5x 2 11x + 6
(5x 6)(x 1)

=2

=
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

x=

or

5
6

y|x=6 = 2 ( ) 4

x = 1

y|x=1 = (1) + 1
3
2

5
8
5

( , )

=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0

x=1
y|x=1 = 2(1) 4
= 2
(1, 2)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(c)

Ex 1.1

3x + y = 1
y
= 1 3x

9
4

By Pythagoras Theorem,
(4x)2 + (3x)2 = 152
16x 2 + 9x 2 = 225
25x 2
= 225
2
x
=9
x = 3 or x = 3 (rej)

(x + y)(x + 2y) = 3
(2)
(1)
(2):
sub
into
[x + (1 3x)][x + 2(1 3x)] = 3
(1 2x)(x + 2 6x)
=3
(1 2x)(2 5x)
=3
(5x 2)(2x 1)
=3
2
10x 9x + 2
=3
2
10x 9x 1
=0
(10x + 1)(x 1)
=0
x=

y|x= 1 = 1 3 (
10

=
(
8

2x
y

10

y|x=1 = 1 3(1)

13
10
13

(1, 2)

10 10

(1)

3x y = 2
3x 2 = y
y
= 3x 2 (2)
sub (2) into (1):
2x

10(i)

= 2

+ =3

3x2
2

Width = 4(3) = 12 inch


Height = 3(3) = 9 inch

or x = 1

10

(1)

3x2

=3

x
2

2x + (3x 2)
= 3(3x 2 2x)
2x 2 + (9x 2 12x + 4) = 9x 2 6x
11x 2 12x + 4
= 9x 2 6x
2
2x 6x + 4
=0
2
x 3x + 2
=0
(x 1)(x 2)
=0
x=1
or x = 2
y|x=1 = 3(1) 2
y|x=2 = 3(2) 2
=1
=4
A(1,1)
B(2,4)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

By Pythagoras Theorem,
x 2 + y 2 = 52
x 2 + y 2 = 25
(1)
10(ii) y x = 1
y
=x+1
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
x 2 + (x + 1)2
= 25
2
2
x + (x + 2x + 1) = 25
2x 2 + 2x + 1
= 25
2x 2 + 2x 24
=0
2
x + x 12
=0
(x + 4)(x 3)
=0
x = 4
or
x=3
y|x=4 = (4) + 1
y|x=3 = (3) + 1
= 3
=4
10(iii) length cannot be negative,
x = 3, y = 4

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.1

11(i) x 2 + xy + ay = b
at {x = 2, y = 1}
(2)2 + (2)(1) + a(1) = b
6+a
=b
b
=a+6
(1)
2ax + 3y = b
at {x = 2, y = 1}
2a(2) + 3(1) = b
4a + 3
=b
sub (1) into (2):
4a + 3 = 6 + a
3a
=3
a
=1
b|a=1 = 7

12(i) 1st eqn


12x 2 5y 2 = 7
At (1, p),
12(1)2 5(p)2 = 7
12 5p2
=7
2
5p
= 5
p2
=1
p
= 1

(2)

2nd eqn
2p2 x 5y = 7
At (1, p),
2p2 (1) 5(p) = 7
2p2 5p 7 = 0
(2p 7)(p + 1) = 0

11(ii) Put a 1, b = 7 into both equations,


x 2 + xy + y = 7
(1)

= x + (2)

3
7

x + x ( x + )
2
x + ( x 2 + x)
3
3
1 2
7
x + x
3
3
1 2
5
7
2

x + x+

3
1 2
x
3
2

3
5

3
14

+ x

or p = 1

p = 1 (common sol)

(1)

2x 5y = 7
5y
= 2x + 7

sub (2) into (1):


2

12(ii) At p = 1,
12x 2 5y 2 = 7

2x + 3y = 7
3y
= 2x + 7
y

p=

y
2

3
2

3
7

3
2

3
7

= x

+ ( x + ) = 7
+ ( x + ) = 7

sub (2) into (1):

+ ( x + ) = 7

12x 2 5 ( x )

=7

12x 2 5 (

=0

x + 5x 14 = 0
(x + 7)(x 2) = 0
x = 7
or
x = 2 (taken)
2

y|x=7 = (7) +
=7
{x = 7, y = 7}

7 2

x2

25

12x 2 x 2 +

28

56 2
x
5

49

56 2
x
5

28
5
28
5

(2)

x
x

=7

28
25

x+
49
5

=0

(2x + 3)(x 1)

=0

or

x = 1 (taken)

y|x=3 = ( )
2

=7

=0

2x 2 + x 3

x=

) =7

=7

5
84

49

25

= 2
3

( , 2)
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.1

13(i)

14(ii) If k = 1,

(7 20)2 + (6 + 10)2 = 200

r
Total surface area = 32
2r 2 + 2rh
= 32
2
r + hr
= 16 [shown] (1)
13(ii) h = 4 + r
sub (2) into (1):
r 2 + (4 + r)r = 16
2r 2 + 4r
= 16
2
2r + 4r 16 = 0
r 2 + 2r 8 = 0
(r + 4)(r 2) = 0
r = 4
or
(rej r > 0)

y
r=2
h|r=2 = 4 + (2)
=6

) + 10]

(7x 20) + (20 21x)

(x2.86)2
(2.02)2

=0

49x 2 112x + 60

=0

(112)(112)2 4(49)(60)
2(49)

112784
98

or x =
7

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

5 2
62 (y+ )
3
5 2
(y+ )
3
200
62

=1
2

5
3

(y( ))

=1

2
200
( 2 )
6
2

5
3

(y( ))
(

=1

200

102
)
6

(y(1.67))

=1

=1

(2.36)2
20
7

, )
3

horizontal radius =

200
72

200

490x 2 1120x + 600

centre (

= 200
= 200

5 2

20 2
7
2
102
(
)
7

= 200

490x 1120x + 800

6
10

(x )

= 200

10
1021( )
7

20 2
7
2
200
( 2 )
7

(2)

(49x 2 280x + 400)


+(400 840x + 441x 2 )

(x )

(7x 20)2 + [(10 21x) + 10]2 = 200

y|x=10 =

) + 62 (y + ) = 200

20 2
(x )
7
200
72

(1)

1021x

20 2

72 (x

sub (1) into (2):

x=

Ellipse
(7x 20)2 +(6y + 10)2 = 200

200

10

, )

= x+

20
72 (x )
7

Ellipse
(7x 20)2 + (6y + 10)2 = 200

x=

Line
21x + 6y = 1
6y
= 21x + 1

1021x

(7x 20)2 + [6 (

20

= +

(2)

14(i) If k = 10,
Line
21x + 6y = 10
6y
= 10 21x
y

y|x=6 =

vertical radius =

62

Using the graphing calculator to plot curves, the


line and ellipse dont intersect.
Hence, there are no solutions
=

11228
98

14(iii) Geometrically, a line and ellipse can only intersect


twice at most.

6
7

1021( )
6

4
3

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2
4(i)

Ex 1.2
1(a)

3x 2 + 9x
=1
2
3x + 9x 1 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 9, c = 1
Roots: &
Sum of roots

1(b)

Sum of roots

b
a

(1)
(3)

=
3

1 2

=( )

2(ii)

b
a

(4)

=4

(1)

(2)

2+2

= (4 )

+ =

5(i)
b
a

= (1)

2(3)
(1)

(3)

= (1) = 3
(1)

=
=

=1

= 6

33
2

x 2 4x + c = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = c
Roots: & ( + 2)

b
a
(4)
(1)

2 + 2
=4
2
=2

=1
+2 =3
5(ii)

Sum of roots = + =

2 + 2

40x 138x + 119 = 0


i.e. a = 40, b = 138, c = 119
Roots: & are heights of two men

= 2

Sum of roots

Average height =

33

= + ( + 2) =

(2 1)(2 1)
= 4 2 2 +1
= 4 2( + ) +1
= 4(1) 2(3)
+1
= 11

2(2)

=+ =

2(+)

(2)

( )2 = 2 2 + 2
= (2 + 2 ) 2

=2

= (1)

x + 3x + 1 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 3, c = 1
Roots: &

(2)
(4)

Product of roots =

(1)

=4

Sum of roots

2(2)

2
1

=+ =

Product of roots =

( + )2
= 2 + 2 + 2
( + )2 2 = 2 + 2
2 + 2
= ( + )2 2

4x + 2x 2
= 3x 2 + 2
x 2 4x + 2 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = 2
Roots: &
Sum of roots

(9)

= (3) = 3

4(ii)

2(i)

=+ =

Product of roots =

=+ =

Product of roots =

2x 2 x 4 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 4
Roots: &

69
20

b
a

=
69
40

Product of roots
c
= ( + 2) =
a

( + 2) = c
1(1 + 2)
=c =1
c
=3

(138)
(40)

69
20

6(a)

Roots: = 2 & = 5
Sum of roots
= + = (2) + (5)
Product of roots =
= (2)(5)

=7
= (10)

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 7x + 10
=0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

Ex 1.2

Roots: = 1 & = 3
Sum of roots
= + = (1) + (3) = 2
Product of roots =
= (1)(3)
= 3

8(i)

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 2x 3
=0
7(i)

Sum of roots

1st equation
2x 2 4x + 5 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 4, c = 5
Roots: &

= 5

= p
=

= 42

=+ =

Product of roots =

c
a

b
a

(4)

(5)

= (2)

(2)

=2
=

From (1):
5 = p
p
=

(1)

c
a

=q

(2)

(3)

= + 4

Product of roots = (4)

8(ii)
Sum of roots

x 2 + px + q = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = p, c = q
Roots: & 4

sub (3) into (2):


2nd equation
Roots: ( 1) & ( 1)
Sum of roots
Product of roots
= ( 1) + ( 1)
= ( 1)( 1)
= ( + ) 2
=
+1
(2)
=
2
= ( + ) +1
5
=0
= ( ) (2)
+1

4p2

4p
9(i)

3
2

x (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
3

2x 2 + 3
7(ii)

2x 2 x 2 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 2
Roots: &
=+ =
=

b
a

=
=

(1)

(2)
(2)
(2)

1
2

= 1

=0
2 + 2
= ( + )2 2()

3rd equation
Recall + = 2,

= 25q [shown]

Product of roots =

=0

Sum of roots

x 2 0x +

=q

25

4 ( p) = q

1 2

=( )

2(1)

2
1

Roots: 2 & 2

=2
4

Sum of roots
= 2 + 2 = 2( + ) = 2(2) = 4

9(ii)

2 +2

(2 )

4
= (1)
= 2

1
4

Product of roots
= (2)(2) = 4()

= 4 ( ) = 10

9(iii)

4 + 4

= (2 + 2 )2 22 2
= (2 + 2 )2 2()2

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 4x + 10
=0

1 2

= (2 )
4

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16

2(1)2

10

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

Ex 1.2

x2
= (k 1)x + k
2
(1
x + k)x k = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (1 k), c = k
Roots: & ( + 3)

12(i)

Sum of roots
= + ( + 3) =

Sum of roots

2 + 3
k

=k1
= 2 + 4

=+ =

Product of roots =

a
(1k)

2 + 3

3
2

3
2

=3

(1)

2nd equation
(1)

Roots:

&

Sum of roots =

Product of roots
c
= ( + 3) =
( + 3) =

1st equation
2x 2 3x + 6 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 3, c = 6
Roots: &

a
(k)

22 +22

2[(+)2 2]

(1)

2(2 +2 )

3 2
2[( ) 2(3)]
2

5
2

Product of roots = ( ) ( ) = 4

= k
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
( + 3)
= (2 + 4)
2
+ 3
= 2 4
2
+ 5 + 4
=0
( + 1)( + 4) = 0
= 1
or
= 4
+3=2
+ 3 = 1
(rej negative roots)

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
5

x 2 ( ) x +4

=0

x2 + x
2

2x +5x

+4

=0

+8

=0

12(ii) 3rd equation


3

Recall + = , = 3
2

10(ii) Put = 4 into (1):


k|=4 = 2(4) + 4
= 4
11

Roots: (3 + ) & ( + 3)
Sum of roots
= (3 + ) + ( + 3)
= 4 + 4
= 4( + )

3x 2 3kx + k 6 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 3k, c = k 6
Roots: &

= 4( )
2

Sum of roots

=+ =

Product of roots =
2 + 2

( + ) 2
k

2 (

k6
3

=
=

c
a

b
a

=
=

(3k)

(3)
(k6)
(3)

=6
=k
=

k6
3

20
3
20
3
20

3 2

= 3 [( ) 2(3)]
2

3k 2 2k + 12
= 20
2
3k 2k 8
=0
(3k + 4)(k 2) = 0
k=

4
3

Product of roots
= (3 + )( + 3)
= 32 + 10 + 32
= 3(2 + 2 )
+10
= 3[( + )2 2] +10

75
4

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

or k = 2

x 2 (6)x +

75
4

4x 2 24x +75

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=0

11

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(i)

Ex 1.2

1st equation
2x 2
= 8x + 3
2x 2 8x 3 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 8, c = 3
Roots: &

13(iii) 4th equation


Recall + = 4, =

=+ =

Product of roots

b
a

=
=

(8)
(2)
3

Sum of roots
= ( ) + ( )
=0

=4

Product of roots
= ( )( )
= (a )2
= [( + )2 4]

2nd equation
1
2

&

= [(4)2

Sum of roots =
=

(+)2 2()
()2

2 +2
2 2
3
2

(4)2 2( )

4 ( )]
2

= 22

3 2
( )
2

Product of roots = ( 2 ) ( 2 ) = ()2 =

Roots: ( ) & ( )

Sum of roots

Roots:

1
3 2
( )
2

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 (0)x + (22) = 0
x 2 22
=0

76
9

14(i)

2x 2 71x + 615 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 71, c = 615
Roots: & are base and height

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
76

x2 ( ) x + ( )

=0

Sum of roots = + =

9x 76x +4 = 0

Product of roots =

c
a

71

2
615
2

71

= 307.5

13(ii) 3rd equation


Recall

+ = 4, =

Roots:

2 & 2

Area = = 307.5

3
2

71

Perimeter = 2( + ) = 2 ( ) = 71
2

Sum of roots = 2 + 2
= ( + )

14(ii)

= ( ) (4) = 6

Base

Product of roots
3 3

27

= (2 )(2 ) = ()3 = ( ) =

) =0

8x 2 + 48x 27

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Base

Perimeter is not valid because


the height is not the side of the quadrilateral

27
8

Height

Area is valid because


area = base height

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 (6)x + (

Height

=0

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 1.2

kx 2 + (k 1)x + 2k + 3 = 0
i.e. a = k, b = (k 1), c = (2k + 3)
Roots: & 2
Sum of roots
= + (2) =
3

1st equation
x 2 3x 2 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 3, c = 2
Roots: &

b
a
k1

Sum of roots

Product of roots =

1k
k
1k
3k

(1)

2nd equation
x 2 6x + p = 0
i.e. a2 = 1, b2 = 6, c2 = p

(2)

Roots:

Product of roots
c
= (2) =
2

a
2k+3
k

2(
2(

3k
k2 2k+1

9k2
2k2 4k+2
9k2
2

=
=
=

2k+3

= +

k
2k+3

1
16

k+k

k(+)

k
2k+3

&

c
a

=
=

2
1

=3
= 2

b2
a2
6
1

=6
= 4

or k = 2

=6

k(3)
(2)

2k 4k + 2
= 18k 2 + 27k
16k 2 + 31k 2 = 0
(16k 1)(k + 2) = 0
k=

Sum of roots

sub (1) into (2):


1k 2

=+ =

Product of roots

rej k is a
(
)
non zero integer

c2

a2
(p)

= ( )( ) =

k2

k2

= (1)
=p

k2
(2)

=p

=
=

k2

k = 4

2
(4)2
2

= 8

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

17(a) 3x 2 + kx + 96 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = k, c = 96
Roots: & 2

18

5x 2 102x + 432 = 0
i.e. a = 5, b = 102, c = 432
Roots:
& are lengths of the two shorter sides of a

Sum of roots
= + 2 =

Sum of roots

a
k

9
k

=k
= 9

Product of roots =

3
k

=
=

(102)
(5)

102
5

432
5

2 + 2

By Pythagoras Theorem,
Hypotenuse = 2 + 2

a
96
3

2
= 32
2

= 16
= 4 or = 4 (rej positive roots)
k|=4 = 9(4)
= 36
2

Product of roots
c
= (2) =
2

=+ =

1 432

)= 43.2cm2

Perimeter = + + 2 + 2
= + + ( + )2 2
=(

17(b) p + q = 13
pq = 6
Roots: p2 & q2
Sum of roots
= p2 + q2 = 13
Product of roots = p2 q2
= (pq)2 = 62

Area = () = (

102
5

) + (

102 2
5

) 2(

432
5

= 36cm

= 36

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 13x + 36
=0
(x 4)(x 9)
=0
x=4
or x = 9
p2 = 4
p2 = 9
p = 2
p = 3

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

19(a) 2x 2 + px + 24 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = p, c = 24
Roots: &

19(b) 1st equation


3x 2 x + 2 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 2
Roots: &

=4

= + 4 (1)

Sum of roots

=+ =

Product of roots =

Sum of roots
=+

( + 4) + =

(1)

(3)

1
3

2
3

b
a
p

2nd equation
Roots: 2 & 2

2
p
2
p

2 + 4

= 4 8

Sum of roots = 2 + 2
= ( + )2 2()

1 2

=( )

2 ( )

Product of roots
c
=
=

a
24

11
9

( + 4)
= 12
2 + 4
= 12
2
+ 4 12 = 0
( + 6)( 2) = 0
= 6
or
p|=6 = 4(6) 8
= 16
(rej p < 0)

2 2

Product of roots = 2 2 = ()2 = ( ) =


x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 (

11
9

)x +

=0

9x 2 + 11x + 4
=2
p|=2 = 4(2) 8

20(i)

= 16

=0

1st equation
4x 2 x + 36 = 0
i.e. a = 4, b = 1, c = 36
Roots: 2 & 2
= 2 + 2 =

Sum of roots

2 2

Product of roots =

c
a

b
a

=
=

(1)

(4)
(36)
(4)

1
4

=9

2nd equation
Roots:

1
2

&

1
2

Sum of roots

2
1

2 +

Product of roots = ( 2 ) ( 2 ) =

2 +2
2 2
1
2 2

=
=

1
4

( )
(9)
1

1
36

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x2
2

1
36

x+

1
9

36x x + 4

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=0

15

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

20(ii) 3rd equation:


2

Recall + = ,
4

21(ii) 2nd equation


Roots: ( + 2) & ( + 2)

2 2

=9

Roots: &
Sum of roots
=+

Product of roots
=

= ( +

= 9
= 3

+ 2

= ( ) + 2

2 2

)2

Sum of roots
= ( + 2) + ( + 2)
= ( + ) + 4
b

= [a( + 2)( + 2)]


a
1

+4

= (4a 2b + c)
a

x 2 (SOR)x

Product of roots
= ( + 2)( + 2)

+ (POR)

a
1

=0

x 2 ( + 4) x + [ (4a 2b + c)] = 0

For = 3:

25

SOR = + 2(3) =

x + ( 4) x

+ (4a 2b + c)
a

ax 2 + (b 4a)x + (4a 2b + c)

=0
=0

For = 3:
1

23

4
5

24

SOR = + 2(3) =

(rej)

SOR = , POR = 3
2

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
5

x 2 ( ) x + 3

=0

=0

2x 5x + 6
21(i)

1st equation
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
Roots: &
Sum of roots

=+ =

Product of roots =

b
a

a( + 2)( + 2) = a( + 2 + 2 + 4)
= a[ + 2( + ) + 4]
c

= a [( ) + 2 ( ) + 4]
= c 2b + 4a
= 4a 2b + c [shown]

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

1st equation
4x 2 + kx
=1
4x 2 + kx 1 = 0
i.e. a = 4, b = k, c = 1

22(ii) 3rd equation


k

Recall + = ,
Roots:

=+ =

Product of roots =

b
a

=
=

k
4
1

Sum of roots

= 5( + )

9
9
=
1
+ 2( + ) + 4 ( ) + 2 ( k) + 4
4
4
36
=
15 2k

= 5 ( )
4

= k
4

Product of roots

x2

= (2 + 3)(3 + 2)
2

= 6 + 13 + 6

23(i)

+13

k2 + )

Sum of roots

x 2 + kx
4

8x + 10kx

=+ =

Product of roots =

x (SOR)x +(POR)
x ( k) x

) =0
= 0

1st equation
2x 2 + 4x + 5 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 4, c = 5
Roots: &

152k

13

2
2

)x +(

+13

= k

152k

=0
36

(15 2k)x +(3k 48)x +36

2)

k 2

483k

= 6 [( ) 2 ( )] +13 ( )

(SOR)x +(POR)

x2

= 6[( + )2 2]

3 + 6 + 3 + 6
3( + ) + 12
=
+ 2( + ) + 4 + 2( + ) + 4

16

+2

3
3
9
)(
)=
=(
( + 2)( + 2)
+2 +2

= 5 + 5

= 6(

Product of roots

= (2 + 3) + (3 + 2)

= 6( +

+2

&

k
3 ( ) + 12
48 3k
4
=
=
1
k
( ) + 2 ( ) + 4 15 2k
4
4

2nd equation
Roots: (2 + 3) & (3 + 2)

Sum of roots
3
3
3( + 2) + 3( + 2)
=
+
=
( + 2)( + 2)
+2 +2

Roots: &
Sum of roots

3
+ ( k2
8

=0
1

Roots:

+3k 2

4
2

= 2

23(ii) 2nd equation

)=0

+ k2

&

=0
Sum of roots

=0

= +

Product of roots = ( ) ( ) =

=
=

2
5
2

1
5
2

=
=

4
5

2
5

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
4

x 2 ( ) +
2

5x + 4 + 2

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=0

17

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

23(iii) 1st equation


ax 2 + bx + c = 0
Roots: &
Sum of roots

25

=+ =

Product of roots =

b
a

Sum of roots

=+ =

2nd equation
Roots:

&

2x 2 kx + k
=2
2
2x kx + k 2 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = k, c = (k 2)
Roots: &

+ =

Sum of roots

= +

Product of roots = ( ) ( ) =

=
=

a
c
a

=
=

c
a

b
a
k
2

= 2 + 2

a
c

Product of roots
c
= =
=

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

a
k2
2

x 2 ( ) x + ( )

=0

sub (1) into (2):

cx 2 bx

=0

+a

(1)

(2)

(2+2)2
2

= + 1
24(i)

x(2 x)
=3
2
x 2x + 3 = 0
is root
2 2 + 3 = 0
2 = 2 3

If < 0, < 0
LHS = > 0
RHS = + 1 < 0
LHS RHS
both roots cannot be negative

(1)

(1) :
3 = 22 3
(2)
(1)
(2):
sub
into
3 = 2(2 3) 3
3 = (4 6) 3
3 = 6 [shown]
24(ii) Roots: &
Sum of roots

=+ =

Product of roots =

c
a

b
a

=
=

(2)

(3)
(1)

(1)

=2
=3

Following the same manipulation in (i)


3 = 6
3 + 3 = ( 6) + ( 6)
= ( + ) 12
= (2) 12
= 10

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


26

Ex 1.2

x 2 + 4(c + 2)
= (c + 4)x
2
(c
x + 4)x + 4(c + 2) = 0
i.e. A = 1, B = (c + 4), C = 4(c + 2)
Roots: a & b
Sum of roots
=a+b

a+b

B
A
(c+4)
1

a+b
=c+4
2
(a + b)
=c+4
2
2
a + 2ab + b = c 2 + 8c + 16

(1)

Product of roots
= ab =
ab =
ab

C
A
4(c+2)
1

= 4c + 8

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


a2 + 2(4c + 8) + b2 = c 2 + 8c + 16
a2 + (8c + 16) + b2 = c 2 + 8c + 16
a2 + b2
= c2
sides are related by pythagoras theorem,
it is a right angle triangle
& 90 is the largest angle

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.3
2(c)

Ex 1.3
1(a)

y = 3(x 1)2 1
turning pt (1, 1)
shape

= 3( 1)2 1
2

(1, 1)

y|x=0 = 2
y intercept = 2
1(b)

y = 2(x + 1)2 3
turning pt (1, 3)
shape
y|x=0 = 5
y intercept = 5

1(c)

(2,1)

y = 3(x 2)2
turning pt (2,0)
shape

3(a)
(2,0)

12
y = 3(x 2)2

Quadratic equation
px 2 6x + p = 0
i.e. a = p, b = 6, c = p
Discriminant
For equal real roots:
b2 4ac
=0
(6)2 4(p)(p) = 0
36 4p2
=0
2
p 9
=0
(p + 3)(p 3) = 0
p = 3 or p = 3

Quadratic equation
5x 2 x 2 = 0
i.e. a = 5, b = 1, c = 2

3(b)

Quadratic equation
3x 2 + 2x p = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 2, c = p
Discriminant
For two distinct real roots:
b2 4ac
>0
(2)2 4(3)(p) > 0
4 + 12p
>0
12p
> 4

Quadratic equation
9x 2 + 6x + 1 = 0
i.e. a = 9, b = 6, c = 1
Discriminant
b2 4ac = (6)2 4(9)(1)
=0
2 Real Roots

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

Quadratic equation
(x 2)2
= 6
2
x 4x + 4 = 6
x 2 4x + 10 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = 10
Discriminant
b2 4ac = (4)2 4(1)(10)
= 24
<0
0 Real Root

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (1)2 4(5)(2)
= 41
>0
2 Real roots
2(b)

2(d)

1
= ( + 2)2 + 1
4
2

y|x=0 = 2
y intercept = 2

2(a)

y = (x + 2)2 + 1

y|x=0 = 12
y intercept = 12

5
= 2( + 1)2 3

turning pt (2,1)
shape

1(d)

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (1)2 4(3)(1)
= 11
<0
0 Real Root

(1, 3)

Quadratic equation
x 2 + x + 1 = 2x 2
3x 2 + x + 1 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 1

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3

20

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(c)

Ex 1.3

Quadratic equation
2x 2 + 3x + 2p = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 3, c = 2p

4(c)

Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
0
2
(3) 4(2)(2p) 0
9 16p
0
16p
9
p
3(d)

9
16

Discriminant
For no x intercepts:
b2 4ac
<0
2
(2) 4(p)(3) < 0
4 12p
<0
12p
>4

5(a)

4(a)

1
16

Quadratic curve
y = 4x 2 4x p
i.e. a = 4, b = 4, c = p

k
5(b)

>
2

Quadratic Inequality
3x 2 + 6x + k 1 is always negative
i.e. a = 3, b = 6, c = k 1
2 conditions
(i) a < 0
3 < 0
(ii) b2 4ac
(6)2 4(3)(k 1)
36 + 12(k 1)
36 + 12k 12
12k
k

Quadratic curve
y = 9x 2 px + 1
i.e. a = 9, b = p, c = 1
Discriminant
For one x intercept:
b2 4ac
=0
(p)2 4(9)(1) = 0
p2 36
=0
(p + 6)(p 6) = 0
p = 6 or p = 6

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

Quadratic Inequality
2x 2 + 2x + k is always positive
i.e. a = 2, b = 2, c = k

(ii) b2 4ac
<0
(2)2 4(2)k < 0
8k
>4

Discriminant
For two x intercepts:
b2 4ac
>0
2
(4) 4(4)(p) > 0
16 + 16p
>0
p
> 1
4(b)

2 conditions
(i) a > 0
2>0

Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
<0
2
(1) 4(p)(4) < 0
1 + 16p
<0
<

>

Quadratic equation
px 2 x 4 = 0
i.e. a = p, b = 1, c = 4

Quadratic curve
y = px 2 2x + 3
i.e. a = p, b = 2, c = 3

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<0
<0
<0
< 24
< 2

21

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(c)

Ex 1.3

Quadratic Inequality
y = 2x 2 + x 2k lies entirely above x axis
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 2k

7(b)

2 conditions
(i) a > 0
2>0

<

1
16

Discriminant
For curve to meet x axis:
B 2 4AC
0
2
(2) 4(3)(c 1) 0
4 12(c 1)
0
4 12c + 12
0
16
12c

13
(2,1)

does not cut x axis


discriminant < 0
negative
7(c)

2
1

= (x 4)2
2

turning pt (4,0)
shape
f(0) = 8
y intercept = 8

= ()

+3
+3

= 2[(x 1)2 12 ] +3
= 2(x 1)2
turning pt (1,5)
shape

+8

= [(x 4)2 42 ] +8

= 2(x 2 2x)

+8

2
1
2
1

f(x) = 2x 2 + 4x

f(x) = x 2 4x
= [x 2 8x]

7(a)

Quadratic equation
y = 3x 2 2x + c 1
i.e. A = 3, B = 2, C = c 1

+13
+13
+13
+1

f(0) = 13
y intercept = 13

= ()

(ii) b2 4ac
<0
(1)2 4(2)(2k) < 0
1 + 16k
<0
k

f(x) = 3x 2 12x
= 3(x 2 4x)
= 3[(x 2)2 22 ]
= 3(x 2)2
turning pt (2,1)
shape

+5

(4,0)

cuts x axis once


discriminant = 0
zero

f(0) = 3
y intercept = 3

(1,5)
3

= ()

cuts x axis twice


discriminant > 0
positive

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22

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(d)

Ex 1.3

f(x) = 4x 2 8x
= 4[x 2 + 2x]
= 4[(x + 1)2 12 ]
= 4(x + 1)2
turning pt (1, 1)
shape

5
5
5
1

8(c)

Discriminant
For two unequal real roots:
b2 4ac
>0
(1)2 4(2)(1 p) > 0
1 8(1 p)
>0
1 8 + 8p
>0
8p
>7

f(0) = 5
y intercept = 5

(1, 1)
5
= ()

8(d)

does not cut x axis


b2 4ac < 0
negative
8(a)

Quadratic equation
3x 2
= 2x + p 1
2
3x 2x + 1 p = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 2, c = 1 p
Discriminant
For distinct real roots:
b2 4ac
>0
2
(2) 4(3)(1 p) > 0
4 12(1 p)
>0
4 12 + 12p
>0
12p
>8
p

Quadratic equation
p(x + 1)(x 3)
= x 4p 2
2
p(x 2x 3)
= x 4p 2
px 2 2px 3p
= x 4p 2
2
px (2p + 1)x + p + 2 = 0
i.e. a = p, b = (2p + 1), c = p + 2
Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
[(2p + 1)]2 4(p)(p + 2)
(4p2 + 4p + 1) 4p(p + 2)
(4p2 + 4p + 1) 4p2 8p
4p + 1
4p
4p

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
< 1
>1

>

1
4

Quadratic equation
x 2 + p2
= 3px 5
2
2
x 3px + p + 5= 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 3p, c = p2 + 5

Quadratic equation
x 2 2kx + k 2
=3+x
2
2
(2k
x
+ 1)x + k 3 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (2k + 1), c = 3
Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
0
2
2
[(2k + 1)] 4(1)(k 3) 0
(4k 2 + 4k + 1) 4(k 2 3) 0
4k 2 + 4k + 1 4k 2 + 12
0
4k + 13
0

Discriminant
For equal real roots:
b2 4ac
=0
2
2
(3p) 4(1)(p + 5) = 0
9p2 4p2 20
=0
2
5p 20
=0
p2 4
=0
(p + 2)(p 2)
=0
p = 2 or p = 2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

>

>
9

8(b)

Quadratic equation
(x + 1)(2x 1) = p 2
2x 2 + x 1
=p2
2
2x + x + 1 p = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 1 p

k
least value of k is

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13
4

13
4

23

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

11

Ex 1.3

Quadratic equation
2x 2 + p
= 2(x 1)
2x 2 + p
= 2x 2
2
2x 2x + 2 + p = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 2, c = 2 + p

12(b) Quadratic inequality


kx 2 + 1
> 2kx k for all real values of x
kx 2 2kx + k + 1> 0
i.e. a = k, b = 2k, c = k + 1
2 conditions
(i) a > 0
k>0

Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
(2)2 4(2)(2 + p)
4 8(2 + p)
1 2(2 + p)
1 4 2p
2p

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<3

> [shown]

(ii) b2 4ac
<0
2
(2k) 4(k)(k + 1) < 0
4k 2 4k(k + 1)
<0
2
2
4k 4k 4k
<0
4k
<0
4k
>0
k
>0

3
2

Quadratic equation
px 2 + 3px + p + q = 0
i.e. a = p, b = 3p, c = p + q

13(a) Line & curve


y = kx 5
x 2 = 2y + 1

Discriminant
For two equal real roots:
b2 4ac
=0
2
(3p) 4(p)(p + q) = 0
9p2 4p2 4pq
=0
2
5p 4pq
=0
p(5p 4q)
=0

(1)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


x2
= 2(kx 5) + 1
2
x
= 2kx 10 + 1
2
x 2kx + 9 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 2k, c = 9
Discriminant
For line to be tangent to curve:
b2 4ac
=0
2
(2k) 4(1)(9) = 0
4k 2 36
=0
2
k 9
=0
(k + 3)(k 3)
=0
k = 3 or k = 3

p = 0 (rej p 0) or p = q [shown]
5

12(a) Quadratic inequality


3x 2 3x > x + k for all real values of x
3x 2 4x k > 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 4, c = k
2 conditions
(i) a > 0
3>0
(ii) b2 4ac
<0
(4)2 4(3)(k) < 0
16 12(k)
<0
12k
< 16
k

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<
3

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24

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.3

13(b) Line & curve


x + 3y = k 1
3y
=k1x
y

k1x

13(d) Line & curve


y=x+k1

(1)

(y 1)2 = 4x

(2)

(1)

y 2 = 2x + 5

sub (1) into (2):


(x + k 1 1)2
= 4x
2
(x + k 2)
= 4x
2
[x + (k 2)]
= 4x
x 2 + 2(k 2)x + (k 2)2
= 4x
2
2
x + (2k 4)x +(k 4k + 4) = 4x
x 2 +(2k 8)x +(k 2 4k + 4) = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (2k 8), c = (k 2 4k + 4)

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(

k1x 2

3
(k1x)2
9

= 2x + 5
= 2x + 5

(k 1 x)2
= 18x + 45
(1)2 (x + 1 k)2 = 18x + 45
[x + (1 k)]2
= 18x + 45
2
x + 2(1 k)x + (1 k)2
= 18x + 45
2
2
x + (2 2k)x + (1 2k + k )
= 18x + 45
2
2
x + (16 2k)x +(k 2k 44) = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (16 2k), c = (k 2 2k 44)
Discriminant
For line to meet curve:
b2 4ac
0
(16 2k)2 4(1)(k 2 2k 44)
0
2
2
(4k + 64k + 256) 4k + 8k + 176 0
72k + 432
0
k
6
13(c) Line & curve
y = kx + 2
y 2 = 8x x 2

Discriminant
For line to not meet curve:
b2 4ac
(2k 8)2 4(1)(k 2 4k + 4)
22 (k 4)2 4(k 2 4k + 4)
(k 2 8k + 16) k 2 + 4k 4
4k + 12
4k
k
14(i)

(1)
(2)

(1)

y=xk

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


kx(x + 2)
=xk
2
kx + 2kx
=xk
2
kx + (2k 1)x + k = 0
i.e. a = k, b = (2k 1), c = k

sub (1) into (2):


(kx + 2)2
= 8x x 2
k 2 x 2 +4kx +4
= 8x x 2
(k 2 + 1)x 2 +(4k 8)x +4 = 0
i.e. a = (k 2 + 1), b = (4k 8), c = 4
Discriminant
For line to intersect curve at two distinct points:
b2 4ac
>0
2
2
(4k 8) 4(k + 1)(4) > 0
42 (k 2)2 42 (k 2 + 1)
>0
2
2
(k 2) (k + 1)
>0
(k 2 4k + 4) k 2 1
>0
4k + 3
>0
4k
<3
k

Line & curve


y = kx(x + 2)

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
< 12
>3

Discriminant
For curve to meet the line:
b2 4ac
0
2
(2k 1) 4(k)(k) 0
4k 2 4k + 1 4k 2 0
4k + 1
0
4k
1
1

14(ii) k = 1
4

<
4

14(iii) 1 is greater than 1 and it does not satisfy the


4

inequality to have any intersections,


0 intersections
Daniel & Samuel
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25

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

Ex 1.3

Quadratic inequality
5x 2 + 20x + c
< 50 for all real values of x
5x 2 + 20x + c 50 < 0
i. e. A = 5, B = 20, C = c 50

17(i)

2 conditions
(i) A < 0
5 < 0
(ii) B 2 4AC < 0
(20)2 4(5)(c 50)
400 + 20(c 50)
400 + 20c 1000
20c
c
15(ii) y = 5x 2 + 20x
= 5(x 2 4x)
= 5[(x 2)2 22 ]
= 5(x 2)2
turning pt (2,40)
shape

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (4)2 4(1)(1)
= 20
>0
intersects x axis twice

<0
<0
<0
< 600
< 30

17(ii) Quadratic curve


When p = 2:
y = x 2 + (2)x (2) + 3
= x 2 2x + 5
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 5

+20
+20
+20
+40

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (2)2 4(1)(5)
= 16
<0
y is always positive

y|x=0 = 20
y intercept = 20

17(iii) Quadratic curve


y = x 2 + px p + 3
i.e. a = 1, b = p, c = p + 3

(2,40)
20

= 5( 2)2 + 40

15(iii) Indeed as c = 20 < 30, the baseball does not reach


the height of 50m (at most 40m).
16(i)

k 2 4k + 12 = (k 2)2 22 + 12
= (k 2)2 +8 [shown]

16(ii) Quadratic equation


x 2 + kx
=3k
2
x + kx + k 3 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = k, c = k 3

Discriminant
For curve to be tangent to x-axis,
b2 4ac
=0
(p)2 4(p + 3) = 0
p2 + 4p 12
=0
(p + 6)(p 2) = 0
p = 6 or p = 2
At p = 6,
At p = 2,
2
y = x 6x + 6 + 3 y = x 2 + 2x 2 + 3
= x 2 6x + 9
= x 2 + 2x + 1
At y = 0,
x 2 6x + 9 = 0
(x 3)2
=0
x
=3
(3,0)

Discriminant
b2 4ac = k 2 4(1)(k 3)
= k 2 4k + 12
= (k 2)2 + 8
>0
(k 2)2 0
real for all real values of k
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

Quadratic curve
When p = 4:
y = x 2 + (4)x (4) + 3
= x 2 + 4x 1
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = 1

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At y = 0,
x 2 + 2x + 1 = 0
(x + 1)2
=0
x
= 1
(1,0)

26

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18(i)

Ex 1.3

Quadratic equation
f(x)
= g(x)
2
x + 6x 5
= 8x + c
2
x 2x 5 c = 0
i.e. A = 1, B = 2, C = 5 c

19(ii) Quadratic function


At C = 80:
1.2n2 14.4n + 53.7 = 80
1.2n2 14.4n 26.3 = 0
i.e. a = 1.2, b = 14.4, c = 26.3

Discriminant
For y = f(x) to intersect y = g(x):
B 2 4AC
0
(2)2 4(1)(5 c) 0
4 + 4(5 + c)
0
1+5+c
0
c
6

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (14.4)2 4(1.2)(26.3)
= 333.6
>0
Possible to reach 80 thousand dollars

18(ii) Quadratic inequality


f(x)
> g(x) for all real values of x
2
x + 6x 5
> 8x + c
2
x 2x 5 c > 0
i.e. A = 1, B = 2, C = 5 c

19(iii) Quadratic inequality


C
>x
1.2n2 14.4n + 53.7
>x
2
1.2n 14.4n + 53.7 x > 0
i.e. a = 1.2, b = 14.4, c = 53.7 x
2 conditions
(i) A > 0
1.2 > 0

(i) A > 0
1>0
(ii) B 2 4AC
(2)2 4(1)(5 c)
4 + 4(5 + c)
1 + (5 + c)
6+c
c
19(i)

(ii) b2 4ac < 0


(14.4)2 4(1.2)(53.7 x)
207.36 4.8(53.7 x)
43.2
53.7 + x
10.5 + x
x

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
< 6

<0
<0
<0
<0
< 10.5

Combine inequalities:
x < 10.5 and x > 0
0 < x < 10.5

Quadratic function
At C = 10:
1.2n2 14.4n + 53.7 = 10
1.2n2 14.4n + 43.7 = 0
i.e. a = 1.2, b = 14.4, c = 43.7

20(i)

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (14.4)2 4(1.2)(43.7)
= 2.7
<0
not possible to have a cost of production of 10
thousand dollars

y = 0.5t 2 + 7t + k
Height is 26m after 10s,
y|t=10
= 26
2
0.5(10) + 7(10) + k = 26
50 + 70 + k
= 26
k
=6

20(ii) y = 0.5t 2 + 7t + 6
y|t=0 = 6

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27

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.3

20(iii) y
> 30
2
0.5t + 7t + 6 > 30
0.5t 2 7t + 24 < 0
t 2 14t + 48 < 0
(t 6)(t 8) < 0
+

22(ii)

=
=

+
8

22

20(iv) Axis of symmetry


= average of t intercepts

23

6+8
2

=7
Maximum point
= y|t=7 = 0.5(7)2 + 7(7) + 6 = 30.5
20(v) y = 0.5(t 7)2 + 30.5
(a)

20(v)
(b)

= 0.5 2 + 7 + 30.5
(7,30.5)

No.
The graphs have different domain.
1st: t 0
2nd : t
21

22(i)

23

2a

2a

(b)2 (b2 4ac)


4a2
4ac
4a2
c
a

[shown]

Yes?
Regardless b2 4ac is less than 0 or not,
LHS is proven to equal RHS
A:
B:
2
y
y = 0.3x + 3
= 0.2x 2 + 1.8

C:
y = 0.08x 2
+2.4

2.4

1.8

30

Comparing x-intercepts,
C
>A >B
30 > 10 > 3
C will send water the farthest

y
= 10
0.5x 2 + 2x + k
= 10
2
0.5x + 2x + k 10 = 0
x 2 4x 2k + 20
=0
(2k
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c =
+ 20)
For water jet to send water to height of 10 m,
b2 4ac
0
(4)2 4(1)(2k + 20) 0
16 4(2k + 20)
0
4 (2k + 20)
0
2 (k + 10)
0
2 + k 10
0
k
8

2a
bb2 4ac

b+b2 4ac

2a

23(iii) Compare modulus of coefficient of x 2 :


A
>B
>C
|0.3| > |0.2| > |0.08|
A will produce the narrowest path

b+b2 4ac

+ =

bb2 4ac

23(ii) Comparing y-intercepts,


A> C
>B
3 > 2.4 > 1.8
A will send water the highest

Incorrect.
He forgets to include m 0
m = 0 Linear equation
=

)(

23(i)

2a

10

(7,30.5)
6

b+b2 4ac

=(
=

6< t<8

bb2 4ac
2a

2b
2a
b

=
a

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28

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.4
1(f)

Ex 1.4
1(a)

x2 4
0
(x + 2)(x 2) 0

(x 1)(x + 2) < 0

+ +
2 1

+
2

2 x 2

2 < x < 1
2

2
1

2
1(b)

(x + 3)(x 4) 0

2x 2 4x 3 > x
2x 2 5x 3 > 0
(2x + 1)(x 3) > 0

+ +
3 4

3 x 4

+
3

x < or x > 3
2

3
1(c)

3(a)

(2x + 3)(x 2) > 0


+

x(x 2)
<3
x 2 2x 3 < 0
(x 3)(x + 1) < 0
+ +
1 3

+
2

1 < x < 3

x < or x > 2
2

1(d)

3(b)

+ +
2 6

x(x 5) 0
+

x2
> 4x + 12
2
x 4x 12 > 0
(x 6)(x + 2) > 0

x < 2 or x > 6

+
5

3(c)

x 0 or x 5

4x(x + 1)
3
2
4x + 4x 3
0
(2x + 3)(2x 1) 0
+

0
1(e)

x 2 4x
x(x 4)
+

3(d)

0x4

+
1

0
0

(1 x)2
17 2x
2
x 2x + 1 17 2x
x 2 16
0
(x + 4)(x 4) 0
+ +
4 4

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(e)

(x + 2)2
x 2 + 4x + 4
2x 2 36
x 2 18
(x + 18)(x 18)
+

Ex 1.4
< x(4 x) + 40
< 4x x 2 + 40
<0
<0
<0

6(b)

Discriminant
For two real roots:
b2 4ac
0
2
(2p) 4(9)(1) 0
4p2 36
0
p2 9
0
(p + 3)(p 3) 0

18 18
18 < x < 18
4

S = 600 + 520T 20T 2


S
> 3800
2
600 + 520T 20T > 3800
20T 2 520T + 3200 < 0
T 2 26T + 160
<0
(T 16)(T 10)
<0
+

10

6(c)

< 150
< 150
<0
<0

18

6(a)

5
18

Quadratic equation
px 2 2x + 2p + 1 = 0
i.e. a = p, b = 2, c = 2p + 1
Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
(2)2 4(p)(2p + 1)
4 4p(2p + 1)
1 2p2 p
2p2 + p 1
(2p 1)(p + 1)

C = 5x 2 38x + 222

+
3

p 3 or p 3

16

C
5x 2 38x + 222
5x 2 38x + 72
(5x 18)(x 4)

10 < T < 16
5

Quadratic equation
9x 2 + 2px + 1 = 0
i.e. a = 9, b = 2p, c = 1

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
>0

+
1
2
1

<x<4

p < 1 or p >
2

Quadratic equation
x 2 px + p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = p, c = p
Discriminant
For two distinct real roots:
b2 4ac
>0
(p)2 4(1)p > 0
p2 4p
>0
p(p 4)
>0
+

+
4

p < 0 or p > 4

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30

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(d)

Ex 1.4

Quadratic equation
2x 2 2px + p2 + p = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 2p, c = p2 + p
Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
(2p)2 4(2)(p2 + p)
4p2 8(p2 + p)
p2 2(p2 + p)
p2 2p2 2p
p2 2p
p2 + 2p
p(p + 2)

Quadratic equation
3kx 2 + (k 5)x
= 5x 2 + 2
2
(3k 5)x + (k 5)x 2 = 0
i.e. a = (3k 5), b = (k 5), c = 2
Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
(k 5)2 4(3k 5)(2)
k 2 10k + 25 +8(3k 5)
k 2 10k + 25 +(24k 40)
k 2 + 14k 15
(k + 15)(k 1)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<0

+ +
15 1

+ +
2 0

15 < x < 1

2 p 0
9
7(a)

1st inequality
x 2 + ax
<b
2
x + ax b < 0
2nd inequality
2 < x < 4 is the solution:
k[x (2)](x 4) < 0
k(x + 2)(x 4)
<0
Compare x 2 : k = 1

Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
[(2p + 4)]2 4(p)(10 p)
4p2 + 16p + 16 4p(10 p)
p2 + 4p + 4 p(10 p)
p2 + 4p + 4 10p + p2
2p2 6p + 4
p2 3p + 2
(p 1)(p 2)

(x + 2)(x 4) < 0
x 2 2x 8
<0
Compare x: a = 2
Compare x 0 : b = 8
7(b)

Quadratic equation
px 2 p + 10
= 2(p + 2)x
2
px p + 10
= (2p + 4)x
2
px (2p + 4)x + 10 p = 0
i.e. a = p, b = (2p + 4), c = 10 p

1st inequality
2x 2 + a
> bx
2
2x bx + a > 0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

+
2

p 1 or p 2
2nd inequality
x < 2 or x > 3 is the solution:
k[x (2)](x 3) > 0
k(x + 2)(x 3)
>0
2
Compare x : k = 2

The opposite is true


p cannot lie between 1 and 2

2(x + 2)(x 3)
>0
2
2(x x 6)
>0
2
2x 2x 12
>0
Compare x: a = 12
Compare x 0 : b = 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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31

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

Ex 1.4

Quadratic equation
(p + 2)x 2 12x + 2(p 1) = 0
i.e. a = p + 2, b = 12, c = 2(p 1)
Discriminant
For real and distinct roots:
b2 4ac
(12)2 4(p + 2)[2(p 1)]
144 8(p + 2)(p 1)
18 (p2 + p 2)
p2 p + 20
p2 + p 20
(p + 5)(p 4)

12

(1)

2xy + 6 = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x(2x + c) + 6 = 0
4x 2 + 2cx + 6
=0
i.e. A = 4, B = 2c, C = 6
Discriminant
For line not to intersect curve:
B 2 4AC
<0
2
(2c) 4(4)(6)
<0
2
4c 4(4)6
<0
2
c 24
<0
(c + 24)(c 24) < 0
+

x 2 xy + y 2 = 1

(2)

Discriminant
For two distinct points:
B 2 4AC
(3k)2 4(3)(k 2 1)
9k 2 12(k 2 1)
3k 2 4(k 2 1)
3k 2 4k 2 + 4
k2 4
(k + 2)(k 2)

5 < x < 4
Line & curve
y = 2x + c

(1)

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 x(2x k) +(2x k)2
x 2 2x 2 + kx +(4x 2 4kx + k 2 )
x 2 + kx
+(4x 2 4kx + k 2 )
3x 2 3kx + k 2
3x 2 3kx + (k 2 1)
i.e. A = 3, B = 3k, C = k 2 1

>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

+ +
5 4

11

Line & curve


2x y = k
y = 2x k

=1
=1
=1
=1
=0

>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

+ +
2 2
2 < k < 2
13(i)

d
80
2
0.15v + v
80
2
3v + 20v 1600 0 [shown]

13(ii) (3v + 80)(v 20) 0


+

24 24

24 < c < 24

80

+
20

80
v 20
3

Max speed = 20ms 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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32

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.4

14

Compare x:

=6

Total surface area


2r 2 + 2r(6)
2r 2 + 12r 224
r 2 + 6r 112
(r + 14)(r 8)

Compare x 0 : 16 = 4k
k =4

> 224
> 224
>0
>0
>0

+ +
14 8

3(x 5)
3x 15
8
4

Quadratic equation
(k 6)x 2 8x + k = 0
i.e. a = (k 6), b = 8, c = k
Discriminant
For two distinct points:
b2 4ac
>0
2
(8) 4(k 6)(k) > 0
64 4(k 2 6k)
>0
16 k 2 + 6k
>0
2
k 6k 16
<0
(k 8)(k + 2)
<0

15
x(2x + 1)
>6
2
(i)(b) 2x + x 6
>0
(2x 3)(x + 2) > 0

+
2

(2)

= 12
17

(1)

sub (2) into (1):


p = (4 + 2(4))

r < 14 (rej r > 0) or r > 8


15
5x 7
(i)(a) 5x 7
2x
x

p = (4 + 2k)

+ +
2 8

2 < k < 8

3
2

For minimum point,


(k 6) > 0
k
>6

x < 2 or x >
2

3
2

Combine inequalities,
2 < k < 8 and k > 6
6<k< 8

15
(ii)
3

4 2
4 x < 2
16

or

18(a) x 2 + 2x < 0
x(x + 2) < 0

and x 2 x
>2
2
x x2
>0
(x 2)(x + 1) > 0
+ +
2 0
+ +
1 2
2 < x < 0
x < 1 or x > 2

x>
2

1st inequality
2x 2 + px + 16 < 0
2nd inequality
2 < x < k is solution
A(x 2)(x k)
Compare x 2 : A = 2
2(x 2)(x k)
2(x 2 2x kx + 2k)
2[x 2 (2 + k)x + 2k]
2x 2 4(4 + 2k)x + 4k

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2 1

<0

2 < x < 1
<0
<0
<0
<0

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33

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.4

18(b) x 2
4
2
x 4
0
(x + 2)(x 2) 0

and x 2 6
> 5x
2
x 5x 6 > 0
(x 6)(x + 1) > 0

+ +
2 2

+ +
258.36 258.03
258.36 x 258.03
19(iii) 1 + 2n + 3 n(n 1) 100 000
2

258.36 n 258.03
Largest integer satisfying the above inequality
258

+
4

0x4
20
4

3< x 4
18(d) x x 2 < 9
x
x2
x2 x 0
x(x 1) 0
+

x 2 2x 3 > 0
(x + 1)(x 3) > 0
+ > or x 3 > 0
x > 1 x > 3
3rd step is incorrect

and x 2
<9
2
x 9
<0
(x + 3)(x 3) < 0

We cannot indiscriminately distribute the same


inequality sign to both factors.

+ +
3 3

x 0 or x 1

100 000

3x 2 + x 199 998 0

18(c) 0 < x(x 3) x


0 < x(x 3)
and x(x 3) x
x 2 4x 0
+ +
x(x 4) 0
3
0

2(3)

x = 258.36 or x = 258.03

x 2 or x > 6

112 4(3)(199 998)

19(ii) 1 + 2x + 3 (x 1)x

x < 0 or x > 3

x=

x < 1 or x > 6

1 + 2x + (x 1)x = 100 000


2 + 4x + 3(x 1)x = 200 000
2 + 4x + 3x 2 3x = 200 000
3x 2 + x 199 998 = 0

+ +
1 6

x 2 or x 2

2 1

19(i)

Correct Solution
x 2 2x 3 > 0
(x + 1)(x 3) > 0

3 < x < 3

+ +
1 3

3 < x 0 or 1 x < 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

x < 1 or x > 3

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34

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1
A3(i)

Rev Ex 1
A1

x + 2y = 5
2y
= x + 5
y

= x+

(1)
Sum of roots

2x + y = 2xy
sub (1) into (2):

(2)

x+

5
5

x x+

2x 7x + 5
(2x 5)(x 1)
x=

5
2

or
1 5

2 2
5

y|x=5 = ( ) +

c
a

=
=

1
2
5
2

2 ( )

=5
4

=0
=0

1 2

= ( )

=0

a2 + 2 = ( + )2 2

= x 2 + 5x

2
7

=+ =

Product of roots =

2x + ( x + ) = 2x ( x + )
3

1st equation
2x 2 + x 5 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 5
Roots: & , where <

A3(ii) ( )2 = 2 2 + 2
= (2 + 2 ) 2

x =1
1

y|x=1 = (1) +

=2

=5
=

2 ( )

4
41

4
1

= 10
4

A2

Perimeter
2x + 2y = 36
x+y
= 18
y
= 18 x

(1)

A3(iii) = 41 or = 41
2

(rej < )
A3(iv) 2nd equation

Square of diagonal length


2

Recall + = ,
2

5
2

(x 2 + y 2 ) = 164
x2 + y2

= 164

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 +(18 x)2 164
=0
2
2
x +(x 36x + 324) 164 = 0
(2x 2 36x + 324) 164
=0
2
2x 36x + 160
=0
2
x 18x + 80
=0
(x 8)(x 10)
=0
x=8
or x = 10
y|x=8 = 18 (8)
y|x=10 = 18 (10)
= 10
=8
Dimensions are 8 m by 10 m

Roots: 2 & 2
Sum of roots = 2 + (2)
= 2( )
= 2 (

41
)
2

= 41

Product of roots = (2)(2)


= 4
5

= 4 ( ) = 10
2

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 (41)x +10 = 0
x2 + 41x +10

=0

35

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1

A4(a) Quadratic equation


x2 + 3
= 2x + p
x 2 2x + 3 p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 3 p
Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
(2)2 4(1)(3 p)
4 4(3 p)
1+p3
p

A5(a) x 2 5x + 3 > 5 4x
x2 x 2
>0
(x 2)(x + 1) > 0
+ +
1 2
x < 1 or x > 2

0
0
0
0
2

A4(b) Quadratic equation


2x 2 + 23x + p
= p(x 2 + 2)
2x 2 + 23x + p
= px 2 + 2p
(2 p)x 2 + 23x p = 0
i.e. a = 2 p, b = 23, c = p

1 2
A5(b) Quadratic inequality
3x 2 6x + c
> 4 for all real values of x
2
3x 6x + c 4 > 0
i.e. A = 3, B = 6, C = c 4
2 conditions
(i) A > 0
3>0

a
0
(2 p) 0
p
2
Discriminant
For distinct real roots:
b2 4ac
2

(23) 4(2 p)(p)


12 4(p2 2p)
12 4p2 + 8p
p2 2p 3
(p 3)(p + 1)

(ii) B 2 4AC
(6)2 4(3)(c 4)
36 12(c 4)
3 (c 4)
3c+4
7c
c
c

>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

+ +
1 3
1 < p < 3
Combine inequalities
1 < p < 3 and p 2
1 < p < 2 or 2 < p < 3

A6(i)

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
< 7
>7

Quadratic equation
x 2 + px + 8
=p
2
x + px + 8 p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = p, c = 8 p
Discriminant
b2 4ac = (p)2 4(1)(8 p)
= p2 32 + 4p
= p2 + 4p 32
= (p + 8)(p 4)
For equal roots:
b2 4ac
=0
(p + 8)(p 4)
=0
p = 8 or p = 4

36

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1

A6(ii) For distinct real roots:


b2 4ac
>0
(p + 8)(p 4) > 0

A7(b) Line & curve


y = px 3
(1)
2
y = 4x + 5
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
px 3
= 4x 2 + 5
2
4x px + 8 = 0
i.e. a = 4, b = p, c = 8

+ +
8 4
p < 8 or p > 4
A6(iii) For a positive & a negative root:
POR < 0

<0
c
<0

Discriminant
For line to intersect curve:
b2 4ac
0
2
(p) 4(4)(8)
0
2
p 128
0
(p + 128)(p 128) 0

8p <0
p
< 8
p
>8

+
2

A7(a) 2x 4x + 5
= 2(x 2 2x)
+5
2
2
= 2[(x 1) 1 ] +5
= 2(x 1)2
+3
turning pt (1,3)
y intercept = 5
shape

= 2( 1)2 + 3
5
(1,3)

p 128 or p 128
largest negative integer is 12
A8(i)

Discriminant
For line to be tangent to the curve:
B 2 4AC
=0
2
(6) 4(2)(5 c) = 0
36 8(5 c)
=0
36 40 + 8c
=0
8c 4
=0
2

=+ =

Product of roots =

1st equation
x 2 4x + 6 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = 6
Roots: &
Sum of roots

128 128

Line & curve


y = 2x 2 4x + 5 (1)
y = 2x + c
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x 2 4x + 5
= 2x + c
2
2x 6x + 5 c = 0
i.e. A = 2, B = 6, C = 5 c

c
a

b
a

=
=

6
1

4
1

=4
=6

2 + 2 = (2 + 2 )

= [( + )2 2]
= ( + )2 3 [shown]
A8(ii) 3 + 3 = ( + ) (2 + 2 )
= ( + ) [( + )2 3]
[42
= (4)
3(6)]
= 8
A8(iii) 2nd equation
Roots: 3 & 3
Sum of roots = 3 + 3 = 8
Product of roots = 3 3 = ()3 = (6)3 = 216
x 2 (SOR)x +POR = 0
x 2 (8)x +(216) = 0
x2 + 8x + 216
=0

37

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B1

Rev Ex 1
B2(b) 3 2x x 2 0
x 2 + 2x 3 0
(x + 3)(x 1) 0

x + 2y = 10
2y
= x + 10
1

= x+5
2

2y 7y + x = 1
sub (1) into (2):

+ +
3 1

(2)

3 x 1

(1)

2 ( x + 5) 7 ( x + 5) + x
2

=1

2 ( x 2 5x + 25) + ( x 35) + x
1

( x 2 10x + 50) + ( x 35)


1 2
x
2
1 2
x
2
2

11
2
11
2

=1

x + 15

=1

x + 14

=0

x 11x + 28
(x 4)(x 7)
x=4

=0
=0

y|x=4 = (4) + 5
=3

A(4,3)

3
2
3

b
a
2(p+1)

= 2p + 2
2p+2

(1)

a
p2 +p

2 ( ) (p + 1)
3
8
(p2
9
2

(2)
= p2 + p

+ 2p + 1)

d+c
cd

12
1

(1)

= 12

=1

= 23 [shown]

B3(ii) 2nd equation


Roots:

1
c

&

1
d

Sum of roots

= +

= 23

cd

Product of roots = ( ) ( ) =

= (1) = 1

=p +p

= (3) =

8p + 16p + 8
= 9p + 9p
2
p 7p 8
=0
(p + 1)(p 8) = 0
p = 1
or
p=8
|p=1 = 0
a|p=8 = 6
(rej roots are non zero)

2k
6

k
3
k
12

(1)

Product of roots

=p +p

=0

B4(a) 6x 2 2kx + k = 0
Roots: & 3
Sum of roots
= + 3 =

1
2

2p+2 2

+ =

x2 23x + 1

22
=p +p
sub (1) into (2):
3
2 2

(12)

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

Product of roots
c
= (2) =

2(

Product of roots = cd =

Sum of roots = c + d = =

B (7, )

= + 2 =

x 2 12x + 1 = 0
i.e. A = 1, B = 12, C = 1
Roots: c & d

B2(a) x 2 2(p + 1)x + p2 + p = 0


Roots: & 2
Sum of roots

1st equation

y|x=7 = (7) + 5

B3(i)

or x = 7

=1

k
6
k
6

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


k 2

3( )
12

k2
48
2

=
=

k
6
k
6

k
= 8k
k 2 8k = 0
k(k 8) = 0
k = 0 (rej k is positive) or k = 8

38

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1

B4(b) x 2
= 3x + 5
2
x 3x 5 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 3, c = 5
Roots: &
Sum of roots

B5(a) Quadratic inequality


y = x 2 + 2(k 3)x 25 < 0 for all x
i.e. a = 1, b = 2(k 3), c = 25

=+

Product of roots =
1
2

=
=

=
=

b
a

c
a

2 +2
2 2
(+)2 2
()2
32 2(5)
(5)2

19
25

(1)

=
=

3
1
5
1

=3

2 conditions
(i) a < 0
1 < 0

= 5
(ii) b2 4ac
<0
[2(k 3)]2
4(1)(25) < 0
4(k 2 6k + 9) 4(25)
<0
2
(k 6k + 9) 25
<0
2
k 6k 16
<0
(k 8)(k + 1)
<0
+ +
1 8

Show = +
= 5
=

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


1
2
1
2

+
+

1
5 2
( )

25
4

25 +
4
4
4
4

=
=

19
25
19
25

= 192
= 192 25
= 19(3 + 5) 25
= 57 + 95 25
= 57 + 70

1 < k < 8
B5(b) y = (x 3)(x + 1)
(i)
= x 2 2x 3
= (x 1)2 12 3
= (x 1)2 4
turning pt (1,4)
shape
y intercept = 3

= ( 1)2 4
1

Method 2
is a root
2 = 3 + 5

(1)

(1) 2 :
4 = 33 + 52

(2)

(1, 4)

sub (1) into (2):


4 = 3(3 + 5) + 5(3 + 5)
4 = 9a2 + 15 + 15 + 25
4 = 92 + 30 + 25 (3)
sub (1) into (3)
4 = 9(3 + 5) + 30 + 25
4 = 27 + 45 + 30 + 25
4 = 57 + 70

39

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5(b) Quadratic equation
(x 3)(x + 1) = p
(ii)
x 2 2x 3
=p
2
x 2x 3 p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 3 p
Discriminant
For equal real roots:
b2 4ac
=0
(2)2 4(1)(3 p) = 0
4 +12 + 4p = 0
4p
= 16
p
= 4
Quadratic equation with =
x 2 2x 3 (4) = 0
x 2 2x + 1
=0
(x 1)2
=0
x
=1
B6(a) Quadratic equation
(x + 1)2
= h(x + 2)
2
x + 2x + 1
= hx + 2h
2
(2
x + h)x + 1 2h = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (2 h), c = 1 2h
Discriminant
For real root x:
b2 4ac
0
2
(2 h) 4(1)(1 2h) 0
(h2 4h + 4) 4(1 2h) 0
(h2 4h + 4) 4 + 8h
0
2
h + 4h
0
h(h + 4)
0
+ +
4 0
h 4 or h 0
The opposite is true
h cannot lie between 4 and 0 if x is real

Rev Ex 1
B6(b) Line & curve
y = 3x + k
(1)
y2 = 1 x2

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(3x + k)2
= 1 x2
9x 2 + 6kx + k 2
= 1 x2
10x 2 + 6kx + k 2 1 = 0
i.e. a = 10, b = 6, c = k 2 1
Discriminant
For 2 distinct points:
b2 4ac
(6k)2 4(10)(k 2 1)
36k 2 40(k 2 1)
9k 2 10(k 2 1)
9k 2 10k 2 + 10
k 2 + 10
k 2 10
(k + 10)(k 10)
+

>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

10 10
10 < k < 10
Tangent
k = 10
B7(a) (1 + x)(6 x)
(x + 1)(x 6)
x 2 5x 6
x 2 5x 14
(x 7)(x + 2)

8
8
8
0
0

+ +
2
7
x 2 or x 7

40

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1

B7(b) 2x(x + 2)
< (x + 1)(x + 3)
2
2x + 4x
< x 2 + 4x + 3
2
x 3
<0
(x + 3)(x 3) < 0

B8(ii) Discriminant
b2 4ac = (4)2 4(1)(28)
= 128
0
real roots

3 3

B8(iii) product of roots = = 28 < 0


one root is positive and the other is negative.
time can only be positive and the negative root
is rejected hence the rate is 40
mg/s only at one particular time

3 < x < 3
3 3
B8(i)

Quadratic equation
At r = 40:
(t 10)2 2(t 4)2
(t 2 20t + 100) 2(t 2 8t + 16)
(t 2 20t + 100) 2t 2 + 16t 32
t 2 4t + 68
t 2 + 4t 28

= 40
= 40
= 40
= 40
= 0 [shown]

B8(iv) r = t 2 4t
+68
2
= [t + 4t]
+68
2
2
= [(t + 2) 2 ] +68
= (t + 2)2
+72
turning pt (2,72)
shape
y intercept = 68

(2,72)
68

= ( + 2)2 + 72

41

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.1
4

Ex 2.1

(7 + 32)
1(a)

18 = 9 3
= 32

(5 25)

= (7)2 + 2(7)(32) +(32)

2
2

[(52 ) 2(5)(25) +(25) ]


1(b)

1(c)

1(d)

2(a)
2(b)

300 = 100 3
= 103

= 49 +422 +9(2) [25 205 +4(5)]

80 = 16 5
= 45

(45 205)

= 67 +422

45 +205

= 22 + 422 205

48 = 16 3
= 43

5(a)

6
3

42

=
=

23 + 53 33 = 43

3
63

+50

5(b)

2
23

2
23

6
2(3)

6
6

(2 + 5)(2 5)= (2)2 (5)


=4
5
= 1

5(c)

12
254

(1 27)

(1)2

2(1)(27) +(27)

=1
47
= 29 47
3(d)

(5 + 18)

=
=

(1 + 3)(2 3) = 1(2 3) +3(2 3)


= 2 3
+23 3
= 1 + 3

3(c)

=
3(b)

= 23

= 42 4 2 +25 2
= 42 22 +52
= 72
3(a)

= 67 +422

12
254

25+4
25+4

245+48
2

(25) (4)2
245+48
2016
245+48
4

= 65 + 12

+4(7)
6(a)

324
4+32

= (5)2 +2(5)18 +(18)

= 25 +1018 +18
= 43 +109 2
= 43 +10(32)

=
=

= 43 +302

324
4+32

432
432

32(432)

4(432)

2
(4)2 (32)

122 9(2)

16+122

169(2)
34+242
2

= 17 122

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42

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

3+22
322

=
=
=
=
=

6(c)

8
(6+2)

3+22
322
(3)

Ex 2.1

3+22

+23(22)
2

(3) (22)
3

6(d)

3+22

+(22)

50 48

+46

18 12

+4(2)

34(2)

11+46

18 12
50 48

=
=
=
=
=

(6)

=
=

+(2)2

+26(2)

8
6

12(50 + 48)
2

(50) (48)

8
2

50 + 48

18(50 + 48)

5
1146

50 + 48

+ 46

+4

8
10 + 46
8
10 + 46

80 326
(10)2 (46)
80 326
100 16(6)

80 326
=
4

30 + 25 33

106 24
2

6 + 25 33

106
2

6 + (22.5 )(31.5 )
2

106

6 + (22 2)(33)
2

106

6 + 126

106

600 576
50 48

=
10 46
10 46

900 + 864

2
6 + 26
2

= 3 + 6
7(a)

= 20 86

x3 x = 2
x(3 1) = 2
x

=
=
=
=
=

2
31
2

3+1

31
3+1
23+2
2

(3) (1)2
23+2
31
23+2
2

= 3 + 1

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

7(b)

2x 3 = 5
2x 3 = 25

= 14

7(c)

21 x = 3
4(1 x) = 3

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1x

4
1
4

43

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(d)

8(a)

8 x = x 2
8x =x2
2x
= 10
x
=5

Ex 2.1
9(ii)

= 1800
= 100 18
= 1018
= 109 2

a + b3 = 2 3

= 10(32)
= 302

Equate rational terms:


a=2
Equate irrational terms:
b = 1
8(b)

8(c)

a + b7 = 47 12 7
= 12 + 37
Equate rational terms:
a = 12
Equate irrational terms:
b=3

Change in velocity = 302 202


= 102
10(i)
80 3
3 + 25
Total Length
= 2(square perimeter) +4(height)

a + b2 = 3(1 2) + 42
= (3 32) + 42
= 3 + 2
Equate rational terms:
a=3
Equate irrational terms:
b=1

9(i)

v|s=90 = 20(90)

v = 20s

= 2(4)(3 + 25)

+4(80 3)

= 8(3 + 25)

+416 5 12

= 24 + 165

+4(45) 12

= 24 + 165

+165 12

= 12 + 325

10(ii) Volume
= (square base)

(height)

= (3 + 25)

v|s=40 = 20(40)

(80 3)
2

= 800

= [(3)2 + 2(3)(25) + (25) ] (16 5 3)

= 100 8

= (9

= 108

+ 125

+ 20)

(45 3)

= 104 2

= (125 + 29)

(45 3)

= 10(22)

= 125(45 3)

+29(45 3)

= 48(5) 365

+1165 87

= 202

= 153 + 805
11(a) 412

3
3
2

= 44 3 3
3
= 4(23)
= 83

3
3
2

3
3

18
3
18
3

3
3

183
3

63

= 3
3
Daniel & Samuel
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44

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(b)

4
2

=
=
=

4
2

2
2

42

128
3

642
3

2
42

Ex 2.1

82

3
82

3
8

= 22

2
3

= 22

2
3

12(b)

(273)

8
2

42
2

22
1

2
1
2

+ 2
2

= 2
6
11(c)

=
=

2
6

26

6
1

= 6
3

= 6
3

4
27
4
93
4

4
33

( 3
9

37

=
=
=

37
37
37

=
=
=
=

813
2

93

2
9

+ 3
2
+

93

2
9

5
43
5
23

=
)

5
23
53
2(3)

3
3

1
4(7)

127

+9

37127
1
37127

37+127

37+127

37+127

2
(37)2 (127)

37+127

1369144(7)
37+127

361
247
361

1
2

(27) +2(27)(3)+(3)2
1
4(7)

37+127
1
37+127

432

43+2
43+2

43+2
2

(43) (2)2
43+2

37127
(37)2 (127)
37127

37127
361

38

= 44 3 +39 2

= 4(23) +2(32)

= 83

+92

= 83

+92

(52 + 23)

= 83

+92

52 23

43+2

44

1369144(7)

13(a) (3 3)2

16(3)4

37127

5223
38
5223

52+23
52+23

38(52+23)
2

(52) (23)

38(52+23)
25(2)4(3)
38(52+23)
38

= 42 + 63

37127

= 412 +318

+9

3)
6

+127

+ 3
2

12(c) 6(42 + 33)

(32)

27

5
12

(27)

2(27)(3) +(3)2

3)

432

9 2

27

243
2

1
2

1
(27+3)

18

27

37

3(3)

= 6
3

43

33

= 6
3

12(a)

2
43+2
2
43+2

834
2

(43) (2)2

= 12 63

= 12 63

10 53

23

2+3

= 9 63 + 3
432
432

5
23

2+3

10+53
43

= 2 113

834
16(3)4
834
44

643
44
3
22

1
11

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45

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(b)

s2 +1
s+2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

(15)

Ex 2.1
15(b) 6 5x x = 2x
= x
6 5x
6 5x
= x2
x 2 + 5x 6 = 0
(x + 6)(x 1) = 0
x = 6 or x = 1 (rej)

+1

(15)+2
(125+5) +1
35
725
35

3+5
3+5

7(3+5)

25(3+5)

(3)2 (5)
21+75

15(c) x + 5 + x
=1
=1x
x + 5
x+5
= x 2 2x + 1
x 2 3x 4 = 0
(x 4)(x + 1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 4 (rej)

65+2(5)
95

11+5
4
11
4

14(i)

+ 5
4
4+

16

(4 +

= (5 4 3) (4 +
= (5 23)
= (5 23)

(4 +

6
3
6
3

63
3

)
3
3

=
=

(4 + 23)

= 8 + 23
14(ii) By Pythagoras Theorem,
Square of the length of diagonal
2

+ (4 +

10
40 5

40 + 5
40 + 5

400 + 50
2

20 + 25 2
40 5

20 + 52
35

4 + 2
7

+
[given]
7

83 4(3)

= (5 12)

10
405

(40) (5)

= 5(4 + 23) 23(4 + 23)


= 20 + 103

= x5 + 10

(40 5) = 10

5 12
Area = (5 12)

x40

6
3

= (5)2 2(5)12 + (12) + (16 +

48

3
48

36
3

= 25 1012 + 12

+ (28 +

= 37 104 3

+ (28 +

= 37 10(23)

+ (28 +

= 37 203

+(28 + 163)

48
3

483
3

3
3

Equate rational terms:


a=4
Equate irrational terms:
b=2

= 65 43
15(a) 2 + x x
=0
=x
2 + x
2+x
= x2
x2 x 2
=0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0
x = 1 (rej) or x = 2
Daniel & Samuel
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46

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.1

17(a) 3 + a5 = b(3 5) 2(3 + 5)


= 3b b5

18

6 25

a + b7

= 3b 6
(b + 2)5
Equate rational terms:
3 = 3b 6
3b = 9
b =3
(1)
Equate irrational terms:
a = (b + 2) (2)
sub (1) into (2):
a = ((3) + 2)

=
=
=

17(b) a b7 = (2 + 7)(2 7) +7
= (2)2 (7)

=47
= 3 + 7
Equate rational terms:
a = 3
Equate irrational terms:
b = 1
= 1

+7
+7

324
2

(4)2 2(4)7 + (7)


324
16

87
324

+7

23 87
324
23 87

23 + 87
23 + 87

324(23 + 87)
2

(23)2 (87)

324(23 + 87)
529 64(7)

324(23 + 87)
81

Equate rational terms:


a = 92
Equate irrational terms:
b = 32

+b8
2

13

= 92 + 327

= (3)2 2(3)(22) + (22)

+b4 2

=9

+b(22)

= 17 122
= 17 +(2b 12)2
Equate rational terms:
a = 17
Equate irrational terms:
1 = 2b 12

18
47

= 4(23 + 87)

17(c) a + 2 = (3 22)2
122

18
47

=(
=

= 5

b=

a + b7 =

+ 4(2)

+2b2
19(a) (a + 32)(3 42)

= 18 + b2

a(3 2) +32(3 42) = 18 + b2


3a a2 +92 12(2)
3a 24 +(9 4a)2

= 18 + b2
= 18 + b2

Equate rational terms:


3a 24 = 18
3a
=6
a
=2
(1)
Equate irrational terms:
9 4a = b
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
9 4(2) = b
b
=1

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47

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19(b) (3 23)(4 + a3)
3(4 + a3)

Ex 2.1
= b 233

19(d)

23(4 + a3) = b 233

12 + 3a3
83 2a(3)
12 6a
+(3a 8)3
Equate rational terms:
12 6a = b
(1)

2+47

= 4 7

a+b7

2 + 47 = (4 7)(a + b7)

= b 233
= b 233

= 4(a + b7)
= 4a + 4b7
= 4a 7b
Equate rational terms:
2 = 4a 7b
4a = 7b + 2

Equate irrational terms:


3a 8 = 23
3a
= 15
a
= 5
(2)
sub (2) into (1):
12 6(5) = b
b
= 42

7b+2

Equate irrational terms:


4 = 4b a (2)
sub (1) into (2):
4 = 4b (

7b+2
4

= 6 43

a(5 33)

+b3(5 33)

= 6 43

16 = 16b 7b 2
9b = 18
b = 2

5a 3a3
+5b3 3b(3)
5a 9b
+(5b 3a)3
Equate rational terms:
5a 9b = 6

= 6 43
= 6 43

Put b = 2 into (1):

9b+6
5

a|b=2 =

20(i)

9b+6
5

= 4

(2 3) = (2)2 2(2)3 + (3)


+3

20(ii) 28 163= 4(7 43)


2

25b 27b 18 = 20
2b
= 2
b
=1

= 4(2 3)

The two square roots are 2(2 3)


i.e. 4 23 or 4 + 23

Put b = 1 into (1):


a|b=1 =

=4
43
= 7 43

sub (1) into (2):


5b 3 (

7(2)+2

=4

(1)

Equate irrational terms:


5b 3a = 4
(2)

a7 b(7)
+(4b a)7

(1)

19(c) (a + b3)(5 33)

7(a + b7)

9(1)+6
5

=3

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48

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.1

20(iii) 34 242 = c + d2

21(ii)
2

34 242 = (c + d2)

1
2

= (c)2 +2(c)(d2) +(d2)


= c 2 +2cd2
= c 2 + 2d2
Equate rational terms:
34 = c 2 + 2d2 (1)
Equate irrational terms:
24 = 2cd
c

12

10

+d2 (2)
+2cd2

62+73

= (

34

34d2

144
d2

602703
36(2)49(3)
602703
75
4

) + 2d2

+ 2d2

= 144 + 2(d2 )2

14

+
1

3+32
1
3+32

332
332

332
2

(3) (32)

332
15

2 + 3
5
15

3 2

R2

15

3 + 5 2

R2

= 3 + 2

c|d=3 =

= 4
=4

V = IR
= 56 [

1
10

(62 + 73)]

= 6(62 + 73)
2
= 312
= 34 3

+ 18
2

1
R2
1
R2

32

3+2

3+2
32

= a + 1 a
=

4 + 32 or 4 32

1
R2

3+2

R2

3
12

1
R2

=0

12

1
R2

32

(d2 )2 17d2 + 72

c|d=3 =

1
R2

1
R2

R2

R2

a+a+1

332
39(2)

=0

22(i)

2(d2 )2 34d2 + 144

(d2 9)(d2 8)
=0
2
2
d =9
d =8
d = 3 d = 22
(rej non-surds)

21(i)

6273

12 2
d

6273

602703

sub (2) into (1):


34

(62) (73)

(2)

1
(62+73)
10

1
R1

1
a + a + 1
1
a + a + 1

a a + 1
a (a + 1)

a a + 1
1

a a + 1
a a + 1

= a + 1 a [shown]

+ 9 2
2

22(ii)

1+2

= (2 1)

= 3(23)

+ (32)

= 63

21
2

2+3

1
3+4

+ +

1
8+9

Method of Difference
[
]
Telescopic Sum Concept

+(3 2)
+(4 3)
+
+(9 8)
= 9 1
=31
=2

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49

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


23

Ex 2.1

x 2 x 2 + 3x 2 + x 6 = 0
x 2 x 2

= 3x 2 + x 6

x2 x 2

= 9(x 2 + x 6)

x2 x 2

= 9x 2 + 9x 54

8x 2 + 10x 52

=0

4x 2 + 5x 26

=0

(4x + 13)(x 2) = 0
x=

13
4

(rej) or x = 2

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50

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.2
2(b)

Ex 2.2

when y = 16:
3

2x 2 = 16
1(a)
1(b)

(23 32 )0 = 1
4

(23)

x2 = 8
2

= (8)3

x
x

= (23 )3
= 4

= 2 (3)
1
2

= 24 (3 )

= 16(3)2
= 144
1(c)

93 33
6

3(a)

16x = (24 )x
= (2x )4
= u4

3(b)

22x+3 = (22x ) (23 )


= (2x )2 (23 )
= 8u2

3(c)

4x1 = (22 )x1


= 22x2
= 22x 22

(32 )3 33

6
1

(27)3

6
1

(33 )3

6
3

6
1

=
2

1(d)

254

= (2x )2

53 56

= (52 )

1
4

1
3

1
6

1
3

1
6

=5

5 5

3(d)

1 1 1
52+3+6

=
= 51
=5
1(e)

33 30 93
2
273

30

33

42x = (22 )2x


= 212x
= (21 ) (2)2x
(2x )2
=2
(u)2
=2

(32 )3

2
(33 )3
1

33

= u2

5 5

1
2

33

4(a)

32

2
u2

2x 2y

= 23 2x 22

1 2
33+32

=
= 31

= 23+x2

=
3

2(a)

y=

4(b)

2x

42x+1
x

3
2x 2
3

y|x=9 = 2(9)2
3

21 (24x )

=2

= 2x

24x+2

21+4x

= 2x

+4x+2

1+4x

= 29x+1

= 2(32 )2
= 2(33 )
= 54

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

(22 )2x+1

(16x )

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51

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(c)

4 x1

Ex 2.2
6(b)

8y

2( a)+( a)

32

1
22x2

25

3
5
y
2
2

2x+1

7(a)

(23 )

x+2

15
2

17 (2 )

7(b)

17
2

+a3 b 3 a3 b 3 + b

= a3
=a

172
2

2
7(c)

= 33

23

=3

2( 9 + 6 + 4)
3

= 27 + 18 + 12

18 12 8

= 27

=1

+ (4)(5)(52x )
5x+2
+ 4(52x+1 )

( 3 2)( 9 + 6 + 4)
= 3( 9 + 6 + 4)

7(d)

(a2 + 2a4 b 4 + b 2 )
1

(a2 2a4 b 4 + b 2 )
1

= [(a2 + b 2 ) + 2a4 b 4 ] [(a2 + b 2 ) 2a4 b 4 ]


1

= (a2 + b 2 )

(2a4 b 4 )

= (a + 2a2 b 2 + b)

2a2 b 2

=a+b

= 5x
(a)

5x+2
52x+2

= (a3 + b 2 ) b 2

x+2

( a3 + b 2 + b) ( a3 + b 2 b)

522x
+ 20(52x )

5x+2
5(52x+1 )

53x
52x+1

= (a3 + b 2 + b)(a3 + b 2 b)

52x+1

52x+1

17
2

(52 )1x
+ 3(52x )
+ 17(52x )

52x+1

=a+b

53x 251x
52x+1 + 3(25x ) + 17(52x )
53x

= a a3 b 3 + a3 b 3

23x+2

= 162

17(23x+1 )

= 162

= a3 (a3 a3 b 3 + b 3 ) +b 3 (a3 a3 b 3 + b 3 )

23x+6

= 162

(a3 + b 3 ) (a3 a3 b 3 + b 3 )

17(2)(23x )
3 2x+1
(22 )

=2

6(a)

= 3a9

1
4
2

3a3
a9

(8)

+ a3
a9

3 5
222x+2y2

8x+2 34(23x )

2a3
1

5(b)

(a2 )9

(23 )y

= 22y2x2
5(a)

+(a6 )

23y5

= 222x 2
=

2(a3 )

a2

= (22 )x1

1 2

1
3

12

( a )
4

12

a4

= (a2 ) (a4 )

a4

= a2
=a

a4

a3

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52

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8

(3) +(3)
33.5

Ex 2.2

+(3)

+32.5

12

+42(3) = 3k

+31.5

+423

= 3k

33 3 +32 3 +33

+423

= 3k

3(33 +32

+42)

= 3k

+3

2n1

P = (2 + 5)

2n
2n

3(81)

=3

1
2

(2 + 5)

2 + 5
(4 + 45 + 5)
2 + 5

(3 ) (34 ) = 3k
342

= 3k

33

11
6

17
6

5
2
5

2 )2

(23

= 2x 3y pz

3p

2 )2

x y z

=2 3 p

14(i)
(a)

(21 x 1 )r

u = 2x
v = yx
2x+1 +y 2 (y x2 ) = 11
2x 2 +y x
= 11
2u +v
= 11

= 2x 3y pz
1

(1)

,y = 3 ,z = 8

(2n )21

3(2n )

+4(2n+2 )

n)

n )22

3(2

+4(2

= 2n [21

+4(22 )]

= 2n (2

+16)

14(i)
(b)

(22 )

1
x+1
2

2x 22
4u

10(ii) 2n+1 3(2n ) + 4(2n+2 ) = 15(2n )


15 is a factor,
it is divisible by 15
4n
+5(4n+1 )
= 4n +5(4n )(4)
= 4n +20(4n )
= 4n +20(4n )
= 19(4)n

42x+1

2x+2

= 15(2n )

11

(22 32 p3 ) = 2x 3y pz

2n+1
=

(23 2 )8r

= 2244r x163r [shown]

3
2

2 2 32 p8
2

1 r

(8x 2 )8r ( )

= 2243r x162r (2r x r )

[shown]

2x

(24p2 )

(210 35 p5 )

11

13

=2 3 p

3 p

= 2x 3y pz
x y z

=2 3 p

13
2

x = 1 ,y = 2 ,z = 6
(144p2 )

= (5 2)(9 + 80)

x y z

p5

22 32 p 2

2 3 p

x=

(9 + 45) (2 5)
45

= (5 2)(9 + 165)

= 2x 3y pz

54p5

2 3 3 3 p4

10(i)

2 5

11

2 5

(36p6 )3

(24

= (5 2)(9 + 45)

(22 32 p6 )3

9(b)

9(a)

= (2 + 5) (2 + 5)

+51 y x = 4
1

+ yx
5
1
+ yx
5
1
+ yx
5
1

+ v
5

=4
=4
=4
=4

(2)

14(ii) 2(1) (2):


1

2v v = 22 4
5

9
5

22n+1
(22n )(2)
(22 )n (2)
4n (2)

= 18
= 10

(3)

sub (3) into (1):


2u + 10 = 11
u

=
2

19 is a factor,
it is divisible by 19
Daniel & Samuel
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53

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(ii) ax = b y = (a)w

14(iii) (4y)x = 4x y x
= (2x )2 y x
= (u)2 v
1 2

Ex 2.2

ax = b y

(10)

=( )
2

a = bx

(1)

=
2

15(i)

a w

by = ( )

sub (1) into (2):

= bx

(1)

(2)
by

sub (1) into (2):

= [b

yz
( +z)
x

by = b
yz
y = +z

= z(

xy
y+x

= w ( 1)

= w(

yx

x
y+x

= (b x1 )

y
xy

= z ( + 1)

=( )

wy

= [(b ) b]
y
+1
x

bx

b y = b x w
wy
y =
w

y
x

b
b y = (ab)z

by

(2)

ax = b y

x
yx
x

=w
=

xy
yx

[shown]

=z
=

xy
y+x

[shown]

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54

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(d)

Ex 2.3
1(a)

Ex 2.3

32x = 27
32x = 33
2x = 3
3
x
=
2

1(b)

4x = 32
22x = 25
2x = 5

1(c)

3x

3
x
2

3(i)
1
3

= 2
1 x+2

( )

=3
3
= 31
2x 4 = 1
2x4

22x
2x1

2x+1

= 10
= 10
= 101
=1
1
=

2(c)

3(2x1 )
= 2x + 4
x )(21 )
3(2
= 2x + 4
3(2x ) ( )

= 2x + 4

(2x )

= 2x + 4

(2x )

=4

sub u = 3x :
u

= (23 )2x
= 263x

5(a)

4x 6 16x+1 = 0
2
4x 6
= 16x+1
2
4x 6
= (42 )x+1
2
4x 6
= 42x+2
x2 6
= 2x + 2
x 2 2x 8 = 0
(x 4)(x + 2) = 0
x = 4 or x = 2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 4 3 ( )
u

u2
= 4u 3
2
u 4u + 3
=0
(u 3)(u 1) = 0
u=3
or u = 1
x
sub u = 3 :
sub u = 3x :
x
3 =3
3x = 1
3x = 31
3x = 30
x =1
x =0

= 82x

=5

3x = 4 3 ( x )

=0

3x = 4 3(3x )

x + 1 = 6 3x
4x

x2 + x 2

2x1

=2x

33x

2x = 8
2x = 23
x =3

4x

x2

32x+2

3(ii)

2(b)

= 32x

27x

2
=8
sub u = 2x :
u=8

(32 )x+2

4x (52x )
22x (52x )
102x
2x
x

=3

2(a)

3x

2
1

1(d)

2
=2
3
x = 3
x

3x

x = 2 or x = 1

(2) =

(x + 2)(x 1) = 0

9x+1

3x

sleightofmath.com

52x 6(5x ) +5 = 0
(5x )2 6(5x ) +5 = 0
sub u = 5x :
u2 6u + 5
=0
(u 1)(u 5) = 0
u=1
or
u=5
x
sub u = 5 :
sub u = 5x :
x
5
=1
5x = 5
5x = 51
5x = 50
x =1
x =0

55

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(b)

7(a)

22x 10(2x ) +16


(2x )2 10(2x ) +16
sub a = 2x :
a2 10a
+16
(a 2)(a 8)
a=2
or
sub a = 2x :
2x = 2
x =1

2x+1

Ex 2.3
=0
=0

7(b)

3x
9y

=0
=0
a=8
sub a = 2x :
2x = 8
2x = 23
x =3

3x
32y

3x2y

35x (32y ) =
5x+2y

= 33
= 33

= 2y + 3

(1)

2nd eqn
1
42x (26y ) =

2
= 3(2 + 2
22x 2
= 3(2x ) + 2
(2x )2 2
= 3(2x ) + 2
x
sub u = 2 :
2u2
= 3u + 2
2u2 3u 2 = 0
(2u + 1)(u 2) = 0
1
u=2
u=
or
2
sub u = 2x :
sub u = 2x :
2x = 2
1
2x =
2
2x = 21
x
(rej 2 > 0)
x = 1[shown]
5x (252y )
=1
x ((52 )2y )
5
= 50
x (54y )
5
= 50
5x+4y
= 50
x + 4y
=0
x
= 4y

= 27

x 2y = 3

x)

35x (9y )

1st eqn

24x+6y
= 22
4x + 6y = 2
sub (1) into (2):
4(2y + 3) + 6y
8y + 12 + 6y
14y
y

(2)

= 2
= 2
= 14
= 1

Put y = 1 into (1):


x|y=1 = 2(1) + 3
=1
8(i)

2 4m = (2 4m )n
1

= (2 22m )n
1

= (22m+1 )n

(1)

=2

2m+1
n

[shown]

9
1
32
2

3
=3
5x + 2y = 2

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


5(4y) + 2y = 2
18y
= 2
1
y
=
9

Put y =

1
9

into (1):
1

x|y=1 = 4 ( )
9

=
9

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56

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 2.3

1st eqn
n
2 4m = 8
2m+1
n

9(c)

2
=2
2m+1

=3
n

2m+1

(1)

27m

= 10(3x )

(32 )x+1

+1

= 10(3x )

32x+2

+1

= 10(3x )

(32x )(32 ) +1

= 10(3x )

9(3x )2

= 10(3x )

+1

= 81

9u2

= 34

9u2 10u + 1 = 0

3
= 34
3m 2n 2 = 4
3m 2n
=6

(9u 1)(u 1) = 0

9n+1
33m
32n+2
3m2n2

u=
(2)

3m 2 (
3m (

2m+1

3
4m+2

9m 4m 2
5m
m

=6

u=1

sub u = 3x :
3x = 1
3x = 30
x =0

=6
9(d)

= 18
= 20
= 4

2(4)+1
3

sub u = 4 :
1
4x =
2

22x = 21
2x = 1
1
x
=

9(e)

2(3x )

= 34 3x

3(3x )

= 34

3x

= 33

=3

(9)

2x

3x+2

32x 3x+2

= 3x 9

(3 )2 (3 )(32 )

= 3 9

(3 )2 9(3 )

= 3 9

u2 10u + 9

=0

(u 9)(u 1) = 0
= 9
or
x
sub u = 3 :
3x = 9
3x = 32
x =2

10(a) 8x (4y )

5(7x )

=5

7x

=1

2 2 22y

7x

= 70

2 2 +2y

=0

3x

3x

3x
2

sleightofmath.com

= 1
sub u = 3x :
3x = 1
3x = 30
x =0

= 322
1

= 25 (22 )
1

= 252

+ 2y = 5

3x + 4y
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 3x 9

sub u = 3x :
x

= 2(7x ) + 3

7(7x ) 2 = 2(7x ) + 3

= 34 3x

(3 )2 10(3 ) + 9 = 0

sub u = 4 :
4x = 2
22x = 21
2x = 1
1
x
=

6(3x1 )

6(3x )(31 ) = 34 3x

2(16x )
= 5(4x ) 2
2(4x )
= 5(4x ) 2
x )2
2(4
= 5(4x ) 2
sub u = 4x :
2u2
= 5u 2
2
2u 5u + 2 = 0
(2u 1)(u 2) = 0
1
u=2
u=
or

7x+1 2

or

=3

= 10u

3x = 32
x = 2

Put m = 4 into (1):


n|m=4 =

+1

sub u = 3 :
1
3x =

sub (1) into (2):

9(b)

+1

sub u = 3x :

2nd eqn

9(a)

9x+1

1
2

= 11 [shown]

(1)
57

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(b)

3y

Ex 2.3

12

= (3x )

9x
3y

1 (3x )

=3

32x
y2x2

3
= 31+x
2
y 2x = 1 + x
y
= 2x 2 + x 1 [shown]
10(c) sub (2) into (1):
3x + 4(2x 2 + x 1)
3x + (8x 2 + 4x 4)
8x 2 + 7x 4
8x 2 + 7x 15
(8x + 15)(x 1)
x=

15
8

y|x=15 = 4
8

11

r2
4
r2
4
r2
4

32

3r x r

( x 2 )

3 x

9x2

9
2 6r

( )

2 6r

r 2 (3r ) ( )
9

2 6r

r 2 (3r ) ( )
9

6r

u2

x3

27
2

9
4(3x )
9

x 3r12

= kx 3

=k

2 6(3)

(1)

13

(27) ( )

=k

=k

4u

x 2 8x 2 = 7
8

x2

(2)

(3)2 (3(3) ) ( )

9
2 3

u
= 12u 27
2
u 12u + 27 = 0
(u 3)(u 9) = 0
u=3
u=9
sub u = 3x :
sub u = 3x :
3x = 3 or
3x = 9
x
1
3 =3
3x = 32
x=1
x=2
y|x=1 = 2(1) 3
y|x=2 = 2(2) 3
= 1
=1

= kx 3

x 2r12 = kx 3

Compare power of x:
3r 12 = 3
3r
=9
r
=3
sub (2) into (1):

27

Compare coefficient:

3x

sub u = 3x :
6r

(1)

= 4 ( ) 1

27
(3x )2

y|x=1 = 2

(3x)r

32x

x=1

= 16x
= 24x
= 24x
= 4x
= 4x 6
= 2x 3

2nd eqn
3y = 4(3x2 ) 1
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
32x3
= 4(3x2 ) 1
2x
3
3 3
= 4(3x 32 ) 1

= 11
= 11
= 11
=0
=0

or
5

(2)

1st eqn
64(4y )
26 (22y )
26+2y
6 + 2y
2y
y

=7

x2

sub u = x 2 :
8
u
=7
u

u2 7u 8 = 0
(u 8)(u + 1) = 0
u=8
or
u=1

=
3

sub u = x 2 :
3

x2 = 8
3

x 2 = 23
x = 22
x = 4
14

sub u = x 2 :
3

x2 = 1
x =1

No.
Counter example
when a = 1 & b = 1,
(1)x (1)y = (1)2 (1)5
LHS = RHS when x, y

Daniel & Samuel


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58

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 2.3

Method 1 (Substitution)
x 3x 4
=0
sub u = x:
u2 3u 4
=0
(u 4)(u + 1) = 0
u=4
or
u=1
sub u = x:
sub u = x:
x = 4
x = 1
x = 16
x = 1 (rej)
Method 2 (Square both sides)
x 3x 4
=0
x4
= 3x x 4 > 0, x > 0
2
(x 4)
= 9x
x 2 8x + 16 = 9x
x 2 17x + 16 = 0
(x 1)(x 16) = 0
x = 1 (rej) or x = 16

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59

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.4
2(c)

Ex 2.4
1(a)

1 x

y = 4x
base 4 > 1, graph slopes up

= 2( )
3

1(b)

= 4

1 x
y=( )
3
1
0 < base < 1, graph slopes down

2(d)

1(c)

=( )
3

1(d)

3(i)

y = ex
base e > 1, graph slopes up
=

y = 3(5.1)x
base 5.1 > 1, graph slopes up

= 3(5.1)

y = 50 000(1.04)x
y|x=0 = 50 000(1.04)0
= $50 000

3(ii)

y|x=5 = 50 000(1.04 )5
= $60 833

4(i)

y = 40(1.4)x

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


3

= 2(3 )
2

y = 2(3x )
= 2(31 )x

y = x
base > 1, graph slopes up

y|x=0 = 40(1.4)0
= 40

2(a)

y|x=6 = 40(1.4)6
= 301

4(iii)

y|x=24 = 40(1.4)24
= 128 568

5(i)

T = 90(0.98)x

y = 6ex
base e > 1, graph slopes up

= 6

2(b)

4(ii)

T|x=0 = 90(0.98)0
= 90

5(ii)

T|x=10 = 90(0.98)10
= 73.5

5(iii)

T|x=60 = 90(0.98)60
= 26.8

y = 2e
= 2(e1 )x
1 x

= 2( )
e

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


e

= 2
2

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60

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6

Ex 2.4

y = 3(5x )
base 5 > 1, graph slopes up

9(ii)

y = 3(0.2)x
0 < base 0.2 < 1, graph slopes down

= 3(5 )
3

= 3(0.2)

y|x=10 = 45 000(1.02)10
= 54 855

y = 3(2x )
base 2 > 1, graph slopes up

= 3(2 )
6
3

=6

7(iii)

One intersection
One solution

8(i)

P = 600(2 + e0.2t )

y = 45 000(1.02)x
base 1.02 > 1, graph slopes up

= 45 000(1.02)

f(x) = 3(5x )
f(x) = 3(5x )
= 3(51 )x
= 3(0.2)x
y = f(x) and y = f(x) are reflection of each other
in the y-axis
7(i)
7(ii)

45 000

P|t=12 = 600(2 + e0.2(12) )


= 1254

8(iii)

t , e0.2t 0,
P 600(2 + 0) = 1200

9(i)

y = 45 000(1.02)

10(i)

C = 4.86e0.047t
C|t=0 = 4.86e0
= 4.86g/ml

10(ii) C|t=10 = 4.86e0.047(10)


= 3.04g/ml
10(iii) C|t=24 = 4.86e0.047(24)
= 1.57g/ml
10(iv) t , e(0.047t) 0,
C 0
10(v) C = 4.86e0.047t
= 4.86(e0.047 )t
= 4.86 (

P|t=0 = 600(2 + e0 )
= 1800
8(ii)

end of 2021:
x = 2021 2011
= 10

1
e0.047

0 < base

e0.047

< 1, graph slopes down

4.86

= 4.86 0.047

end of 2015:
x = 2015 2011
=4
y|x=4 = 45 000(1.02)4
= 48 709

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61

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11

Ex 2.4
1 x

12(iv) m

y = 2x = (21 )x = ( )
1

405 ( ) = 80

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


2

2 t

3
2

= 8(2 )

13(i)

= 2

16

( )

( )
3
t

=( )
3
=4

3
2 t

y = 8(2x )
base 2 > 1, graph slopes up

( , 22)

= 80
2 t

81
2 4

V = Aekt
Initial value of the car is $60 000:
V|t=0
= 60 000
k(0)
Ae
= 60 000
A
= 60 000

y=2
(1)
y = 8(2x )
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x
= 8(2x )
22x = 8
22x = 23
2x = 3
3
x
=
(3)

Value of the car is $39 366 after 4 years:


V|t=4
= 39366
Aek(4)
= 39366
4k
60 000e
= 39366
A = 60 000
39 366
4k
e
=
(e

60 000
9 4

k 4

=( )

sub (3) into (1):


3
( )

V = 60 000 ( )
10

= 60 000(0.9)t [shown]

13(ii) V = 60 000(0.9)t
0 < base 0.9 < 1, graph slopes down

2 t

m = 405 ( )
3

2 0

m|t=0 = 405 ( )
3

= 405g
12(ii)

10

9 t

y = 2 2 = 21.5 = 22
3
( , 22)
12(i)

10
9

60 000

2 3

m|t=3 = 405 ( )
3

= 60 000(0.9)

= 120g
12(iii) Amount decayed in 3 years
= m|t=0 m|t=3
= 405 120
= 285g

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62

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 2
A2(b)

Rev Ex 2
A1(i)

(5 2)x = 5 + 2
x

5+2

5+2

52

5+2
5+2

(5) +2(5)(2) +(2)2


(5)
5

(2)2

+45

+4

54

= 9 + 45
A1(ii) x

= 9 + 45

1
x
1
9+45
1

= 9 + 45

= 9 + 45

= 9 + 45

= 9 + 45

+9 45

9+45

945
945

945
(9)2 (45)

= 42

945

50

25 2

2
3
2

52

2
2

= 42

52

2
2

= 42

52

2
2

= 42

52

2
2

23
12

96
3

2
2

166
3

2
2

2
2

( 6 6
3
3

2
2

( 6 6
3
3

2
2

( 6 6
3
3

2
2

( 6 6
3
3

2
2

(106)

2
2

46
3

2
6

26

6
1

6
3

4
4

3216
2

= k3

323 33
2
323 33
2

= k3

= k3

3(21.5 )(31.5 )
2

3(22)(33)
2
186

= k3
= k3

= k3

+96)

= k3

+96)

= k3

= k3

512

= k3

5(4 3)

= k3

5(23)

= k3

103

= k3

k = 10

= 42

8116(5)

= 18
A2(a) 42

128
3

52

3
3
3

2
2

+
+
+
+
+

A3(a) x 2 7
=3
2
x 7
=9
2
x 16
=0
(x + 4)(x 4) = 0
x = 4 or x = 4

7
72
7
362
7
62
7
62
7
6(2)
7
12

2
2

A3(b) 2x + 3 4x
3 4x
3 4x
4x 2 + 4x 3
(2x + 3)(2x 1)

x = or x =
A3(c)

x
18x

=0
= 2x
= 4x 2
=0
=0
(rej)

1
3

3x
= 1 8x
2
9x
= 1 8x
2
9x + 8x 1 = 0
(9x 1)(x + 1) = 0
x=

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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1
9

or x = 1 (rej)

63

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A3(d)

4x

A5(b) 4x1 + 16x


= 66
(4x )(41 ) + (42 )x = 66

= 2(2x1 )

8
22x

= 22 (2x1 )

23

1
4

1
x
2

2x3

= 66

4u2 + u 264
=0
(4u + 33)(u 8) = 0

5
2

u=

1st eqn
8 4y
23 22y
23+2y
3 + 2y
2x
x

= 66

sub u = 4 :
u
+ u2

(4x ) + (4x )2
x

=2

2x 3 = x

A4

Rev Ex 2

2x1

=2
= 22x1
= 22x1
= 2x 1
= 4 + 2y
=y+2

33

or

sub u = 4x :
4x =

u=8
sub u = 4x :

33

4x = 8

4
x

4x = 23
22x = 23
2x = 3

(rej 4 > 0)
(1)

x
2nd eqn
3y 3x

A6(i)

= 81
x

= 34
=4

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


y+2

y+

=4

A6(ii) m|t=2 = 300e0.85(2)


= 54.8mg
A6(iii) y = 300e0.85t
= 300(e1 )0.85t

y + + 1= 4
3

1 0.85t

=3

m = 300e0.85t
m|t=0 = 300e0
= 300mg

(3y ) (32 ) = 34
3y+2
x
y+

= 300 ( )
e

=2

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


e

Put y = 2 into (1):


x|y=2 = (2) + 2

=4
x)

A5(a) 2(4

x)

2(4

x+2

+4
+

(4x )(42 )

2(4x ) + 16(4x )
x)

18(4

= 9(4
= 9(

sub u = 4x :
18u

1
4 0.5
1
4

B1(a) x 8 x
(x 8)x

4
1

4x
x

= 41
= 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=3
=3

x 2 8x
=3
x 2 8x
=9
2
x 8x 9 = 0
(x 9)(x + 1) = 0
x = 9 or x = 1 (rej)

sub u = 4x :
=

A6(iv) p = 300 300e0.85t


= 300(1 e0.85t )

2
1

4x

= 9( )

300

0.5 )

= 300 0.85

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64

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 2

B1(b) 18 x 1 = 4
18 x 1 = 16
=2
x 1
x1
=4
x
=5
B1(c)

11+4
x
2

B3(i)

1
2
1
2

33 (32 )

(BC)h

114

=
=

x
2

3x
3

9
3x

=3

3+

x
B2

=x
=

B
C
(83 22)

92
8322

92
83 22

83 + 22
83 + 22

92(83 + 22)
2

92(83 + 22)
64(3) 4(2)

92(83 + 22)
184

83 + 22
2

= 46

(83) (22)

(32 )3
3+

(83 22)h = 46

h=

x = 7 or x = 7
=

= 46

(83 22)h = 92

x
= 11 4
2
x 7
=0
(x + 7)(x 7) = 0

B1(d) 27(3)x

Area

2
3

2
3

11
3
22
3

= 43 + 2

(a 65)(2 + b5)

B3(ii) By Pythagoras Theorem,

= 82

AC = ( BC)

a(2 + b5) 65(2 + b5) = 82

+ h2

2a + ab5 125 6b(5) = 82


2a 30b +(ab 12)5
Equate rational terms:
2a 30b = 82
a 15b = 41
a
= 15b 41

= [ (83 22)]

= 82

= (43 + 2)

+ (43 2)
+ (43 2)

(1)

[(43) + 2(43)(2) + (2) ]

+ [(43) 2(43)(2) + (2) ]


Equate irrational terms:
ab 12 = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
(15b 41)b 1 = 0
15b2 41b 12 = 0
(15b + 4)(b 3) = 0
b=

or

15

a|b= 4 = 15 (
15

) 41

15

= 45

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 16(3) + 86 + 2

+ (16(3) 86 + 2)

= 100
= 10
b=3
a|b=3 = 15(3) 41
=4

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Perimeter = AB +AC +BC


= 10 +10 +83 22
= 20 +83 22

65

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B4

At (3,4):

Rev Ex 2
= a(3)n 23
= a(3)n
= a(3)n
=a
= 33n

4
27
33
33n
a

At (9,220): 220
243
243
a(32n )

(1)

= a(9)n 23
= a(9)n
= a(32n )
= 243
(2)

At (1, k): k = a(1)n 23

B5(b) 9x + 10(3x )
(32 )x + 10(3x )
(3x )2 + 10(3x )
sub u = 3x :
u2 + 10u
u2 + u 12
(u + 4)(u 3)
u = 4 or
sub u = 3x :
3x = 4
(rej 3x > 0)

(3)

= 3x+2 + 12
= (3x )(32 ) + 12
= 9(3x ) + 12
= 9u + 12
=0
=0
u=3
sub u = 3x :
3x = 3
3x = 31
x=1
t

sub (1) into (2):


(33n )32n = 243
33+n
= 35
3+n =5
n
=2

B6(i)

Put n = 2 into (1):


a|n=2 = 332 = 3

B6(ii) | = 20 + 100(0.8)86
t=8
94.3

= 20 + 100(0.8)6
|t=0
=X
0

20 + 100(0.8)6
20 + 100(1)
X

Put a = 3, n = 2 into (3):


k = 3(1)2 23 = 20

B6(iii)

= 84

20 + 100(0.8)
x

x1 )

B5(a) 5 + 5 = 30(5
5x + 5 = 30(5x )(51 )

100(0.8)

5x + 5 = 30(5x ) ( )
5

5x + 5 = 6(5x )
sub u = 5x :
u + 5= 6u
5
= 5u
u
=1
sub u = 5x :
5x = 50
x =0

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

=X
=X
= 120C

t
6

= 84

t
6

= 64

(0.8)

t
6

= 0.64

(0.8)

t
6

= (0.8)2

=2

= 12s

t
B6(iv)

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t , 100(0.8)6 0
20C

66

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.1
3(b)

Ex 3.1
1(a)

Yes
Are exponents
Non-negative?
Integers?

= 15x 4 +5x 3 10x 2


+6x 3 +2x 2
4x
2
12x
4x +8
= 15x 4 + 11x 3 20x 2 8x + 8

True
True
4(a)

both conditions are met,


2
x 1 is a polynomial
3

1(b)

(2x 2 x + 1)(3x 2)
Coefficient of x 2
= (2)(2) + (1)(3)
= 7

Yes
Are exponents
Non-negative? True
Integers?
True

4(b)

both conditions are met,


4x 2 2x is a polynomial .
1(c)

(5x 2 + 2x 4)(3x 2 + x 2)

(x 2 + 3x + 2)(8x 2 5x 4)
Coefficient of x 2
= (1)(4) + (3)(5) +(2)(8)
= 4
15
+16
= 3

No
Are exponents
Non-negative? True
Integers?
False

4(c)

(2x 2 2x + 5)(x 2 3x + 1)

x has non-integer power of 2.

Coefficient of x 2
= (2)(1) + (2)(3) +(5)(1)
=2
+6
5
=3

both conditions are not met,


4x 3 + x + 3 is not a polynomial.
1(d)

No

4(d)

Are exponents
Non-negative? False
Integers?
True
3
x2

Coefficient of x 2
= (1)(6) + (2)(3)
= 6 6
= 12

has a negative power of 2.

both conditions are not met,


3
1 + 2 is not a polynomial.

5(a)

2(i)

Q(x) P(x) = (2x 2 3x + 2) (x 2 + x + 1)


= x 2 4x + 1

2(ii)

P(x) + 2Q(x) = (x 2 + x + 1) +2(2x 2 3x + 2)


= (x 2 + x + 1) +(4x 2 6x + 4)
= 5x 2 5x + 5

3(a)

(4x 3 x 2 + 7x 2)(2x 3 + 3x 2 + 6)

a(x 2) + b = 5 3x
sub x = 2:
a(2 2) + b = 5 3(2)
b
= 1
sub x = 0:
a(0 2) + b = 5 3(0)
2a + b
=5
2a + (1) = 5
a
= 3

b = 1

(7x 3)(2x 2 + 4x 1)
= 14x 3 +28x 2 7x
6x 2 12x +3
3
= 14x + 22x 2 19x + 3

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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67

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(b)

Ex 3.1

a(x 1) + b(x + 3) = 3x + 1

6(i)
(3x 2 + 2)

sub x = 1:
a(1 1) + b(1 + 3)= 3(1) + 1
4b
=4
b
=1

(5x + 10)
1

A(x) = (5x + 10)(3x 2 + 2)


2
1

= [5x(3x 2 + 2) +10(3x 2 + 2)]


2
1

sub x = 3:
a(3 1) + b(3 + 3) = 3(3) + 1
4a
= 8
a
=2
5(c)

= (15x 3 + 10x +30x 2 + 20)


2
1

= (15x 3 + 30x 2 + 10x + 20)


=

2
15 3
x
2

+ 15x 2 + 5x + 10

a(x 2) + b(x 4) = x + 2
Yes. Exponents are non-negative integers
sub x = 2:
a(2 2) + b(2 4)= 2 + 2
2b
=4
b
= 2

6(ii)

= (3x 2 + 2)2

sub x = 4:
a(4 2) + b(4 4)= 4 + 2
2a
=6
a
=3
5(d)

5(e)

= 3x 4 + 37x 2 + 100x + 104


P(x)
= (5x + 1) + (3x 2 + 2)
+3x 4 + 37x 2 + 100x + 104

a =4
b =0
c = 1
3 = c + d
3 = (1) + d
d=2

= 3x 2 + 5x + 3
+3x 4 + 37x 2 + 100x + 104
No because 3x 4 + 37x 2 + 100x + 104 will have
non-integer exponent

x 3 6x 2 + 14x 8 = (x 2)3 + ax

7(i)
(a)

sub x = 2:
(2)3 6(2)2 + 14(2) 8 = (2 2)3 + 2a
4
= 2a
a
=2
5(f)

7(i)
(b)

= a(2 2)2 + b(2 + 1)3 +

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

2P(x)
[Q(x)]2
= 2(x + 1) (x 2 x + 1)2
= 2(x + 1) (x 2 x + 1)(x 2 x + 1)
Coefficient of x 2
= [(1)(1) +(1)(1) +(1)(1)]
= 3

= 27b + 8
= 27b
= 1

sub x = 1:
2(1)2 7(1) + 3
1)3 + (1)3
8
9
a

M(x) = P(x)Q(x)
= (x + 1)(x 2 x + 1)
Coefficient of x 2
= (1)(1) +(1)(1)
=0

2x 2 7x + 3 = a(x 2)2 + b(x + 1)3 + x 3


sub x = 2:
2(2)2 7(2) + 3
(2)3
19
27
b

+ (5x + 10)2

= (3x 4 + 12x 2 + 4) + (25x 2 + 100x + 100)

ax 3 x + 3 = 4x 3 + bx 2 + c(x 1) + d
Compare x 3 :
Compare x 2 :
Compare x:
Compare x 0 :

By Pythagoras Theorem
Hypotenuse

= a(1 2)2 + b(1 +

7(i)
(c)

= 9a 1
= 9a
=1

Q(x)[3x 2 + P(x)]
= (x 2 x + 1)(3x 2 + x + 1)
Coefficient of x 2
= (1)(1) +(1)(1) +(1)(3)
=1
1
+3
=3

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68

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(ii)

Ex 3.1
9(c)

Deg (M(x)) = 3
Deg [2P(x) [Q(x)]2 ] = 4
Deg [Q(x)[3x 2 + P(x)]] = 4

sub x = 2:
3(2)2 5(2) + 4 = a(2 2)2 + b(2 2) + c
6
=c
c
=6

8(i)

V(x) = (2x + 3)(3x 1) (2x + 5)


= (6x 2 + 7x 3) (2x + 5)

sub x = 0:
3(0)2 5(0) + 4
4
4

= 12x 3 +14x 2 6x
+30x 2 +35x 15
3
= 12x + 44x 2 + 29x 15
8(ii)

9(a)

A(x) = 2[(2x + 3)(3x 1) +(2x + 3)(2x + 5)


+(3x 1)(2x + 5)]
= 2[(6x 2 + 7x 3) +(4x 2 + 16x + 15)
+(6x 2 + 13x 5)]
= 2(16x 2 + 36x + 7)
= 32x 2 + 72x + 14

4
2b
b
9(d)

x 3 6x 2 x + c = (x 3)(ax 2 3x + b)
3

Compare x : a = 1
sub x = 3:
(3)3 6(3)2 3 + c = (3 3)(a(3)2 3(3) + b)
30 + c
=0
c
= 30
sub x = 0:
(0)3 6(0)2 (0) + c
b)
c
30
b
9(b)

= (0 3)(a(0)2 3(0) +
= 3b
= 3b c = 30
= 10

x 3 + cx 2 + x + 6 = (x + 1)(x 2)(ax + b)
Compare x 3 : a = 1
sub x = 0:
(0)3 + c(0)2 + (0) + 6 = (0 + 1)(0 2)(a(0) +
b)
6
= 2b
b
= 3
sub x = 2:
(2)3 + c(2)2 + 2 + 6
4c + 16
c+4
c

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

3x 2 5x + 4 = a(x 2)2 + b(x 2) + c


Compare x 2 : a = 3

= a(0 2)2 + b(0 2) + c


= 4a 2b + c
= 4(3) 2b + 6
a = 3, c = 6
= 18 2b
= 14
=7

x 3 + 3x 2 2x + 16 c(x + 2)
= ax 2 (x 1) + b(x 2)2 (x 1)
sub x = 1:
(1)3 + 3(1)2 2(1) + 16 c(1 + 2)
= a(1)2 (1 1) + b(1 2)2 (1 1)
18 3c
=0
3c
= 18
c
=6
sub x = 0:
(0)3 + 3(0)2 2(0) + 16 c(0 + 2)
= a(0)2 (0 1) + b(0 2)2 (0 1)
16 2c
= 4b
16 2(6) = 4b c = 6
4
= 4b
b
= 1
sub x = 2:
(2)3 + 3(2)2 2(2) + 16 c(2 + 2)
= a(2)2 (2 1) + b(2 2)2 (2 1)
32 4c
= 4a
32 4(6) = 4a c = 6
8
= 2a
a
=2

= (2 + 1)(2 2)(a(2) + b)
=0
=0
= 4

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69

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

yz 2

Ex 3.1

+( z)2 y

+(2 y)

+y 2 z 4

= yz 2 +(x 2 2z + z 2 )y +4 4y + y +y 2 z 4
= yz 2 + y 2zy + z 2 y +4 4y + y +y 2 z 4
= yz 2 +y 2yz + yz 2 +4 4y + y +y 2 z 4
= yz 2 +y 2yz
+yz 2
+4 4y
+y
+y 2 z 4
= yz 2 +(y + 4) (2yz + 4y) +yz 2 + y + y 2 z 4
Yes, all exponents of x are non-negative integers
Degree is 3
10(ii) x 3 z 2

+(x z)2 +(2x )

+ z 4

= x 3 z 2 +(x z)2 +4x 2 4x + +z 2


= x3z2
+(x z)2
+

+4x 2 4x
+z 2

= [x 3 z 2 + (x z)2 + 1] +4x 2 4x +z 2
= z 2 +[x 3 z 2 + (x z)2 + 1]

4x +4x 2

No, exponents of y include fractions. y has non integer exponent


10(iii) x 3 y

+(x )2 y

+(2x y)

+y 2
2

+y 2

+y 2

+y 2

= x 3 y +(x 2 2x + )y +(2x y)
= x 3 y +x 2 y 2xy + y +(2x y)
= x 3 y +x 2 y 2xy + y +(2x y)
= x 2 y +x 2 y
+y

2xy
2

+(2x y)

+y 2
2

= [x 2 y + y] +x 2 y + (2x y) 2xy
= y 2 +[x 2 y + y]

2xy

+y 2

+x 2 y + (2x y)

Yes, all exponents of z are non-negative integers


Degree is 4

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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70

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

Ex 3.1

A(t) = t 3 + at 2 + p
B(t) = bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct + q

12(ii) (x a)(x b)(x c)


(b)
= (x 2 (a + b)x + ab)(x c)

Yes. Exponents of t are non-negative integers

= x 3 (a + b)x 2
+abx
cx 2
+c(a + b)x abc
3
2
(a
= x + b + c)x + [ab + c(a + b)]x abc
= x 3 (a + b + c)x 2 + (ab + ac + bc)x abc

11(ii) A(0) = 300


p = 300
B(0) = 0
q=0
11(iii) A(t) would decrease until it becomes empty at
zero.
A(t) cannot be negative
11(iv) 300 A(t)
300 (t 3 + at 2 + p)
t 3 at 2 p + 300
Sub p = 300, q = 0:
t 3 at 2 300 + 300
t 3 at 2

12(ii) (x a)(x b) (x z)
= (x a)(x b) (x x) (x z)
= (x a)(x b) (0)
(x z)
=0
13

= B(t)
= bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct + q
= bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct + q
= bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct + 0
= bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct

A = 3, B = 2, C = 5 and D = 2
3(x 1) 2(x 1)(x + 1) + 5x(x 2 1) 2
= 3( 1) 2( 1)( + 1)
+5( 2 1) 2

= 3 3 2 2 + 4

Compare t 3 : b = 1
t 3 at 2 = t(t 2)2

The graphs are not aligned therefore James


answers are wrong.

+2t 2 + ct

t 3 at 2 = t(t 2 4t + 4) +2t 2 + ct

3x 3 2x 2 + x 4
= A(x 1) + B(x 1)(x + 1) + Cx(x 2 1) + D

t 3 at 2 = t 3 4t 2 + 4t +2t 2 + ct
t 3 at 2 = t 3 2t 2 + (4 + c)t
at 2

Compare x 3 : C = 3

= 2t 2 + (4 + c)t

Compare t 2 : a = 2
a =2

sub x = 1:

D = 2

sub x = 1:

10
10
2A
A

Compare t: 4 + c = 0
c
= 4
12(i)
(a)

(x a)(x b) = x 2 (a + b)x + ab

sub x = 0:

= 2A + D
= 2A + (2)
=8
=4

D = 2

4 = A B + D
B =4A+D
= 4 (4) + (2)
A = 4, D = 2
= 2

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71

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.2
2(b)

Ex 3.2
1(a)

1(b)

3x
+4
2
3x 2 9x
+6x
+2
(9x 2 6x)
12x
+2
(12x 8)
10
Quotient = 3x + 4
Remainder = 10
+3x
2x 2
3
2x +1 4x
+8x 2
(4x 3 +2x 2 )
6x 2
(6x 2

1(c)

+2
+7x 5

+8x
5x
4
x 2x 3 5x
2x 3
(5x 4 10x 3
8x 3
(8x 3
2

4x 2

+37
+6x 2
15x 2 )
+21x 2
16x 2
37x 2
(37x 2

4x

x 2
3x 2 )
+8x
2x 2
2 +2x)
(2x
6x
4
(6x +6)
10

2x 2 +2x 1 8x 4
+0x 3
(8x 4 +8x 3
8x 3
(8x 3

11
2

x 2
4x 2 )
+3x 2
8x 2
11x 2
(11x 2

+0x

+5

+0x
+4x)
4x +5
+11x 11)
2

15x + 21
2

+4x

8x 4 x 2 + 5
= (2x 2 + 2x 1) (4x 2 4x +

+4x
24x)
+28x 3
74x 111)
102x +108

+1
2x 2
3
2
x 2 2x
4x +x 2
(2x 3 4x 2 )
+x 2
(x 2)
0
2x 3 4x 2 + x 2 = (x 2)(2x 2 + 1)

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

+6
+8x

2(c)

Quotient = 5x 2 + 8x + 37
Remainder = 102x + 108
2(a)

+2x
x 2

3x 4 x 2 + 8x 4
= (x + 1)(3x 3 3x 2 + 2x + 6) 10

+7x
+3x)
4x
5
(4x +2)
7
2
Quotient = 2x + 3x + 2
Remainder = 7
2

3x 3
3x 2
x +1 3x 4
+0x 3
4
(3x +3x 3 )
3x 3
(3x 3

11

21

) 15x +

3(i)
Deg(Dividend)
= Deg(Divisor) +Deg(Q(x))
4
3
2
Deg (x + 2x 2x ) = Deg(x + 2) +Deg(Q(x))
2x + 4
(4)
= (1)
+Deg(Q(x))
Deg (Q(x))

=3

Deg(R(x)) < Deg(Divisor)


< Deg(x + 2)
<1
=0
2x
x3
4
3
x +2 x
+2x 2x 2
(x 4 +2x 3 )
2x 2
(2x 2

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+2
2x +4
2x
4x)
2x
+4
(2x +4)
0

72

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.2

3(ii)
Deg(Dividend)
= Deg(Divisor) +Deg(Q(x))
4
3
2
Deg (x + 2x 2x ) = Deg(x + 2) +Deg(Q(x))
2x + 4
(4)
= (2)
+Deg(Q(x))
Deg (Q(x))

=2

Deg(R(x)) < Deg(Divisor)


< Deg(x 2 + x + 3)
<2
+x
x2
2 +x +3 x 4
x
+2x 3
(x 4 +x 3
x3
(x 3

6
2x 2
+3x 2 )
5x 2
+x 2
6x 2
(6x 2

3(iv)
Deg(Dividend)

(4)

= (3)

Deg (Q(x))

=1

+Deg(Q(x))

Deg(R(x)) < Deg(Divisor)


< Deg(x 3 x 2 + x 1)
<3
2x +4
x
2x
+3x)
5x +4
6x 18 )
x
+22

4(a)

2x 2
+x 2
3x 2
3x 2

2x +4
x)
x
+3x +4)
4x +4

= (2x 2 1)(3x + 2)
= 6x 3 + 4x 2 3x 2

Dividend

=x2
+16x
6x
3
x 2 6x
+4x 2
(6x 3 12x 2 )
16x 2
(16x 2

+29
3x

3x
32x)
29x
2
(29x 58)
56

(2x 2 1)(3x + 2)
= (x 2)(6x 2 + 16x + 29) + 56

2x +4
2x
2x)
+0x +4
+0x +1)
3

x
+3
4
+x 1 x
+2x 3
(x 4 x 3
3x 3
(3x 3

Deg(R(x)) < Deg(Divisor)


< Deg(x 2 1)
<2
1
2x 2
x 2 )
x 2
+0x
x 2
(x 2

Divisor

=2

+2x
x2
2 +0x 1 x 4
x
+2x 3
(x 4 +0x 3
2x 3
(2x 3

+Deg(Q(x))

4
3
2
3
2
Deg (x + 2x 2x ) = Deg (x x ) +Deg(Q(x))
2x + 4
+x 1

3(iii)
Deg(Dividend)
= Deg(Divisor) +Deg(Q(x))
4
3
2
Deg (x + 2x 2x ) = Deg(x 2 1) +Deg(Q(x))
2x + 4
(4)
= (2)
+Deg(Q(x))
Deg (Q(x))

= Deg(Divisor)

4(b)

Dividend
Divisor

= 3x 3 x 2 + 2x + 3
= (x + 1)(x 1) = x 2 1

3x
1
3
+0x 1 3x
x 2
(3x 3 +0x
x 2
(x 2

+2x
3x)
+5x
+0x
5x

+3
+3
+1 )
+2

3x 3 x 2 + 2x + 2
= (x + 1)(x 1)(3x 1) + 5x + 2

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4(c)
Dividend
Divisor

Ex 3.2
5(c)
Dividend = 6x 4 3x 3 28x 2 x 10
Divisor
= 3 2x = 2x + 3

= 10x 7x 4x + 8x + 7
= (x + 1)(2x 3) = 2x 2 x 3
x
+5
5x 2
2 x 3 10x 4
3
2x
7x
4x 2 +8x +7
(10x 4 5x 3
15x 2 )
3
2x
+11x 2 +8x
+3x)
(2x 3 +x 2
2
+5x +7
10x
2 5x 15)
(10x
10x +22
4

3x 3 3x 2 + 19 x

11x
4x
3
2x +1 8x
18x 2
(8x 3 +4x 2 )
22x 2
(22x 2

+6
+x

2
59
2

59
2

10

10
x +

Dividend = 8x 3 18x 2 + x + 6
Divisor
= 2x + 1
2

2x +3 6x 4
x
3x 3 28x 2
4
3
(6x 9x )
6x 3
28x 2
3
(6x 9x 2 )
x
19x 2
2
(19x + 57 x)

10x 7x 4x + 8x + 7
= (2x 2 x 3)(5x 2 x + 5) + 10x + 22
5(a)

59

No, there is a remainder


6

+6

+x
11x)
12x
+6
(12x +6)
0

217
4

177

4
217
4

2x 5 x 3 + x 2 4 = (x 2 x 2)Q(x) + ax + b
2x 5 x 3 + x 2 4 = (x 2)(x + 1)Q(x) + ax + b
sub x = 2:
64 8 + 4 4 = 2a + b
56
= 2a + b
b
= 56 2a

(1)

Yes, it is 4x 11x + 6
sub x = 1:
2 + 1 + 1 4 = a + b
4
= a + b
(2)
(1)
(2):
sub
into
4
= a + (56 2a)
3a
= 60
a
= 20

5(b)
Dividend = 6x 4 25x 3 + 5x 2 + 60x 36
Divisor
= (x 2)(3x 2) = 3x 2 8x + 4
3x
9
2x 2
2 8x +4 6x 4
+60x 36
3x
25x 3 +5x 2
4
3
2
(6x 16x
+8x )
3
+60x
9x
3x 2
3
2
12x)
(9x +24x
2
+72x 36
27x
(27x 2 +72x 36)
0

Put a = 20 into (1):


b|a=20 = 56 2(20)
= 16
7(i)

Deg(Q(x)) = 1

Yes, it is 2x 2 3x 9

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7(ii)

Ex 3.2

x 4 2x 3 + ax 2 2
= x(x 1)(x + 1)Q(x) + 4x 2 + bx + c
sub x = 0:

c = 2

sub x = 1:

12+a2 =4+b+c
a3
=4+b2
a
=b+5

sub x = 1:

9
(i)(a)

(2)

Remainder = 4x 2 + bx + c
= 4x 2 + (2)x 2
= 4x 2 2x 2

8(ii)

32 24 + 1 = 2a 3
9
= 2a 3
a
=6

4x 3 6x 2 + 1
= (x 2)Q(x) + 6x 3
3
2
4x 6x 6x + 4 = (x 2)Q(x)
Q(x)

+16x
+0x 2

+26
6x

9
Remainder when P(x) + Q(x) is divided by x 2
(i)(b) = 3 + 47
= 50

4x 3 6x 2 + 1 = (x 2)Q(x) + ax 3
sub x = 2:

2x 3
+8x 2
x 2 2x 4
+4x 3
(2x 4 4x 3 )
8x 3
(8x 3

+0x 2
16x 2 )
6x
16x 2
2 32x)
(16x
26x
5
(26x 52)
47
Remainder when Q(x) is divided by x 2
= 47

Put b = 2 into (1):


a|b=2 = (2) + 5
=3

8(i)

+6
+4x

+4x
2x)
6x
9
(6x 12)
3
Remainder when P(x) is divided by x 2
=3

(1)

1+2+a2 =4b+c
a+1
=4b2
a
=1b
sub (1) into (2):
b + 5= 1 b
2b = 4
b
= 2

+x
3x 2
3
x 2 3x
5x 2
3
(3x 6x 2 )
x2
(x 2

Remainder of 2P(x) Q(x) is divided by x 2


= 2(3) 47
= 41

4x3 6x2 6x+4

+2x
4x 2
3
x 2 4x
6x 2
(4x 3 8x 2 )
2x 2
(2x 2

x2

2
6x

+4

6x
4x)
2x +4
(2x +4)
0

Q(x) = 4x 2 + 2x 2

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Ex 3.2

9(ii)(a)
2

10(ii) For x = 7:
Dispenser capacity

3x
2
3
x 2 3x
5x 2
(3x 3 3x 2
2x 2
(2x 2

+4x 9
6x)
+10x 9
+2x +4)
8x
13
2
Remainder when P(x) is divided by x x 2
= 8x 13
x

+6x
2x 2
2 x 2 2x 4
x
+4x 3
4
(2x 2x 3
6x 3
(6x 3

+10
+0x 2
4x 2 )
+4x 2
6x 2
10x 2
(10x 2

Number of Bottles

5
11

6x
12x)
+6x 5
10x 20)
16x
+15
2
Remainder when Q(x) is divided by x x 2
= 16x + 15

2x+y

12

Remainder when 3P(x) + Q(x) is divided by x 2 x 2


= 3(8x 13) +(16x + 15)
= 24x 39 +16x + 15
= 40x 24
Dispenser capacity = (3x 4 + x 3 + 6x + 2)
Number of bottles = (x 2 + 1)
+x 3
3x 2
2 +0x +1 3x 4
+6x +2
x
+x 3 +0x 2
4
3
2
(3x +0x +3x )
+6x
x3
3x 2
3
2
+x)
(x +0x
2
+5x +2
3x
2 +0x 3)
(3x
5x +5

= 5(7) + 5
= 40 cm3

3x
4y
2
2x +y 6x
5xy
4y 2
2 +3xy)
(6x
8yx
4y 2
(8yx 4y 2 )
0
6x2 5xy4y2

9(ii)(b)
Remainder when Q(x) P(x) is divided by x 2 x 2
= (16x + 15) (8x 13)
= 8x + 28

10(i)

= (7)2 + 1
= 50

Capacity of each bottle = 3(7)2 + 7 3


= 151 cm3
Amount of drink left

6x

= 3(7)4 + (7)3 + 6(7) + 2


= 7590 cm3

= 3x 4y

5yx
3x 2
3
x +2y 3x
+yx 2
(3x 3 +6yx 2 )
5yx 2
(5yx 2

+7y 2
3y 2 x

y 3

3y 2 x
10y 2 x)
7y 2 x
y 3
(7y 2 x +14y 3 )
15y 3
Quotient = 3x 2 5yx + 7y 2
Remainder = 15y 3

Capacity of each bottle = 3x 2 + x 3


Amount of drink left = 5x + 5

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13

Ex 3.2

3x 3 ax 2 bx + 72 = (x 2 + 5x + c)(dx + e)
Compare x 3 : d = 3
3x 3 ax 2 bx + 72
= (x 2 + 5x + c)(3x + e)
= 3x 3 +15x 2
+3cx
+ex 2
+5ex
+ce
3
2
= 3x + (15 + e)x +(3c + 5e)x +ce
Compare x 2 : a = 15 + e

(1)

Compare x:

(2)

b = 3c + 5e

Compare x 0 : 72 = ce
let c = 1, e = 72
Put e = 72 into (1):
a = 15 + 72
a = 87
Put c = 1, e = 72 into (2):
b = 3(1) + 5(72)
b
= 363
3x
+72
3
x +5x +1 3x
+87x 2
(3x 3 +15x 2
72x 2
(72x 2
2

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+363x +72
+3x)
+360x +72
+360x +72)
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4(ii)

Ex 3.3
1(a)

Ex 3.3

Let f(x) = x 4 4x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3
By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder
= g(2)

By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(1)
=1+4+31+3
= 10
1(b)

g(x) = 2x 3 bx 2 + 2ax 4
= 2x 3 (3a 5)x 2 +2ax 4

Let f(x) = [x(x 1)(1 2x)2 + x 2 3]

= 2(2)3 (3a 5)(2)2 +2a(2)

= 16 (3a 5)(4) +4a

= 16 12a + 20 +4a

= 32 8a
By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(2)
= 2(1)(9) + 4 3
= 19
1(c)

Let f(x) = [3(x + 4)2 (1 x)3 ]


By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(0)
= 3(4)2 1
= 47

Let f(x) = 8x 3 + ax 2 + bx 9
f(x) has remainder of 95 when divided by x + 2
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
= 95
64 + 4a 2b 9 = 95
4a 2b
= 22
4a
= 2b 22
a

Let f(x) = x + 3x kx + 4

(1)

=3

By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
=k
8 + 12 2k + 4 = k
3k
= 24
k
=8

4
3

27 + a + b 9
9

Let f(x) = x 4 + x 3 + 2ax 2 14a4

=3

a+ b

= 15

9a + 6b
3a + 2b

= 60
= 20

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


3(

By Remainder Theorem,
f(2a)
= 32
4
3
3
4
16a 8a + 8a 14a = 32
2a4
= 32
4
a
= 16
a = 2 or a = 2

b11
2

) + 2b

(3b 33) + 4b
7b
b

= 20
= 40
= 7
= 1

put b = 1 into (1):


a|b=1 =

4(i)

f(x) has remainder of 3 when divided by 2x 3


By Remainder Theorem,

f( )

b11

f(x) = ax 2 + bx 6

(1)11
2

= 6

By Remainder Theorem,
f(3)
=9
9a 3b 6 = 9
3b
= 9a 15
b
= 3a 5

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6(i)

Ex 3.3

f(x) = x 3 + ax 2 + bx 3
f(x) has remainder of 27 when divided by x 2,
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
= 27
8 + 4a + 2b 3 = 27
4a
= 22 2b
a

11b
2

7(i)

(1)

f(x) has remainder of 3 when divided by x + 1,


By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)
=3
1 + a b 3 = 3
ab
=7
(2)

f(x) has a remainder of p + 5 when divided by


x2
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
=p+5
8 + 4a + 7
=p+5
4a
= p 10
(2)

sub (1) into (2):

sub (1) into (2):


8p 24 = p 10
7p
= 14
p
=2

11b
2

=7

11 b 2b = 14
3b
= 3
b
= 1

Put p = 2 into (1):


a|p=2 = 2(2) 6

Put b = 1 into (1):


a|b=1 =

= 2

11(1)
2

=6
6(ii)

f(x) = x 3 + ax 2 + 7
f(x) has remainder of 2p when divided by x + 1
By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)
= 2p
3
2
(1) + a(1) + 7 = 2p
1 + a + 7
= 2p
a
= 2p 6
(1)

7(ii)

f(x) = x 3 + 6x 2 1x 3

f(x) = x 3 2x 2 + 7
By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(p)
= f(2)
= (2)3 2(2)2 + 7
= 8 8 + 7
= 9

By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(1)
= (1)3 + 6(1)2 1(1) 3
= 3
8

Let f(x) = ax 3 + bx 2 + 2x + c
By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)
= 2f(1)
a + b + 2 + c = 2(a + b 2 + c)
a + b + 2 + c = 2a + 2b 4 + 2c
c
= 3a b + 6 [shown]

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9

Ex 3.3

Let f(x) = 2x 2 + 6x + 3

11(iii) P(x) (3x 2 x 2)


Remainder = ax + b
P(x) = (3x 2 x 2)Q(x) +ax + b
= (x 1)(3x + 2)Q(x) +ax + b

By Remainder Theorem,
f(p)
= f(2q)
2(p)2 + 6(p) + 3 = 2(2q)2 + 6(2q) + 3
2p2 6p + 3

10

p2 3p

= 4q2 + 6q

3p + 6q

= p2 4q2

3(p + 2q)

= (p + 2q)(p 2q)

p 2q

=3

1 +
a

= 20
= 20
= 20
= 20
=0
=0

12

=1

f(x) (x 2 + x 2)
Remainder = ax + b
f(x) = (x 2 + x 2)Q(x) +ax + b
= (x 1)(x + 2)Q(x) +ax + b

when f(x) is divided by x + 2, remainder is 2


By Remainder Theorem,
f(2) = 2
2a + b = 2
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2(4 b) + b = 2
8 + 2b + b
= 2
3b
=6
b
=2
a|b=2 = 4 (2)
=2

11(ii) P ( 2) = 2 a + b

= a

When f(x) is divided by x 1, remainder is 4


By Remainder Theorem,
f(1) = 4
a + b= 4
a
=4b
(1)

P(1)
=a+b
9352 =a+b
1
= a + b [shown] (1)

Remainder = ax +b
= (1)x +(2)
=x2

P(x) = 9x 3 3x 2 5x 2
= (x 1)(3x + 2)Q(x) + ax + b

Put a = 1 into (1):


1 = 1 + b
b = 2

f(x) = x 2 2x + p
g(x) = px 2 + x + 3
By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)g(1)
[(1)2 2(1) + p][p(1)2 + (1) + 3]
(p + 3)(p + 2)
p2 + 5p + 6
p2 + 5p 14
(p + 7)(p 2)
p = 7 or p = 2

11(i)

(1) (2):

= 8q2 + 12q + 3

3
2

= a + b [shown] (2)
3

Remainder = 2x + 2
13

f(x) = 4x 3 (x 2)5 x 2 + xx 7
f(x) is not a polynomial because not all exponents
are non-negative integers
3

xx has exponent of
2

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Ex 3.4
3(ii)

Ex 3.4
1(a)

P(x) = 2x 4x + x 2
P(2) = 16 16 + 2 2
=0

+5x
2x 2
3
x 2 2x
+x 2
(2x 3 4x 2 )
5x 2
(5x 2

By Factor Theorem,
Yes
1(b)

+2
8x

8x
10x)
2x
4
(2x
4)
0

g(x) = 2x 3 + x 2 8x 4
= (x 2)(2x 2 + 5x + 2)
= (x 2)(2x + 1)(x + 2)

P(x) = 16x + 8x 6x 9
1

P ( ) = 2 + 2 + 3 9
2

= 6
0
By Factor Theorem,
No

4(a)

x 3 64 = x 3 43
= (x 4)[x 2 + x(4) + 42 ]
= (x 4)(x 2 + 4x + 16)

4(b)

27a3 + 125x 3
= (3a)3 + (5x)3

1(c)

P(x) = x 4 2x(x 2 8) 12x 2 + 11


P(3) = 81 2(3)(9 8) 12(9) + 11
= 10
0

= (3a + 5x)[(3a)2 3a(5x) + (5x)2 ]


= (3a + 5x)(9a2 15ax + 25x 2 )
4(c)

8 + 27x 3 = 23 + (3x)3
= (2 + 3x)[22 2(3x) + (3x)2 ]

By Factor Theorem,
No
2

= (2 + 3x)(4 6x + 9x 2 )

P(x) = 3x 4ax 4a

x + 2 is a factor of P(x)
By Factor Theorem,
P(2)
3(2)2 4a(2) 4a2
12 + 8a 4a2
a2 2a 3
(a 3)(a + 1)
a = 3 or a = 1
3(i)

4(d)

432x 3 2y 3
= 2(216x 3 y 3 )
= 2[(6x)3 y 3 ]
= 2(6x y)[(6x)2 + 6x(y) + y 2 ]

=0
=0
=0
=0
=0

= 2(6x y)(36x 2 + 6xy + y 2 )

g(x) = 2x 3 + x 2 + px 4
x 2 is a factor of g(x)
By Factor Theorem,
g(2)
2(2)3 + (2)2 + p(2) 4
16 + 4 + 2p 4
2p
p

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=0
=0
=0
= 16
= 8

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5(i)

Ex 3.4

f(x) = ax 3 + bx 2 5x + 2a
Quadratic factor: x 2 3x 4 = (x 4)(x + 1)
x 4 is a factor of f(x)
By Factor Theorem,
f(4)
=0
64a + 16b 20 + 2a = 0
66a + 16b
= 20
33a + 8b
= 10
x + 1 is a factor of f(x)
By Factor Theorem,
f(1)
=0
a + b + 5 + 2a= 0
a+b+5
=0
a
= 5 b

6(ii)

6(iii)

p = 2

f(x) = 2x 2 + 3px 2q
g(x) = x 2 + q

(2)

Put b = 7 into (2):


a|b=7 = 5 (7)
=2

2x
1
3
3x 4 2x
7x 2
(2x 3 6x 2
x 2
(x 2

(1)

x a is a factor of g(x)
By Factor Theorem,
g(a)
=0
a2 + q = 0
a2
= q

(2)

a = 0 (rej a 0) or a =
5x +4
8x)
+3x +4
+3x +4)
0

3p
4

(3)

Method 1
sub (3) into (1):
2 (

The third factor is (2x 1)


6(i)

x a is a factor of f(x)
By Factor Theorem,
f(a)
=0
2
2a + 3pa 2q = 0

sub (2) into (1)


2a2 + 3pa + 2a2 = 0
4a2 + 3pa = 0
a(4a + 3p)
=0

f(x) = 2x 3 7x 2 5x + 4

x2

=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0

(1)

sub (2) into (1):


33(5 b) + 8b = 10
165 33b + 8b = 10
25b
= 175
b
= 7

5(ii)

By Factor Theorem,
f(2)
(2p + 1)4 2p + 2p2
8p + 4 2p + 2p2
2p2 + 6p + 4
p2 + 3p + 2
(p + 1)(p + 2)
p = 1 or p = 2

2(
8

By Factor Theorem,
f(1)
=0
2
(2p + 1) + p + 2p = 0
2p2 + 3p + 1
=0
(2p + 1)(p + 1)
=0

9p2

9p2

f(x) = (2p + 1)x 2 + px + 2p2

3p 2

16

9p2
8
2

) + 3p (

)
9p2
4

9p2
4

2q

2q

2q

3p
4

) 2q = 0
=0
=0
=0

9p + 16q

= 0 [shown]

Method 2
sub (3) into (2):

p = or p = 1

3p 2

9p2
16

= q
= q

9p + 16q = 0 [shown]

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8

Ex 3.4
10(a) 2x 4 + 54x = 2x(x 3 + 27)
= 2x(x 3 + 33 )
= 2x(x + 3)[x 2 x(3) + 32 ]
= 2x(x + 3)(x 2 3x + 9)

Part I
f(x) = 3x 3 5ax 2 + ka2 x + 4a3 , a 0
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2a)
3(8a3 ) 5a(4a2 ) + ka2 (2a) + 4a3
24a3 20a3 2ka3 + 4a3
40a3 2ka3
2ka3 + 8a3
ka3 + 4a3
a3 (k + 4)
a = 0 (rej a 0) or k = 4

= 32a3
= 32a3
= 32a3
= 32a3
=0
=0
=0

10(b)
(1 + x)3 + 64
= (1 + x)3 + 43
= [(1 + x) + 4][(1 + x)2
(1 + 2x + x 2
= (x + 5)
= (x + 5)(x 2 2x + 13)

(1 + x)(4) + (4)2 ]
4 4x
+ 16)

f(x) = 3x 3 5ax 2 4a2 x + 4a3


Part II
Quadratic factor:
x 2 ax 2a2 = (x 2a)(x + a)

f(2a) = 3(2a)3 5a(2a)2 4a2 (2a) + 4a3


= 24a3 20a3 8a3 + 4a3
=0
By Factor Theorem, (x 2a) is a factor of f(x)
f(a) = 3(a)3 5a(a)2 4a2 (a) + 4a3
= 3a3 5a3 + 4a3 + 4a3
=0
By Factor Theorem, (x + a) is a factor of f(x)
x 2 ax 2a2 is a factor of f(x)
9

f(a) = a3 ba2 4b2 a + 4b3


f(2b) = (2b)3 b(2b)2 4b2 (2b) + 4b3
= 8b3 4b3 8b3 + 4b3
=0
By Factor Theorem,
(a 2b) is a factor of f(a)
when f(a) is divided by a + b,
By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(b)
= (b)3 b(b)2 4b2 (b) + 4b3
= b3 b3 + 4b3 + 4b3
= 6b3

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83

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.4

10(c) (x + y)3 (x y)3


= [(x + y) (x y)] [(x + y)2
+ (x + y)(x y) + (x y)2 ]
2
2
= 2y
[x + 2xy + y
+x 2 y
+(x 2 2xy + y 2 )]
= 2y
[2x 2 + 2xy + (x 2 2xy + y 2 )]
= 2y(3x 2 + y 2 )
10(d) 1000x 3 y 6 = (10x)3 (y 2 )3
= (10x y 2 )[(10x)2 + 10x(y 2 ) + (y 2 )2 ]
= (10x y 2 )(100x 2 + 10xy 2 + y 4 )
11(i)

x 6 64 = ( 3 )2 82
= (x 3 + 8)(x 3 8)
= (x 3 + 23 )(x 3 23 )
= (x + 2)[x 2 x(2) + 22 ] (x 2)[x 2 + x(2) + 22 ]
= (x + 2)(x 2 2x + 4) (x 2)(x 2 + 2x + 4)

11(ii) x 6 64

= (x 2 + 4)2 4x 2

(x + 2)(x 2 2x + 4)(x 2)(x 2 + 2x + 4)

= (x 2 + 4)2 (2x)2

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x + 2)(x 2)

= [(x 2 + 4) + 2x][(x 2 + 4) 2x]

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x + 2)(x 2)

= (x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x 2 4 1)

=0

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x 2 5)

=0

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x 5)(x + 5) = 0


x = 5 or x = 5
12(i)

x 3 2x 3 + 3 = 0 has roots &


1

sub y = x 3 :
1

y 2 2y + 3 = 0 has roots 3 & 3


1

Sum of roots

= 3 + 3 =
1
3

Product of roots =

1
3

c
a

b
a

(2)

(3)

= (1)

(1)

=2
=3

12(ii) +
1

= (3 ) + (3 )
1

= (3 + 3 ) [(3 ) (3 ) (3 ) + (3 ) ] sum of cubes factorization


1

= (3 + 3 ) (3 3 3 + 3 )
2

= 2 (3 3 + 3 )
1

3 + 3 = 2, 3 3 = 3
1

= 2 [(3 + 3 ) 23 3 3]

a2 + b2 = (a + b)2 2ab

= 2[(2)2
2(3) 3]
= 2(4 6 3)
= 10

3 + 3 = 2, 3 3 = 3

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13

Ex 3.4

(2n + 1)3 (2n 1)3


= [(2n + 1) (2n 1)][(2n + 1)2
+ (2n + 1)(2n 1) + (2n 1)2 ]
2
(4n + 4n + 1 + 4n2 1
=2
+ 4n2 4n + 1)
= 2(12n2 + 1)
difference between the cube of two consecutive positive odd numbers
4
=

(2n + 1)3 (2n 1)3


4

2(12n2 + 1)
4

12n2 + 1
2

12n2 has to be an even number


12n2 + 1 has to be an odd number
(12n2 + 1) cannot be divisible by 2
difference between the cube of two consecutive positive
odd numbers can never be divisible by 4.
14

Difference in cubes
= (large cube) (small cube)
= a3 b3
red cuboid
= (a)(a b)(a)
= (a b)a2

green cuboid
= a(b)(a b)
= (a b)ab
blue cuboid
= (a b)(b)(b)
= (a b)b2

sum of cuboids
= (a b)a2 + (a b)ab + (a b)b2
= (a b)(a2 + ab + b2 )
Resultant Volume = sum of cuboids
a3 b3
= (a b)(a2 + ab + b2 ) [shown]

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.5
3(b)

Ex 3.5
1(a)

1(b)

2(i)

x 3 2x 2 4x + 8
)
(x 2)(
)
(x 2)(x 2
2
= (x 2)(x
4)
= (x 2)(x + 2)(x 2)
= (x + 2)(x 2)2
3

(x 3)(4x 3)(x + 2) = 0
x = 3 or x =

3x 10x + 9x 2
(x 1)(
)
2
)
(x 1)(3x
2
(x
1)(3x
+2)
= (x 1)(3x 2 7x +2)
= (x 2)(3x 1)(x 2)

f(x)
x 3 3x 2 4x
x 3 3x 2 4x + 12
(x 2)(
)
2
(x 2)(x
)
(x 2)(x 2
6)
2
(x 2)(x
x 6)

x 3 4x 2 + x + 6
(x 2)(
(x 2)(x 2
(x 2)(x 2
(x 2)(x 2 2x

or x = 2

3(d)

x(x + 3)(x 1)
x(x 2 + 2x 3)
x 3 + 2x 2 3x
x 3 + 2x 2 4x 8
(x 2)(
)
2
(x 2)(x
+4)
(x 2)(x 2 +4x +4)
(x 2)(x + 2)2
x = 2 or x = 2

(x 2)(x 3)(x + 2) = 0
x = 2 or x = 3 or x = 2
3(a)

x3 + 4
= x(x + 4)
3
x +4
= x 2 + 4x
3
2
x x 4x + 4
=0
(x 1)(
)
2
(x 1)(x
)
(x 1)(x 2
4) = 0
(x 1)(x + 2)(x 2)
=0
x = 1 or x = 2 or x = 2

= 12
= 12
=0

=0

3(c)

f(x) = x 3 3x 2 4x
f(x)
=0
2
x(x 3x 4) = 0
x(x 4)(x + 1) = 0
x = 0 or x = 4 or x = 1

2 (ii)

4x 3 + 18
= 7x 2 + 21x
4x 3 7x 2 21x + 18 = 0
(x 3)(
)
2
(x 3)(4x
)
2
(x 3)(4x
6)
(x 3)(4x 2 + 5x 6) = 0

=0
)
)
3)
3) = 0

=x+8
=x+8
=x+8
=0

=0
=0

P(x) = k[x (4)] [x (1)] [x (3)]


= k(x + 4)(x + 1)(x 3)
= 5(x + 4)(x + 1)(x 3)
coefficient of x 3 is 5
= 5(x 2 + 5x + 4)(x 3)
= 5(x 3 +5x 2 +4x
3x 2 15x 12)
= 5(x 3 +2x 2 11x 12)
= 5x 3 +10x 2 55x 60

(x 2)(x 3)(x + 1) = 0
x = 2 or x = 3 or x = 1

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86

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(a)

x 3 9x 2 + 25x 21
=0
(x 3)(
)
(x 3)(x 2
)
2
(x 3)(x
+ 7)
2
(x 3)(x
6x + 7) = 0
x = 3 or x =
=

5(b)

2(1)
68

622
2

= 3 2

1 3
x
6
3

113
6

717
4

9(i)

+ x

= 35

= 210
=0

4(4)2 4(1)(30)
2(1)
416120
2

4104
2

(not real)

f(x) = 2x 3 + 9x 2 + 7x + 3
f(k)
=9
3
2
2k + 9k + 7k + 3 = 9
2k 3 + 9k 2 + 7k 6 = 0 [shown]

Let f(x) = 2x 3 x 2 + 3x + 2
1

= 35
1 2
x
2
2

2(2)

x = 7 or x =

(7)(7)2 4(2)(4)
74932

(x 7)(
)
(x 7)(x 2
)
(x 7)(x 2
+ 30)
(x 7)(x 2 +4x + 30) = 0

2x 3 + 6x 6
= (13x 6)(x 1)
3
2x + 6x 6
= 13x 2 19x + 6
3
2
2x 13x + 25x 12 = 0
(x 3)(
)
2
(x 3)(2x
)
(x 3)(2x 2
+ 4)
(x 3)(2x 2 7x + 4)
(x 3)(2x 2 7x + 4) = 0
x = 3 or x =

x 3x + 2x
x 3 3x 2 + 2x 210

2(3)
6

N(x) = x 3 x 2 + x
N(x)

(1)(1)2 4(3)(1)
11+12

y = P(x) cuts the x-axis at 2,1 & 2:


P(x) = k[x (2)][x (1)] [x (2)]
= k(x + 2)(x 1)(x 2)
P(x) passes through (0,12):
12 = P(0)
= k[(0) + 2][(0) 1][(0) 2]
= k(2)(1)(2)
= 4k
k=3
P(x) = 3(x + 2)(x 1)(x 2)

63628

3x 3 + 5x 2
= 3x + 2
3
2
3x + 5x 3x 2 = 0
(x + 2)(
)
(x + 2)(3x 2
)
(x + 2)(3x 2
1)
(x + 2)(3x 2 x 1) = 0

6(i)

(6)(6)2 4(1)(7)

x = 2 or x =

5(c)

Ex 3.5

9(ii)

2k 3 + 9k 2 + 7k 6 = 0

f ( ) = 2 ( ) + 2
(k + 2)(
(k + 2)(2k 2
(k + 2)(2k 2
(k + 2)(2k 2

=0
By Factor Thm, (2x + 1) is factor
6(ii)

2x 3 + 4
2x 3 + 4
2x 3 x 2 + 3x + 2

= (x 1)(x 2)
= x 2 3x + 2
=0

(k + 2)(2k 1)(k + 3) = 0
k = 2 or k =

(2x + 1)(
(2x + 1)(x 2
(2x + 1)(x 2
(2x + 1)(x 2 x
1

x = or x =

)
)
+ 2)
+ 2) = 0

1
2

or k = 3

(1)(1)2 4(1)(2)

)
)
3)
+5k 3) = 0

2(1)
118
2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

17
2

(not real)
sleightofmath.com

87

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

Ex 3.5

y = 2x 3
(1)
(2
y = x)(5x + 6)
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x 3
= (2 x)(5x + 6)
3
2x + (x 2)(5x + 6) = 0
2x 3 + 5x 2 4x 12
=0
(x + 2)(
)
(x + 2)(2x 2
6)
2
(x + 2)(2x
+x 6) = 0
(x + 2)(2x 3)(x + 2)
x = 2

or

y|x=2 = 2(2)3

11(i)

+5x
x2
2 x 2 x 4
x
+4x 3
(x 4 x 3
5x 3
(5x 3

=0
x=

3
2
3 3

y|x=3 = 2 ( )
=

=0
=0

+6
x 2
2x 2 )
+x 2
5x 2
6x 2
(6x 2

( ,

16x 12
16x
10x)
6x 12
6x 12)
0

27
4

(x 2)(x + 1)(x 2 + 5x + 6) = 0
(x 2)(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) = 0
x = 2 or x = 1 or x = 2 or x = 3

3 27
2

=0
=0

= 16
(2, 16)

11(ii) P(x)
x 4 + 4x 3 x 2 16x 12
a = 4, b = 16
(x 2)(x + 1)Q(x)
(x 2 x 2)Q(x)

P(x) = x 4 + ax 3 x 2 + bx 12
P(x) is divisible by (x 2)
By Factor Theorem,
P(2)
=0
16 + 8a 4 + 2b 12 = 0
8a + 2b
=0
b
= 4a
P(x) is divisible by (x + 1)
By Factor Theorem,
P(1)
=0
1 a 1 b 12 = 0
a + b + 12
=0
a + (4a) + 12
=0
b = 4a
a
= 4

12(i)

f(x) = 2x 3 + ax 2 7a2 x 6a3


f(a) = 2(a)3 + a(a)2 7a2 (a) 6a3
= 2a3 + a3 + 7a3 6a3
=0
By Factor Theorem,
(x + a) is a factor of f(x)

12(ii) f(x)
=0
3
2
2
3
2x + ax 7a x 6a
=0
(x + a)(
)
(x + a)(2x 2
)
(x + a)(2x 2
6a2 )
(x + a)(2x 2 ax 6a2 ) = 0
(x + a)(2x + 3a)(x 2a) = 0
3

x = a or x = a or x = 2a
2

b|a=4 = 4(4) = 16
13(i)

x 2 (9 2x)
9x 2 2x 3
2x 3 9x 2 + 2
(2x 1)(
(2x 1)(x 2
(2x 1)(x 2
(2x 1)(x 2
4x
1

x = or x =

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)
)
2)
2) = 0

(4)(4)2 4(1)(2)

=2
=2
=0

2(1)
416+8
2

424
2

426
2

= 2 6

88

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.5

13(ii) x 2 (3 + 2x)(3 2x) = 2


x 2 (9 2x)
=2
1

x = or x = 2 + 6 or x = 2 6
2

(
14

rej 2x )
would not exist

15(iii) P(x) = 0 has only 1 real root


0 real roots in quadratic factor
b2 4ac
<0
2
a 4(2)(a)< 0
a2 8a
<0
a(a 8)
<0

Intersects x = 1 or x = 3 only
P(x) = k(x + 1)(x 3)2

+
0

+
8

0<a<8

P(x) passes through (1,16):


16 = P(1)
= k(1 + 1)(1 3)2
= k(2)(4)
2 =k

16

P(x) = 2(x + 1)(x 3)2


P(3) = 144
P(x) = k(x + 1)2 (x 3)

5 32x 2
5 32x 2
12x 3 + 32x 2 + 3x 5
(2x + 1)(
)
(2x + 1)(6x 2
)
(2x + 1)(6x 2
5)
2
(2x + 1)(6x +13x 5)

= 3x(4x 2 + 1)
= 12x 3 + 3x
=0

=0

(2x + 1)(2x + 5)(3x 1) = 0

y = P(x) passes through (1,16):


16 = P(1)
= k(1 + 1)2 (1 3)
= k(4)(2)
2 = k
P(x) = 2(x + 1)2 (x 3)
P(3) = 48
15(i)

5 1

2 3

x = , ,
17(i)

29.7

2 + 2
21

P(x) = 4x 3 + 2ax 2 2x 2 + ax a

Compare area,

1 3

1 2

1 2

A(x) = xy

P ( ) = 4 ( ) + 2a ( ) 2 ( ) + a ( ) a
=

1
2

+ a
2

1
2

+ aa
2

Compare width,

=0

x 2 + y 2 + y = 21

By Factor Theorem,
(2x 1) is a factor of P(x)
15(ii) P(x) (2x 1)(
(2x 1)(2x 2
(2x 1)(2x 2
= (2x 1)(2x 2

(1)

)
)
+a)
+ax +a)

x 2 + y 2
x2 + y2
42y

= 21 y
= 441 42y + y 2
= 441 x 2

441x2
42

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


1

A(x) = x (
=

441x2

2
42
x(441x2 )
84

17(ii) 21 is the width of rectangle and this results in no


leftover area for A(x)

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89

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(iii)

x(441x2 )

= 15

84

Ex 3.5
3
7

2)

x(441 x
= 1296
x 2 441x + 1296= 0
x

=
=

(441)(441)2 4(1)(1296)
2(1)
441189297
2

x = 2.96 or x = 438 (rej x < 21)

(12.4,42.4)

= ()

17(iv) A(x) = 42.4 cm2 is max area

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90

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.6
2(a)

Ex 3.6
1(a)

3x+1
(x2)(x+5)

x2

x+2
(x+1)2

Cover-up rule:

x = 5:

+ (x+1)2

Cover-up rule:

x+5

x = 1:
x = 2:

A
x+1

7
=A
( )(7)
14
=B
(7)( )

1
( )2

A=1

Substitution:

B=2

x = 0:

=B

B=1

= +

A =1
3x+1

(x2)(x+5) =
1(b)

x2

x+5

x+2

(x+1)2 =

x2
A
B

+
(x + 2)(x + 1) x + 2 x + 1

2(b)

Cover-up rule:
4
=A
( )(1)
3
=B
(1)( )

x = 2:
x = 1:

1(c)

x2
(x+2)(x+1)

x+5
x2 +x

x+5

4
x+2

x(x+1)

A
x

3
x+1

x = 1:

1(d)

x+5
x2 +x

x+10
x2 4

x+1

x+10
x2 4

2
x+2

+ (x2)2

=A

A=4

x = 2:

32
(4)( )2

=C

C=8

x = 0:

x+1

44
(2)(4)

B = 4

2(c)

14+7x3x2
x2 (x+2)

= +

(x+2)(x2)2 =

A=5

A
x

4
x+2

B
x2

B = 3

4
8

x2

+ (x2)2

C
x+2

Cover-up rule:
A
x+2

8
=A
( )(4)
12
=B
(4)( )

B
x2

Substitution:

64
( )(16)

x = 0:

14
( )2 (2)

x = 2:

12
(4)( )

3
x2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

=7

B=7

x2

Cover-up rule:

x = 2:

A
x+2

x2 8x+44

x+10
(x+2)(x2)

x = 2:

x = 2:

5
=A
( )(1)
4
=B
(1)( )

x2 8x+44
(x+2)(x2)2

B = 3

Cover-up rule:
x = 0:

+ (x+1)2

Cover-up rule:

A=4

1
x+1

A = 2

Substitution:

B=3

x = 1:

sleightofmath.com

18

C = 3

= + +

14+7x3x2
x2 (x+2)

=C

7
x2

x+2

A=0

91

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(d)

4x2 9x+7
x(x1)2

Ex 3.6
3(c)

x1

+ (x1)2

Cover-up rule:

7x2 9x+29
(x3)(x2 +4)

x3

Bx+C
x2 +4

Cover-up rule:

x = 0:

7
( )(1)

x = 1:

2
(1)( )2

=A
=C

65
( )(13)

A=7

x = 3:

C=2

Substitution:

=A

29
(3)(4)

x = 0:

A=5

A
3

C
4

C = 3

Substitution:
5
(2)(1)2

x = 2:

3(a)

4x2 9x+7
x(x1)2

x1

8x2 11x+5
(2x3)(x2 +1)

= + +

2x3

B = 3

(x3)(x2

Bx+C

3(d)

x2 +1

Cover-up rule:
13
2
13
)( )
4

x= :
2

x = 1:

3(b)

=A

(1)(2)

8x2 11x+5
(2x3)(x2 +1)

x(x2 +3)

3
A

2
2x3

C = 1

1
B+C

2x3

B=2

x2 +4

Bx+C
x2 +5

A=2

B=3

3x1
x2 +1

(x1)(x2

4(a)

x2 +3

=A

4(b)
Bx+C

x2 +3
2

= +

x(x2 +3)
2

Compare coefficients:
x 2 : 1 = 5 + B B = 4
x:
C=2
5

4x+2

x2 +3

= +

C
5

2B+C

= +

x1

4x
x2 +5

C=4
B = 1

Deg(numerator) = 1
Deg(denominator) = 2

Deg(numerator) = 1
Deg(denominator) = 2
Deg(numerator) < Deg(denominator),
the fraction is proper

4(c)

Deg(numerator) = 2
Deg(denominator) = 2
Deg(numerator) = Deg(denominator),
the fraction is improper

4x2 +3
x2 2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

+5)

A
1

Deg(numerator) < Deg(denominator),


the fraction is proper

A=5
5

20
(1)(9)

x = 2:

Bx+C

x2 +2x+15

x(x2 +3)

(1)(5)

x2 +5x+6

15
( )(3)

x2 +2x+15

x1

x = 0:

x + 2x + 15 = 5(x + 3)
+(Bx + C)x
2
= 5x + 15
+Bx 2 + Cx
= (5 + B)x 2 + Cx + 15

12
=
( )(6)

x = 1:

A=2

Cover-up rule:
x = 0:

5
x3

B+C

Substitution:

5
(3)(1)

x2 +2x+15

x2 +5x+6
(x1)(x2 +5)

Cover-up rule:

Substitution:
x = 0:

+4)

(2)(5)

7x2 9x+29

+ (x1)2

27

x = 1:

sleightofmath.com

4(x2 2)+11
x2 2

=4+

11
x2 2

92

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(d)

Ex 3.6

Deg(numerator) = 4
Deg(denominator) = 3

5(b)

x+3
(x2)(x2 4)

x2 (2x3)

x+3

1
2
3

2x 3x x

5(a)

x2 (2x3)

x+3
(x2)(x4)

+0x 2

= x+ +
A

x2

2x 2

+0x 2

x = 2:
x = 4:

7
(2)( )

x+3

(x2)(x4) =
=

1
( )(16)

=A

A=

x = 2:

5
(4)( )2

=C

C=

x = 0:
2x 2

15 2
x 2x2
4
x2 (2x3)

3
(2)(4)

= +

x4

A=

=B

x2
7

2(x4)

B=

5(c)

1
16(x+2)
A

Cover-up rule:

x = 2:

5
( )(8)

x+2

x2

7
2

1
16
5
4

2
1

16

1
16

x2

5
4
+ (x2)
2

1
16(x2)

5
4(x2)2

Bx+C
x2 +4

=A

A=

5
8

Substitution:

x4

x+3
(x2)(x2 +4)

5
2(x2)

x = 0:

3
(2)(4)

x = 1:

4
(1)(5)

x+3

(x2)(x2

+4)

=
=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

1
16

x+3

5
2

+ (x2)2

x = 2:

(x+2)(x2)2 =

=A

B
x2

Substitution:

15 2
x )
4
15 2
x
4

Cover-up rule:
5
( )(2)

+x 3

3
(x 4 2 x 3 )
5 3
x
2
5
( x 3
2

(x+1)(x3 2)

x+2

Cover-up rule:

2x3 3x2
5

x4 +x3 2x2

(x2)(x+2)(x2)

= (x+2)(x2)2

Deg(numerator) > Deg(denominator),


the fraction is improper
(x+1)(x3 2)

x+3

sleightofmath.com

=
5

8(x2)
5
8(x2)

C=

A
1

B+C
5

1
4

B=

5
8

5
1
8
4
x2 +4

5x+2
8(x2 +4)

93

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(a)

2x3 +15x2 +39x+33

(x+2)(x+3)

Ex 3.6

2x3 +15x2 +39x+33

2x
+5
3
x +5x +6 2x
+15x 2
(2x 3 +10x 2
5x 2
(5x 2
2

2x3 +15x2 +39x+33

6(c)

x2 +5x+6

+39x
+12x)
+27x
+25x
2x

6x3 5x2 19x+28


(2x+3)(x1)2

+33

+33
+30)
+3

2x

2x+3

= 2x + 5 + (x+2)(x+3)

(x+2)(x+3)

2x + 5 +

A
x+2

6x3 5x2 19x+28


(2x+3)(x1)2

x+3

6(b)

1
( )(1)

x = 3:

3
(1)( )

=A

2x3 +15x2 +39x+33


(x+2)(x+3)

4x3 4x2 16x+7


(x+1)(x2)

x2

(x+1)(x2)

6x3 5x2 19x+28


2x3 x2 4x+3

2x2 7x+19

= 3 + (2x+3)(x1)2
A
2x+3

B
x1

+ (x1)2

A = 1
Cover-up rule:

=B

B=3

= 2x + 5

1
x+2

25

25
4

x= :
3
x+3

x = 1:

4x3 4x2 16x+7

=A

10
(5)( )2

A=4

=C C=2

Substitution:

x2 x2

x = 0:

4x
x 2 4x 3
4x 2 16x +7
(4x 3 4x 2 8x)
8x +7

4x3 4x2 16x+7

6x3 5x2 19x+28


2x3 4x2 +2x+3x2 6x+3

3+

x = 2:

2x+1)

3
4x +3 6x 3
5x 2 19x +28
(6x 3 3x 2 12x +9)
2x 2 7x +19

Cover-up rule:

6x3 5x2 19x+28

= (2x+3)(x2

19
(3)(1)

6x3 5x2 19x+28


=
(2x+3)(x1)2

A
3

3+

B
1

4
2x+3

C
1
3

x1

B = 3
2

+ (x1)2

78x

= 4x + (x+1)(x2)
4x +

x+1

B
x2

Cover-up rule:
x = 1:

15
( )(3)

x = 2:

9
3( )

4x3 4x2 16x+7


(x+1)(x2)

=A

=B

= 4x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

A = 5
B = 3
5
x+1

3
x2

sleightofmath.com

94

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.6

6(d)

4x5 +2x4 +3x3 x2 x+1


x(x2 +1)

4x5 +2x4 +3x3 x2 x+1


x3 +x

+2x
4x 2
3
2 +x
5
+2x 4
x +0x
4x
5 +0x 4
(4x
2x 4
(2x 4

4x5 +2x4 +3x3 x2 x+1


x(x2 +1)

1
+3x 3
+4x 3 )
x 3
+0x 3
x 3
(x 3

x 2

x +1

x 2
+2x 2 )
3x 2 x
+0x 2 x)
3x 2 +0x +1

= 4x 2 + 2x 1 +

4x3 +12x2 x4

=x+3+
x+3+

Bx+C

x2 +1

x= :
=A

A=1

x= :
2

3x2 +1

x(x2 +1)

Bx+C

9(i)

x2 +1

3x 2 + 1 = (x 2 + 1) +(Bx + C)x
= x2 + 1

+Bx 2 + Cx

x(x2 +1)
6x2 21x+25
x(2x5)

4x

x2 +1

= 4x 2 + 2x 1 +

D
2x+1

1
=C
( )(2)
1
=D
(2)( )

C=
2

D=
2

a
3x2 +8x+1
x2 +2x+1

3
+2x +1 3x 2
(3x 2

+8x
+6x
2x

+1
+3)
2

6x2 21x+25
2x2 5x

2x2

3
21x +25
2x 5x 6x 2
2 15x)
(6x
6x +25
A=3
x(2x5)

h = 3 + (x+1)2
3+

6x2 21x+25

C
2x1

V = 3x 2 + 8x + 1
a = (x 2 + 2x + 1)

h=

Compare coefficients:
x 2 : 3 = 1 + B
B = 4
x: C = 0
4x5 +2x4 +3x3 x2 x+1

1
(2x 1)(2x + 1)

V = ah

= (1 + B)x 2 + Cx + 1

1
4x2 1

Cover-up rule:

Cover-up rule:
x = 0:

=x+3+

4x2 1

x(x2 +1)
A

x 4
x)
+0x 4
+0x 3)
1

A = 1, B = 3

3x2 +1

4x 2 + 2x 1 + +
1
( )(1)

x
+3
3
4x +0x 1 4x
+12x 2
3
(4x +0x 2
12x 2
(12x 2
2

=3+

9(ii)

x+1

+ (x+1)2

Cover-up rule:
x = 1:

4
( )2

=B

B = 4

6x+25
x(2x5)
B
C

3+ +
x

Substitution:
x = 0:

2x5

2
1

= +

A=2

Cover-up rule:
5

25
( )(5)
10

( )( )

x = 0:
x= :

5
2

=B

=C

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

h= 3 +

B = 5
C=4

10(i)

sleightofmath.com

2
x+1

(x+1)2

x 3 3x 2 + 4 = (x + 1)(x 2 4x + 4)
= (x + 1)(x 2)2

95

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.6

10(ii)
x 2 +3x
x 3x +0x +4 x 5 +0x 4
(x 5 3x 4
3x 4
(3x 4
3

10(ii)

x2 +8

11(ii)
2

x5 36x2 +53x+18

+9
+0x 3
+0x 3
+0x 3
9x 3
9x 3
(9x 3

36x 2
+4x 2 )
40x 2
+0x
40x 2
27x 2
13x 2

= (x 2 + 3x + 9) +

x3 3x2 +4

= (x 2 + 3x + 9) +
(x 2

+ 3x + 9) +

+53x
+12x)
+41x +18
+0x +36)
+41x 18

x = 2:

12
(3)( )2

=C

18

1(4)

x3 3x2 +4
13x2 +41x18
(x+1)(x2)2
A
B
x+1

x2

2
(4)( )

=B

B=

x2 +8

100x+250
x2 +5x

x+1

A
x4

5
x2

+ (x2)2

12(iii)

x = 2:

6
(6)( )

11(i)

2x+16

(x4)(x+2)
x+2
2(x+8)
2
+
(x4)(x+2)
x+2
2
1
2

2(

x4

4
x4
4
x4

4
x

)+

x+2

2
x+2

A=2

=B

x4

x+2
2

x+2

x2 +2

1
2

x+2
1

2(x+2)

1
2
1
2

x2

1
2(x2)

x+5

50
x

=A
=B

50
x+5

A = 50
B = 50

50
x
50

Time for to journey


Time for return journey

x+2

=A

x+8

(x4)(x+2) =

x2 +5x

x+5

Cover-up rule:
12
( )(6)

100x+250

x2 +2
1

12(ii) 50km

13(i)
x = 4:

x(x+5)
B

250
(5)( )

x 5 36x 2 + 53x + 18
x 3 3x 2 + 4
8
= (x 2 + 3x + 9)

x+8
(x4)(x+2)

x = 5:
B = 5

100x+250

250
( )(5)

11

(x2 4)(x2 +2)

x = 0:

x2

x = 2:

C=4

A=

Cover-up rule:

x+2

=A

A = 8

x2 +2

13x2 +41x18

12(i)

+ (x+2)(x2)

x2 +2
1

2
( )(4)

Substitution:
x = 0:

x2 +2

x = 2:

=A

Cover-up rule:

Cover-up rule:
72
( )9

x2 4
1

+53x +18

C
(x2)2

x = 1:

(x2 4)(x2 +2)

x 3 8 = (x)3 (2)3
= (x 2)[x + x(2) + 22 ]
= (x 2)(x 2 + 2x + 4)

B = 1
1

x+2

=1
=1
=1
=1
=1
=x4
=8

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

96

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(ii)

x2 +4
x3 8

Ex 3.6

x2 +4

= (x2)(x2
A

x2

14(iii)

2(3)
1

x2 +2x+4

2
1

3
1

3
1

4
1

=
+

Cover-up rule:
8
( )(12)

x = 2:

=A

A=

x = 0:

4
(2)(4)

x = 1:

5
(1)(7)

2
3

x3 8

x2
2

=
14(i)

1
(x+1)(x+2)

x+1

A
1

C=

B+C

B=

2
3

x2
3(x2 +2x+4)

1
( )(1)

x = 2:

1
(1)( )

(x+1)(x+2) =

15(i)

14(ii)

1
2(3)

++

4(5)

101(102)

1
101
1
102

2 102
25
81

5x2 3x+8
(x1)(x2 +4)
2

x1

3x+1
x2 +4

5x 3x + 8 = 2(x + 4) + (3x + 1)(x 1)

x+2

Compare constants:
8=81
8 = 7 [inconsistent]
A=1
15(ii)

=B

x+1

=A

101

Cover-up rule:
x = 1:

1
100
1

1
2
x
3
3
x2 +2x+4

3(x2)

A
2

3(4)
1

Substitution:

x2 +4

+2x+4)
Bx+C

B = 1
1

x+2

5x2 3x+8
(x1)(x2 +4)

x1

Bx+C
x2 +4

Cover-up rule:

x = 1:

10
( )(5)

=A

A=2

Substitution:
x = 0:

8
(1)(4)

x = 2:

22
(1)8

5x2 3x+8

(x1)(x2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

+4)

2B+C

= +

2
x1

3x
x2 +4

C
4

C=0
B=3

97

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 3
A3(i)

Rev Ex 3
A1(i)

g(x) = x 3 + ax 2 + x + 5
By Remainder Theorem,
g(2)
= 31
3
2
2 + a(2) + 2 + 5 = 31
8 + 4a + 2 + 5
= 31
4a
= 16
a
=4

Difference in volumes is 189 cm3 :


(x + 3)3 x 3 = 189
9(x 2 + 3x + 3) = 189
x 2 + 3x + 3
= 21
2
x + 3x 18 = 0
(x + 6)(x 3) = 0
x = 6
or x = 3
(rej x 0)
x+3=6

=c+5
=c+5
=c+5
=6

g(2)
8 + 4a + 2 + 5
15 + 4(4)
31
b
A2(i)

A4(a)

= 2(1)(2 b) + 2c + 5
= 2(2 b) + 2c + 5
= 2(2 b) + 2(6) + 5
= 2(2 b) + 17
= 5

1x2

7x+3
x2 1
7x+3
(x+1)(x1)
A
B
x+1

x1

x = 1:

10
( )(2)

x = 1:

4
(2)( )

7x3
1x2

x+1
2

=
=0
=0
=0
=0
=3

Cover-up rule:

f(1) = (1)3 + (k 2) (k 7) 4
= 1
+k 2
k + 7 4
=0
By Factor Theorem, (x + 1) is a factor of f(x)

A4(b)

1x

10x5
(x+1)(x2 +4)

A = 5

=B

B = 2

x1
5

x+1

=A

x+1

Bx+C
x2 +4

Cover-up rule:
15
=
( )(5)

x = 1:

f(x) = x 3 + (3 2)x 2 + (3 7)x 4


= x 3 + x 2 4x 4
(x + 1)(
)
2
(x + 1)(x
)
2
= (x + 1)(x
4)
(x
= + 1)(x + 2)(x 2)

A = 3

Substitution:
x = 0:

5
(1)(4)

= +

x = 1:

5
(2)(5)

= +

10x5

(x+1)(x2

the third factor (x 2)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

7x3

f(x) = x 3 + (k 2)x 2 + (k 7)x 4

A2(ii) By Factor Theorem,


f(2)
8 + (k 2)4 + (k 7)(2) 4
4k 8 2k + 14 12
2k 6
k

+ x2]
+ x2 )

A3(ii) x shorter side


x + 3 longer side

A1(ii) g(x) = x(x 1)(x b) + cx + 5


g(1)
1+a+1+5
1+4+1+5
c

(x + 3)3 x 3
= [(x + 3) x][(x + 3)2
+ (x + 3)x
2
(x + 6x + 9 + x 2 + 3x
=3
(3x 2 + 9x + 9)
=3
= 9(x 2 + 3x + 3)

sleightofmath.com

+4)

3
x+1

B+C

C=7

3x+7
x2 +4

B=3

98

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A4(c)

x3
(x4)2

Rev Ex 3

x3

x
+8
3
x 8x +16 x
+0x 2
3
(x 8x 2
8x 2
(8x 2
2

x3
(x4)2

A6
f(x) = 4x 3 16x 2 9x + 40
(a)(i)
By Remainder Theorem,
f(4) = 4(4)3 16(4)2 9(4) + 40
=4

x2 8x+16

+0x
+16x)
16x
64x
48x

+0
+0
+128)
128

A6
f(x) = x
(a)(ii) x = 4 is a root
4x 3 16x 2 9x + 40
4x 3 16x 2 10x + 40
2x 3 8x 2 5x + 20
(x 4)(
)
(x 4)(2x 2
)
(x 4)(2x 2
5)
2
(x 4)(2x
5)

48x128
(x4)2
A
B
+ (x4)2
x4

=x+8+
x+8+

Cover-up rule:
x = 4:

48(4)128
( )2

B = 64

Substitution:
x = 0:

128
16

A
4

B
16

=x
=0
=0

=0

(x 4) (x + ) (x ) = 0
A = 48

x = 4 or x =
x3

(x4)2 = x + 8 +
A5(i)

48
x4

64

+ (x4)2

A6(b) P(x) = x 3 + 2x 2 y 5xy 2 6y 3

x 3 + 3x 2 6x 8
=0
(x 2)(
)
2
(x 2)(x
)
(x 2)(x 2
+ 4)
2
(x 2)(x
+5x + 4) = 0
(x 2)(x + 4)(x + 1)
=0
x = 2 or x = 4 or x = 1

P(2y) = (2y)3 + 2(2y)2 y 5(2y)y 2 6y 3


= 8y 3 + 8y 3 10y 3 6y 3
=0
By Factor Theorem, (x 2y) is a factor of P(x)
P(x) (x 4)(
)
2
(x 4)(x
)
(x 4)(x 2
+ 3y 2 )
(x 4)(x 2 +4xy + 3y 2 )
= (x 2y)(x + 3y)(x + y)

A5(ii) f(x) = 22x 3 + 15x 2 4x 6


(a)
g(x) = 2 + 14x 12x 2 5x 3
By Remainder Theorem,
f(a)
= g(a)
22a3 + 15a2 4a 6
= 2 + 14a 12a2 5a3
27a3 + 27a2 18a 8 = 0 [shown]

The other 2 factors are (x + 3y) & (x + y)

A5(ii) (3a)3 + 3(3a)2 6(3a) 8 = 0


(b)
sub y = 3a:
y 3 + 3y 2 6y 8 = 0
y=2
y = 4
y = 1
sub y = 3a:
sub y = 3a: sub y = 3a:
3a = 2
3a = 4
3a = 1
a=

2
3

a=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

4
3

a=
3

sleightofmath.com

99

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A7

Rev Ex 3

f(x) (x 2 x 2)
Remainder = ax + b
f(x) = (x 2 x 2)Q(x) + ax + b
= (x + 1)(x 2)Q(x) + ax + b
f(x) has a remainder of 5 when divided by x + 1
By Remainder Theorem,
f(1) = 5
a + b = 5
b
=a5
(1)
f(x) has a remainder of 7 when divided by x 2
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
=7
2a + b = 7
(2)
sub (1) into (2)
2a + (a 5) = 7
3a
= 12
a
=4
b|a=4 = (4) 5
= 1

B2(a) y = x(16x 19)


(1)
3
y = 4x 6
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
x(16x 19)
= 4x 3 6
16x 2 19x
= 4x 3 6
4x 3 16x 2 + 19x 6 = 0
(x 2)(
)
2
(x 2)(4x
)
2
(x 2)(4x
+ 3)
(x 2)(4x 2 8x + 3) = 0
(x 2)(2x 1)(2x 3) = 0
x = 2 or x =

Sub back x = a2 & y = b2 :


g(a) = (a2 4b2 )(a2 + 3b2 )
= (a + 2b)(a 2b)(a2 + 3b2 )
B3(i)

B1(b) f(x) = 3(x + 2)5 + (x + k)2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=0
=0
=0
=0

Sub x = a2 & y = b2 :
g(a) = x 2 xy 12y 2
= (x 4y)(x + 3y)

1+14 =A5
A
=3

By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)
=7
5
2
(k
3(1) + 1) = 7
k 2 2k + 1
=4
2
k 2k 3
=0
(k 3)(k + 1)
=0
k = 3 or k = 1

With k = 12,
g(a) = a4 a2 b2 12b4

4 = (1)(1) + B
B = 5

Remainder = Ax + B
= 3x 5

or x =

g(2b)
16b4 (2b)2 b2 + kb4
16b4 4b4 + kb4
b4 (12 + k)
b = 0 or k = 12

B1(a) x 3 + x 4 = (x 2 + x 1)(x 1) + Ax + B

x = 1:

B2(b) g(a) = a4 a2 b2 + kb4

Remainder = ax + b
= 4x 1

x = 0:

B3(ii)

81x 3 + 24y 3
= 3[(3x)3 + (2y)3 ]
= 3(3x + 2y)[(3x)2 (3x)(2y) + (2y)2 ]
= 3(3x + 2y)(9x 2 6xy + 4y 2 )
81x3 +24y3
9x2 6xy+4y2

3(3x+2y)(9x2 6xy+4y2 )
9x2 6xy+4y2

= 3(3x + 2y)

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100

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B4(i)
(a)

2x2 7x+14
(x+2)(x4)

Rev Ex 3

2x2 7x+14

B5(a) Let f(x) = x 2 + 5px + p2 + 5

x2 2x8
2(x2 2x8)3x+30

=2

f(x) is divisible by x + 2
By factor Theorem,
f(2)
=0
(2)2 + 5p(2) + p2 + 5 = 0
4 10p + p2 + 5
=0
2
p 10p + 9
=0
(p 9)(p 1)
=0
p = 1 or p = 9
f(x) is not divisible by x + 3

(x+2)(x4)
303x
+ (x+2)(x4)
A
B

2+

x+2

x4

Cover-up rule:
x = 2:

36
( )(6)

x = 4:

18
(6)( )

B4(i)
(b)

2x2 7x+14
(x+2)(x4)

42
(2x5)(x+1)2

A = 6

=B

=2

=A

B=3

6
x+2

3
x4

2x5

By Factor Theorem,
f(3)
9 + 5p(3) + p2 + 5
p2 15p + 14
(p 14)(p 1)
p 14 or p 1
p= 9

+ (x+1) + (x+1)2

Cover-up rule:
5

42

( )( )

x= :

7 2
2

x = 1:

=A

42
(7)( )2

24

A=

=C

B5
(b)

C = 6

Substitution:
42
A
B C
=
+ +
(5)(1)2
5
1
1
12

x = 0:

42

(2x5)(x+1)2 =
B4(ii)

2x4 7x2 +14


(x2 +2)(x2 4)

24
7(2x5)

=2
=2
2

6
x2 +2
6
x2 +2
6
x2 +2

12

(x+1)2

3
x2 4
3

A
x+2

B
x2

Cover-up rule:
x = 2:

3
( )(4)

x = 2:

3
(4)( )

2x4 7x2 +14


(x2 +2)(x2 4)

=A

A=

=B

=2
=2

B=
6
x2 +2
6
x2 +2

+
+

x 2 (x + 3)
= 10x + 24
3
2
x + 3x
= 10x + 24
x 3 + 3x 2 10x 24 = 0
(x 3)(
)
2
(x 3)(x
)
2
(x 3)(x
+ 8)
(x 3)(x 2 +6x + 8) = 0
(x 3)(x + 2)(x + 4) = 0
x = 3 or x = 2 or x = 4

7(x+1)

+ (x+2)(x2)
+

3
4

x+2
3

4(x2)

3
4

u = 4
sub u = 3x :
3x =

3
4

x2

B5(b) 9x (3x + 3)
= 10(3x ) + 24
(32 )x (3x + 3) = 10(3x ) + 24
(i)
(3x )2 (3x + 3) = 10(3x ) + 24
sub u = 3x :
u2 (u + 3) = 10u + 24
u=3
u = 2
x
sub u = 3 :
sub u = 3x :
3x = 3
3x = 2(NA)
4 (NA)
x=1

3
4(x+2)

B5
25x 2 (5x + 3) = 50x + 24
(b)(ii) (5x)2 (5x + 3) = (10)5x + 24
sub y = 5x
y 2 (y + 3) = 10y + 24
y=3
or y = 2
or y = 4
5x = 3
5x = 2
5x = 4
x=

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

0
0
0
0

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3
5

x=

2
5

x=
5

101

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B6(i)

f(x) = a[x (1)][x (3)][x (k)]


= a(x + 1)(x 3)(x k)
= 2(x + 1)(x 3)(x k)
highest power term is 2x 3

Rev Ex 3
B7(i)

f(x) g(x)
(x 4 x 3 7x 2 + x + 6)
(x 4 2x 3 10x 2 + 5x + 18)
x 3 + 3x 2 4x 12
(x 2)(
)
(x 2)(x 2
)
(x 2)(x 2
+ 6)
2
(x 2)(x +5x + 6)
(x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
x = 2 or x = 2 or x = 3

By Remainder Theorem,
f(4)
= 20
2(5)(1)(4 k) = 20
4k
=2
k
=2
B6(ii) f(x) = 2(x + 1)(x 3)(x 2)
f(2) = 2(1)(5)(4)
= 40

f(x) = x 4 x 3 7x 2 + x + 6
g(x) = x 4 2x 3 10x 2 + 5x + 18
=0
=0
=0

=0
=0

B7(ii) f(x) g(x)= 0


f(x)
= g(x)
f(2)
f(2)
f(3)

= g(2) = 12
= g(2) = 0
= g(3) = 48

By Factor Theorem:
(x + 2) is a factor of f(x) & g(x)
= 2

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102

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


Ex 4.1
1(a)

|5 9| = |4|
=4

1(b)

|3 1| = |2 |
= (2 )
=2

1(c)

2|5| |8| = 2(5) 8


= 2

2(i)

Given: y = |x 2 8x + 2|

Ex 4.1
4(ii)

y = 18:
2|3 x| + 4 = 18
|3 x|
=7
3 x= 7
or 3 x = 7
x
= 4
x
= 10

5(a)

|x 4| = 6
x 4 = 6 or
x = 10

5(b)

|2x + 3| = 5
2x + 3 = 5
2x + 3 = 5
2x
=2
2x
= 8
x
=1 x
= 4

5(c)

|x 2| + 3 = 5
|x 2|
=2
x 2= 2
x 2= 2
x
=4 x
=4

6(a)

y = |f(x)|

y|x=1 = |(1)2 8(1) + 2|


= |5|
=5
2(ii)

y|x=1 = |(1)2 8(1) + 2|


= |11|
= 11

2(iii)

y|x=2 = |(2)2 8(2) + 2|


= |10|
= 10

3(a)

x 4 = 6
x
= 2

(1,4)

|2 2| +| 1|

(3,5)

(2,3)

= 2 2 +(1)
= 3 2
3(b)

|2 5|

= (2 5) +3 5
= 5 2
=1
3(c)

2|6 3|

+|3 5|
+3 5

6(b)

y = |f(x)|

+|3 6|

(1,4)

= 2(6 3) +[(3 6)]


= 2(6 3) +(6 3)

4(i)

6(c)

y = |f(x)|

= 3(6 3)

= 36 33

3
1

Given: y = 2|3 x| + 4
O

y|x=8 = 2|3 (8)| +4


= 2|5|
+4
[
]
= 2 (5) +4
= 2(5)
+4
= 14

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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103

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(d)

Ex 4.1

y = |f(x)|

10

7(a)

c
<0
c > 0
6 c> 6
>0
|6 c| = 6 c

y = |x 3| for 0 x 4
y
(1,4)
3

f(c) = (6 c) c 2
= 6 c c2

(4,1)

(3,0)

f(x)
|6 x| x 2

7(b)

y = |x + 2| for 3 x 3
(3,5)

(2,0) O

y = |3x 5|

x=
9

=0
=0

For x < 0,
6 x x2
=0
2
x +x6
=0
(x + 3)(x 2) = 0
x = 3 or x = 2 (rej x < 0)

(3,1)

f(x) = |6 x| x 2
f(c) = |6 c| c 2

5
3

f(x) = x + 2 |3 2x|
f(a) = a + 2 |3 2a|
a
>2
2a < 4
3 2a < 1
<0
|3 2a| = (3 2a)

11(a) 2|x + 1| + 3 = 9
2|x + 1|
=6
|x + 1|
=3
x + 1 = 3 or x + 1 = 3
x
=2
x
=2

11(b) 11 2|x + 3| = 1
2|x + 3|
= 10
|x + 3|
=5
x + 3 = 5 or
x + 3= 5
x
=2
x
=2
12(a) |2x 3| = x
2x 3 = x or
x
=3
12(b) |5x 8| = 3x
5x 8 = 3x or
2x
=8
x
=4

2x 3 = x
x
=3

5x 8 = 3x
2x
=8
x
=4

f(a) = a + 2 [(3 2a)]


= a + 2 +(3 2a)
= 5 a [shown]

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104

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 4.1
14(c) |x(x 2)| = 2x 3
x(x 2) = 2x 3 or
x 2 2x = 2x 3
x 2 4x + 3
=0
(x 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1 (rej) or x = 3

12(c) 4|x 6| 5x = 0
|x 6|
x 6=
x

=
5x
4

5x
4

or

x 6=
x

= 6

13

= 6

x
= 24
(rej x 0)

5x

x
= 24
(rej x 0)

14(d) Method 1
2|x| = x 2 4x

|x y| = |y 5|
2

|x|
y
>5
y5 >0
|y 5| = y 5

1
2

1
2
1

x y= y
3
2

=x+

2
1

x y= y
3

= x+

x2 4x
2

=x+

5
2

= x+

x2 4x
2

2x
= x 2 4x
x 2 6x = 0
x(x 6) = 0
x = 0 or x = 6

x = 6 or x = 6
15

y = |2x 6|

14(b) Method 1
|x|2 + x 2
=4
2
2
x +x
=4
2
2x
=4
2
x 2
=0
(x + 2)(x 2) = 0

6
3

x = 2 or x = 2
Method 2
|x|2 + x 2
=4
|x 2 | + x 2
=4
2
|x |
= 4 x2
x2
= 4 x 2 or x 2
2x 2 = 4
2x 2
2
x
=2
x2
x
= 2
x

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

or

Method 2
2|x|
= x 2 4x
2
4|x|
= (x 2 4x)2
4x 2
= (x 2 4x)2
4x 2
= x 4 8x 3 + 16x 2
x 4 8x 4 + 12x 2
=0
x 2 (x 2 8x 2 + 12) = 0
x 2 (x 2)(x 6) = 0
x = 0 or
x = 2 or x = 6
(rej)

14(a) |x 2 4| = 2
x2 4
= 2 or x 2 4
=2
2
2
x 6
=0
x 6
=0
(x + 6)(x 6) = 0
(x + 6)(x 6) = 0
x = 6 or x = 6

2
5

x2 4x

x y = (y 5)

2x
= x 2 4x
x 2 6x = 0
x(x 6) = 0
x = 0 or x = 6

|x y| = (y 5)
x y = (y 5) or

x(x 2)
= 2x 3
2
x 2x
= 2x 3
2
x 4x + 3
=0
(x 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1 (rej) or x = 3

15(i)

=4x
=4
=2
= 2

y = 2|x 3|
= |2x 6|

15(ii) y = |6 2x|
= |(2x 6)(1)|
= |2x 6||1|
= |2x 6|

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105

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 4.1

16(a) y = |1 x 2 |
= |(1 + x)(1 x)|

(2,3)
(0,1)

(1,0) (1,0)

17(ii) y = |2x 4|

16(b) y = |x 2 4|
= |(x + 2)(x 2)|

(0,4)

(2,0)

18(i)

16(c) y = |(x 1)(x 3)|

(5,8)

(2,1)

(1,0)
(3,0)

y = 2|x + c| 5
At (1,3):
3
= 2|(1) + c| 5
8
= 2|c 1|
|c 1| = 4
c 1 = 4 or c 1 = 4
c
=5
c
= 3

(2,0)

18(ii) y = |2x + 5|

17(i)

(4,0)

y = |2x 3|

16(d) y = |x 2 4x|
= |x(x 4)|

(2,4)

3
2

19(i)

y = |2x + c|
At (1,2),
2
= |2(1) + c|
2
= |2 + c|
|c + 2| = 2
c + 2 = 2 or c + 2 = 2
c
=0
c
= 4
c = 4

y = |3 kx|
(5,12):
12
= |3 k(5)|
|3 5k| = 12
3 5k = 12 or 3 5k = 12
5k
= 9
5k
= 9

At (0,4),
4 =
|2(0) + c|
|c| = 4
c = 4

k
19
(ii)(a)

=
5

(1,6)
3

O 1

= |3 3|
(5,12)

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106

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


|3 kx| = 3
19
(ii)(b) |3 3x| = 3
3|1 x| = 3
|1 x| = 1
1 x= 1
or
x
=0
20(i)

Ex 4.1
22
k = 0 or k > 4
(ii)(a)
22
k=4
(ii)(b)

1 x= 1
x
=0

22
0<k<4
(ii)(c)

= |2 5|
=+2

23(a) No.
It can be 0

5
2

23(b) |x| 0

5
2

23(c)

24

20(ii) 2 intersections
2 solutions
21(i)

y = |x 2 + 2x 3|
= |(x + 3)(x 1)|

= | 2 + 2 3|
(1,4)
3
=2

3 1

Method 2
x 2 |x| 2 = 0
|x|
= x2 2
x
= x 2 2 or x
= x2 2
x2 x 2
=0
x2 x 2
=0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0
x = 2 or x = 1
x = 2 or x = 1
(rej)
(rej)

21(ii) |x 1|

= |x+3|

|x 1||x + 3| = 2
|x 2 + 2x 3| = 2

25
x 2 = x
(i)(a) Not true
x 2 = |x|

Draw y = 2
4 intersections
4 solutions
22(i)

y = |x 2 6x + 5| for 1 x 7
= |(x 1)(x 5)|

(1,12)
(3,4)
5
1
5
|x 2

Method 1
x 2 |x| 2
=0
|x|2 |x| 2
=0
(|x| 2)(|x| + 1) = 0
|x| = 2
|x| = 2
or
or
x = 2
x = 2

25
x 2 = x
(i)(b) By definition, square root results in only positive
number
25(ii) |x|

(7,12)

6x + 5| = k

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107

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 4.2
2(a)

Ex 4.2
1(a)

y = 3x
power of 5 is positive & odd (except for 1),
graph is similar to y = x 3

y = x4
(0 < power

1
4

< 1)

2(b)

1(b)

y = x3
2
(0 < power < 1)
3

y = 3x 4
power of 4 is positive & even,
graph is similar to y = x 2

O
2(c)

y = x2
3
(power > 1)
2

1(c)

y = 3 = 2x 3
x
power of 3 is negative & odd,
1
graph is similar to y =

2(d)

y = 3x 2
3
(power > 1)
2

1(d)

y = 4 = 2x 4
x
power of 4 is negative & even,
1
graph similar to y = 2
x
coefficient is negative,
reflect in x axis

O
2(e)

y = 3x 2
3
(power > 1)
2
coefficient 3 is negative,
reflect in x axis

108

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(a)

Ex 4.2

4(c)

y = x 3
1
(power < 0)

x = y 2
y=

O
3(b)

x2
1

(0 < power < 1)

y = x 3
2
(power < 0)
3

5(i)

O
3(c)

y=
3
(power < 0)

=
5(ii)

2
10

x2

5(iii)

4
3

5(iv)

410

x2

= 10
2

= (10)

= 2.5

1
4

y = 2
=

10

x2 =

10
2

(40)2

y = :

10

= 24
= 4

y = x 3

y|x=40 =

4(b)

10

y = 4x 2

10

x
10

= 2

4(a)

y = 2

3
x 2

2
10

x
10
1

x2
1

(0 < power < 1)


2

109

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6

Ex 4.2
9(b)

= 2 6

= 2 6

Reflection of each other in the x-axis


7

y=

y = 8x = 2x 3
1
(0 < power < 1)
3
coefficient 2 is negative, reflect in x-axis

= 2x 2

x
1
(power < 0)

2 = 2 3

9(c)

1 =

y=

32x2

2
2x5

= 2x 5

(power < 0)
5

1 sol
8

y=
1
(0 < power < 1)
3

10(i)

1 = 4 3

2 = 4 2

1
3
1
3

4x + x = 4

y = 2x + 1
(1)
1
y=
(2)
x
(1)
(2):
sub
into
1
2x + 1
=
x
2x 2 + x
=1
2x 2 + x 1
=0
(2x 1)(x + 1) = 0
1
x=
or
x = 1
2

4x
=4x
y1
= y2
1 sol
9(a)

1
4x 3

= 2( ) + 1

y|x=1

=2
10(ii)

= 1

y = 6x = 6x 2
1
(0 < power < 1)

= 2 + 1
1

(1, 1)

y|x=1 = 2(1) + 1

( , 2)
2

11(i)

5x 2

= 2x 6
1

5x 2 2x 6
1
6

=0

1
3

x (5x 2) = 0
1

x6 = 0
x =0

or

x6 = 0
x =0

110

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 4.2

11(ii) y|x=0 = 0
(0,0)
y|x=
22
5

8
125

12(iii) Sub P = 18:

= 5(

1
23 2

1
2

8
125

) = 5 ( 3)
5

21.5
51.5

=5

22
55

2(18)
L

36

36
L
36

= 2
I
= 36I 2
power of 2 is negative & even,
1
it is similar to y = 2

= 512
= 2 6
8 210
( ,
)
125
5

(0,0)

Note:
Verify which graph is higher at x-coordinates
8
bigger & smaller than
125

12(i)

210

=5

5
5
8 210

125

O
13(i)

2 = 4 5
I=

2P
L

O
L = 8:
2P

4
1

I = (8) = =

1 =

= P2
2

13(ii) 1 sol

(0 < power < 1)


2

12(ii) Sub P = 18:


I=

2(18)
L

36
L

= 6L2

(power < 0)
2

111

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14(i) y =

4
x

Ex 4.2
15(iii) 2x = 4x 12

for 0.5 x 4

x2 = 2

x 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0


y 5.66 4.00 3.27 2.83 2.53 2.31 2.14 2.00

= 23
2

y|

= 2(2)3 = 23

2
x=23
2
3

(2 , 23 )
16(i)

2x 3x 2
=0
(2x + 1)(x 2) = 0
1

x = 2
(rej x 0)
16(ii) y = 2x 2
y = 3x

or

x = 2
x =4

(1)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2x 2
= 3x
2x 3x 2 = 0
x=4
y|x=4 = 2(4) 2
=6
(4,6)

= 2 2
= 3

(4,6)

O
2

1
3x 2
1

y = 3x =
(0 < power < 1)
2

17(i)
14(ii) (1 x)x = 4
1x

At (8,1),

At (8,1),

1 = a 8

4
x

y=

1 = a(2)

1 sol
15(i)

y = a x

a=

1=

2x

b
2(8)

b = 16

1 = 2
1

2 = 4 2

1
4x 2

y=
1
(power < 0)
2

15(ii) 1 solution
112

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(ii)

Ex 4.2
17(iii) (8, 1)

(8,1) = 1 3
2

Symmetrical about O

113

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 4
A2(d) | 3x 1| = 3

Rev Ex 4

or
x 1 = 3
3
=4
x
x
= 43
x
= 64

A1(a) f(x) = |3x 1|


f(2) = |3(2) 1|
= |7|
=7

x 1 = 3
= 2
x
x
= (2)3
x
= 8
3

A3(a) y = |3x 2| for 2 x 1


f(2) = |3(2) 1|
= |5|
=5

(1,5)
(2,4)

f(x)
=3
|3x 1| = 3
3x 1 = 3
or
3x
=4
x

3x 1 = 3
3x
= 2

2
3

=
3

A3(b) y = |9 x 2 |
A1(b) g(x) =

|x 2

2x|

(0,9)

g(1) = |(1)2 2(1)|


= |1 2|
= |1|
=1

(3,0)

(3,0)

A3(c) y = |4x 2 1| for 1 < x < 1

g(3) = |(3)2 2(3)|


= |9 6|
= |3|
=3

(1,3)

( , 0)

x=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2
3

( , 0)
2

A3(d) y = |(2x + 1)(x 2)|

2x 3 = x
3x
=3
x
=1

( ,3 )

A2(b) |x + 1| = 2x 3
x + 1 = 2x 3 or x + 1 = (2x 3)
x + 1 = 2x + 3
x
=4
3x = 2

A2(c) |x 2 + 6| = 5x
x 2 + 6 = 5x or
x 2 5x + 6 = 0
(x 2)(x 3) = 0
x = 2 or x = 3

(1,3)

(0,1)
2

A2(a) |2x 3| = x
2x 3 = x or
x
=3

( , 0)

(2,0)

A4

(rej)

x2 + 6
= 5x
x 2 + 5x + 6 = 0
(x + 2)(x + 3) = 0
x = 2
or x = 3
(rej)
(rej)

sleightofmath.com

y = |x 2| 5
At x axis,
y
=0
|x 2| 5 = 0
|x 2|
=5
x 2 = 5 or
x
=7
P(7,0)

x 2 = 5
x
= 3
Q(3,0)

114

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5(i)

Rev Ex 4

A6(ii)
A6(iii)

y = 2x 3
1

(0 < < 1)
3

y=

16x

x 2

16
1

16 2 = | 16|
1
(25,9)
1 = 2 4
(25,4.5)

16

( < 0)

1
16

= 2

A5(ii) y = 2x 13

(1)

y=

16x
1 1

16

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2x

1
3

16
1

1 1

x 3+2 =
x

5
6

A6(iv) 2x 14 = |x 16|
2 solutions

1
3

B1(a)
|2x + 4| = x 2 + 1
2x + 4
= x 2 + 1 or
x 2 2x 3 = 0
(x + 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1 or x = 3

2x + 4
= (x 2 + 1)
x 2 + 2x + 5 = 0
x=
=

B1(b) |x 2 1| = x 2
x2 1 = x2
or
1
= 0 (NA)

=
= 26

y|x= 1 = 2(26 )

2x 4

or x =

1
2

=8

1
4

1
3

x
=4
x
= 44
x = 256

64

= 2(22 )

2x 4 3 = 5

2x 4 3 = 5 or

sub (3) into (1):

(NA)

B1(c) |2x 14 3| = 5
(3)

64

x=

6
5

x2

32

(25 )

2(1)
216

x 2 1 = x 2
2x 2
=1

= 25

x
x

(2)(2)2 4(1)(5)

2x 4
x

= 2

1
4

= 1

(NA

1
x4

0)

, )

64 2

1
A6
y = 2x 4
(i)(a)

y = 4:
1

2x 4 = 4
1

x4 = 2
x = 24
x = 16

B1(d)
|x 2| = x 4
= x 4 or x 2
= (x 4)
x 2
x x 2
=0
x + x 6
=0
2

(x) x 2 = 0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0

(x) + x 6 = 0
(x + 3)(x 2) = 0

x = 2
x =4

x = 3
(rej)

x = 1
(rej)

x = 2
x=4

1
A6
y|x=25 = 2(25)4
(i)(b)
4.5

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115

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B2(i)

Rev Ex 4
B3(b) 2x + 3y = 19
3y
= 19 2x

= |2 5|

5
4
5
2

=4

|x (
|x

B2(ii) y = |2x 5| (1)


y=4x
(2)

192x
3

19

| x

3
19

3
5

B3(a) 2x + y = 3
y
= 3 2x

y|x=1 = 4 (1)
=3
(1,3)

=3

=3

2x 5 = (4 x)
2x 5 = 4 + x
x
=1

y|x=28 =

B4(ii)

or

28
3
28
5

5
3
5
3

28
5

192( )

13
5

19

= 3

10
3

=2

x
y|x=2 =

192(2)
3

=5

B4(i)

(2)

+ x| = 3

3
5

(1)

)| = 3

3
3
19

=
y|x=2 = 4 (3)
=1
(3,1)

|x y| = 3
sub (1) into (2):

sub (1) into (2):


|2x 5| = 4 x
2x 5 = 4 x or
3x
=9
x
=3

192x

For unhealthy temperature,


|x 36.9| 0.9

(1)

= | 36.9|

y = |2x 1|
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
|2x 1| = 3 2x
2x 1 = 3 2x or 2x 1 = (3 2x)
4x
=4
2x 1 = 3 + 2x
2
= 0 (NA)
x
=1
y|x=1 = 3 2(1)
=1

36.9

= 0.9

36.0 36.9 37.8

|x 36.9|
= 0.9
x 36.9 = 0.9 and
x
= 36

x 36.9
x

= 0.9
= 37.8

For healthy temperature,


36 < x < 37.8
B5(i)

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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|x 2 10x + 8| = 8
x 2 10x + 8 = 8 or
x 2 10x
=0
x(x 10)
=0
x = 0 or x = 10

x 2 10x + 8 = 8
x 2 10x + 8 = 8
x 2 10x + 16 = 0
(x 2)(x 8) = 0
x = 2 or x = 8

116

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5(ii)

Rev Ex 4
B6(b) y = 2x + 1

= | 2 10 + 8|

y=

(5,17)
8

5 17 5 + 17

2(1)

10217

(2)

2x + 1

(10)(10)2 4(1)(8)

1068

(1)

sub (1) into (2):

|x 2 10x + 8| = 0
x 2 10x + 8 = 0
x=

6
x

2x + x
=6
2x + x 6
=0
(2x 3)(x + 2) = 0

1010032
2

x = 2 or x = 2 (rej x 0)

= 5 17

x=

B5(iii) Solutions for x in (i) are the x-coordinates of the


intersection points between the graph in (ii) and
the line y = 8

9
4
9

sub x = into (1):


4

y|x=9 = 2 + 1 = 2 ( ) + 1 = 4

B6(a)

( , 4)

2 =

1
2

= 6
1

1 = 2 = 2 2
(3,23)

y = 2x =

1
2x 2
1

(0 < power < 1)


2

y=

= 6x 2

x
1
(power < 0)
2

y1 = 2x
y2 =

(1)

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2x =

6
x

x=3

(3)

sub (3) into (2):


y2 |x=3 =

6
3

6
3

3
3

63
3

= 23

(3,23)

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117

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.1

Ex 5.1
1(a)

2! 3! = (2 1)(3 2 1)
= (2)(6)
= 12

1(b)

6!
3!

6543!
3!

=654
= 120
1(c)

5!
5
( ) = (51)!(1)!
1
5!
=
4!

=5
1(d)

9!
9
( ) = (92)!(2)!
2
9!
=

7!2!
98
2

= 36
2(a)

2(b)

n
0
1
2
3
4
5

Binomial Coefficients
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
4
6
4
1
1
5
10
10
5
1

(1 2x)4
= [1 + (2x)]4
= 1 +(4)(2x)1
= 1 +(4)(2x)
= 1 8x

+(6)(2x)2
+(6)(4x 2 )
+24x 2

+(4)(2x)3
+(4)(8x 3 )
32x 3

+(1)(2x)4
+(1)(16x 4 )
+16x 4

(1 + 3x)5
= 1 +(5)(3x)1
= 1 +(5)(3x)
= 1 +15x

+(10)(3x)2
+(10)(9x 2 )
+90x 2

+(10)(3x)3
+(10)(27x 3 )
+270x 3

+(5)(3x)4
+(5)(81x 4 )
+405x 4

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+(1)(3x)5
+(1)(243x 5 )
+243x 5

118

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(a)

n
0
1
2
3
4
5
1
6
1
7
1
7
8
1
8
9
1
9
36
10 1
10
45
(1 + 2x)9
= 1 +(9)(2x)
= 1 +18x

3(b)

4(a)

Ex 5.1
Binomial Coefficients
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
1
4
6
4
5
10
10
6
15
20
15
21
35
35
28
56
70
56
84
126
126
120
210
252
210

+(36)(4x 2 )
+144x 2

1
5

1
6

21

1
7

28
84

1
8

36
120

1
9

45

1
10

+(84)(8x 3 ) +
+672x 3 +

(1 x 2 )10
= [1 + (x 2 )]10
= 1 +(10)(x 2 ) +(45)(x 4 )
= 1 10x 2
+45x 4

+(120)(x 6 ) +
120x 6 +

(1 + x)10
10 (x)1
)
1
+(10)(x)
+10x
+(

=1
=1
=1

10
+ ( ) (x)2
2
+(45)(x 2 )
+45x 2

10 (x)3
)
+
3
+(120)(x 3 ) +
+120x 3 +
+(

4(b)

(1 3x)8
= [1 + (3x)]8
8
8
8
=1
+ ( ) (3x)1 + ( ) (3x)2 + ( ) (3x)3 +
3
1
2
=1
+(8)(3x) +(28)(9x 2 ) +(56)(27x 3 ) +
=1
24x
+252x 2
1512x 3 +

4(c)

(1 2x 2 )7
= [1 + (2x 2 )]7
7
7
=1
+ ( ) (2x 2 )1 + ( ) (2x 2 )2
1
2
=1
+(7)(2x 2 )
+(21)(4x 4 )
=1
14x 2
+84x 4

4(d)

7
+ ( ) (2x 2 )3 +
3
+(35)(8x 6 ) +
280x 6 +

16

(1 x 3 )
2

16

= [1 + ( x 3 )]
2

1
2
1
1
16
16
= 1 + ( ) ( x 3 ) + ( ) ( x 3 )
2
2
1
2
1 3
1 6
= 1 +(16) ( x ) +(120) ( x )
2

= 1 8x 3

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

+30x 6

3
1
16
) ( x 3 ) +
2
3
1
+(560) ( x 9 ) +

+(

70x 9 +

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119

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(i)

n
n!
n(n1)(n2)!
( )= (n2)!2! = (n2)!(21)
2
(

=
(

n(n1)

(n+1)!
(n+1)!
n+1
) = [(n+1)2]!(3)! = (n2)!(3)!
3

5(ii)

Ex 5.1

(n+1)(n)(n1)(n2)!
(n2)!(3.2.1)
(n+1)(n)(n1)

n
= 4( )
2

n+1
)
3

(n+1)(n)(n1)

= 4[

(n + 1)(n)(n 1)

n(n1)
2

= 12n(n 1)

(n)(n 1)[(n + 1) 12] = 0


(n)(n 1)(n 11)
=0
n=0
or n = 1
or n = 11
(rej n 2) (rej n 2)
6(i)

(1 + x) (1 x)

= (1 + x) [1 + (x)]

0
1
2
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
= [( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x)
+ ( ) (x) ]
0
3
5
1
2
4
0
1
2
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
[( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) ]
0
3
5
1
2
4

= [1
[1
= (1
(1

+(5)(x)
+(5)(x)

+(10)(x)

+(10)(xx)

+(5)(x 2 )

+(1)(x 2 x)]

+(10)(x)

+(10)(xx)

+(5)(x 2 )

+(1)(x 2 x)]

+5x
5x

+10x
+10x

+10xx
10xx

+5x 2
+5x 2

+x 2 x)
x 2 x)

=10x +20xx
6(ii)

+2x 2 x [shown]

(1 + 2) (1 2)
= 102
= 102
= 582

+20(2)2
+402

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

+2(2)2 2
+82

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120

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(i)

(2 x) (1 + x)

Ex 5.1

8 1 0
8 1 3
8 1 1
8 1 2
= (2 x)[( ) ( x) + ( ) ( x) + ( ) ( x)
+ ( ) ( x) + ]
0 2
3 2
1 2
2 2
1
1 2
1
= (2 x)[1
+(8) ( x) +(28) ( x ) +(56) ( x 3 ) + ]
2

= (2 x)(1

+4x

+7x

+7x + )

= 2 +8x +14x 2 +14x 3


x
4x 2 7x 3 +
= 2 +7x +10x 2 +7x 3 +
7(ii)

Substitution
1.9 (1.05)8 = (2 0.1) (1 + 0.05)8
1

= [2 (0.1)] [1 + (0.1)]

= 2 +7(0.1) +10(0.1)2 +7(0.1)3 +


= 2 +0.7
+0.1
+0.007 +
2.807
8(i)

(1 + x)10 000
10 000 (x)0 10 000 (x)1
)
)
=(
+(
+
0
1
=1
+10 000x +

8(ii)

Substitution
(1.1)10 000 = [1 + (0.1)]10 000
= 1 + 10 000(0.1) +
= 1 + 1000 +
= 1001 +
> 1000
10 000
1.1
is larger

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121

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(i)

Ex 5.1

(1 + x)20
20
20
20
= ( ) (x)0 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2 +
0
1
2
2
= 1 + 20x + 190x +

10(ii) (1 + 4x)6 (1 2x)14


= (1 + 24x + 240x 2 + )(1 28x + 364x 2 + )

Estimated amount (at r = 4, t = 5)


= 1 28x
+24x

) ]|

400

= 20 000 [(1 +
= 20 000 [1 + (

4t

= [20 000 (1 +

4
400
1

100

t=5,r=4
(45)

)]

20 000 [1 + 20 (

20

= 1 4x 68x 2 +

) + 190 (

100

+364x 2
673x 2
+240x 2 +

1
100

) ]

$24 380
9(ii)

E = 24 380
A = 20 000 [1 + (

)]

20

100

= 24 403.8008
AE
A

100%

(24 403. 8008) (24 380)


100%
(24403. 8008)
0.10%
=

9(iii)

Yes

10(i)
(a)

(1 + 4x)6
6
6
= ( ) (4x)0 + ( ) (4x)1
0
1

6
+ ( ) (4x)2 +
2

=1

+6(4x)

+15(16x 2 ) +

=1

+24x

+240x 2 +

10(i)
(b)

(1 2x)14
= [1 + (2x)]14
14
14
14
= ( ) (2x)0 + ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2
0
1
2
+
=1

+14(2x)

+91(4x 2 ) +

=1

28x

+364x 2 +

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122

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

Ex 5.1

(1 x)6 = [1 + (x)]6
6
6
6
= ( ) (x)0 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2
0
1
2
=1
+6(x)
+15x 2
2
3
= 1 6x + 15x 20x +

6
+ ( ) (x)3 +
3
+20(x 3 ) +

11(ii) Method 1 (factorize & multiply)


(1 + x 2x 2 )6
= [(1 x)(1 + 2x)]6
= (1 x)6 (1 + 2x)6
6
6
6
6
= (1 6x + 15x 2 20x 3 + )[( ) (2x)0 + ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2 + ( ) (2x)3 + ]
0
3
1
2
= (1 6x + 15x 2 20x 3 + )[1
+(6)(2x) +(15)(4x 2 ) + (20)(8x 3 ) + ]
= (1 6x + 15x 2 20x 3 + )(1 + 12x + 60x 2 + 160x 3 + )

= 1 +12x +60x 2
6x 72x 2
+15x 2

+160x 3
360x 3
+180x 3
20x 3
= 1 + 6x + 3x 2 40x 3 +
Method 2 (substitution)
(1 + x 2x 2 )6
= [1 (x + 2x 2 )]6
= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15(x + 2x 2 )2

20(x + 2x 2 )3

= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15[x(1 2x)]2

20[x(1 2x)]3

= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15(x)2 (1 2x)2

20(x)3 (1 2x)3

= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15x 2 (1 2x)2

+20x 3 (1 2x)3

= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15x 2 (1 4x + )

+20x 3 (1 + )

= 1 +6x 12x 2
+15x 2

60x 3
+20x 3 +

= 1 + 6x + 3x 2 40x 3 +

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123

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12

Ex 5.1

(1 x)(1 + ax)6 = 1 + bx 2 +

14(i)
(1 x)4

(1 x)(1 + ax)6
6
6
6
= (1 x)[( ) (ax)0 + ( ) (ax)1 + ( ) (ax)2 +
0
1
2
= (1 x)[1 +(6)(ax) +(15)(a2 x 2 ) + ]
= (1 x)(1 +6ax +15a2 x 2 + )
+15a2 x 2
6ax 2

= 1 +6ax
x

Compare x 2 : 15a2 6a

+(4)(x 3 ) +(1)(x 4 )

= 1 4x

+6x 2

4x 3

+x 4

=b

1 2

15 ( ) 6 ( ) = b a =

13(i)

+(6)(x 2 )

S = y 4 4y 3 + 6y 2 4y + 1
= 1 4y + 6y 2 4y + 1
= (1 y)4

= 1 + (4)(x)

Sub y = 1 x 3 :

6a 1 = 0
a

4
4
4
4
= 1 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2 + ( ) (x)3 + ( ) (x)4
3
1
2
4

14(ii)
S = (1 x 3 )4 4(1 x 3 )3 + 6(1 x 3 )2 4(1 x 3 ) + 1

= 1 +(6a 1)x +(15a2 6a)x 2 +


Compare x:

= [1 + (x)]4

7
12

Sub back y = 1 x 3 :
S = [1 (1 x 3 )]4 = (x 3 )4 = x12

n
n
(1 2x)n = 1 + ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2 +
1
2
n
= ( ) (4x 2 ) +
2
n
=4 ( ) x2 +
2
n
Coefficient of x 2 = 4 ( ) [shown]
2

13(ii) Coefficient of x 2 = 24
n
4( )
= 24
2
n
( )
=6
2
n!
(n2)!2!

=6

n(n1)(n2)!
(n2)!2!

=6

n(n1)
2

=6

n(n 1)

= 12

n2 n

= 12

n2 n 12

=0

(n 4)(n + 3) = 0
n = 4 or n = 3 (rej n > 0)

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124

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

Ex 5.1

(1 + x)5 (1 4x)4
= (1 + x)5 [1 + (4x)]4
4
4
4
5
5
5
= [( ) (x)0 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2 + ] [( ) (4x)0 + ( ) (4x)1 + ( ) (4x)2 + ]
0
1
2
0
1
2
2)
2)
[
]
[
(5)(x)
(10)(x
(4)(4x)
(6)(16x
= 1
+
+
+
1
+
+
+]
2
2
(1 16x + 96x + )
= (1 + 5x + 10x + )

= 1 16x
+96x 2
+5x 80x 2
+100x 2 +
1 11x + 26x 2 [shown]
15(ii) Factor & multiply polynomials
(a)
(1 + x)5 (1 4x)5 = [(1 + x)5 (1 4x)4 ] (1 4x)
= [1 11x + 26x 2 + ] (1 4x)
= 1 11x
+26x 2
4x +44x 2 +
= 1 15x + 70x 2 +
15(ii) Substitute
(1 x)5 (1 + 4x)4 = [1 + (x)]5 [1 4(x)]4
(b)
1 11(x) +26(x)2
1 +11x

+26x 2

15(ii) Expand & substitute


(1 + x 2 )5 (1 2x)4 (1 + 2x)4 = (1 + x 2 )5 (1 4x 2 )4
(c)
= [1 + (x 2 )]5 [1 4(x 2 )]4
1 11(x 2 ) +26(x 2 )2
1 11x 2

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+26x 4

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125

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.1

16
28x 6 30x 4 1 = 0
sub x = 1 + h:
28(1 + h)6 30(1 + h)4 1
=0
6 (h)0
6 (h)1
6 (h)2
28 [( )
+( )
+( )
+]
0
1
2
=0
4
4
4
30 [( ) (h)0 + ( ) (h)1 + ( ) (h)2 + ] 1
0
1
2
28(1 + 6h + 15h2 + )
30(1 + 4h + 6h2 + ) 1

18(ii) Selective expansion


(1 + y)7
sub y = x(1 + x):
[1 + x(1 + x)]7
= 1 +7x(1 + x)
+21[x(1 + x)]2
+35[x(1 + x)]3 +35[x(1 + x)]4
+21[x(1 + x)]5 +7[x(1 + x)]6 +[x(1 + x)]7
(1 + x)4
= 35x 4
+21x 5 (1 + x)5
+7x 6 (1 + x)6
(1 + x)7 +
+x 7

=0

28 + 168h + 420h2
=0
30 120h 180h2 1 +
240h2 + 48h 3
80h2 + 12h 1
(20h 1)(4h + 1)
h=

20

or h = (rej root greater than 1)


4

root x = 1 +
17(i)

4
= 35x 4 [ ( ) (x)3 ]
3
5 [ (5) (x)2
+21x
]
2
6
+7x 6 [ ( ) (x)1 ]
1
7
7
[ ( ) (x)0 ] +
+x
0

0
0
0

1
20

= 1.05

= [35(4) + 21(10) + 7(6) + 1]x 7 +


= 393x 7 +

(1 + 2x)2n
2n
2n
2n
= ( ) (2x)0 + ( ) (2x)1 + + ( ) (2x)r
0
1
r
2n (2x)2n
++ ( )

2n

17(ii) 22n
= [1 + (1)]2n
=(

=(

2n (1)0
2n
2n
)
+ ( ) (1)1 + ( ) (1)2
0
1
2
2n
+ + ( ) (1)2n
2n
2n
)
0

coefficent of x 7 = 393
18(iii) 1st Observation
(1 + y)7
= 1 + 7y + 21y 2 + 35y 3 + 35y 4 + 21y 5 + 7y 6 +
y7

2n
2n
2n
+ ( ) + ( ) + + ( ) [proven]
1
2
2n

18(i)
(1 + y)7
7
7
7
7
= ( ) (y)0 + ( ) (y)1 + ( ) (y)2 + ( ) (y)3
0
3
1
2
7 (y)4
7 (y)5
7 (y)6
7
+( )
+( )
+( )
+ ( ) (y)7
5
6
4
7
2
3
4
5
= 1 + 7y + 21y + 35y + 35y + 21y + 7y 6 + y 7

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All the coefficients of the terms from the 2nd term


onwards are divisible by 7
except the last term.
2nd Observation
Last Term of y
= [x(1 + x)]7
= x 7 (1 + x)7
7
7
7
7
( ) (x)0 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2 + ( ) (x)3
0
3
1
2
= x7 [
]
7
7
7
7 (x)4
+( )
+ ( ) (x)5 + ( ) (x)6 + ( ) x 7
5
6
7
4
= x 7 [(1)x + (7)x 2 + (21)x 2 + (35)x 3 + (35)x 4
+ (21)x 5 + (7)x 6 + (1)x 7 ]

126

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.2

Ex 5.2
1(a)

(2 x)3
= [2 + (x)]3
= 23

3
3
3
+ ( ) (2)31 (x)1 + ( ) (2)32 (x)2 + ( ) (2)33 (x)3
3
1
2

=8

+(3)(4)(x)

+(3)(2)(x 2 )

+(x)3

= 8 12x + 6x 2 x 3
1(b)

(x + 2y)4
= x4

4
4
4
4
+ ( ) (x)41 (2y)1 + ( ) (x)42 (2y)2 + ( ) (x)43 (2y)3 + ( ) (x)44 (2y)4
3
1
2
4

= x4

+(4)(x 3 )(2y)

+(6)(x 2 )(4y 2 )

+(4)(x)(8y 3 )

+(16y 4 )

= x 4 + 8x 3 y + 24x 2 y 2 + 32xy 3 + 16y 4


1(c)

(2 + x 2 )5
= 25

5
5
5
5
5
+ ( ) (2)51 (x 2 )1 + ( ) (2)52 (x 2 )2 + ( ) (2)53 (x 2 )3 + ( ) (2)54 (x 2 )4 + ( ) (2)55 (x 2 )5
3
5
1
2
4

= 25

+(5)(16)(x 2 )

+(10)(8)(x 4 )

+(10)(4)(x 6 )

+(5)(2)(x 8 )

+x10

= 32 + 80x 2 + 80x 4 + 40x 6 + 10x 8 + x10


2(a)

x 5

(4 ) = [4 + ( x)]

1
1
5
+ ( ) (4)51 ( x)
2
1

= 45

= (1024) +(5)(256) ( x)
2

2
1
5
+ ( ) (4)52 ( x)
2
2

3
1
5
+ ( ) (4)53 ( x) +
2
3

+(10)(64) ( x 2 )

+(10)(16) ( x 3 )

= 1024 640x + 160x 2 20x 3 +


2(b)

12

( + x2 )
2

1 12
2

=
=
2(c)

1
2x

12 1 121 (x 2 )1
12 1 122 (x 2 )2
+( )( )
+( )( )
2
1
2 2

=( )
1

+(12) (

4096
1
4096

2x 2 ) = [

1
2x

3
512

1 8
1
1

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

x4 +

55
128

+(66) (

1
1024

) (x 4 )

1
8x5

12 1 123 (x 2 )3
)( )
+
3 2

+(220) (

) (x 6 )

512

x6 +

+(8) (

256x8
256x8

) (x 2 )

8 1 81 (2x 2 )1
8 1 82 (2x 2 )2
+( )( )
+( )( )
1 2x
2 2x

2x

33
512

+ (2x 2 )]

=( )
=

x2 +

1
2048

+(

1
128x7

7
4x2

) (2x 2 )

+(28) (

1
64x6

) (4x 4 )

8 1 83 (2x 2 )3
+( )( )
+
3 2x
+(56) (

1
32x5

) (8x 6 ) +

14x +

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127

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(a)

Ex 5.2

For (x + 2y)5

5
Tr+1 = ( ) (x)5r (2y)r
r
3(b)

3(c)

Tr+1
4(a)

1 13
2y

= [3x 2 + (

1
2y

13

For coefficient of x 3 ,

1 r

13
= ( ) (3x 2 )13r ( )
2y
r

r=6

6(a)

10 (2)106 (x)6
)
6
= (210)(16)(x 6 )
= 2260x 6

(rej)

18

For ( x 2 )

For term independent of x,


3r 18 = 0
r
=6

r=3

Term independent of x
18
= ( ) (1)6 (x)0
6
= (18 564)(1)(x)0
= 18 564

9
4th term = ( ) (3x)93 (2)3
3
= (84)(729x 6 )(8)
= 489 888x 6
For (y 2x)10 = [y + (2x)]10

6(b)

10 (y)10r (2x)r
)
r

For middle term,

r=

10
2

= [x 1 + (x 2 )]18

18 (x 1 )18r (x 2 )r
)
r
18
(1)r x 2r
= ( ) x r18
r
18
= ( ) (1)r
x 3r18
r

For (3x 2)9 = [3x + (2)]9

Tr+1 = (

Tr+1 = (

9
Tr+1 = ( ) (3x)9r (2)r
r

4(c)

2r = 6 r = 3
1 3
15
10
Coefficient of x 6 = [( ) ( ) ] = ( )
4
8
3

7th term = (

For 4th term,

r=

For coefficient of x 6 ,

4(b)

2r = 3

Coefficient of x 3 = 0

10
= ( ) (2)10r (x)r
r

For 7th term,

10

= [1 + ( x 2 )]

)]

For (2 + x)10
Tr+1

10

r
1
10
) ( x 2 )
4
r
1 r
10
= ( ) ( ) (x 2 )r
4
r
1 r
10
= ( ) ( ) x 2r
4
r

10 (2x)10r (3)r
)

For (3x 2

x2

Tr+1 = (

For (2x 3)10 = [2x + (3)]10


Tr+1 = (

For (1

For (x +

1
2x2

12

= [x + (2 x2 )]

12 12r
)x
r
12
= ( ) x12r
r
12 1 r
= ( )( )
r 2

Tr+1 = (
=5

10
Middle term = ( ) (y)105 (2x)5
5
= (252)(y 5 )(32x 5 )
= 8064x 5 y 5

For middle term,

( x 2 )

12

1 r

( ) x 2r
2

x123r
r=

12
2

=6

12 1 6 (x)123(6)
)( )
6 2
231
=
6

Middle term = (

16x

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128

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7

Ex 5.2

(px 3)n
= [px + (3)]n
n
= ( ) (px)n0 (3)0
0
= (px)n

n
+ ( ) (px)n1 (3)1 +
1
+(n)(px)n1 (3) +

= pn x n

3npn1 x n1 +

= 512x 9
qx 8 + [given]
Compare 1st term: Compare 2nd term:
3npn1 x n1 = qx 8
pn x n = 512x 9
3(9)291 x 91 = qx 8
n =9
n = 9, p = 2
8 )x 8
27(2
= qx 8
pn = 512
q
= 6912
n = 9,
p9
= 512
p
=2
8(i)

x 7
(2 )
2

7
1
= [2 + ( x)]
2
1
1
7
= (2)7 + ( ) (2)71 ( x)
2
1
1
= 128 +(7)(64) ( x)
2
2

2
1
7
+ ( ) (2)72 ( x)
2
2
1 2
+(21)(32) ( x )
4

3
1
7
+ ( ) (2)73 ( x) +
2
3
1 3
+(35)(16) ( x ) +
8

= 128 224x + 168x 70x +


8(ii)

(1.995)7 = (2 0.005)7
= (2

0.01 7
2

= 128 224(0.01) + 168(0.01)2 70(0.01)3 +


125.7767
9(i)

(1 2x)9 = [(1) + (2x)]9


9
9
=1
+ ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2 +
1
2
=1
+(9)(2x)
+(36)(4x 2 ) +
= 1 18x + 144x 2 +
5
5
+ ( ) (2)51 (x)1 + ( ) (2)52 (x)2
1
2
= 32 +(5)(16)(x)
+(10)(8)(x 2 )
= 32 + 80x + 80x 2 +

(2 + x)5 = 25

9(ii)

(1 2x)9 (2 + x)5 = (1 18x + 144x 2 + )(32 + 80x + 80x 2 + )

= 32 +80x
+80x 2
576x 1440x 2
+4608x 2 +
= 32 496x +3248x 2 +

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129

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

Ex 5.2

(2x 1)6
= [(2x) + (1)]6
6
6
6
= (2x)6
+ ( ) (2x)61 (1)1 + ( ) (2x)62 (1)2 + ( ) (2x)63 (1)3
3
1
2
= (64x 6 ) +(6)(32x 5 )(1)
+(15)(16x 4 )(1)
+(20)(8x 3 )(1)
= 64x 6
192x 5
+240x 4
160x 3 +

10(ii) (2x 1)6 (x 2 2x + 3)


= (64x 6 192x 5 + 240x 4 160x 3 + )(x 2 2x + 3)
= (192x 5 )(3) +(240x 4 )(2x) +(160x 3 )(x 2 ) +
= 576x 5
480x 5
= 1216x 5 +

160x 5 +

Coefficient of x 5 = 1216
11(i)

( 2x)

= [ + (2x)]

1 5

5 1 51 (2x)1
+( )( )
1 2
1
+(5) ( ) (2x)

=( )
=
=

2
1

32
1
32

5 1 52 (2x)2
+( )( )
2 2
1
+(10) ( ) (4x 2 )

16

5 1 53 (2x)3
+( )( )
+
3 2
1
+(10) ( ) (8x 3 ) +
4

x + 5x 20x +
8

11(ii) Expansion
1

(1 + ax + 3x 2 ) ( 2x)
2

= (1 + ax + 3x 2 ) (
= 5x 2
5a 2
x
8
3
+ x2
32
5a

= (5
163
32

x + 5x 2 20x 3 + )
8

20x 3
+5ax 3

=(

1
32

15 3
x +
8
3
) x 2 + (5a
32

5a
8

) x2

20

+ (5a

175
8

15
8

) x3 +

) x3 +

Coefficients
Coefficient of x 2 =
(

163

32
5a

5a
8

[given]
13
2

Coefficent of x
= 5a

32
9
4

= 5 ( )
4
265
8

45

175
9

13

175
8

a=

9
4

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130

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

Ex 5.2

For (x + my)8
8
Tr+1 = ( ) x 8r (my)r
r

13(iii) For constant term,

Constant Term = (

12(ii) if m = 2:
8
(a)
Tr+1 = ( ) x 8r (2y)r
r
8 8r r r
= ( )x
2 y
r
8
= ( ) 2r x 8r y r
r

14(i)

For (x 3

2 10
x2

k r
9
Tr+1 = ( ) x 9r ( )
x
r
9 9r (kx 1 )r
= ( )x
r
9 9r r r
= ( )x k x
r
9 r 92r
= ( )k x
r
For coefficient of x 3 , For coefficient of x 3 ,
9 2r = 3
9 2r = 3
2r = 6
2r = 6
r
=3
r
=3

r=5
8 5
= ( )2
5
= 1792

= 1512x 5 y 3

Coefficient of x 3
Coefficient of x 3
9
9
= ( ) k3
= ( ) k3
3
3
3
= 84k
= 84k 3
Equate coefficients
Coefficient of x 3 = Coefficient of x [given]
84k 3
= 126k 4
2k 3
= 3k 4
3
4
2k 3k
=0
3
k (2 3k)
=0

= 1512x 5 y 3
= 1512x 5 y 3
= 1512x 5 y 3
= 1512
= 3
= [x 3 + (2x 2 )]10

10 (x 3 )10r (2x 2 )r
)
r
10
= ( ) x 303r (2)r x 2r
r
10 (2)r
=( )
x 305r
r

k = 0 (rej k is positive)or k =

Tr+1 = (

13(i)

Specific coefficients
k 9

For term (1512x 5 y 3 ),


r=3

13

= 13 440

For (x + ) ,

8 8r (my)r
12(ii) Recall: T
r+1 = ( ) x
r
(b)

T4
8
( ) x 83 (my)3
3
8
( ) x 5 m3 y 3
3
56m3 x 5 y 3
56m
m

10 (2)6 305(6)
)
x
6

For coefficient of x 3 y 5 ,
Coefficient of x 3 y 5

30 5r = 0
5r
= 30
r
=6

For term in x10 ,

Term in x10

30 5r = 10
5r
= 20
r
=4
10 (2)4 10
=( )
x = 3360x10
4

13(ii) For coefficient of 1 ,


5

30 5r = 5

5r
r
Coefficient of

1
x5

=(

= 35
=7

10 (2)7
)
= 15 360
7

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131

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.2

14(ii) Put k = 2,
3

(1 6x

2)

2
3

(x + )
x

= (1 6x 2 )[(term in x 3 ) + (term in x 5 ) + ]
[to be continued]
Specific terms
2

For (x + 3 ) = [x + ( x 1 )] ,
x

r
2
9
Tr+1 = ( ) x 9r ( x 1 )
3
r
9 9r 2 r r
( ) x
= ( )x
3
r
r
9 2
= ( ) ( ) x 92r
r 3

For term in x 3 , 9 2r = 3
2r
=6
r
=3
2 3

Term in x 3 = 84 ( ) x 3 =
3

224 3
x
9

For term in x 5 , 9 2r = 5
2r
=4
r
=2
2
2
9
Term in x 5 = ( ) ( ) x 5 = 16x 5
2 3
Expansion
(1 6x

2)

2
3

(x + )
x

= (1 6x 2 ) (

224 3
x
9

+ 16x 5 + )

= (1)(16x 5 ) + (6x 2 ) (
=

400 5

x
3

224 3
x )
9

Coefficient of x 5 =

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3

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132

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

Ex 5.2

x n

(2 )
2

= [2 + ( x)]

0
1
n
n
1
1
= ( ) (2)n0 ( x) + ( ) (2)n1 ( x)
2
2
0
1
1

2
n
1
+ ( ) (2)n2 ( x) +
2
2
n(n1)

= 2n

+n(2n1 ) ( x)

= 2n

n(2n1 ) ( ) x

= 2n

n(2n1 )(21 )x

+n(n 1)(23 )2n2 x 2 +

= 2n

n(2n2 )x

+n(n 1)2n5 x 2 +

1
2

(2n2 ) x 2 +

n(n1) n2 2
2 x
8

15(ii) (1 + 2x) (2 x)n


2

= (1 + 2x)[2n n(2n2 )x +n(n 1)2n5 x 2 + ]


= 2n

n(2n2 )x
+(2n+1 )x

+n(n 1)2n5 x 2
(n)2n1 x 2 +

= 2n +[2n+1 n(2n2 )]x


= a + bx 2 + [given]

+[n(n 1)2n5 (n)2n1 ]x 2 +

Compare x:
2n+1 n(2n2 )
=0
n2
3
n2
(2 )2 n(2 ) = 0
2n2 (23 n)
=0
n
=8
15(iii) Compare x 0 :
a = 2n
= 28 n = 8
= 256
Compare x 2 :
b = n(n 1)2n5 (n)2n1
= 8(8 1)285 (8)281 n = 8
= 576

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133

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16

Ex 5.2

Expansion
(1 + x)(a bx)12
= (1 + x)[(term in x 7 ) + (term in x 8 ) + ]
[to be continued]

17(i)

Specific terms
For (a bx)12 = [a + (bx)]12 ,
12 12r (bx)r
)a
r
12
= ( ) a12r (b)r x r
r

For coefficient of x 2 , r = 2
n
n
Coefficient of x 2 = ( ) 32 = 9 ( )
2
2
Equate coefficients
(Coefficient of x 3 ) = 6(Coefficient of x 2 )
n
n
27 ( )
= 6 9( )
3
2
n
n
( )
= 2 ( ) [shown]
3
2

Tr+1 = (

For term in x 7 ,

Find specific coefficients


For (1 + 3x)n
n
Tr+1 = ( ) (3x)r
r
n r r
= ( )3 x
r
For coefficient of x 3 , r = 3
n
n
Coefficient of x 3 = ( ) 33 = 27 ( )
3
3

r=7

12
Term in x 7 = ( ) a5 (b)7 x 7
7
= 792a5 b7 x 7

17(ii)

For term in x 8 , r = 8
12 4 (b)8 8
)a
x
8
= 495a4 b8 x 8

Term in x 8 = (

n!
(n3)!3!
n(n1)(n2)(n3)!
(n3)!3!
n(n1)(n2)
3!
(n)(n1)(n2)
6

Expansion
(1 + x)(a bx)12
= (1 + x)[(792a5 b7 x 7 ) + (495a4 b8 x 8 ) + ]
= 1(495a4 b8 x 8 ) + x(792a5 b7 x 7 ) +
= 495a4 b8 x 8
792a5 b7 x 8 +

n!

= 2 (n2)!2!
=2
=2
=2

n(n1)(n2)!
(n2)!2!
n(n1)
2!
(n)(n1)
2

(n)(n 1)(n 2)
= 6(n)(n 1)
(n)(n 1)[(n 2) 6] = 0
(n)(n 1)(n 8)
=0
n=0
or n = 1
or n = 8
(rej n 2) (rej n 2)

= (495a4 b8 792a5 b7 )x 8 +
Coefficient of x 8
= 0 [given]
4 8
5 7
495a b 792a b = 0
5a4 b8 8a5 b7
=0
5a4 b8
= 8a5 b7
a
b

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134

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18(i)

Ex 5.2

(2 + p)5
5
5
5
+ ( ) (2)51 (p)1 + ( ) (2)52 (p)2 + ( ) (2)53 (p)3 +
3
1
2
2
= (32) +(5)(16)(p)
+(10)(8)(p )
+(10)(4)(p3 )
+
2
3
= 32
+80p
+80p
+40p
+
= 25

18(ii) (2 + x 2x 2 )5
= [2 + (x 2x 2 )]5
= 32 +80(x 2x 2 ) +80(x 2x 2 )2
= 32 +80(x 2x 2 ) +80(x 2 4x 3 + )
= 32 +80x
160x 2
2
+80x
320x 3
+40x 3 +
= 32 +80x
19

80x 2

+40(x 2x 2 )3 +
+40(x 3 + )

280x 3 +

(a + bx + cx 2 )4 = 81 + 216x + 108x 2 + dx 3 + [given]


(a + bx + cx 2 )4 = [a + (bx + cx 2 )]4
4
4
= a4 + ( ) (a)41 (bx + cx 2 )1 + ( ) (a)42 (bx + cx 2 )2
1
2

4
+ ( ) (a)43 (bx + cx 2 )3 +
3

= a4 + 4a3 (bx + cx 2 )

+6a2 (b2 x 2 + 2bcx 3 + )

+4a(b3 x 3 + ) +

= a4 + 4a3 bx +4a3 cx 2

+6a2 b2 x 2 +12a2 bcx 3

+4ab3 x 3 +

= a4 + 4a3 bx + (4a3 c + 6a2 b2 )x 2 + (12a2 bc + 4ab3 )x 3 +


= 81 + 216x + 108x 2 + dx 3 + [given]
Compare x 0 : a4 = 81
a = 3 or a = 3
Compare x:

(rej a > 0)

4a3 b = 216
a3 b = 54
a = 3,
(3)3 b = 54
b
=2

Compare x 2 : 4a3 c + 6a2 b2


= 108
3
2 2
2a c + 3a b
= 54
a = 3, b = 2,
2(3)3 c + 3(3)2 (2)2 = 54
54c + 108
= 54
c
= 1
Compare x 3 : 12a2 bc + 4ab3
=d
a = 3, b = 2, c = 1,
12(3)2 (2)(1) + 4(3)(2)3 = d
d
= 120

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


20(i)

For (2x 2

1 n
x

Ex 5.2
1

) = [2x 2 + (x 2 )]

21(i)

1 r
n
Tr+1 = ( ) (2x 2 )nr (x 2 )
r
1
n nr 2n2r
(1)r x 2r
= ( )2 x
r
5
n nr
= ( ) 2 (1)r x 2n2r
r

For (a + b)n ,
n
TR+1 = ( ) anR bR
R
For 2nd term, R = 1
n
2nd term: p = ( ) an1 b1 [given]
1
= nan1 b
For 3rd term: R = 2
n
3rd term: q = ( ) an2 b2 [given]
2

For term independent of x:


5

n!

2n r = 0

= (n2)!2! an2 b2

5
2

= 2n
5

n(n1) n2 2
a b
2

n!

= (n3)!3! an3 b3

For coefficient of x 7 x:
5

10 r = 7.5
2

For 4th term: R = 3


n
4th term: r = ( ) an3 b3 [given]
3

5 5r (1)r 2(5)52r
20(ii) T
x
r+1 = ( ) 2
r
5
5
= ( ) 25r (1)r x102r
r

n(n1)(n2)! n2 2
a b
(n2)!2!

= r

r is non negative integer,


smallest n = 5

5
2

n(n1)(n2)(n3)! n3 3
a b
(n3)!3!

n(n1)(n2) n3 3
a b
6

pr
q2

=1

nan1 b

Coefficient of x 7 x
5
= ( ) (2)51 (1)1
1
= (5)(16)(1)
= 80

n(n 1)(n 2) n3 3
[
a b ]
6
n(n 1) n2 2
[
a b ]
2

1 2
n (n 1)(n 2)a2n4 b4
6
=
1 2
n (n 1)2 a2n4 b 4
4
=

2(n 2)
[shown]
3(n 1)

21(ii) when p = 8, q = 24, r = 36:


(8)(36)
(24)2
1
2

=
=

2(n2)
3(n1)
2(n2)
3(n1)

3(n 1) = 4(n 2)
3n 3 = 4n 8
n
=5

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.2

22
3

Given: a = 2 + 5 + 2 5
Prove: a3 = 4 3a
LHS
= a3
3

= [( 2 + 5) + ( 2 5)]
3

= ( 2 + 5)

31 3
1
32 3
2
3 3
3 3
( 2 5) + ( ) ( 2 + 5)
( 2 5)
+ ( ) ( 2 + 5)
1
2
3

+3 ( 2 + 5) ( 2 5)

= 2 + 5
3

+3 ( 2 + 5) ( 2 5)

33 3
3
3 3
( 2 5)
+ ( ) ( 2 + 5)
3

+2 5

= 4 +3 ( 2 + 5) ( 2 5) [( 2 5) + ( 2 + 5)]
3

= 4 +3( 4 5)

(a)

= 4 +3(1)

(a)

= 4 3

(a)

a = 2 + 5 + 2 5

= 4 3a
= RHS [proven]
a3
= 4 3a
3
a + 3a 4
=0
(a 1)( +
+ )
(a 1)(a2 +
+ )
2
(a 1)(a +
+ 4)
2
(a 1)(a + a + 4) = 0
a = 1 or a =

(1)(1)2 4(1)(4)
2(1)

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2

(rej discriminant < 0)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 5
A2(b)

Rev Ex 5
A1(i)
(a)

(1 + 3x)6
6
6
6
= 1 + ( ) (3x)1 + ( ) (3x)2 + ( ) (3x)3 +
3
1
2
= 1 + (6)(3x) +(15)(9x 2 ) +(20)(27x 3 ) +
= 1 + 18x + 135x 2 + 540x 3 +

A1(i)
(b)
(1 4x)5

For (x

2 12
x2

= [x + (2x 2 )]12

12 12r (2x 2 )r
)x
r
12
= ( ) x12r (2)r x 2r
r
12
= ( ) (2)r x123r
r

Tr+1 = (

For coefficient of x 3 ,
12 3r = 3
3r
= 9
r
=3

= [1 + (4x)]5
5
5
5
= 1 + ( ) (4x)1 + ( ) (4x)2 + ( ) (4x)3 +
3
1
2

Coefficient of x 3
12
= ( ) (2)3
3
= 1760

= 1 + (5)(4x) +(10)(16x 2 ) +(10)(64x 3 ) +


= 1 20x + 160x 2 640x 3 +
A1(ii)
(1 + 3x)6 (1 4x)5
= (1 + 18x + 135x 2 + )(1 20x + 160x 2 + )
= (1)(160x 2 ) +(18x)(20x)

+(135x 2 )(1) +

= 160x 2

+135x 2 +

360x 2

= 65x 2 +
Coefficient of x 2 = 65
A2(a)

x 8

For (1 + ) ,
2

8 x r
Tr+1 = ( ) ( )
r 2
8 1 r
= ( ) ( x)
r 2
8 1 r
= ( ) ( ) xr
r 2
For coefficient of x 3 ,
r=3
Coefficient of x 3
8 1 3
= ( )( )
3 2
=7

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A3(i)

Rev Ex 5

2 8

(x 2 )
x

2 8
= [x 2 + ( )]
x
= (x 2 )8

2 1
2 2
8
8
+ ( ) (x 2 )81 ( ) + ( ) (x 2 )82 ( )
x
x
1
2

= x16

+(8)(x14 ) ( )

2
x

2 3
8
+ ( ) (x 2 )83 ( )
x
3

+(28)(x12 ) ( 2 )

+(56)(x10 ) ( 3 )

= x16 16x13 + 112x10 448x 7 +


A3(ii)

2 8

(x 3 + 1)2 (x 2 )
x
= (x 6 + 2x 3 + 1)(x16 16x13 + 112x10 448x 7 + )
= (x 6 )(448x 7 ) +(2x 3 )(112x10 )
= (448x13 )
+(224x13 )
13
= 240x +

+(1)(16x13 ) +
+(16x13 ) +

Coefficient of x13 = 240


A4(i)

x n

(1 ) = [1 + ( x)]

0
1
n
n
1
1
= ( ) ( x) + ( ) ( x)
2
2
0
1
1

= (1)

+(n) ( x)

=1

nx

+(
+

A4(ii) (1 x)n = 1 + ax + 7x 2 +

2
n
1
+ ( ) ( x) +
2
2
n(n1)

) ( x2 ) +

n(n1) 2
x
8

[given]

Compare x 2 :
n(n1)

=7

8
2

n n
= 56
2
n n 56
=0
(n 8)(n + 7) = 0
n = 8 or n = 7 (rej n > 2)
A4(iii) Compare x:
1

n
2
1

=a

(8) = a
2

= 4

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5(i)

Rev Ex 5

(1 + p)4
4
4
4
4
= ( ) (p)0 + ( ) (p)1 + ( ) (p)2 + ( ) (p)3
0
3
1
2
=1

+6p2

+4p

+4p3

B2

4
+ ( ) (p)4
4
4
+p

B2(i)

1 1

= [a2 x 2 + ( x 2 )]

For middle term,

r= =4
2

B2(ii) For coefficient of 1,


x

= 1 + 4x + 10x 2 + 16x 3 +

Coefficient of

A5(iii) (1.11)4 = [1 + (0.1) + (0.1)2 ]4


1 + 4(0.1) +10(0.1)2 + 16(0.1)3
1 + 0.4
+0.1
+0.016
1.516
B1(i)

x
)
a

8
Middle term = ( ) a1612 (1)4 x 44
4
= 70a4

= 1 +4x +4x 2 +6(x 2 + 2x 3 + ) +4(x 3 + ) +


= 1 +4x +4x 2
+6x 2 +12x 3
+4x 3 +

8r

= [(1) + (x + x 2 )]4
+4(x + x 2 )3 +

a2

1
1 1
8
( x 2 )
Tr+1 = ( ) (a2 x 2 )
a
r
1
1
8
= ( ) a162r x 2r4 (1)r ar x 2r
r
8
= ( ) a163r (1)r x r4
r

A5(ii)
(1 + x + x 2 )4
= 1 +4(x + x 2 ) +6(x + x 2 )2

For (

1
x

r=3

8
= ( ) a163(3) (1)(3)4
3
= (56)a7 (1)
= 56a7

(2 x)7
= [2 + (x)]7
7
7
= ( ) (2)70 (x)0 + ( ) (2)71 (x)1
0
1
7
+ ( ) (2)72 (x)2 +
2
= 128

+(7)(64)(x)
+(21)(32)(x 2 ) +
= 128 448x + 672x 2 +
B1(ii) 1.997 = (2 0.01)7
= 128 448(0.01) +672(0.01)2 +
= 128 4.48 +0.0672 +
123.587
B1(iii) (k x)(2 x)7
= (k x)(128 448x + 672x 2 + )
= k(672x 2 ) +(x)(448x) +
= 672kx 2 +448x 2 +
= (672k + 448)x 2 +
Coefficient of x 2 = 616 [given]
672k + 448
= 616
672k
= 168
k

=
4

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 5

B3(i)
5

(2 + 3)
0
5
= ( ) (2)50 (3)
0

1
2
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
+ ( ) (2)51 (3) + ( ) (2)52 (3) + ( ) (2)53 (3) + ( ) (2)54 (3) + ( ) (2)55 (3)
3
5
1
2
4

= (32)

+(5)(16)(3)

+(10)(8)(3)

+(10)(4)(33) +(5)(2)(9)

+(1)(1)(93)

= (32 + 240 + 90) + (80 + 120 + 9)3


= 362 + 2093
B3(ii) (2 3)5 = 362 2093
5

Show: (2 3) =

1
(2+3)

5 (2+3)

LHS = (2 3)
B4(i)

(2+3)

5
5

(43)5
(2+3)

1
(2+3)

= RHS [shown]

(a x)(1 + 2x)n = 3 + 47x + bx 2 +


sub x = 0:
n

(a 0)(1 + 2(0)) = 3 + 47(0) + b(0)2


a

=3

B4(ii)
(3 x)(1 + 2x)n = 3 + 47x + bx 2 + [given]
(3 x)(1 + 2x)n

= (3 x) [1

n
n
+ ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2 + ]
1
2
n(n1)
(4x 2 ) + ]
+ (n)(2x) +

= (3 x)(1

+ 2nx

= (3 x) [1

= 3 +6nx
x

+ 2n(n 1)x 2 + )

+6n(n 1)x 2
2nx 2

= 3 +(6n 1)x +(6n2 6n 2n)x 2 +


= 3 +(6n 1)x +(6n2 8n)x 2 +
= 3 +47x + bx 2 + [given]
Compare x:
(6n 1) = 47
6n
= 48
n
=8
B4(iii) Compare x 2 :
(6n2 8n) = b
6(8)2 8(8) = b n = 8
b
= 320

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5

Rev Ex 5

Expansion
(1 + ax)6 (2 + bx)5
6
6
= [1 + ( ) (ax)1 + ( ) (ax)2 + ]
1
2
5 (2)51 (bx)1
5
5
[2 + ( )
+ ( ) (2)52 (bx)2 + ]
1
2
= (1 + 6ax + 15a2 x 2 + )(32 + 80bx + 80b2 x 2 + )

+80b2 x 2
+480abx 2
+480a2 x 2 +
+(80b2 + 480ab + 480a2 )x 2 +

= 80bx
+192ax
= (80b + 192a)x

Equate coefficients
Coeff. of x = 112 [given]
80b + 192a = 112
b

=
=

112192a
80
712a

(1)

Coeff. of x 2
= 80 [given]
2
2
80b + 480ab + 480a = 80
b2 + 6ab + 6a2
=1
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
(

712a 2

5
144a2 +168a+49
25

+6a (
+

712a

5
42a72a2

) + 6a2 = 1

+6a2 = 1

(144a2 + 168a + 49)


210a 360a2 + 150a2

= 25

(144a2 + 168a + 49)


210a 210a2

= 25

66a2 42a
+24
11a2 +7a
+4
(11a + 4)(a + 1)

=0
=0
=0

a=

4
11

(rej a )

or

a = 1
b|a=1 =

712(1)
5

=1

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.1
4(ii)

Ex 6.1
1(a)

Point:

D(1,4) or E(3,1)
(4)(1)

Gradient: mDE = (1)(3) =

A(4,5) B(6,9)
MAB = (

4+6 5+9

y (4)=

= (5,7)
1(b)

5+11 3+(7)

2(b)

C
= MAB
9+b (6)+b2
(3, 4) = ( 1 ,
)

3 =
2
a1 = 0
A(0,3)

4
13

A(9, 6) C(3, 4) B(b1 , b2 )

M
= MAB
a +6 a +7
(3,5) = ( 1 , 2 )
2
(a1 )+(6)

4
3

5(i)
A(a1 , a2 )

M(3,5) B(6,7)

[x (1)]

4
3

= x+

= (3, 2)
2(a)

y4 = x

A(5,3) B(11, 7)
MAB = (

y y1 = mDE (x x1 )

DE:

9+b1

(a2 )+(7)

and

5 =
a2 = 3

(6)+b2

3 =
and 4 =
2
2
b1 = 3
b2 = 2
B(3, 2)

5(ii)

M(2,6) B(4, 8) A(a1 , a2 )

Radius = |BC|
= [(3) 3]2 + [(2) (4)]2

M
= MAB
a +(4) a2 +(8)
(2,6) = ( 1
)
,
2
(a1 )+(4)

2 =
2
a1 = 0
A(0,20)
3(a)

and

= 40

(a2 )+(8)

6 =
a2 = 20

= 4 10
= 210

6(i)

A(2a, a) B(4a, 5a)


MAB = (

= 36 + 4

|AC| = (5 6)2 + [3 (4)]2

2a+4a a+5a

= 1 + 49 = 50

= (3a, 2a)
3(b)

|BC| = [5 (2)]2 + (3 4)2

A(2t, 5) B(4,1 2t)


MAB = (

= 49 + 1 = 50

(2t)+4 5+(12t)

|AC| = |BC|,
ABC is isosceles

= (t + 1,3 t)
4(i)

A(1,6) B(3,2)

C(5, 4)

6(ii)

MAB = (

6+(2) (4)+4
2

= (2,0)

D = MAB
=(

A(6, 4) B(2,4) C (5,3)

(1)+3 6+2

= (1,4)
E = MAC
=(

(1)+(5) 6+(4)
2

= (3,1)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(iii)

Ex 6.1

area of ABC

1
|AB||MAB C|
2

1 [6 (2)]2
(5 2)2 + (3 0)2

2 +[(4) 4]2
1

= 64 + 64
2

y = x 2 + 2x 3

9 + 9

1
12818
2
1
= 2304
2
1
= (48)
2

x=
=

= 24 unit 2

2
p2 +q2
2
2

442

= 2 2

y|x=2+2 = 1 2(2 + 2)

) = (5,1)

=5

4162

432

A(2 2, 3 + 22)

= (5,1)
2

2(1)

= 5 + 22

p2 +q2 p+q

(4)(4)2 4(1)(4)

y|x=22 = 1 2(2 2)

A(p2 , p) B(q2 , q)
MAB

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


1 2x
= x 2 + 2x 3
2
x + 4x 4 = 0

Points A & B
At A & B, 2x + y = 1 intersects y = x 2 + 2x 3.
2x + y = 1
y
= 1 2x
(1)

and

p + q = 10 (1)
sub (2) into (1):
p2 + (2 p)2
= 10
2
2)
(4
p + 4p + p = 10
2p2 4p 6
=0
2
p 2p 3
=0
(p + 1)(p 3)
=0

p+q
2

= 5 22
=1

B(2 + 2, 3 22)

q = 2 p (2)

p = 1
or
q|p=1 = 3
A = (p2 , p)
= ((1)2 , 1)
= (1, 1)

p=3
q|p=3 = 1
A = (p2 , p)
= ((3)2 , 3)
= (9,3)

B = (q2 , q)
= ((3)2 , 3)
= (9,3)

B = (q2 , q)
= ((1)2 , 1)
= (1, 1)

Midpoint of AB
MAB = (

(22)+(2+2) (5+22)+(522)

= (2,5)
9

B(2,5) C(c1 , c2 )

A(3,7)
MAC = (

(3)+(c1 ) (7)+(c2 )
2

MAC lies on x-axis (y = 0):


7+c2
2

c2

=0
= 7

MBC = (

(2)+(c1 ) (5)+(c2 )
)
,
2
2

MBC lies on y axis (x = 0):


2+c1
2

c1

=0
=2

C(2, 7)

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10(i)

Ex 6.1

A(6,8) B(8, 4) C(2, 2)


Point M
M = MAB = (

6+8 8+(4)
2

12(i)

O(0,0) P(4, r) Q(q1 , q2 ) R(3,4)


For rhombus OPQR:
|OP|
= |OR|

) = (7,2)

(4 0)2 + (r 0)2 = (3 0)2 + (4 0)2

Point N
N = MBC = (
Line MN
Points:

8+(2) (4)+(2)

M(7,2) or N(3, 3)
(2)(3)

Gradient: mMN =

(7)(3)

= 9 + 16
16 + r 2
r2
=9
r = 3 or r = 3 (NA)

) = (3, 3)

12(ii) O(0,0) P(4,3) Q(q1 , q2 ) R(3,4)

5
4

MPR = (

y y1 = mMN (x x1 )

MN:

35

+2

12(iii) O(0,0) P(4,3) Q(q1 , q2 ) R(3,4)


MOQ

Point P
5

27

At P, MN (y = x
y
5

4
5

P(

27
5

) cuts x-axis (y = 0).

27
4
27

q2

=
2
=7

For parallelogram PQRS,


MPR
= MQS

27
5

M = MAC = (

1+6 3+2

2
1+6

, 0) N(3, 3)

A(3, 2) B(b, 3) C(6,2)


3+6 (2)+2
2

) =(

2
3+s1
2

3+s1 5+s2

and

s1 = 4
S(4,0)

2
3+2
2

s2

)
5+s

2
=
2
=0

D(7, d)
9

) = ( , 0)
2

=M

b+7 3+d

and

2 2
0+q2

13(a) P(1,3) Q(3,5) R(6,2) S(s1 , s2 )

By similar triangles (using x-coordinates)


MP: PN = (2 0) : [0 (3)]
= 2: 3

2
b+7

7 7

)=( , )

M(7,2) P (

2
7

q1 = 7
Q(7,7)

, 0)

11(ii) MBD

10(ii) Ratio :

11(i)

= MPR

0+q1 0+q2

2
0+q1

=0

=0
27

2 2

5
27
x
4
4

7 7

= x

=( , )

y (2)= ( ) [x (7)]
y

4+3 4+3

2
9
2

) = ( , 0)
2

and

b =2

3+d
2

=0

d = 3

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145

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.1

13(b) P(1,3) Q(3,5) R(6,2) S(4,0) T(t1 , t 2 )

15(i)

T(t1 , t 2 ) lies on y = 2x:


t 2 = 2t1
T(t1 , 2t1 )
PT

M = MPR = (
N = MQS = (
15(ii) M

= (3 t1

)2

+ [5 (2t1

)]2

5(t1 )2 14t1 + 10
12t1
t1

= 5(t1 )2 26t1 + 34
= 24
=2

r4 7

6+0 (2)+s

s2

) = (3,

, )

) =(

2
0+d1

(1)+d1 6+d2

2
6+1
2

) =(

2
0+3
2

(1)+0 6+0

)
7

and

= 10

s2

s =9

0+b a+0

b a

) =( , )

2 2

b 2

a 2

b2
4

a2
4

0+d2
2
b 2

a 2

b 2

a 2

|AM| = (0 ) + (a )

|BM| = (b ) + (0 )

b2
4

b2
4

a2
4

a2
4

0+3 0+1

and

) =(

2
3+d1

|OM| = (0 ) + (0 )

2
6+d2

)
=

d2
d1
=4
D(4, 5)
Case 3
For parallelogram ACBD,
MAB
= MCD
2
(1)+0

s2

B(b, 0)

d1
=2
D(2,7)
Case 2
For parallelogram ABDC,
MAD = MBC

=3

M = MAB = (

0+d1 0+d2

and

16

d2 = 7

2
(1)+d1

, ) = (3,

D(d1 , d2 )

C(3,1)

(1)+3 6+1

2
(1)+3

=N

PQRS is a parallelogram

Case 1
For parallelogram ABCD,
MAC
= MBD

)=(

A(0, a)

A(1,6) B(0,0)

S(0, s)

15(iii) MPR = MQS ,

T(2,4)

R(r, 5)

(4)+r 2+5

r4 7

2
r4

(t1 )2 2t1 + 1
(t1 )2 6t1 + 9
=
+ 4(t1 )2 12t1 + 9
+4(t1 )2 20t1 + 25

Q(6, 2)

= QT

(1 t1 )2

+[3 (2t1 )]2

14

P(4,2)

and

d1
= 4
D(4,5)

17(i)

O(0,0)

P(2a, 0) Q(2b, 2c)

A = MOP = (

(0)+(2a) (0)+(0)

R(2d, 2e)

= (a, 0) [shown]

2
6+0
2

= 5

3+d1 1+d2
2

|OM| = |AM| = |BM|,


M is equidistant from the three vertices

0+1

B = MPQ

1+d2
2

=(

(2a)+(2b) (0)+(2c)

= (a + b, c) [shown]

d2 = 5

C = MQR = (

(2b)+(2d) (2c)+(2e)

= (b + d, c + e) [shown]
D = MRO = (

(2d)+(0) (2e)+(0)
2

= (d, e) [shown]
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

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146

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.1

17(ii) A(a, 0) B(a + b, c) C(b + d, c + e) D(d, e)


MAC = (
MBD = (

a+(b+d) 0+(c+e)

2
2
(a+b)+d c+e

)= (

)= (

a+b+d c+e

2
2
a+b+d c+e
2

19
O(0,0) B(2,4)
(a)(ii) Let A be (x, y)

)
OA

MAC = MBD ,
ABCD is a parallelogram
18

C(0, n)

B(m, n)

A(m, 0)

MAC = (

0+m 0+n

2
2
m+0 0+n
2

x2 + y2
4x
x

= x 2 + y 2 4x 8y + 20
= 8y + 20
= 2y + 5
(1)

m n
2 2
m n

) =( , )
2 2

MOB = MAC ,
diagonals of rectangle OABC bisect each other

= OM
1)2

+ (y

(x 2 2x + 1)
+(y 2 4y + 4)

2)2

= (0 1)2 + (0 2)2
= 12 + 22

(x 2 2x) + (y 2 4y) + 5
(x 2 2x) + (y 2 4y)

=5
=0

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(2y + 5)2
2(2y + 5) +y 2 4y = 0
(4y 2 20y + 25) + (4y 10)
+y 2 4y = 0
(4y 2 16y + 15)
+y 2 4y = 0
5y 2 20y + 15 = 0
y 2 4y + 3
=0
(y 3)(y 1)
=0
y=3
or
y=1
x = 2(3) + 5
x = 2(1) + 5
= 1
=3
A(1,3)
or A(3,1)
C(3,1)
C(1,3)

19
As OABC is a square,
0+2 0+4
(a)(i) M
) = (1,2)
,
AC = MOB = (

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

(x 2 4x + 4)
+y 2 8y + 16

x 2 + y 2

AM

) =( , )

= AB

(x 0)2
= (x 2)2 + (y 4)2
+(y 0)2

(x
MOB = (

M(1,2)

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147

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19(a)
(ii)

Ex 6.1
19
(a)
(iii)

(2,4)

19(b) M(1,2) (m + 1, m + 2)
A(1,3) (m 1, m + 3)
C(3,1) (m + 3, m + 1)


OB bisector of OB
Point:
MOB (1,2)
Gradient: mOB =

mOB

40
20

20

1
2

y y1 = mOB (x x1 )

OB :

y (2)= ( ) (x 1)

2
a+b

2
1

2
5

= x+

5
2

A (a1 , a1 + )
|AM|

= |OM|

(a1 1)2 + [( 1 a1 + 5) 2]
2

(a1 1)2 + [( a1 + ) 2]
1

1 2

(a1 1)2 + ( a1 + )

2
5

5
a a1 +
4 1
2
4
5
5
15
(a1 )2 a1
4
2
4
5(a1 )2 10a1 15
(a1 )2 2a1 3

(a1 + 1)(a1 3)
a1 = 1 or
1

a2 = (1) +
=3
A(1,3)
C(3,1)

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

) = (2,6)

=2

(0 1)2
+(0 2)2

=5

and

2a+b+3
2

=6

2a + b + 3 = 12
2a + b
=9
b
= 9 2a (2)
sub (1) into (2):
b = 9 2(4 b)
b = 9 8 + 2b
b = 1 + 2b
b = 1
b = 1
a|b=1 = 4 (1)
=5
A(5,10)
B(1,2)

=5

(a1 )2 2a1 + 1
+ (a1 )2 a1 +

a + b= 4
a
=4b
(1)

Point A
A(a1 , a2 ) lies on OB :
1

= (2,6)

a+b 2a+b+3

y2 = x+

a2 = a1 +

A lies on y = 2x
A(a, 2a)
B lies on y = x + 3 B(b, b + 3)
MAB

M(1,2) (4,5)
A(1,3) (2,6)
C(3,1) (6,4)

=5
=5
=0
=0
=0
=0
a1 = 3
1

a2 = (3) +
=1
A(3,1)
C(1,3)

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148

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.2
3

Ex 6.2

P(1,2) Q(5,0)

R(7,4)

S(1,6)

1(a)

A(3,5) B(2,7)

(5)(7)

mAB = (3)(2)
tan =

1(b)

(2)(0)

mPQ = (1)(5) =

(6)(4)

mSR = (1)(7) =

A(4, 3) B(4,6)

mPS = (1)(1) = 2
(0)(4)

(4)(4)

mPQ = mRS and mPS = mQR ,


P, Q, R and S are vertices of a parallelogram

A(5, 4) B(7, 4)

A(1,0)

(1)(5)

B(4,2)

(0)(2)
6

C(0, 3) D(3, 1)

3
c

2
3

(3)(1)
(0)(3)

B(2,7)

(1)(c)

= (0)(1)
=

1c
1

=1c
=4

2
3

5(a)

Point:
A(1,3)
Gradient: line y = 4x 1,
m=4
Line:
y y1 = m (x x1 )
y (3)= (4)[x (1)]
y 3 = 4x + 4
y
= 4x + 7

5(b)

Point:

mAB = mCD ,
AB CD
A(1,5)

B(2, 5) C(1, c)

A,B,C lie on same straight line,


mAB
= mAC

57

(0)(2)

2(b)

A(0,1)

(4)(4)

mAB = (1)(4) =
mCD =

mQR = (5)(7) = 2

(3)(6)

tan = 0
= 0
2(a)

(2)(6)

tan
= 90

mAB =

21.8

mAB =

1(c)

C(0,4)

D(1,3)

(5)(7)

mAB = (1)(2) = 2
(4)(3)

A(0,1)

mCD = (0)(1) = 1
Gradient: line 2x + y = 3
y
= 2x + 3
m = 2

mAB mCD ,
AB is not CD

Line:

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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y y1 = m (x x1 )
y (1)= (2)[x (0)]
y 1 = 2x
y
= 2x + 1

149

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(c)

Ex 6.2

Point:

A(2,0)

Gradient:

line x + 3y = 12
3y
= 12 x

Line:

y
m=

= x+4

2nd line
dx + ey + f = 0
ey
= dx f

= m(x x1 )

y (0)= [x (2)]

5(d)

= x

=
b

A(2,0)

Gradient:

line BC,
m = mBC =

Line:

6(a)

Point:

8
36

6
3

d
e

[shown]

P(k 2 , 3k) Q(k, k 2) R(k, k + 2)S(1,1)


For PQ RS:
mPQ

y y1 = m (x x1 )
y (1)= (2)[x (3)]
y 1 = 2x 6
y
= 2x 5

= mRS

3k(k2)

k2 k
2k+2

k2 k
2(k+1)

(1,2)

k(k1)
k+1 2

( 1)

k+1 2k

y y1 = m(x x1 )
y (2)= (4)[x (1)]
y 2 = 4x 4
y
= 4x 2

(k+2)1
k1
k+1
k1
k+1
k1

=0

k1 k
k1

=0

(k + 1)(2 k) = 0
k = 1 or k = 2
9

6(b)

=2

Gradient: line y = 4x 3,
m=4
Line:

(2)4

Lines are parallel:


m1 = m2

A(3,1) B(3, 2) C(6,4)


Point:

= x

y y1

1st line
ax + by + c = 0
by
= ax cy
a
c
y
= x

P(a + b, a) Q(a b, 2a)

R(b, c)

y intercept: c = 3
Gradient:
line y = 3x + 4,
m=3

P, Q, R are collinear points,


mPQ
= mQR

Line:

(a+b)(ab)

(a)(2a)

y = mx + c
= 3x + 3

a
2b
2aba2
2b

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(2a)(c)

= (ab)(b)
=

2ac
a2b

= 2a c
2aba2

= 2a

= 2a a +

=a+

a2
2b

2b
a2
2b

150

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

Ex 6.2

Gradient of AP:
3(5)
(2)p

mAP =

11(ii) Line
Point:

Gradient: Line 3x + 2y 6 = 0
2y
= 3x 6

Line & its gradient:


4x + 3y 5 = 0
3y
= 4x + 5
y

A(1, 1)

2p

= x+

y
m=

= x3
2

3
2

mline =

Line:

y y1

= m (x x1 )
3

y (1) = ( ) [x (1)]

AP line
mAP = mline
8
2p

24
p

= 8 + 4p
=4

10(ii) Line AP
Point:

12(i)
A(2,3) or P(4, 5)
8

mAP =

AP:

y y1 = mAP (x x1 )

2(4)

Gradient:

4
3

y3 =

4
3

(x + 2)

y3 = x
y

= x+

Point A
At A, x + y + 2 = 0 intersects 3x 2y + 1 = 0:
x+y+2 =0
y
= x 2 (1)
3x 2y + 1 = 0

= (x + 1)

y+1

= x

= x

2
3

2
3

2
5

A(3, 1) or P

Gradient:

AP y = 2x + 3,
mAP = 2

AP:

y y1 = mAP (x x1 )
y (1) = 2 (x 3)
y+1
= 2x 6
y
= 2x 7

12(ii) Point P
At P, AP (y = 2x 7) intersects y = 3x 11.
2x 7 = 3x 11
x
= 4
x
=4
y|x=4 = 2(4) 7
=1
P(4,1)

(2)
13(i)

sub (1) into (2):


3x 2(x 2) + 1 = 0
3x + 2x + 4 + 1
=0
5x
= 1
x
= 1 (3)
y|x=1 = (1) 2
= 1
A(1, 1)

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

Line AP
Point:

y (3)= ( ) [x (2)]

11(i)

y+1

4
3

sleightofmath.com

Point B
B = (6 3,2)
= (3,2)

151

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(ii) Line BC
Point:
Gradient:

Ex 6.2

B(3,2) or C
BC 2y + x = 0
2y
= x

BC:

C or D(0,5)

Gradient:

CD

= x
2

mCD =

y y1 = mBC

y2 = x+

y 5 = (x 0)
2
1

= x+5

= x+
Point C
1

At C, CD (y = x + 5) meets BC (y = x + )

A(6,2)

1
2

AD BC,

2
3

x+5= x+

mAD = mBC =
AD:

Gradient:

y y1 = mCD (x x1 )

CD:

13(iii) Line AD
Point:

= x

(x x1 )

y (2)= (x 3)

2y x = 0
2y
=x

y
mBC =

13(iv) Line CD
Point:

2
1

2
17

y|x=3 = ( ) + 5

y y1 = mAD (x x1 )

4
3 17

y (2)= ( ) (x 6)
2

C ( ,
2

y2 = x+3

= x+5
2

Point D
At D, AD cuts y axis (x = 0):
y|x=0 = 5
D(0,5)

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152

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.3
4(ii)

Ex 6.3
1

A(3,7) B(6,1) C(20,8)


(7)(1)

mAB = (3)(6) =

(1)(8)

mBC = (6)(20) =

14

1
2

) ( )

= 1
= 1

2t t 2
= 15
t 2 2t 15 = 0
(t 5)(t + 3) = 0
t = 5 or t = 3

AB BC
A(2, 1) B(5,4) C(15, 2)
5
mAB =
mBC =

(1)(4)

(2)(5)
(4)(2)

3
6

(5)(15)

10

mBC =

a2
(3)1
210

=
=

( ) (k)= 1
2

a2
4

AB BC: (mAB )(mBC ) = 1


(

)( )

a2
6

= 1
= 1

2a4

6
2a
a

mBC =

20
19
0t
96

=
=

2
8
t
3

=
=

1st line & its gradient


y = ax + b
m1 = a

(1, 2) lies on y = ax + b
2 = a + b
(1)

1
4
t

lines are :
m1 m2 = 1
a (3) = 1

ABC = 90:
(mAB )(mBC ) = 1
1

=2

2nd line & its gradient


y 3x = 4
y
= 3x + 4
m2 = 3

= 4 2a
= 2
= 1

A(1,2) B(9,0) C(6, t)


mAB =

Lines are :
m1 m2 = 1

A(a, 3) B(2, 3) C(10,1)


3(3)

= x+1

2nd line
y kx + 4 = 0
y
= kx 4

AB BC
ABC = 90

mAB =

1st Line
x + 2y 2 = 0
2y
= x + 2
y

(mAB ) (mBC ) = ( ) ( ) = 1

4(i)

5
2tt2
15

(mAB )( mBC ) = (2) ( ) = 1

2t

2t

AC BC:
(mAC )(mBC ) = 1

= 2
7

(2)(t)

mAC = (1)(6) =

= (2)
3

( ) ( ) = 1
t
12

sub (2) into (1):

= 1

2 = ( ) + b

= 12

b =
3

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153

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7

Ex 6.3

(4,5)

Point:

10

Gradient: Line x + 2y 4 = 0
2y = x + 4
1

y
m=

1
( )
2

= x+2
2

y 2 = 6x 32

=2

Point A
At A, y = x 1 intersects y = x 2 x
x1
= x2 x
x 2 2x + 1 = 0
(x 1)2
=0
x
=1

bisector of AB
AB bisector of AB

y|x=1 = (1) 1
=0
A(1,0)
Line
Point:
A(1,0)
Gradient: line y = x 1

11(i)

A(3,3) B(7,3)
AB bisector of AB
AB :

x=

3+7

Gradient:

mAB =

AB :

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (3) = 1(x 11)
y+3
= x 11
y
= x 14

2
1
mAB

=1

A(3,6) or F

Gradient:

F is foot of from A to BC,

AF:

1
mBC

1
(1)(7)
( (2)(6) )

1
2

y y1 = mAF (x x1 )
1

y 6 = ( 3)
2
1

2
1

2
15

y6 = x+
y

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

1
(2)(8)

( (6)(16) )

Line AF
Point:

mAF =

=5

) = (11, 3)

MAB = (

y y1 = m (x x1 )
y 0 = 1(x 1)
y
= x + 1

6+16 2+(8)

Point:

m = (1) = 1
Line:

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(8 x)2
= 6x 32
x 2 16x + 64 = 6x 32
x 2 22x + 96 = 0
(x 6)(x 16) = 0
x=6
or x = 16
y = 8 6 y = 8 16
=2
= 8
A(6,2)
B(16, 8)

y y1 = m(x x1 )
y 5 = 2 (x 4)
y
= 2x 3

Line:

Points A & B
At A & B, x + y = 8 meets y 2 = 6x 32:
x + y= 8
y
= 8 x (1)

sleightofmath.com

= x+

154

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(ii) Line BC
Point:

Ex 6.3

B(2, 1) or C(6,7)
(1)7

Gradient:

mBC =

BC:

y y1 = mBC (x x1 )
y (1) = 2 [x (2)]
y+1
= 2x 4
y
= 2x 5

26

=2

12(ii) Point P
At P, AP (y = 4x + 13) cuts x axis (y = 0).
y
=0
4x + 13 = 0
x
P(

15

).

15

2x 5 = x +
5
2

13
4

P(

=5

, 0)

13
4

, 0) A(3,1)

PA: AQ = (

11(iii) Perpendicular distance AF


A(3,6) F(5,5)
13(i)

= 4 + 1
= 5 units

Line AB
Point:

AB:
A(3,1) or P

y y1
y1
y1
y

3) : (3 0)

:3

A(4,13) or B(9,3)
(13)(3)

Gradient: mAB =

Gradient: AP x 4y = 8
4y = x + 8

AP:

13

= 1: 12

|AF| = (3 5)2 + (6 5)2

mAP =

Q(0,13)

By similar triangles (using x-coordinates)


[diagram?]

Line AP
Point:

12(iii) Ratio :

25

y|x=5 = 2(5) 5
=5
F(5,5)

12(i)

13

Point Q
At Q, AP(y = 4x + 13) cuts y-axis (x = 0).
y|x=0 = 13
Q(0,13)

Point F
At F, BC (y = 2x 5) intersects AF
(y = x +

1
1
4

( )

= x2
4

= 4

13(ii) Line
Point:

(4)(9)

= 2

= mAB (x x1 )
= 2(x 4)
= 2x + 8
= 2x + 21

y y1
y 13
y 13
y

C(10,8)

Gradient: Line y 4x = 5
y
= 4x + 5

= mAP (x x1 )
= 4(x 3)
= 4x + 12
= 4x + 13

m=
Line:

1
4

y y1 = m (x x1 )
1

y 8 = (x 10)
4
1

4
1

2
21

y8 = x+
y

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

10
5

sleightofmath.com

= x+

155

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.3

13(iii) Point P
1

21

At P, y = x +
1

21

x+
7
4

meets AB (y = 2x + 21):

= 2x + 21

14(iii) Ratio :
A(3,1) M(4,3) D(2,6)
AM: MD
= (3 4)2 + (1 3)2

21

: [4 (2)]2 + (3 6)2

=6

= 5 : 45

y|x=6 = 2(6) + 21
=9
P(6,9)

= 5 : 9 5
= 5 : 35
=1

14(i)

Line DM
Point:
Gradient:

D(2,6)
DM AB (y = 2x 5)
1

mDM =

mAB

15(i)

AB bisector of AB

y 6 = [x (2)]
2
1

y6 = x1
2
1

= x+5

bisector of AB
A(5,4) B(3, 2)

y y1 = mDM (x x1 )

DM:

:3

5+3 4+(2)

) = (4,1)

Point:

MAB = (

Gradient:

mAB =

AB :

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )

1
mAB

1
(4)(2)

( (5)(3) )

1
6
2

( )

1
3

y 1 = (x 4)

14(ii) Point M
1

3
1

3
1

3
7

At M, DM (y = x + 5) intersects

y1 = x+

AB (y = 2x 5).

= x+

x + 5 = 2x 5
2
5

15(ii) Point P

= 10

At P, AB (y = x + ) intersects y = x + 5.

=4

3
4

x+ =x+5
1

y|x=4 = (4) 5

=3
M(4,3)

= 2

y|x=2 = (2) + 5
=3
P(2,3)

Point B
Let B be (b1 , b2 )
M

= MAB

(4,3) = (
4 =

3+b1 1+b2
2

3+b1
2

b1 = 5
B(5,5)

and

)
3 =

1+b2
2

b2 = 5

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156

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(i)

Ex 6.3

bisector of AB
A(5,2) B(3,6)
AB bisector of AB
MAB = (

Point:

18(i)

) = (4,4)

2
1

m=

AB :

y y1 = m (x x1 )

(2)(6)

((5)(3))

1
4
)
2

Point C
At C, BC(y = 5x + 6) cuts y axis (x = 0).
y|x=0 = 6
C(0,6)

2
1

y4 = x2
2
1

= x+2
2

16(ii) Point P
At P, AB cuts x-axis
(y = 0)
1
2

Point Q
At P, AB cuts y-axis
(x = 0)

18(ii) Line AC
Point:

BD is bisector of AC,
mAC =

x
= 4
P(4,0)

A or C(0,6)

Gradient:

y|x=0 = (0) + 2

x+2=0

y y1 = mBC (x x1 )
y (1)= (5) [x (1)]
y 1 = 5x + 5
y
= 5x + 6

BC:

y 4 = (x 4)

B(1,1) or C
BC y = 5x
mBC = 5

5+3 2+6

Gradient:

mAB

Line BC
Point:
Gradient:

=2
Q(0,2)

AC:

1
mBD

1
(1)(7)

((1)(8))

3
2

y y1 = mAC (x x1 )
3

y 6 = (x 0)

17(a) bisector of PQ
P(3,5) Q(5,9)
PQ bisector of PQ

2
3

y6 = x

3+5 5+9

MPQ = (

Gradient:

m=

PQ :

y y1 = m (x x1 )

1
mPQ

2
1

(5)(9)
((3)(5))

18(iii) Point A
1

At A, AC (y = x + 6) cuts x axis (y = 0):


3

=0
3

y 7 = (x 4)

x + 6= 0

y7 = x+2

2
3

2
1

) = (4,7)

Point:

2
3

= x+6

2
1

= 6

x
=4
A(4,0)

= x+9
2

17(b) Point
At point where y = 6x intersects

Midpoint of AC
A(4,0) C(0,6)

PQ (y = x + 9).
2

M = MAC = (

6x = x + 9

4+0 0+6
2

) = (2,3)

13
2

x= 9
=

18
13
18

y|x=18 = 6 ( )
13

13
108

Point (

13
18 108
13

13

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157

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.3

18(iv) Area of quadrilateral


A(4,0) B(1,1) C(0,6) D(8,7)

20(i)

|AC| = (4 0)2 + (0 6)2


= 52 = 4 13 = 213

Line AB
Point:

A(1, 1) or B(5,3)

Gradient:

mAB =

AB:

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (1) = (1) [x (1)]
y+1
=x1
y
=x2

|BD| = [(1) 8]2 + (1 7)2


= 117 = 9 13 = 313

M = MAB = (
20(ii) Line PQ
Point:

Line CD
A(2,3) B(6,7) C(7, t)
MAB = (

Point:

2+6 3+7
2

) = (4,5)

CD:

y y1
y5
y5
y

mAB

(2)(6)

= (3)(7) = 4

= mCD (x x1 )
= (1)[x (4)]
= x + 4
= x + 9

(1)+(5) (1)+(3)
2

4
4

= 1

) = (3,1)

Gradient:

mPQ =

PQ:

y y1
y1
y1
y

1
mAB

1
1

= 1

= mPQ (x x1 )
= (1)(x 3)
= x + 3
= x + 4
Value of q
Q(7, q) lies on
PQ(y = x + 4),
(q) = (7) + 4
q = 3

20(iii) Area of quadrilateral APBQ


A(1, 1) P(0.5,3.5) B(5,3) Q(7, 3)

19(ii) Value of t
C(7, t) lies on y = x + 9:
(t) = (7) + 9
t =2

|AB| = (1 5)2 + [(1) 3]2

19(iii) Point D
C(7,2) D(d1 , d2 )

area of APBQ = |AB||PQ|

= 32 = 16 2 = 42
169

|PQ| = (0.5 7)2 + [3.5 (3)]2 =

4 =

7+d1 2+d2
2

7+d1
2

13
2

1
2
1

13

= (42) ( )

AB is bisector of CD,
MAB = MCD
(4,5) = (

=1

M(3,1) or P(p, 3.5) or Q(7, q)

Value of p
P(p, 3.5) lies on
PQ(y = x + 4),
(3.5) = (p) + 4
p
= 0.5

Gradient: CD is bisector of AB,


mCD =

(1)(5)

Midpoint of AB

Area of ABCD
1
= |AC||BD|
2
1
= (213)(313)
2
= 3(13)
= 39 unit 2
19(i)

(1)(3)

= 26

and

d1 = 1

5 =

2+d2
2

d2 = 8

D(1,8)

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158

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


21(i)

Ex 6.3


A(4,3) B(8, 3)
AB perpendicular bisector of AB

21(iii) C(p, q) lies on AB :


q = 2p 4
C(p, 2p 4)

C
A(4,3)

MAB B(8, 3)
C

Point:

MAB = (

(4)+(8) (3)+(3)

Gradient: mAB =
=
AB :

2
1
mAB
1
6
12

) = (2,0)

MAB = (

4+8 3+(3)

1
(3)(3)

|CMAB | = (p 2)2 + [(2p 4) 0]2

((4)(8))

= (p2 4p + 4) + (4p2 16p + 16)

=2

= 5p2 20p + 20

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y 0 = 2 (x 2)
y
= 2x 4

|AB| = [(4) 8]2 + [3 (3)]2


= 180 = 36 5 = 65

21(ii) Show
If (10,16) lies on AB (y = 2x 4),
(16) = 2(10) 4
16 = 16 [consistent]
(10,16) lies on AB

ABC area
1
2
1
2

=6

|CMAB ||AB|

35p2 20p + 205

=6

5p2 20p + 205

=2

25p2 100p + 100

=2

25p2 100p + 100

=4

25p2 100p + 96

=0

(5p 8)(5p 12)

=0

or

2p 4 =
8

4
5

C( , )

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=6

5p2 20p + 20(65) = 6

p=

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) = (2,0)

p=

12
5

2p 4 =
C(

4
5

12 4
5

, )
5

159

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.3

21(iii) Shoelace formula


A
C
B
C(p, q) lies on AB (y = 2x 4)
q = 2p 4
C(p, 2p 4)

22

P(0,4)

4
| |
2 3

4 8
||
3 3

p
2p 4
p
2p 4

4
||
3

Line PQ
Pt:
P(0,4) or Q

=6

Grad: mPQ =

4
||
3

= 12

|30p 60|

PQ:

= 12

5
12

C(

12 4

5
4

1
2

( )

=2

y y1 = mPQ (x x1 )
y (4)= (2) [x (0)]
y
= 2x + 4

Line PR
Pt:
P(0,4) or R

, ) or C ( , )
5

y|x=4 = 4
Q(4, 4)

2p 4 = 2 ( ) 4

2p 4 = 2 ( ) 4
=

1
ml3

Point Q
At Q, PQ meets y = x
2x + 4 = x
x
= 4

=2
or 5p 10 = 2
5p
=8

12

l1 : x = 0

|12 + (16p 32) + 3p


= 12
24 (3p) (8p + 16)|
|5p 10|
5p 10 = 2
5p
= 12

=6

8
3

l2 : y = x

l3 : y = x

ABC area
1

Grad: mPR =

1
ml2

= (1) = 1

PR: y y1 = mPR (x x1 )
y (4)= (1)[x (0)]
y
= x + 4
Point R
1

At R, PR meets y = x
2

x + 4 = x
2

= 4

=8

y|x=8 = (8)
2

= 4
R(8, 4)

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160

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


23(i)

Ex 6.3

AO = OC, (radius)
AOC is isosceles
BO = OC, (radius)
BOC is isosceles

23(ii) = AOC = OCA


= OBC = OCB
sum of s in

= 180

23(iii) A(1,0) B(5,2) C(a, b)

O = MAB = (
B

= 180

2 + 2

= 180

2( + )

= 180

= 90

ACB

= 90

AC BC

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) = (3,1)

= radius

|OC|

= (diameter AB)

|OC|

= |AB|

1
2
1

3)2

+ (b

1)2

2
1

= (1 5)2 + (0 2)2
2
1

(a 3)2 + (b 1)2 = 20
2

AOC + OCA
= 180
+OBC + OCB
+ + +

|OC|

(a

1+5 0+2

(a 3)2 + (b 1)2

= (20)

(a 3)2 + (b 1)2

= 5 [shown]

Note:
Alternate approach is to use right angle triangle in
semicircle.
By Pythagoras Theorem, |AC|2 + |BC|2 = |AB|2 .
23(iv) At (2,3),
[(2) 3]2 +[(3) 1]2 = 5
(1)2
+22
=5
1 +4
=5
5
= 5 [consistent]
(2,3) lies on circle

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161

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.4
3(i)

Ex 6.4
1(a)

A(2,3) B(5,6) C(1,4)

ABC area

ABC area

=| |

1 2
= |
2 3

5
6

1
2

1
4

2
|
3

2
1

= (12)
2

A(5,2) B(1,6) C(2, 3)


ABC area
1 2
6 3

A, B and C are collinear

4(a)

O(0,0) A(4,1) B(6,4) C(2,4)

5
|
2

Area of OABC
=

1
2

2
4

2
4

0
|
0

3 6
5 2

4(b)
2
||
4

1
= |10 + 6 + 24
2
1
= |6|
2

1
(42)
2

= 21 unit 2

ABC area
1

4 6
1 4

= [0 + 16 + 24 + 0 0 6 (8) 0]

A(2,4) B(3,5) C(6,2)

=| |

1 0
|
2 0
1

1
(48)
2

= 24 unit 2
2(a)

4 0 (10)|

3(ii)

= [30 + (3) + (4) 2 (12) (15)]


=

5
||
2

= 0 unit 2

= 6 unit 2

5
2

2 1
0 2

1
|0 + (4) + (2)
2
1
= |0|
2

= [12 + 20 + (3) 15 (6) 8]

=|

5
2

1(b)

A(5, 2) B(2,0) C(1,2)

P(1,4) Q(4,2) R(1, 2) S(4,0)


Area of PQRS
1 1 4 1 4 1
|
|
2 4 2 2 0 4
1
= [2 + 8 + 0 + 16 (16) 2 (8) 0]
2
1
= (48)
2
=

12 30 4|

= 3 unit 2

= 24 unit 2
2(b)

A(4, 2) B(2,4) C(6,0)


ABC area
1

=| |
2

4
2

2 6
4 0

4
||
2

1
|16 + 0 + (12)
2
1
= |56|
2
=

4 24 0|

= 28 unit 2

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162

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(i)

Ex 6.4

A(2, 3) B(3, 1) C(2,0) D(1,1) E(2, 1)

6(iii)

Area of ABC
1 2
3 2 2
|
= |
2 3 1 0 3
1
= [2 + 0 + (6) (9) (2) 0]
=

2
3

1
2
1
2

2
9

7(i)

unit 2

5(5) sin BAC

A(3,5)

| |
2

||

= 5 unit 2

= 11 unit 2

3
5

3
5

7(ii)

C(9, 1)

1
2

4
1

B(5,9) C(k, k + 2)

5
9

= 18

k
k+2

5
9

k
k+2

3
||
5

= 18

3
||
5

= 36

5 9
1 1

= 36

CF perpendicular distance of C from AB


Area of ABC = 18

Area of ABC
=| |

B(5,1)

A(4, 1)

2
5

|2k + 6|
=6
2k + 6 = 6 or 2k + 6 = 6
2k
=0
2k
= 12
k
=0 k
=6

Area of pentagon
3

|12k + 36|

= + +5

4
||
1

|AB||CF|

|CF|

= [4 + (5) + (9) (5) 9 (4)]


2
1

= |10|
2

= 5 unit 2
6(ii)

=5

|27 + (5k 10) + 5k


= 36
(25) 9k (3k + 6)|

6(i)

(AB)(AC) sin BAC = 5

Area of ABC

Area of ADE
1 2
1 2 2
|
= |
2 3
1 1 3
1
= [2 + 1 + 6 3 (2) (2)]

5(ii)

=5

sin BAC

Area of ACD
1 2
2 1 2
|
= |
2 3 0
1 3
1
= [0 + 2 + 3 (6) 0 2]
=

Area of ABC

unit 2

AC = 9 4
=5

8(i)

AB = (4 5)2 + [(1) 1]2

= 18

36
|AB|
36
80

=
=

36
[3(5)]2 +(59)2
36
516

36
45

9
5

= 5
5

A(2, t) B(3 + t, 2) C(3,4)


Area of ABC
1 2 3+t 3 2
|
= |
2 t
2
4 t
1
= (4 + 12 + 4t + 3t 3t t 2 6 8)

= 1 + 4
= 5 units [shown]

2
1

= (t 2 + 4t + 2) unit 2
2

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163

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 6.4

Area of ABC = 2
1

(t 2 + 4t + 2) =

11(i)

Area of ABC
1 3 4
6 3
|
= |
2 4
2 1 4
1
= [6 + 4 + 24 (16) 12 (3)]
2
1
= (41)
2
= 20.5 unit 2

t 2 + 4t + 2
=5
2
t 4t + 3
=0
(t 1)(t 3)
=0
t = 1 or t = 3
9(i)

A(1,3) B(5,1) C(3, r)


Area of ABC
=4
1 1 5 3 1
|
|
=4
2 3 1 r 3
1
(1 + 5r + 9 15 3 r) = 4
2
1

(4r 8)

A(3,4) B(4,2) C(6, 1) D(p, 3)

=4

2r 4
2r
r

=4
=8
=4

11(ii) Area of ABCD


1 3 4
6 p 3
|
= |
2 4
2 1 3 4
1
= [6 + 4 + 18 + 4p (16) 12 (p) 9]
2
1
= (23 + 5p) unit 2
2

11(iii) (Area of ABCD) = 3(Area of ABC)


1
2

9(ii)

Area of ACB
=4
1 1 3 5 1
|
|
=4
2 3 r 1 3
1
(r + 3 + 15 9 5r 1) = 4
2
1

(4r + 8)

=4

2r + 4
2r
r
10(i)

12(i)

=9
= 3x + 9

= x

3
2

AD line mAD =

1
mline

= MBD

2+1 1+4

2
2+1

= 123
= 100
= 20

3x 2y
2y
mline =

A(2,1) B(b1 , b2 ) C(1,4) D(0,2)

= 3(20.5)

23 + 5p
5p
p

=4
=0
=0

MAC

(23 + 5p)

) =(

2
b1 +0
2

b1 +0 b2 +2
2

and

b1 = 3
B(3,3)

Line BC
Point:
Gradient:

2
1+4
2

b2 +2
2

b2 = 3

BC:

2
3

B(4,7) or C
BC AD
mBC = mAD =

10(ii) Area of rhombus


1 2 3 1 0 2
|
= |
2 1 3 4 2 1
1
= (6 + 12 + 2 + 0 3 3 0 4)

3
2

1
3
( )
2

2
3

y y1 = mBC (x x1 )
2

y (7)= ( ) (x 4)
3

3
2

3
29

y7 = x+

2
1

= (10)

= x+

= 5 unit

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(ii) Line DE
Point:

Ex 6.4
12(iv) Area of quadrilateral ABFD
1

D(3,3) or E

A (1, )
2

DE BC (y = x +

Gradient:

mDE =

mBC

1
2
3

( )

29
3

Area of ABFD
0
1 1 4
= | 1 7 29
2

3
2

3
2

15

= x+

=
13(i)

Point E
1

15

3
29

At E, DE (y = x +
2

(y = x +
3

x+

2
13
6

15
2

=1
29

=9
E(1,9)

104

unit 2


A(3a, 4a + 1), a > 0
B(0,1)
=5
1]2

A(3,5)
13(ii) Line BC
Point:

12(iii) Point F
2

At F, BC (y = x +
3

29

y|x=0 = (0) +
=

(3a
+ [(4a + 1)
=5
2
2
9a + 16a
= 25
2
25a
= 25
a2 1
=0
(a + 1)(a 1)
=0
a = 1 (rej a > 0) or a = 1

0)2

13

y|x=1 = (1) +

+ 0 + (1) 0 (29) 3]

|AB|

29

) intersects BC

= x+
=

3
2

116

= (

3 1
1|
3

1 208

y 3 = (x + 3)
3

= [7 +

y (3)= ( ) [x (3)]

y3 = x+

y y1 = mDE (x x1 )

DE:

29

F (0, ) D(3,3)

B(4,7)

29
3

B(0,1) or C

) cuts y-axis (x = 0)
Gradient: BC AB,
mBC =

29
3
29

1
mAB

(0)(3)

4
3

= (1)(5) =

3
4

F (0, )
3

y y1 = mBC (x x1 )

BC:

y 1 = (x 0)

Point A
A(a1 , a2 ) B(4,7)

29
3

a1 +0
2

a1

)=(

4+(3)
2

At C, BC (y = x + 1) cuts x-axis (y = 0)
4

4+(3) 7+3

and

=1

29
a2 +( )
3

a2

Point C

For Parallelogram ABFD,


MAF
= MBD
29

= x+1

F (0, ) D(3,3)

a1 +0 a2 +( 3 )

4
3

x + 1= 0

)
=
=

4
3

= 1

7+3
2
1

4
3

C ( , 0)
3

A (1, )
3

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165

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.4

13(iii) bisector of AB
AB bisector of AB
MAB = (

Point:

13(iv) Area of quadrilateral ABCD

(3)+(0) (5)+(1)
2

A(3,5)

C ( , 0)

B(0,1)

) = ( , 3)

D(

11
2

, 0)

Area of ABCD
Gradient: mAB = mBC =

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )

AB :

3
4
3

4
3

8
33

= x+

11

55

= (3 + 0 + 0 +

y 3 = (x )
y3 = x+

= |

0 0 0)
3

1 175
(
)
2 6

= 14

7
12

unit 2

Point D
At D, AB cuts x-axis (y = 0).
y
=0
3

33

4
3

x+
x

x
D(

=0

=
11
2

33
8

11
2

, 0)

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166

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6
A2(ii) Point D
at k = 2:
A(3,1) B(5,3)

Rev Ex 6
A1(i)
A(2,1) B(10,6) C(a, 6)
AB

D on x axis:
D(d, 0)

= BC
10]2

[(2)
+ (1
169
169
a2 20a + 75
(a 5)(a 15)
a = 5 or a = 15

6)2

= (10 a)2 + [6 (6)]2


= (100 20a + a2 ) + 144
= 244 20a + a2
=0
=0

BD AC:
mBD mAC = 1
30
5d
3
5d

Let D be (d1 , d2 )
For ABCD is rhombus,
MAC
= MBD
(2)+a 1+(6)

2
(2)+a
2

d1

) =(

2
10+d1

and

= a 12

2
1+(6)
2

d2

A(k + 1,1) B(2k + 1,3)

36
3
3

mBD =

= 1
= 1

30
58

tan = 1
= 45

6+d2
2

= 11

a = 5: D(7, 11)
a = 15: D(3, 11)

A2(i)

14

Obtuse angle that BD makes with x-axis

10+d1 6+d2
2

3
=d5
d
=8
D(8,0)

A1(ii) A(2,1) B(10,6) C(a, 6)

C(6,4)

obtuse = 180 45
= 135
A3(i)

A(6,7)

B(0,1)

C(9,4)

|BC| = (0 9)2 + (1 4)2

C(2k + 2,2k)

= 81 + 9
A, B, C are collinear,
mAB
= mBC
(1)(3)
(k+1)(2k+1)
2
k
2

= 9 10
= 310 units

(3)(2k)

= (2k+1)(2k+2)
=

32k
1

= 2k 3

= 90

2
= 2k 2 3k
2k 2 3k 2 = 0
(2k + 1)(k 2) = 0
1

k = or k = 2
2

A3(ii) Area of ABC


1 6 0 9 6
|
= |
2 7 1 4 7
1
= (6 + 0 + 63 0 9 24)
2
1
= (36)
2
= 18
A3(iii) Area of ABC = 18
1
2
1
2

|AF||BC|

|AF|(310) = 18

|AF|

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= 18

36
310

12
10

1210
10

610
5

167

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6

A4(a) y = ax + b
m1 = a

A5(i)

2x + y = 8
y
= 2x + 8
m2 = 2

Line BC
Point:

B(1, 3) or C

Gradient:

mBC =

BC:

y y1

1
2

= mBC (x x1 )
1

y (3) = ( ) [x (1)]
2

y = ax + b 2x + y = 8
m1 m2 = 1
a(2)
= 1
a

A5(ii) Line AC
Point:
Gradient:

y = ax + b on y axis (x = 0):
y = a(0) + b
=b
(0, b)

A4(b) AB: y = 3x +
1
BC: y = x 1
F(3,2)

= x

mAB

1
8
( )
4

1
2

C
F(3,2)

2
1

2
13

1
2

5
2

13

= x+

1
3
1
3

9
2

=9
1

13

y|x=9 = (9) +

Gradient: AF BC,
1

=2
C(9,2)

= (1) = 1

A5(iv) Height of triangle ABC


A(3,5) B(1, 3) C(9,2)
Equating area of ABC,
1

Point A
At A, AF intersects AB (y = 3x + 1)
x + 5 = 3x + 1
4x = 4
x
=1

|BC||AD|

|BC||AD|

=4

= |
2

=|

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3
5

3
5

9
2

3
|
5
3
|
5

[(1) 9]2
9 2 + 45
|AD| = [
]
2
(50) (27) 6
[(
]
+ 3) 2

125|AD|
55|AD|

= 60

|AD|

= 60

=
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

At C, AC intersects BC (y = x )

y=x1

y y1 = mAF (x x1 )
y (2)= (1)[x (3)]
y 2 = x + 3
y
= x + 5

= x+

A5(iii) Point C

mBC

y (5)= ( ) [x (3)]

y = 3x + 1

y y1 = mAC (x x1 )

mAF =

1
(3)(5)

((1)(3))

y5 = x+

Line AF
Point:
A or F(3,2)

y|x=1 = (1) + 5
A(1,4)

2
5

= x+

A(3,5) or C
BAC = 90,

AC:

AF:

2
1

y+3

mAC =

(0, b) lies on x + y + 3 = 0,
0+b+3 =0
b
= 3

12
5
125
5

168

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A6(i)

Rev Ex 6

AD: 3x + 2y = 6

B
AB: 5y + 6 = 3x

A6(ii) Line BC
BC x axis,
BC is y = 6
Point B
At B, BC (y = 6)cuts AD (5y + 6 = 3x),
5(6) + 6 = 3x
36
= 3x
x
= 12
B(12,6)
Line CD
Pt:
C or D(0,3)
Grad: CD AB,

Point A
At A, AD cuts x axis (y = 0):
3x + 2(0) = 6
3x
=6
x
=2
A(2,0)
Point D
At D, AD cuts y axis (x = 0):
3(0) + 2y = 6
y
=3
D(0,3)

mCD = mAB =
CD: y y1

5
3

0 =

2+e1 0+e2

2+e1

= x+3
5

Point C
At C, CD cuts BC (y = 6),

= MAE
,

= mCD (x x1 )
3

(0,3) = (

y (3)= [x (0)]

A6(ii) Point E
Let E be (e1 , e2 )
D

5
3

and

e1 = 2
E(2,6)

3 =

0+e2

x+3=6
x

=3

x
=5
C(5,6)

e2 = 6

Area of trapezium ABCD


Area of ABCD
1 2 12 5 0 2
|
= |
2 0 6 6 3 0
1
= (12 + 72 + 15 + 0 0 30 0 6)
2
1
= (63)
2
= 31.5 unit 2
B1(a) A(1,2) B(3,10) C(p, 8)
A, B and C lie on the same line:
mAB
= mBC
210
(1)3
8
4

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=
=

108
3p
2
3p
2

3p
p

=1
=2

3p

169

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B1(b) AC BC
mAC mBC
28
108

(1)p 3p
6
2

1p 3p
6
2

Rev Ex 6
B2(iii) :
3

= 1

A ( , 0) P(1, 1) B(0, 3)
2

= 1

By similar triangles
(using x-coordinates) [diagram?]

= 1
= 1

p+1 3p

AP: PB = ( 1) : (1 0)
2

12
= (p + 1)(p 3)
12
= p2 + 2p 3
2
p 2p 15 = 0
(p + 3)(p 5) = 0
p = 3 or p = 5
B2(i)

:1

= 1: 2
B3(i)

Point P
At P, x y 2 = 0 intersects 2x 5y 7 = 0.
xy2 =0
y
= x 2 (1)

Show =
A(2,6) B(6, 2) C(a, 8 3a)
8 3a < 0
3a < 8
a

2x 5y 7 = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x 5(x 2) 7 = 0
2x 5x + 10 7 = 0
3x
= 3
x
=1

>

8
3

Area of ABC

= 10

6
a
2
||
= 10
2 8 3a 6
2 6
a
2
|
|
= 20
6 2 8 3a 6
| 4 + (48 18a) + 6a
= 20
36 (2a) (16 6a)|
|8 4a|
= 20
8 4a = 20
or 8 4a = 20
4a
= 28
4a
= 12
a
= 7
a
=3
8
(rej a > )
3
Point C
C(3, 1)
1

| |
2

y|x=1 = (1) 2
= 1
P(1, 1)
B2(ii) Line AB
Point:
P(1, 1) or A or B
Gradient: mAB = 2
y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (1) = (2) [x (1)]
y+1
= 2x 2
y
= 2x 3
Point A
Point B
At A, AB cuts x-axis At B where cuts y-axis
(x = 0).
(y = 0).
y
=0
y|x=0 = 2(0) 3
2x 3 = 0
= 3
3
B(0, 3)
x
=
AB:

2
6

B3(ii) Line AB
Point:

A(2,6) or B(6, 2)
(6)(2)

mAB =

AB:

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (6)= (2)[x (2)]
y 6 = 2x + 4
y
= 2x + 10

(2)(6)

Gradient:

= 2

A ( , 0)
2

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170

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6

B3(iii) Line (through C & to AB)


Point:
C(3, 1)

B4(iv) Line CD
Point:
C(8,2) or D
Gradient: CD AB,
(4)(9)

Gradient: line AB (y = 2x + 10)


m=

1
mAB

1
2

mCD = mAB = (2)(7) =

= m (x x1 )

y y1

y (1) = ( ) [x (3)]
2

2
1

2
5

y+1

= x

= x

B3(iv) Point F (Foot of )


C
A

2
5
2

x
x

y|x=3 = (3) 6
= 3
D(3, 3)

= 2x + 10
=

B5(i)

25
2

=5
1

y|x=5 = (5)

Show
P(1,0) Q(0,2) R(2,3)
|PQ| = [(1) (0)]2 + [(0) (2)]2
= 1 + 4 = 5

=0
F(5,0)
B4(i)

= mCD (x x1 )
= (1) [x (8)]
=x8
=x6

y y1
y (2)
y2
y

=1

B4(v) Point D
At D, BM (y = 3x 12) intersects CD (y = x 6).
3x 12 = x 6
2x
=6
x
=3

At F, y = x meets AB (y = 2x + 10).
1

CD:
Line:

|QR| = [(0) (2)]2 + [(2) (3)]2


= 4 + 1 = 5

Show =
A(2,4) B(7,9)

C(8,2)

|PQ| = |QR|,
PQR is isosceles

AB = [(2) (7)]2 [(4) (9)]2 = 50


BC = [(7) (8)]2 + [(9) (2)]2 = 50

B5(ii) Area of
1

area of PQR = | |

AB = BC [shown]

1
0

0
2

2
3

1
||
0

= |2 + 0 + 0 0 4 3|

B4(ii) Point M
M = MAC = (

(2)+(8) (4)+(2)

2
1

= |5|

) = (5,3)

=
B4(iii) Line BM
Point:

2
5
2

unit 2

B(7,9) or M(5,3)
(9)(3)

Gradient: mBM = (7)(5) = = 3


2

BM:

y y1 = mBM (x x1 )
y (9)= (3) [x (7)]
y 9 = 3x 21
y = 3x 12

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171

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6

B5(iii) Line QS

B6(ii) Angle that BC makes with the positive x-axis


230

mBC = (12)12

R
Q

tan =
S

49.4

P
Point:
Q(0,2) or S
Gradient: QS PR (using kite property),
1

mQS =

mPR

1
(0)(3)
((1)(2))

1
3
( )
1

y y1 = mQS (x x1 )

QS:

1
3

B6(iii) Angle ACB


ACB =
= 69.4 49.4
= 20.0
B6(iv)

C(12,30)

y (2)= ( ) [x (0)]
3

y2 = x
3
1

= x+2
3

= x+2

Point D
D(d1 , d2 )
BC = BD:
B
= MDC

(1)

(12,2) = (

x y= 5
sub (1) into (2):

A(3, 10)

B5(iv) Point S
At S, QS (x + 3y = 6) intersects x y = 5.
x + 3y = 6
3y
= x + 6
1

3y
= x + 6
x + 3y = 6

B(12,2)

(2)

12 =
d1

d1 +12 d2 +30
2

d1 +12
2

and

2 =

= 36

d2 +30
2

d2 = 26

x ( x + 2) = 5
3

4
3
4
3

x2

=5

=7

D(36, 26)

B6(v) Line AD
Point:

21
4

A(3, 10) or D(36, 26)

1 21

y|x=21 = ( ) + 2
3

=
S(
B6(i)

tan =

AD:

y y1

, )
4

(10)30
(3)12
8

(10)(26)
(3)(36)

16
33

= mAD (x x1 )
16

y (10) = ( ) [x (3)]

Angle that AC makes with the positive x-axis


A(3, 10)

(12,30)
B(12,2) C(12,30)
mAC =

mAD =

21 1
4

Gradient:

(12,2)

69.4

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

y + 10

33
16

48

33
16

33
282

33

x+
x

33

(3, 10)

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172

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6

B6(vi) Angle ADB


mAD =
tan =

16
33
16
33

25.9
ADB =
= 29.4 25.9
23.5

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173

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.1
2(e)

Ex 7.1
1(a)

ln 4 + lg 6 2.16

1(b)

3 lg 2 ln 2 0.210

1(c)

ln 7.1
2 lg 5

1(d)

= log 2 (5 22)
Is base 2 > 0 ?
True
Is base 2 1 ?
True
Is input 5 2 > 0 ? True

1.40

lg 9ln 3
ln(e2 1)

Yes

0.0778
3(a)

2(a)

log x (5 2x)|x=2

log x (5 2x)|x=0.5
= log 0.5 (4)

32
log 3

Is base 0.5 > 0 ? True


Is base 0.5 1 ? True
Is input 4 > 0 ? True

3(b)

10n

=
1
9

1
9

= 2
=5

log10 5 = n
lg 5
=n

Yes
3(c)
2(b)

log x (5 2x)|x=3
= log 3 (1)

ex

=4

log e 4 = x
ln 4
=x

Is base 3 > 0 ?
True
Is base 3 1 ?
True
Is input 1 > 0 ? False

3(d)

2x

=p

log 2 p = x
No
2(c)

3(e)

log x (5 2x)|x=2.5
= log 2.5 (0)
Is base 2.5 > 0 ?
Is base 2.5 1 ?
Is input 0 > 0 ?

=y

log a y = 3
True
True
False

No
2(d)

a3

4(a)

53
4(b)

log x (5 2x)|x=1
= log1 (3)
Is base 1 > 0 ? True
Is base 1 1 ? False
Is input 3 > 0 ? True
No

log 5 125 = 3

lg 100
=2
log10 100 = 2
102

4(c)

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=x

log x 3 = 4
x4

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 100

ln x = 2
log e x = 2
e2

4(d)

= 125

=3

174

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(e)

log 4 x = 2
4
x
x
y

log 2 = 3
3

=x
= 16
16
8

2
y

=y
=8

=b

6(a)

log 4 4 3 log 2 2 = 1 3(1)


= 2

6(b)

log 2 1 +4 log 5 5 = 0 +4(1)


=4

6(c)

(3 log 3 3)3 = [3 (1)]3


= 23
=8

6(d)

8(a)

3 logx x+2 2

3(1)+2 2

42 log5 1

42(0)
5 2

) =[

8(b)

=
6(e)

6(f)

7(a)

16

8(c)

8(d)

9(a)

=x
=8

ln x = lg 2
log e x = lg 2
=x
1.35

lg(3x) = 9
log10 3x = 9
109

= 3x

= (109 )

3.33 108

e2x

1
3

=k

log e k = 2x
ln k = 2x
9(b)

10x4 = 9
log10 9 = x 4
lg 9
=x4

log 2 x = 3
23
x

= e3
5.65 or 0.177

elg 2
x

log 2 (4 2 lg 10) = log 2 [4 2 log10 10]


= log 2 [4 2(1)]
= log 2 2
=1

= 100.61
4.07

(ln x)2 = 3
ln x = 3

x
x

log 2 (6 5 log 7 7) = log 2 [6 5(1)]


= log 2 (1)
=0

lg x
= 0.61
log10 x = 0.61

log e x = 3

=( )
4
25

x
x

log y b = 2

x1
=a
y2
x
=a
2
xy = (a)(b) = ab

=2

log x a = 1

log 4 8 = x
4x
=8
22x
= 23
2x = 3

=y

5(b)

7(c)

log 3 y = n
3n

5(a)

Ex 7.1

9(c)

x4

=2k

log x (2 k) = 4
7(b)

log x 9 = 2
x2
=9
x = 3 or x = 3
(rej)

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175

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(d)

em+5

=x2

Ex 7.1
12

log 3 p = a
p

log e (x 2) = m + 5
ln(x 2)
= m+5

= 3a

log 27 q = b
10(a) log 3 y = n + 1
3n+1

33b
a3b

= 3c

13(a) log 2 (2x + 1) = 3

=xy

2x + 1

= 23

2x

= 4y
13(b) log 3 (x 2 1)

log 4 y = a
= 4a

= 21+2a
= 21+2a
= 1 + 2a
= 3b 1 [shown]

7
8
7
16

=1

x2 1
= 31
2
x 4
=0
(x + 2)(x 2) = 0
x = 2 or x = 2

(1)

log 8 (2y) = b
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
log 8 [2(4a )] = b
log8 [2(22a )] = b
log 8 (21+2a ) = b
8b
23b
3b
2a

= 3c

3
= 3c
c = a 3b

10(d) log 2 (4y) = p + 1

= 3c

27b
3a

=k

102

11

p
q
3a

10(c) lg(x y)
= 2
log10 (x y) = 2

2p+1

= 27b

=y

10(b) ln k = x 3
log e k = x 3
x3

13(c)

log x (6x 8) = 2
x2
= 6x 8
x 2 6x + 8
=0
(x 2)(x 4) = 0
x = 2 or x = 4

13(d) log x 64 = 3
2

x2

= 64

3
2

= 26

x
x
x

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= (26 )3
= 24
= 16

176

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.1

13(e) log 9 27 = x + 1
9x+1

15(b) log y x = 2

= 27

2x+2

= y2

3
2

(1)

=3

2x + 2 =

xy = 8
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
(y 2 )y = 8
y3
= 23
y =2

3
2
1

2x

2
1
4

14(a) ln 2 ln(4x)= 3
3

ln(4x)

log e (4x)

4x

= eln 2

x|y=2 = (2)2

ln 2
3

16

ln 2

=4

log 2 (log 3 x) = ln e

log 2 (log 3 x) = 1
log 3 x
= 21

3
ln 2

= e

18.9

= 32
=9

x
x

14(b) lg(x 2) = (lg 3)2


log10 (x 2) = (lg 3)2

17(a) For lg(x + 2) to be defined,


2

= 10(lg 3)

x2

= 2 + 10(lg 3)
3.69

x
x

x + 2> 0
x
> 2

17(b) For ln(x 2 2x) to be defined,


14(c) ln(4x) = lg 3 lg 5
log e 4x = lg 3 lg 5
4x

= elg 3lg 5

= e(lg 3lg 5)

0.349

x 2 2x
x(x 2)
+

17(c) For log x (3 x) to be defined,


x > 0, x 1 and 3 x > 0
3
>x
x
<3
0 < x < 3, x 1

15(a) log x 16 = 4
x4
= 16
x = 2 or x = 2 (rej) (1)

+
2

x < 0 or x > 2

14(d) lg(x 1) = lg(e2 1)


x 1 = e2 1
x
= e2
x
7.39

log 2 y = x
sub (1) into (2):
log 2 y = 2

>0
>0

(2)

18(a) ln(y + 1) x = 0
ln(y + 1)
=x
log e (y + 1) = x
y+1
y

= ex
= ex 1

= 22
=4

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177

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18(b) 2 lg y
lg y

Ex 7.1

=x2

20(ii) log 9 (31 + log x 16) = log 2 8

x2

log 9 (31 + log x 16) =

2
x2

log10 y =

log 9 (31 + log x 16) =

2
x2
2

= 10

= 102x1

= (9)2

31 + log x 16
31 + log x 16
31 + log x 16
log x 16

= (32 )2
= 33
= 27
= 4

x 4
x 4

= 16
= 24

= (24 )4
= 21

=x
=x4

= ln(x 4)

2
3

= log e (x 4)

2y

2
3

31 + log x 16

18(c) e2y + 4
e2y

18(d) ln(x + y) 4x = 0
ln(x + y)
= 4x
log e (x + y)
= 4x

= e4x
= e4x x

x+y
y
19

ln(x 2 + 1 e3 lg 10 )

21

For equal real roots:


b2 4ac
=0
2
(4) 4(1)(log 2 p) = 0
16
= 4 log 2 p
log 2 p
=4
p
= 24
p
= 16

=3

log e (x 2 + 1 e3 lg 10 ) = 3
x 2 + 1 e3 lg 10
x 2 + 1 e3(1)
x2

= e3
= e3
= 2e3 1

x
= 2e3 1
x
= 6.26
[textbook answer is wrong]
20(i)

p = log 2 8
3

p = log 2 22
3

p=
2

x 2 4x + log 2 p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = log 2 p

22(i)
(a)
(b)
(c)

lg 546
2.74
lg 12 458
4.10
lg 464 777 399 8.67

22(ii) Number of digits in integer k from lg k


lg k + 1 if lg k
={

lg k
if lg k
22(iii) Number of digits in 342 = lg 342
= 20.03
= 21
Number of digits in 732 = lg 732
= 27.02
= 27

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.1

22(iv)
As we use the base-10 numeral system,
The index of base 10 is very indicative of the number of
digits.
1 digit: k = 1 to 9
lowest k = 1 = 100
2 digits: k = 10 to 99
lowest k = 10 = 101
3 digits: k = 100 to 999 lowest k = 100 = 102
Observe that the lowest k for each digit range is always
10integer
Every integer increase in index results in increase in digits
but increase in index smaller than 1 will not result in
increase in digits and still be registered as the same
number of digits.
for k with lg k is an integer, the no. of digits is lg k + 1
1 digit: k = 100
no. of digits = lg 100 + 1 = 0 + 1 = 1
2 digit: k = 10 = 101
no. of digits = lg 101 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2
for k with lg k is a non-integer, the no. of digits is lg k
(round to the next higher integer)
1 digit: k = 5 100.699
no. of digits = lg 100.699 = 0.699 = 1
2 digit: k = 55 101.74
no. of digits = lg 101.74 = 1.74 = 2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.2
4(a)

Ex 7.2
1(a)

1(b)

log 3 27 + log 3 = log 3 (27 )

4(b)

log5 4log2 10
log25 10

= log 6 (6)
=1

log 5 4 +2 log 5 3 3 log 5 2


= log 5 4 + log 5 32 log 5 23
23

= log 5
2

2(b)

lg

2 lg

75

3
5

+4 lg

3 2

3 4

75

8 3 4
( )
75 2
3 2
( )
5

= lg [

5(a)

= lg
2

+2 log 3 5 log 3

3(52 )
33

5(b)

= log 3 2025
3(a)

log 5 7 =

3 ln 3
ln 3

lg 4 lg 10

lg 5 lg 2
lg 10
lg 25

lg 4 lg 10
lg 5

lg 22
lg 5
2 lg 2
lg 5
2 lg 2
lg 5
2
lg 5

lg 2

1
lg 2
1
lg 2
1
lg 2

lg 25
lg 10

lg 52
1

lg 102
2 lg 5

1
2

lg 10

2 lg 5

1
2

lg 10

2 lg 5
1
2

4
1
2

y = 100x1.5
lg y = lg(100x1.5 )
= lg 100 + lg x1.5
= 1.5 lg x + lg 102
= 1.5 lg x +2
m = 1.5
X = lg x
c =2

1
27

= log 3 3 + log 3 52 log 3 33


= log 3 [

ln 3

=8

= lg ( ) lg ( ) + lg ( )

2(c)

= log 6 ( 2 )

= log 5 [

ln 33

=3

log 6 54
2 log 6 3
= log 6 54 log 6 32

4(32 )

ln 5

ln 3

54

2(a)

ln 27

ln 27

ln 3

log 2 8 = log 2 23
=3

= log 3 (3)
=1
1(c)

ln 5

log 3 5 log 5 27 =

ln 7
ln 5

y = 0.1(1000)x
y = (101 )(103 )x
y = 103x1
lg y = 3x 1

1.21
3(b)

log 1 5.3 =
2

m = 3
X= x
c = 1

ln 5.3
ln

1
2

2.41
6(a)

log a 8 2 log a 4
= log a 8 log a 42
8

= log a ( 2 )
4

= log a
2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

2 log x 5 3 log x 2 + log x 4


= log x 52 log x 23 + log x 4
= log x [
= log x

6(c)

Ex 7.2

52 (4)
23

25
2

8(iv)

log a 3 = 0.477
log a 5 = 0.699
loga 25
loga 3a

=
=

loga 52
loga 3+loga a
2 loga 5
(0.477)+1

9
5a

log 4 3 = a
3
= 4a

= (4a )(4b )
= 4a+3b
9
2

= log a 9

log a 5a

= log a 32 (log a 5 + log a a)


= 2 log a 3 log a 5 log a a
= 2(0.477) 0.699 1
= 0.745
log 4 3 = a
log 4 5 = b

= 2(lg 3 + lg x)

(lg lg x 2 )

3
4

(lg 2 lg x)

= 2 lg 3 + lg x

lg + 2 lg x

= 3 lg x

+2 lg 3 lg

+ lg 32 lg
+ lg

= lg x

+ lg

2
9

= lg x

+ lg

log 4 20= log 4


5)
2
= log 4 2 + log 4 5
=1
+b

3
4

2
lg 22 +3 lg x
2
2 lg 2+3 lg x
2
2

32

+ lg 2

4
3

32 2
4
3

27

x = 10p

y = 10q

y2

lg 4+lg x3

lg y
=q
log10 y =

100x

lg 4x3
lg 100

+ lg 2 + lg x

lg x
=p
log10 y =

lg (

sleightofmath.com

+
+

(22

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3x2

= 2 (lg 3 + lg x)

10(i)
8(ii)

+ log100 4x 3

lg

= lg x

log 4 45= log 4 (32 5)


= log 4 32 + log 4 5
= 2(log 4 3) + log 4 5
= 2a +b

2 lg 3x

= 3 lg x
8(i)

375 = 3 53

log a (5a ) = log a 5 + log a a


= 0.699 +2
= 2.699
log a

a+2b

log 4 5 = b
5
= 4b

2(0.699)
=
1.477
0.947

7(iii)

= log a 8a

7(ii)

log 4 42
log 4 (3 52 )
2
=
log 4 3 + log 4 52
2
=
log 4 3 + 2 log 4 5

a6
2

log4 75

23 (a6 )

log4 16

log 75 16 =

3 log a 2 4
+2 log a a3
= log a 23 log a a4 + log a (a3 )2
= log a [

7(i)

8(iii)

) = lg 100 + lg x lg y 2
1

=2

+ lg x

2 lg y

=2

+ p

2q

2
1
2

181

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.2

10(ii) lg(y x ) = x lg y
= 10p (q)
= q(10p )
11

14

log 8 5 =

ln K = ln a ln b + ln c
t

bc

ln K = ln (a c e
b

lg(y + 1) = lg
y+1

x
100
x

34

15(ii) lg(3 2) = lg [

(1)(m)
3(m)

1m
3m

3+2
3+2

1
3+2

= lg 1 lg(3 + 2)

15(iii) k = log 2 (9 + 5)
log 2 (9 5) = log 2 [(9 5)
= log 2 (

95
9+5

9+5
9+5

= (x + 2)3

= log 2 4 log 2 (9 + 5)

= 81(x + 2)3

3
2

or y = 9(x + 2)
(rej y > 0)

12(c) 3
+ log 2 (x + y)
3
log 2 2
+ log 2 (x + y)
log 2 8(x + y)
8(x + y)
8x + 8y
= x 2y
10y
= 7x
7

3+2

= 3 log 3 (x + 2)
= log 3 (x + 2)3

y2

10

3 lg 2

3 + 2
1
=
[shown]

= log 3 (x + 2)3

lg 10lg 2

32

34

= log 2 (x 2y)
= log 2 (x 2y)
= log 2 (x 2y)
= x 2y
16(i)

y = 3, x = 2:
log 2 (3 + 1) = 2 log 2 (2) + c
log 2 22
=2+c
2
=2+c
c
=0

log2 22
1
log2 22

2
1
2

log2 (9+5)
1

log2 22

log2 (9+5)
1
2

=4

2 log 2 (9 + 5)

=4

2k

= 2(2 k)

log 2 (y + 1) = 2 log 2 x + c

log 2 (y + 1)
log 2 (y + 1)
y+1
y

10
2
lg 23

lg( )

= lg(3 + 2)

y2

3
2

3 2 = (3 2)

x
100

y = 9(x + 2)

13

lg 8

100

y2

15(i)

t
bc

lg x
lg x

12(b) 2 log 3 y 4
log 3 y 2 log 3 34
log 3

[shown]

12(a) lg(y + 1) = 2
lg(y + 1) = lg 102

lg 5

t
bc

ln K = ln a ln b + ln c + ln e
ac t
e bc
b

m = lg 2

16(ii)

p
log a p
log a p
p
1
q

= aloga x
= log a aloga x
= log a x
=x

3 =3

1
log4 3

=3

1
1
log3 4

= 3log3 4 = 4

= 2 log 2 x
= log 2 x 2
= x2
= x2 1

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17

Ex 7.2

Method 1 (prime factorization)


(lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg 50 = (lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg(2 52 )
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 (lg 2 + 2 lg 5)
= (lg 5)2 + 2 lg 5 lg 2 + (lg 2)2
= (lg 5 + lg 2)2
= (lg 10)2
=1

1 2
18
un = (1 )
n
(ii)(a)
1 2

lg u4 = lg (1 )
4

= 2 lg [shown]
4

lg u
Method 2 (selective factorization)
(lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg 50
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg(5 10)
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 (lg 5 + lg 10)
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 (lg 5 + 1)
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg 5 + lg 2
= lg 5 (lg 5 + lg 2) + lg 2
= lg 5 lg 10
+ lg 2
= lg 5
+ lg 2
= lg 10
=1
18(i)

998

998

999
999

999

lg + lg + lg + + lg
1

4
3

2
1

= lg [( ) ( ) ( ) (
= lg (

)(

+ lg

1000

= lg (1
= 2 lg (

1
10k

10k 1
10k

lg u2 + lg u3 + lg u4 + + lg u10k
18
(ii)(b)
1 2
1 2
3
= lg (1 ) + lg (1 ) +2 lg
2

+ + 2 lg
= 2 lg

1
2
1

= 2(lg

+2 lg
+ lg

2
3

+2 lg

+ lg

+ + 2 lg

+ + lg

4
10k 1

10k

= 2 lg [( ) ( ) ( ) (

10k 1
10k
10k 1
10k

10k 1
10k

)]

1
= 2 lg ( k )
10
= 2 lg(10k )
= 2(k)
= 2k

999
1000

)]

1000
3 )

= lg(10
= 3

(10k )

19

1
lg 0.301 < 0
2
When you multiply both sides of an inequality
with a negative number, switch the reverse the
inequality sign from 2nd line onwards

20

lg[(2)(5)] lg(2) + lg(5)

20(i)

x = 2, y = 5

20(ii) x = 2, r = 2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.3

Ex 7.3
1(a)

log 5 (x + 1) = log 5 3
x+1
=3
x
= 2

1(b)

log 2 (x 1)
x1
3x
x

1(c)

2(a)

2(b)

3(a)

3(b)

= log 2 (4x 7)
= 4x 7
=6
= 2

3(c)

log 2 (x 1)2
=2
+ log 2 (x + 2)
2
2
(x
log 2 1)
= log 2 2 + log 2 (x + 2)
log 2 (x 1)2
= log 2 4(x + 2)
2
(x 1)
= 4(x + 2)
2
x 2x + 1
= 4x + 8
2
x 6x 7
=0
(x 7)(x + 1) = 0
x = 7 or x = 1

4(a)

log 3 x = 9 log x 3
log 3 x =

log 3 x + log 3 (x + 2)= 1


log 3 [x(x + 2)]
= log 3 3
x(x + 2)
=3
x2 + 2
=3
2
x + 2x 3
=0
(x + 3)(x 1)
=0
x = 3 (rej) or x = 1
log x 25 + log x 5
log x (125)
125
x

=3
= log x x 3
= x3
=5

9
log3 x

sub u = log 3 x:
u=

9
u

u2 = 9
u
=3
log 3 x = 3
x
x
4(b)

or

u
= 3
log 3 x = 3

= 33
= 27

= 33

1
27

log 3 x + 2 = 3 log x 3
3

log 3 x + 2 =

log3 x

3 log x 2 + log x 18 = 2
log x 23 + log x 18 = log x x 2
log x (23 18)
= log x x 2
log x 144
= log x x 2
144
= x2
x = 12 or x = 12 (rej)

sub u = log 3 x:

lg[(x + 2)(x 2)] = lg(2x 1)


(x + 2)(x 2) = (2x 1)
x2 4
= 2x 1
2
x 2x 3
=0
(x 3)(x + 1)
=0
x = 3 or x = 1 (rej)

u+2

3
u

u2 + 2u 3
=0
(u + 3)(u 1) = 0
u
= 3
or u
=1
log 3 x = 3
log 3 x = 1

= 33
=

1
27

=3

log 2 [(x 2)(8 x)] log 2 (x 5)= 3


log 2 [

(x2)(8x)

(x5)
(x2)(8x)

(x5)

= log 2 23
= 23

(x 2)(x 8)
= 8(x 5)
2
(x 10x + 16) = 8x 40
x 2 2x 24
=0
(x 6)(x + 4)
=0
x = 6 or x = 4 (rej)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

Ex 7.3

ln(3x y) = ln 36 ln 9

7(a)

36

ln(3x y) = ln ( )

2 log 5 x + (

3x y = 4
y
= 3x 4 (1)

2 log 5 x + (

(ex )2

2 log 5 x + (

=e

ey

e2xy
= e1
2x y = 1

= 55
2

log 2 x log 4 (x + 6) = 0
log 2 x = log 4 (x + 6)
=[
=[
=[

=2

= 5q p
= 5q 1

log2 (x+6)
2

]
]

= x + 6

=x+6
=0

x = 3 or x = 2 (rej)
7(c)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2 + 3q = 5q 1
2q
=3
3

log 5 (5 4x) = log 5 (2 x)


log 5 (5 4x) =

log5 (2x)

log 5 (5 4x) =

log5 (2x)

log 5 (5 4x) =

log5 (2x)

log5 5
1

log5 52
1
2

log 5 (5 4x) = 2 log 5 (2 x)

log2 22

(x 3)(x + 2) = 0

=2

1
p

log2 (x+6)

x2 x 6

=2

5qp

log2 4

= log 2 2

15q3p

log2 (x+6)

= log 2 x + 6

2p+2
= 24 (23q )
2p+2
= 24+3q
p + 2 = 4 + 3q
p
= 2 + 3q
(1)
log 2 6 log 2 (15q 3p) = 1

= log 5 55
= (55 )5
= 52
= 25

15q3p
6

= log 5 55

4 [(22 )2q ]

log 2 (

) = log 5 55

= log 5 55

= 16 (4 )

log5 52
log5 x

5
2

3
q
2

p+2

) = log 5 55

log5 25
log5 x

log 5 x

Put x = 3 into (1):


y|x=5 = 3(3) 4
=5
2

=5

log 5 x 2

7(b)

p+2

log5 x

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2x (3x 4) = 1
x + 4
=1
x
= 3
x
=3

2 log 5 x + log 25 x

log 5 (5 4x) = log 5 (2 x)2


Put q =

3
2

into (1):
3

p|q=3 = 2 + 3 ( )
2

13
2

5 4x

= (2 x)2

5 4x

= 4 4x + x 2

x 2 + 1

=0

x2 1

=0

(x + 1)(x 1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 1

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8(b)

log 9 y + log 3 y
log3 y

+ log 3 y

log3 9
log3 y

+ log 3 y
log3 32
1
log 3 y + log 3 y
2
3
log 3 y
2
3

Ex 7.3

= 2 log 3 x +3 log 3 2
= log 3 x

9(c)

+ log 3 2

= log 3 [(x 2 )(23 )]


= log 3 (8x 2 )

= log 3 (8x 2 )

log 3 3x + 1 = log 3 (2x)


3x + 1
= 2x
3x + 1
= 4x 2
4x 2 3x 1 = 0
(4x + 1)(x 1) = 0

y2

= 8x 2

= (8x 2 )3
2

2 4
(23 )3 x 3

4
22 x 3

log 3 (3x + 1) = log 3 (2x)

x = (rej) or x = 1

= (8)3 (x 2 )3

9(d)

3 log 4 x log16 x = 3.75


log 4 x 3

= 4x 3
log 4 (6 x) log 2 8

log 4 x 3

= log 9 3

log 4 x 3

log 4 (6 x) log 2 23 = log 9 92

log4 x

= log 4 43.75

log4 16
log4 x
log4

log4 x

= log 4 4

log 4 x 2

15

x2

= 44

log 4 (6 x)

6x

= 42

= (22 )2
= 27
= 122

15

= (22 ) 4

15

x2

= 22
2
15 5
2

= (2 )

= 23
=8

log 7 (9x + 38) log 7 (x + 2) = log 9 81


log 7 (
log 7 (

9x+38

= log 9 92

=2

x+2
9x+38
x+2
9x+38

x+2
9x+38

x+2
9x+38
x+2

9(e)

log 5 x log 25 (x + 10) = 0.5


log 5 x

= log 7 7
= 72

log 5 x

= 49

log 5 x

9x + 38
40x

= 49x + 98
= 60

15
4

( )

= log 4 4

x2
7

15
4

( )

2
7

log 7 (

15
4

( )

log 4 (6 x) 3

15
4

( )

= log 4 4

42

log 4 x 3 log 4 x 2 = log 4 4

9(b)

= log 3 (2x)

log3 32

9(a)

= log 3 (2x)

log3 9
log3 (3x+1)

= log 3 (8x 2 )

log 3 y 2

log 9 (3x + 1) = log 3 x + log 3 2


log3 (3x+1)

log5 (x+10)
log5 25
log5 (x+10)
log5 52
log5 (x+10)
2

log 5 x log 5 x + 10

log 5 (

x+10

x
x+10

x2
x+10

= log 5 50.5
= log 5 5
= log 5 5
= log 5 5
= log 5 5
= 5
=5

x2

= 5x + 50

x 2 5x 50

=0

(x 10)(x + 5)

=0

x = 10 or x = 5 (rej x > 0)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

Ex 7.3
+ log a (7x 10a)

2 log a x

=1

log a x 2

= log a a + log a (7x 10a)

1st eqn
log 2 (2y 3x) log 2 3 = 4 log 4 2

= log a [a(7x 10a)]

log 2 (

= a(7x 10a)

log 2 (

log a x
x
x

12

log 2 (

= 7ax 10a

x 2 7ax + 10a2 = 0

log 2 (

(x 2a)(x 5a) = 0

x = 2a or x = 5a
11

27 3lg x

= 91+lg(x20)

(33 )(3lg x )

= (32 )1+lg(x20)

33+lg x

= 32+2 lg(x20)

3 + lg x

= 2 + 2 lg(x 20)

1 + lg x

= 2 lg(x 20)

lg 10 + lg x

= lg(x 20)2

lg(10x)

= lg(x 20)2

10x

= (x 20)2

2y3x
3
2y3x
3
2y3x
3
2y3x
3

2y3x

= 4 (log 4 42 )

= 4( )

=2

= log 2 22

1
2

= 22

2y 3x
2y

= 12
= 3x + 12

= x + 6 (1)

3
2

2nd eqn
log 3 6 + log 3 (x + y)
log 3 6 + log 3 (x + y)
log 3 [6(x + y)]
6(x + y)
6x + 6y

= log 3 (x) + log 3 (1 x)


= log 3 [(x)(1 x)]
= log 3 (x 2 x)
= x2 x
= x2 x
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


3

10x

= x 40x + 400

6x + 6 ( x + 6)

= x 2 50x + 400

x 2 50x + 400

=0

6x + 9x + 36
= x2 x
15x + 36
= x2 x
x 2 16x 36
=0
(x 18)(x + 2)
=0
x = 18
or x = 2

= x2 x

(x 40)(x 10) = 0
x = 40 or x = 10 (rej)

y|x=2 = (2) + 6

(rej x > 0)

=3
12(ii) log 3 6 + log 3 (x + y) = log 3 (x 2 x)
x + y > 0 x2 x > 0
On top of x = 2, y = 3, the solution includes
3

x = 18, y|x=18 = (18) + 6 = 33


2

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187

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.3

13(i)
log 2 (x 3 + 1) 2 log 2 x = log 2 (x 2 x + 1) 2
log 2 (x 3 + 1) log 2 x 2 = log 2 (x 2 x + 1) log 2 22
log 2 (

x3 +1
x2

= log 2 (

x3 +1

x2
(x+1)(x2 x+1)

x2
x+1

x2

22

x = 2 22 or
(rej x > 0)

+ log a2 x

1
x

loga ( )
1
x

x2 x+1

loga ( )

22
x2 x+1

1
2

+ log a x

+ log a x

x
1 2

loga x
loga a2
loga x
2

+ log a4 x = c
+
+

loga x
loga a4
loga x
4

1
4

log a ( )
x

1 2

= log a ac

416+16
2

432
2

442
2

x = 2 + 22

(x 3

log a [(x 1 )2 x 4 ]

= log a ac

log a [(x 2 )x 4 ]

= log a ac

(x 2

13(ii) log 2
+ 1) log 2 x = log 2
x + 1) 2
3
2
log 2 (x + 1) 2 log 2 x = log 2 (x x + 1) 2
x = 2 22

log a (x 4 )

= log a ac

x 4
x
15

= log a ac

+ log a x 4 = log a ac

log a [( ) x 4 ]
=

= log a ac

= log a ac

2 log a ( ) + log a x

(4)(4)2 4(1)(4)
2(1)

log a ( ) + log a x
loga a

= x2
=0

4x + 4
x 2 4x 4
x=

x2 x+1

14

= ac
= a4c
2 log a b + 4 log b a = 9
2 log a b + 4 (

1
loga b

)=9

sub u = log a b:
2u +

=9

2u2 9u + 4 = 0
(2u 1)(u 4) = 0
u=

1
2

sub u = log a b:
log a b =
b
b

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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u=4
sub u = log a b:
log a b = 4

2
1
2

=a
= a

b
= a4
(rej a > b > 1)

188

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.4
3(ii)

Ex 7.4
1(a)

1(b)

4x

= 9(5x )

4 x

( )
5

5x = 9
lg 5x = lg 9
x lg 5 = lg 9

lg ( ) = lg 9
5

x lg ( ) = lg 9
5

lg 9

1.37

4e2x

lg 5

= 21

2x

=9

4 x

4(a)

21

2x

= ln

= ln

0.829

4
21

4
21

lg 9

0.985

2x . 3x
6x
lg 6x
x lg 6

= 10
= 10
= lg 10
=1

lg

4
5

1
lg 6

1.29
1(c)

4 72x
72x
72x
lg 72x
2x lg 7

=1
= 3
=3
= lg 3
= lg 3

0.282

4(b)

2x+1
= 3x
(2x )(21 ) = 3x
2x

3x
2 x

( )

lg 3

2 lg 7

2 x

lg ( )

3(i)

3x+1 12
3x+1
lg 3x+1
(x + 1) lg 3

=0
= 12
= lg 12
= lg 12

x+1

1.26

lg 3

x lg ( ) = lg
3

1
2
1
2

1
2
2
lg( )
3

lg

1.71

lg 12
lg 3
lg 12

2
1

= lg

1(d)

4(c)
1

3x+1
. 2x2
= 21
x
x
2
(3 )(3) (2 )(2 ) = 21
32

(3x )(2x )

= (3)(22 )

y = 5e

6x
lg 6x
x lg 6

= 28
= lg 28
= lg 28

y = 12:
5e0.2x = 12

0.2x

0.2x

= ln

= 5 ln

4.38

4x
5x
4 x

lg 6

1.86

12

e0.2x

lg 28

5
12
5

5(i)

9x 4
= 3x+1
(32 )x 4
= (3x )(3)
(3x )2 3(3x ) 4 = 0

5(ii)

(3x 4)(3x + 1) = 0
3x = 4
or 3x = 1 (rej)
lg 3x = lg 4
x lg 3 = lg 4

12
5

x)

= 9(5
=9

( ) =9
5

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lg 4

1.26

lg 3

189

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

6(ii)

7(a)

Ex 7.4
3

8x + 11(2x )

= 4x+2 20

(23 )x + 11(2x )
(2x )3 + 11(2x )
(2x )3 + 11(2x )
(2x )3 8(2x )2 + 11(2x ) + 20
sub u = 2x
u3 8u2 + 11u + 20
(u + 1)(u2 +
+ 20)

= (22 )x+2 20
= (22x )(23 ) 20
= 8(2x )2 20
=0

(u + 1)(u2 9u + 20) = 0
(u + 1)(u 5)(u 4) = 0
u = 1 or u = 5 or
sub u = 2x
sub u = 2x
x
2 = 1
2x = 5
(rej 2x > 0) x lg 2 = lg 5

=0

u
=4
sub u = 2x
2x = 22
x =2

7(d)

2.32

1
2

lg 2

sub y = ex :
ex =

1
2

(NA ex > 0)
ex
x

2y 7y + 3
1

y=

1
4

sub y = ex
ex =

8(a)

1
4
1

= ln

1.39

x 3 = e6x1
ln x 3 = ln e6x1
3 ln x = 6x 1
ln x = 2x

12
ex

sub y = ex
y

=7

12

a=2

b=

y2
= 7y 12
2
y 7y + 12 = 0
(y 3)(y 4)= 0
y = 3 or
y=4
x
sub y = e
sub y = ex
x
e =3
ex = 4
x = ln 3
x = ln 4
x 1.10
x 1.39

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=0
y = 3
y=9
sub y = ex
ex = 9
x = ln 9
x 2.20

y = 2 or

= 7 12ex
=7

2ex = 7ex 3

(2y 1)(y 3) = 0

y=2
sub y = ex :
ex = 2
x = ln 2
x 0.693

or

y=2
sub y = ex
ex = 2
x = ln 2
x 0.693

lg 5

e3x + 2ex
= 3e2x
(ex )3 + 2ex
= 3(ex )2
x
sub y = e
y 3 + 2y
= 3y 2
y 3 3y 2 + 2y = 0
y(y 2 3y + 2) = 0
y(y 1)(y 2) = 0
y=0
or y = 1 or
x
sub y = e
sub y = ex
x
e = 0 (NA) ex = 1
x =0

2ex = 7(ex )2 3
sub y = ex
2y = 7y 3

2e2x 3ex
=2
x )2
x
2(e
3e
=2
x
sub y = e
2y 2 3y
=2
2y 2 3y 2 = 0
(2y + 1)(y 2) = 0
y=

7(b)

7(c)

1
3

1
3

8(b)

xex
ln xex
ln x + ln ex
ln x + (x)
ln x

= 2.46
= ln 2.46
= ln 2.46
= ln 2.46
= x + ln 2.46

a=1
b = ln 2.46
0.9

sleightofmath.com

190

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(c)

Ex 7.4

(xex )2
x 2 e2x
x2
ln x 2
2 ln x
2 ln x

= 30ex
= 30ex
= 30e3x
= ln(30e3x )
= ln 30 + ln e3x
= ln 30 + (3x)

ln x

= x + ln 30

9(d)

3x 102x

= 4 20x2

(3)x (102 )x = 4 (20)x (20)2


(3)x (102 )

= 4(20)2

(20)x

a=
2

b = ln 30
2

(3)(102 )
(20)

=
=

lg(15)x

= lg

x lg 15

= lg

5x1 3x+2
= 10
(5x )(51 ) (3x )(32 ) = 10
=

15x

x lg 15

= lg
=

100
1
100
1
100

1
100

lg

lg 15

1.70

10
(51 )(32 )
50

(5x )(3x )

(15)x

1.70
9(a)

4
202

9
50
9

50
9

lg

lg 15

0.633
9(b)

22x 5x+1
=7
2
x
x
(2 ) (5) (5) = 7
(4)x (5)x

7
5
7

20

x lg 20

= lg

5
7
5

lg

7
5

lg 20

0.112
9(c)

4(32x )
4(32 )x
(32 )

= ex
= ex

ex
9 x

( )
e

9 x

=
=

1
4
1
4

ln ( )

= ln

x ln

= ln

e
9

1
4
1
4

1
4
9
ln
e

ln

1.16

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191

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

Ex 7.4

1st eqn
4x+3

= 32(2x+y )

(22 )x+3

= (25 )(2x+y )

22x+6

= 25+x+y

2x + 6

=5+x+y

=y1

(1)

2nd eqn
9x + 3y = 10

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


9y1 + 3y = 10
(32 )y1
32y2

+3y

= 10

+3y

= 10

(32y )(32 ) +3y


1

(3y )2 ( ) +3y

= 10

1
9

(3y )2

= 10

+3y 10 = 0

sub u = 3y
1 2
u
9

+ u 10

=0

u2 + 9u 90

=0

(u + 15)(u 6)

=0

u = 15 or

=6

3y = 15

3y

=6

(rej)

lg 3y = lg 6
y lg 3 = lg 6
lg 6

1.631

lg 3

x|y=1.631 (1.631) 1
0.631

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192

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.5

Ex 7.5
1(a)

y = log 2 x
base = 2 > 1, graph slopes up

y
O

2(ii)

pH = lg(7.8 106 )
5.11
Blue

3(i)

T = 85(0.96)x
T|x=0 = 85(0.96)0
= 85C

3(ii)

T|x=15 = 85(0.96)15
46.1

3(iii)

T
= 30
85(0.96)x = 30

y = log 6 x
base = 6 > 1, graph slopes up
y
O

1(c)

pH = lg(5.6 107 )
6.25
Pink

1(b)

2(i)

y = log 0.2 x
0 < base 0.2 < 1, graph slopes down
y
O

1(d)

(0.96)x

x lg 0.96

= lg

25.5

17
6
17

lg

6
17

lg 0.96

4(i)

N = 100(1.65)t
N|t=0 = 100(1.65)0
= 100

4(ii)

N|t=4 = 100(1.65)4
741

4(iii)

N
100(1.65)t
(1.65)t
t lg(1.65)

= 400
= 400
=4
= lg 4

2.77

y = log 1 x
4
1

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


4

y
O

1(e)

y = lg x
base = 10 > 1, graph slopes up
y
O

5(i)

R = 100e0.000427 9t
R|t=10 000 = 100e0.0004279(10 000)
= 100(1 e4.279 )
1.39g

5(ii)

1(f)

y = ln x
base = e > 1, graph slopes up

lg 4
lg(1.65)

= (100)
2

100e(0.0004279)t = 50
O

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e(0.0004279)t

0.0004279t

= ln

1620 yrs

2
1
2

193

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

6(ii)

Ex 7.5

I = 0.87T
I|T=1.5 = (0.87)1.5
0.811

9(ii)

I
= 0.5
T
0.87
= 0.5
T lg 0.87 = lg 0.5

ln(t + 1)

ln e 6

t+1

e6

t
t

e6 1
7.72

13

lg 0.5

13

4.98 mm

lg 0.87

t= 8

13

ln(t + 1)

13

7(i)

S
62
75 6 ln(t + 1) 62
6 ln(t + 1)
13

= ln
= lg
x

9(iii)

S
= 75 6 ln(t + 1)
6 ln(t + 1) = 75 S
1

ln(t + 1) = (75 S)

(75S)

7(ii)
(a)

Range of values of x:
x>1

lg x > 0

Range of values of x:
0<x1

lg x 0

7(ii)
(c)

Range of values of x:
x>1

ln x > lg x

8(ii)

10(i)

A = 5000(1.04)t
A|t=5 = 5000(1.04)5
$6083

>

5000

t
9(i)

1500
1+1499e0.85(6)
1500
1+1499e5.1

0.4(1500)
1500

1+1499e0.85t
1500
5
3

1 + 1499e0.85t
1499e0.85t

2
3

e0.85t

2998

ln (
t

3
2998

3
)
2998

ln(

(1.04)

0.85

5000

S = 75 6 ln(t + 1) 0 t 12
S|t=4 = 75 6 ln(4 + 1)
= 75 6 ln(5)
= 75 6 ln 5
65.3

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600
1 + 1499e0.85t

600

lg 1.04

1+1499e0.85t

10(ii) y

= log1.04 (

(75S)

1500

y=

lg 1.6

= 5000(1.04)
=

= e6

(75S)

148

> 11.98

t = 12
8(iii)

= e6

y|t=6 =

A
> 8000
t
5000(1.04) > 8000
(1.04)t
> 1.6
t lg(1.04) > lg(1.6)
t

t+1

7(ii)
(b)

8(i)

ln(t + 1) = ln e6

0.85t
t

8.13

t
t= 9

8.13

194

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11

t = 2.35 ln (

Ex 7.5

T24.5
12.4

13(ii)

3.5 = Ce

t|T=28.8 = 2.35 ln (

28.824.5
12.4

3.5

12.4

2h 58min before 7:29am 4: 31am [verified]

log 4 x

29
60

4.3

[shown]
35

k = ln ( )
43

13(iii) T = T0 + Cekt
T0 = 24.5, C = 12.4, k 0.426:
T = 24.5 + 12.4e0.426t

2
1
2

x
x

3.5

k
0.426
t = 0, T = 36.9C (assumption of normal body
temperature of 36.9C at death in Q11)
36.9 = 24.5 + Ce0.426k(0)
36.9 = 24.5 + C
C = 12.4

2.97h 2h 58min

=1

29
60

=e

e60k =

7: 29am: T = 28.0C
t|T=28.0 = 2.35 ln (

Cekt1

29

2h 29min before 7:00am 4: 31am

=4
=2

T24.5

ln (

= 2 log 4
=1
x

1 2

t
14(i)

12(iii) 2 log x 4 1
0<x2
13(i)

= e0.426t

12.4
T24.5

12(ii) y = 2 log 4 x

29
)
60

4.3

28.024.5

k(t1 +

Ce

4.3
3.5

2.49h 2h29min

2 log 4 x

(2)

(2) (1):

7: 00am: T = 28.8C

12(i)

29
60

k(t1 + )

14(ii)

29
60

k(t1 + )

28.0 = 24.5 + Ce

= 0.426t
2.35 ln (

T24.5
12.4

C1 : y = 2 ln x [x > 0]
C2 : y = ln x 2
[x 2 > 0]
2
C3 : y = (ln x) [x > 0]
All different.
C1 C2 because of the different domain
C1 C3 Evident by algebriac observation
C2 C3 Evident by algebraic observation

T = T0 + Cekt
7: 00am T = 28.8C, T0 , 24.5C, t = t1
28.8 = 24.5 + Cekt1
4.3 = Cekt1
(1)
7: 29am T = 28.0C, T0 , 24.5C, t = t1 +

12.4

29
60

C3 : y = (ln x)2
C2 : y = ln x 2

C1 : y = 2 ln x

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195

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 7
A2(b) 2 log 5 x

Rev Ex 7
A1(a) log x 27 = 1.5
x1.5
= 27
3

= 33

x2

= (33 )
= 32
=9

x
x
x

A1(b) log 2 x log 8 x


log 2 x (
log 2 x (

log2 x

) = 12

1
64

A1(c) log 3 (x 2)
log 3 (x 2)
log 3 (x 2)
x2

2 log 5 x

=5(

log5 x
log5 52
log5 x
2
log5 x

=5( )
u

=3
log 3 (x + 4)
3
= log 3 3 log 3 (x + 4)
= log 3 (
=

= 52
= 25

1
2

=5

= 5

33

A3(a) log 3 (x 19)


x 19
x
x
x
lg x

x+4

=4
= 34
= 34 + 19
= 81 + 19
= 100
= lg 102
=2

33
x+4

A3(b) lg(x + 2) + 7 lg 2

(x 2)(x + 4) = 33
x 2 + 2x 8
= 27
2
x + 2x 35 = 0
(x + 7)(x 5) = 0
x = 7 or x = 5
(rej x 2 > 0)
A2(a) log 3 xy log 3 (x 1)
log 3 xy log 3 (x 1)
xy
log 3

=5(

= 12

= 26

x = 64 or

2 log 5 x

log5 25

2u2
= 5u 2
2
2u 5u + 2 = 0
(2u 1)(u 2) = 0
1
u
=2
u
=
or
2
log 5 x = 2
1
log 5 x =

(log 2 x)2 = 36
log 2 x
= 6
x

=5(

2u

) = 12

log2 23

2 log 5 x

sub u = log 5 x:

= 12

log2 8
log2 x

(log2 x)2

2
3

= 5 log x 25

x1
xy

x1

xy
y

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= log 3 9

+ lg(2x + 1)

lg(x + 2) + lg 27

= log 3 32 + lg(2x + 1)

lg[(x + 2)27 ]

=2

+ lg(2x + 1)

lg[(x + 2)27 ]

= lg 102

+ lg(2x + 1)

lg[128(x + 2)]

= lg[100(2x + 1)]

128(x + 2)

= 100(2x + 1)

= log 3 6x 1
= log 3 6x 2 log 3 3
= log 3 2x 2

32(x + 2)

= 25(2x + 1)

32x + 64

= 50x + 25

= 2x 2

18x

= 39

= 2x 2 (x 1)
= 2x(x 1)

A3(c) e2x + ex 6 = 0
(ex )2 + ex 6 = 0
sub u = ex :
u2 + u 6
=0
(u + 3)(u 2) = 0
u = 3
sub u = ex
ex = 3
(NA ex > 0)

sleightofmath.com

13
6

u=2
ex = 2
sub u = ex :
x = ln 2
x 0.693
196

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A4(i)

Rev Ex 7
A5(ii) P
> 90 000
0.07n
12 000e
> 90 000

log 2 x = a
= 2a

log 8 y = b
= 8b

x 2 y = (2a )2 (8b )
= 22a+3b
x

2a
8b

2a
23b

A6

= 2a3b

53b
2

2a3b
= 21
a 3b = 1

53b
2

>

> 28.78

0.07

log b (xy 2 )
=m
log b x + log b y 2 = m
log b x +2 log b y = m (1)

2nm
5

[shown] (3)

sub (3) into (1):


(

2nm

) + 2 log b y = m

2 log b y

=
9

=m+

2 log b y

a|b=7 =

log b y

Let P be the population of a town after n years


from the beginning of 1990
P = 12000e0.07n

log b

A5(i)

log b x

5 3b 6b = 2
9b
=7

15
2

(2)

) 3b = 1

ln

15

sub (2) into (1):


log b x +2(n 3 log b x) = m
log b x +2n 6 log b x = m
5 log b x = m 2n

sub (1) into (2):


(

> ln

(1)

= 0.5

0.07n

log b (x 3 y)
=n
log b x 3 + log b y = n
3 log b x + log b y = n
log b y
= n 3 log b x (2)

A4(ii) x 2 y
= 32
2a+3b
2
= 25
2a + 3b = 5
a

>

1990 + 28.78 = 2018

= 22a (33b )

15

e0.07n

1990 n = 0
2005 n = 2005 1990 = 15

y
x

m2n
5

6m2n
5
3mn
5

= log b y log b x
=

3mn

=[
=

2nm

5
5
(3mn)(2nm)
5

4m3n
5

log b xy = log b xy
P|n=15

2
1

= (log b x + log b y)

0.07(15)

= 12000e
34 292

2
1 2nm

= (

2
5
1 2m+n

= [
=

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2
5
2m+n
10

3mn
5

197

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 7
B1(c) log 2 x 2 log 2 (2x + 5) = 2

A7
y = 2 lg x
(i)(a)
y|x=4 = 2 lg 4
1.20

log 2 (

A7
y = 1.5
(i)(b) 2 lg x = 1.5
lg x = 0.75
log10 x = 0.75

A7
(ii)

x2

= 22

2x+5

=4

2x+5

x2

= 8x + 20

x 2 8x 20

=0

(x 10)(x + 2) = 0
x = 10 or x = 2
B1(d) log 2 x

y = 2 lg x
y
x

A7
(iii)

x10 = 10x
1
2

x (10 ) = 10

= log 2 22

2x+5

x2

= 100.75
5.62

x
x

x2

B2(i)

x
4

= 4 log x 2
1

log 2 x

= 4(

log 2

= 2

22 = 4 or

log2 x

1
4

log 2 x = p
log 4 y = q

x 1

= 1042

4
1

lg x

2 lg x

= x1

log 2 xy = log 2 x + log 2 y


= log 2 x +
= log 2 x +

= log 2 x +

y= x1
2

B1(a) log 9 (3+1 )


9x

= 3x+1
2

32x
= 3x+1
2x 2
=x+1
2
2x x 1
=0
(2x + 1)(x 1) = 0

=
=
=

43x + log 2 2
43x 3
43x
(22 )3x
26x
6x
x

=5
=5
=5
=8
= 23
= 23
=3

log2 x

log 4 y

log2 4
p
log2 22
p
2
p

log 4 y
log 4 y
q

B2(iii) log 4y = log2 4y = log2 [4(22q )]


x
log2 x

log2 [22 (22q )]

B2(iv) log 2 x = p

log2 (22+2q )
p

2+2q
p

log 4 y = q

y
= 4q
y
= 22q
x 2 y = (2p )2 (22q ) = 22p+2q
x

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2

8
3

log4 4 2
log4 y

B2(ii) log 4 x = log 4 x log 4 y

x = or x = 1
B1(b) 43x + log (1)
2

log4 2
log4 y

= log 2 x +2 log 4 y
=p
+2q

= x2

log4 y

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= 2p

198

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 7

B3(a) 2x = 128(4y )
2x = 27 (22y )
2x = 27+2y
x = 7 + 2y
(1)
ln(4x + y) = ln 40 2 ln 2
ln(4x + y) = ln 40 ln 22
ln(4x + y) = ln 10
4x + y
= 10
(2)

B4(i)

ln 2 = a
ln 5 = b
1

ln 10e = ln 10e
3
1

= (ln 10 + ln e)
3
1

= [ln(2 5) + ln e]
3
1

= [ln 2 + ln 5 +1)
3
1

= (a + b +1)

sub (1) into (2):


4(7 + 2y) + y = 10
(28 + 8y) + y = 10
28 + 9y
= 10
9y
= 18
y
= 2

3
1

= (a + b + 1)
3

B4(ii) ln x = b2a
=
=

x|y=2 = 7 + 2(2)

=3

2
(ln 5)2(ln 2)
2
ln 5ln 22
2
ln 5ln 4
1

2
5

= ln
B3
lg(1 + 2x) lg x 2 = 1
lg(2 + 5x)
2
(b)(i) lg(1 + 2x) lg x = lg 10 lg(2 + 5x)
lg

1+2x

= lg

x2
1+2x

= lg

x2

= ln

10

x =

2+5x
10

2+5x

(2x + 1)(5x + 2) = 10x 2


10x 2 + 9x + 2 = 10x 2
9x + 2
=0
2

B3
3y+2
= 5y
y
2
(b)(ii) (3) (3 ) = (5)y
(3)y

(5)y
3 y

( )
5

3 y

lg ( )
5

1
32
1
9

= lg

y lg ( ) = lg
5

1
9
1
9

1
9
3
lg
5

lg

4.30

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5

Rev Ex 7

y = ln(2x + e2 )
At (0, h),
h = ln[2(0) + e2 ]
h = ln e2
h =2

B6(b) log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x) = log 3 (10 x) + 2 log 4 2


1

log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x) = log 3 (10 x) + 2 log 4 42


1

log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x) = log 3 (10 x) + 2 ( )


2

y = ln(2x + e2 )
At (k, 0),
0
= ln[2(k) + e2 ]
0
= log (2 + 2 )
0

1e2
2

y = eax
2

At (h, k) i.e. (2,


1e2
2
2

= log 3 (10 x) + 1
= log 3 (10 x) + log 3 3
= log 3 [3(10 x)]
= 3(10 x)
= 30 3x
= 10

5
4

e
= 2k + e
1
= 2k + e2
1 e2 = 2k

log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x)
log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x)
log 3 [5(4 + x)]
5(4 + x)
20 + 5x
8x

1e2
2

).

= ea(2)

B6(c) 102x+1 +7(10x )


= 26
x
2
x
(10 ) (10) +7(10 )
= 26
x )2
x)
10(10
+7(10 26 = 0
sub u = 10x :
10u2 +7u 26
=0
(10u 13)(u + 2)
=0
13
u = 2
u=
or
10
10x = 2 (rej)
13
x
10 =
10

2
1 2
e
2
1
ln ( e2 )
2
1
1 2

sub x = lg a:

e2a

2a

= ln ( e )
2
1

2
1

2
1

= lg

13

e2 = e2a

lg a = lg
a

13
10

10

13
10

= (ln + ln e2 )
= (ln 21 + 2)
2
1

= ( ln 2 + 2)
2

= 1 ln 2
2

B6
m = 32e0.02t
(a)(i)
m|t=20 = 32e0.02(20)
21.5
1
B6
m
= m|t=0
2
(a)(ii)
1
0.02t
32e
= [32e0.02(0) ]
2

32e0.02t = 16
1

e0.02t

0.02t

= ln

= 50 ln

34.7

2
1
2

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2

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200

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B7(i)

x 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2


y -1.61 -0.92 -0.51 -0.22 0.00 0.18

Rev Ex 7
B7(ii) xe2x

= e3
3

xe2x

= e2

ln(xe2x )

ln x + 2x =
ln x
B7(iii)

3
2

3
2
3

= 2x +

y = 2x +

3
2

B7(iv) Intersection pt (0.84,0.16)


x = 0.84
There is only 1 intersection
(and thus only 1 solution)
as both curves would not turn around.

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


1(b)

Ex 8.1
1(a)

Ex 8.1

Method 1 (No action)


xy = 3x 5
Y = 3X 5
m=3
c = 5

Y = X 2
m=1
c = 2
Method 2 (Divide by )
y = x 2 2x

Method 2 (Divide by x)
xy = 3x 5

y
x2
y

=3

= 5 ( ) + 3

xy
1

Y = 2X +1
m = 2
c=1

xy

Method 3 (Divide by y)
y = x 2 2x
1 =

y
3

xy

x2
y

= 1
=

= 2 ( ) + 1

y
3

x2

5y
5
3 1
1
5 y
5
3
1

Y = X

x2

=1 +

2x
y
2x
y

= 2 ( ) +1
y

Y = 2X +1
m=2
c=1

= ( )
5

1 =

x2

Method 3 (Divide by )
xy = 3x 5

xy
1

=1

Y = 5X +3
m = 5
c=3

Method 1 (Divide by x)
y = x 2 2x
y
= x 2

m=
5

1(c)

c=

Method 1 (Multiply denominator)


y

3
x2

xy 2y = 3
xy
= 2y +3
Y
= 2X +3
m=2
c=3
Method 2 (Swap y and )
y

x 2=

3
x2
3
y
3

+2

= 3 ( ) +2

y
1
y

Y
= 3X
m=3
c=2

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+2

202

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


1(d)

Ex 8.1

Method 1 (Multiply x)
5

3y = 2x

3xy= 2x 2

xy = x 2

3
2

xy = (x 2 )
3
2

Y = X
3

2(a)

y 2 = 2x + 3
Y = 2X + 3
2

5
3
5

m=
3

2(b)

c=
3

xy = 2y 2 5
Y = 2X 5

Method 2 (Divide by x)
3y

= 2x

3( )= 2

y
x
y

3
5

= ( 2)

= X

3 x
5

3
5

x2
5
3x2
2

3(a)

3
2
3

Method 1 (Divide by x)
xy 2 = 2x
+5y
y
2
y =2
+5
x

m=

= 5 ( ) +2
x

Y = 5X +2

Log both sides


y = 10 2x
lg y = lg(10 2x )
= lg 10
+ lg 2x
=1
+x lg 2
= lg 2 (x) +1
Y = (lg 2)X +1
m = lg 2
c=1

Method 2 (Divide by y)
xy 2 = 2x
+5y
x

xy = 2 ( ) +5
y

+5

Y = 2X
3(b)

Method 1 (Divide by x)
3xy= 5y 2x
y

3y = 5 ( ) 2
y

1(f)

c=
3

1(e)

-5

x
5

Log both sides


y = 5x 7
lg y = lg(5x 7 )
= lg 5 + lg x 7
= lg 5 +7 lg x
= 7 lg x + lg 5
Y = 7X + lg 5
m=7
c = lg 5

x
5 y
3 x
5

3
2

Y = X
3

Method 2 (Divide by y)
3xy= 5y 2x
x

2 ( )

3x = 5
5

2 x

( )

= ( ) +

3 y
2 x

3 y
2

3
5

Y = X
3

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= ( )

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+
3

203

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(i)

Ex 8.1

5
Non-linear eqn:
(c)(ii)

= 5x 2
3
2

lg y = lg (5x )
lg y = lg 5 + lg x

= (x + y) +2

3
2

y
x

lg y = lg 5 + lg x
2

lg 5

5(a)
(i)

3
lg x + lg 5
2
lg

(0,1) (4,9)

Gradient:

m=

Y-intercept:

c=1

19
04

2+x
2x

) =

y
5
Points:
(d)(i) Gradient:

Points:

= x +2

y(
lg y =

+ y

lg

y ( + ) = x +2

lg y = lg x + lg 5 [shown]
4(ii)

= x y +2

2
x(4x)
x+2

(0, 2) (4,1)
m=

Y intercept:
Linear eqn:

=2

4x

(2)(1)
(0)(4)

3
4

3
4

c = 2
Y = mX +c
3

= ( ) X + (2)
4

= X 2
4

Linear eqn:

5(a)
(ii)

Non-linear eqn:

Y = mX + c
= 2X + 1

Y intercept:
Linear eqn:

5
Non-linear eqn:
(b)(ii)
5
Points:
(c)(i) Gradient:
Y-intercept:
Linear eqn:

A(4,5) (0,1)
(5)(1)

m = (4)(0) =

4
4

y = x 3 +

Point:

(1,3) or (2,2)

Gradient:

m=

Linear eqn:

Y Y1 = m (X X1 )
Y (3) = (1)[X (1)]
Y 3 = X
+1
Y
= X
+4

04

c=2
Y = mX

2
4

32
12

lg y = lg (

(0,2) (4,0)
=

2x

= 1

Non-linear eqn: lg y = lg x +4
lg y = lg x + lg 104

xy = x 3 + 1

20

4
3 2
x
4

= 1

c=1
Y = mX +c
= (1)X + 1
= X +1

m=

= x 2

y=

y = 2x 2 + 1
6(a)

5
Points:
(b)(i) Gradient:

5
Non-linear eqn:
(d)(ii)

y =

1
2

6(b)

+c

104

x
10 000
x

Point:

(1,3) or (3,4)

Gradient:

m=

Linear eqn:

Y Y1

34
13

1
2

1
2

= ( ) X +(2)
2

= X
2

+2

= m (X X1 )
1

Y (3) = ( ) [X (1)]
2

Non-linear eqn:

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2
1

2
5

2
1

2
5

Y3

= X

= X+

x+y
x

= x+

x+y

2
2
1 2
5
x + x
2
2
1 2
3
x + x
2
2

204

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(i)

Ex 8.1

Method 1 (non-linear to linear)


Non-linear eqn:
y = pqx
ln y = ln(pqx )
= ln p + ln qx
= ln p +(x ln q)
= (ln q)x + ln p

8(i)

Points:

(1,8) or (4,2)

Gradient:

m = (1)(4) =

Linear eqn:

Y Y1
Y (8)
Y8
Y
(yx)

= m (X X1 )
= (2)[X (1)]
= 2X +2
= 2X +10
= 2(x) + 10

= 2x +

(8)(2)

Non-linear eqn:

Linear eqn:
Y = (ln q)X + ln p
8(ii)

y|x=16 = 216 +

Y-intercept = 2
ln p
=2
p
= e2
7.4

= 2(4) +
=
8(iii)

Gradient =
ln q

7(i)

2
3
2

m=

10

16
10
4

C(9, 8) lies on graph of yx against x

yx = 8
y(9) = 8
3y
= 8
y

=
3

9(i)

Y = X +2
2

Non-linear eqn:

Points:

(1, 3) (0,0) (1,3)

Gradient:

m = (1)(0) =

y-intercept:

c=0

Linear eqn:

Y = mX + c
= (3)X + (0)
= 3X

Non-linear eqn:

y x = 3x 3
y
= 3x 3 + x

ln y = x + 2
2

3
2

x+2
3

= e2 (e2x )
2

Equate Y(yx):

Linear eqn:
Y = mX +c

=e

Method 2 (linear to non-linear)


Point:
(0,2)
Y-intercept: c = 2

10

Equate X(x):
x=9

=e 2
0.2

Gradient:

= 2

11

6
3

= (ee 2 ) (e2 )

9(ii)

(3)(0)

=3

y|x=2 = 3(2)3 + (2) = 24 + 2 = 26

= pqx [given]
p = e2 7.4
3

q = e2 0.2
7(ii)

y = pqx
= 7.4(0.2)x

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(iii)

Ex 8.1

m + 2n = 18
m
= 18 2n

11(b) y = ab1x
lg y = lg(ab1x )
= lg a
= lg a
= lg a
= lg b (x)
lg y = lg b (x)

(1)

n2 m = 17
sub (1) into (2):
n2 (18 2n) = 17
n2 + 2n 18
= 17
2
n + 2n 35
=0
(n 5)(n + 7) = 0
n=5
or
m|n=5 = 18 2(5)
=8
C(8,5)

(2)

n = 7
m|n=7 = 18 2(7)
= 32
C(32, 7)
(rej graph slopes up)

11(c) aey
= b2x
ln(aey )
= ln(b2x )
ln a + ln ey = (2x) ln b
ln a + y = 2x ln b
y
= 2x ln b
ln a
y
= 2 ln b (x) ln a
12

Equate X (x 3 ) coordinate:
x3 = 8
x =2
Equate Y (y x) coordinate:
yx
=5
y (2)= 5
y
=7
10(i)

Gradient:

m=

Linear eqn:

Y Y1 = m(X X1 )
Y (10) = 3 [X (3)]
Y 10 = 3X 9
Y
= 3X + 1

Non-linear eqn:

y|x= 1 = 3 ( )
2

=
=
=
=
11(a) x

yb =

3
2
3

2
32

2
32+1
2

18
6

=3

1
x

= 3x + x 2
1

+( )

+
2

= 3( ) + 1

x2

y
10(ii)

m=q
c = lg p

(3,10) or (9,28)
(3)(9)

y = p(x + 1)q
lg y = lg[p(x + 1)q ]
= lg p
+ lg(x + 1)q
= q lg(x + 1) + lg p
= q lg(x + 1) + lg p
Plot lg y against lg(x + 1)

Point:

(10)(28)

+ lg b1x
+[(1 x) lg b]
+ lg b lg b (x)
+ lg a + lg b
+ lg ab

+
+

1
2
1
2
1
2

a
yb
a
x
a

= +b

= a( ) + b

1
x

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13(i)

Method 1 (non-linear to linear)


Non-linear eqn:
ax
y
=

Ex 8.1
14(i)

xb

yx yb = ax
yx
= yb +ax
y
y
= (b) +a
x

Point:

A(3,1) or B (8,3 )
2

Gradient:

mAB =

Linear eqn:

Y Y1

Linear eqn:
Y = bX +a

Non-linear eqn:

1
2

= m (X X1 )
3

2
1

2
1

Y1

= X

= X
1 1

2 x
1

xy

= ( )

2xy

= 1 (shown)
x

4y

2
1
8

(1)

y=x

2(2)y = 1

14(iii) 2xy = 1 1
2

(2)

sub (2) into (1):

Linear eqn:
Y = mX +c
= 3X +2

2x(x 2 )

= 1

2x 3

= 1

x
1
x

2x 4
=1x
4
2x + x 1 = 0

Non linear eqn:


y

= 3 ( ) +2
x

3y

let f(x) 2x 4 + x 1
f(1) = 2(1)4 + (1) 1
=0
x = 1

=2

x
3

y (1 ) = 2
x

y(

14(ii) when x = 2,

Y-intercept = 2
a
= 2

5
2

Method 2 (linear to non-linear)


Gradient: m = 3
Y-intercept: c = 2

Gradient = 3
b
=3

(3)(8)

Y (1) = ( ) [X (3)]

= (b) +a

1
2

(1)(3 )

x3

=2
=
=

2x
x3
ax
xb

a=2
b=3
13(ii) y =

2x
x3

x=y

(1)
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


(x)

2x
x3

x 2 3x = 2x
x 2 5x = 0
x(x 5) = 0
x = 0 or x = 5

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 8.1

He connected the dots with a straight which is not


necessarily the correct shape as verified by the
graphing calculator

= 7 14 5 + 49 3 35

y|x=4 = 5044 4
(4, 4) does not lie on graph
y|x=4 = 5044 4
(4,4) does not lie on graph

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 8.2

Ex 8.2
1(i)

Linearization
y = ax 2 + b
x2
y

1(ii)

1
4
9 16 25
6.2 5.6 4.6 3.2 1.4

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,6.4)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (20,2.4)
Gradient

(6.4)(2.4)
(0)(20)
1

Y intercept 6.4
b
6.4

2(i)

Linearization
1
y

= ax + b
x
1
y

2(ii)

0.40 0.90 1.41 1.89 2.38

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 0.1)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (4.5,2.15)
Gradient
a

(0.1)(2.15)
(0)(4.5)

0.50

Y intercept 0.1
b
0.1

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3(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y
= ax 2 + x b
y x = ax 2 b
1
4
9 16 25
x2
y x 40.5 36 28.5 18 4.5

3(ii)

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,42)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (20,12)
Gradient

(42)(12)
(0)(20)

1.5

Y intercept 42
b
42
b
42
4(i)

Linearization
a

N
a

=4
=

N
1

N
1

+4

t
b
at
b 1

= ( ) +

1
t
1
N

4(ii)

4
a
4
a

1.00 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.20


0.75 0.99 1.09 1.12 1.15

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.25)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.88,0,80)
Gradient

b
a

(1.25)(0.80)
(0)(0.88)

0.51

(1)

Y intercept 1.25
4

1.25

3.2

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


b
3.2

0.51
1.6

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5(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
xy = h(x + k)
xy = hx + hk
hk

=h+

= hk ( ) + h

x
1
x

1
x

5.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 1.00

y 5.25 3.38 2.75 2.44 2.23


5(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (4,4.5)
Gradient
hk

(1.5)(4.5)
(0)(4)

0.75

Y intercept 1.5
h
1.5

(1)

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


(1.5)k 0.75
k
0.5

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6(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y

= ax +

b
x

xy = ax 2 + b
x 2 0.25 1.00 2.25 4.00
xy 7.3
6.8
6
4.8
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(7.3)(4.8)

(7.3) [(0.25)(4.00)] (0.25)


7.47
Domain = [0,4]
X-interval =

(4)(0)
10

= 0.4 0.25

X scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


Range

= [4.8,7.47]

Y-interval =
6(ii)

(7.47)(4.8)
12

0.23 0.2

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.2 units


Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,7.5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3,5.48)
Gradient =
a

(7.5)(5.48)
(0)(3)

0.67

Y intercept 7.5
b
7.5
6(iii) Substitution
y 0.67x +

7.5
x

y|x=1.7 0.67(1.7) +

7.5
1.7

3.3

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7(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y = ax 2 + bx
y
= ax + b
x

x
y
x

7(ii)

1.6 3.6 5.6 7.6

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 0.4)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3.7,7)
Gradient

(0.4)(7)
(0)(3.7)

Y intercept 0.4
b
0.4
7(iii)

Intersection

Put = 2, = 0.4 into = + ,

= 2 0.4

2 2 0.4 = 10
2 0.4

=
=

x
y
x

2.0

2.5

10

10

3.0

3.5

4 .0

5.00 4.00 3.33 2.86 2.50

Intersection Pt (2.35,4.3)
X 2.35

2.35

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8(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
P

En
R

ln P = ln

En
R

ln P = ln E n ln R
ln P = n ln E ln R
ln E 1.61 2.30 2.89 3.00 3.22 3.40
ln P 0.92 2.30 3.48 3.69 4.14 4.50
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(0.92)(4.50)

(0.92) [(1.61)(3.40)] (1.61)


2.3
Domain = [0,3.4]
X-interval =

(3.4)(0)
10

= 0.34 0.25

X scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


Range

= [2.3,4.5]

Y-interval =
8(ii)

(4.5)(2.3)
12

0.57 0.5

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


The graph produces a straight line
true

8(iii) Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 2.3)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3.25,4.2)
Gradient
n

(2.3)(4.2)
(0)(3.25)

Y intercept 2.3
ln R
2.3
R
10.0

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9(i)

Linearization
f = kn
lg f = lg[kn ]
= lg k + lg n
= lg k +n lg
= n(lg ) + lg k
lg 2.40 2.67 2.81 3.08 3.18
lg f 3.08 2.81 2.67 2.40 2.30

9(ii)

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 5.48)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3,2.48)
Gradient =
n

Ex 8.2

(5.48)(2.48)
(0)(3)

Y intercept = 5.48
lg k
= 5.48
k
301 995
9(iii) Intersection
kn = 102.5n

= 102.5
lg = 2.5

= 2.5

= 2.5
= 1
Intersection Pt (2.97,2.5)
X = 2.97
lg = 2.97

933

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10(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y

= Cx +

D
x

xy = Cx 2 + D
x 2 0.04 0.16 0.36 0.64
xy 1.55 1.69 1.93 2.27
10(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.6,2.22)
Gradient
C

(1.5)(2.22)
(0)(0.6)

1.2

Y intercept 1.5
D
1.5
10(ii) Intersection
Cx 2 + D = 2

=2
Intersection Pt (0.42, 2):
X 0.42
x 2 0.42
x 0.65

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11(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
yx
= kx n
lg(y x) = lg(kx n )
= lg k + lg x n
= lg k + n lg x
= n lg x + lg k
lg x
0.30 0.48 0.60 0.70 0.78
lg(y x) 1.00 1.26 1.45 1.59 1.71
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.00)(1.71)

(1.00) [(0.30)(0.78)] (0.30)


0.56
Domain = [0,0.78]
X-interval =

0.780
10

= 0.078 0.05

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.05 units


= [0.56,1.71]

Range

Y-interval =

(1.71)(0.56)
12

0.096

0.05
Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.05 units
11(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,0.55)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.68,1.56)
Gradient =
n

(0.55)(1.56)
(0)(0.68)

1.5

Y intercept 0.55
lg k
0.55
k
3.5
11(iii) Substitution
= 3.5 1.5
(1)
= + 4.5
(2)
(2) (1):
( + 4.5) = 3.5 1.5
4.5
= 3.5 1.5
9
7

= 1.5
1.18

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12(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y = Aebx
ln y = ln[Aebx ]
= ln A + ln ebx
= ln A bx
= bx + ln A
x 1 2 3 4 5 6
ln y 2.59 2.29 1.99 1.69 1.39 1.10
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(2.59) [

(2.59)(1.10)
(1)(6)

] (1)

2.89
Domain = [0,6]
X-interval =

(6)(0)
10

= 0.6 0.5

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


= [1.10,2.89]

Range

Y-interval =

(2.89)(1.10)
12

0.15 0.1

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.1 units


12(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,2.88)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (5.8,1.16)
Gradient
b
b

(2.88)(1.16)
(0.2)(5.8)

0.307
0.3

Y intercept 2.88
ln A
2.88
A
18
12(iii) Substitution
y = (18)e(0.3)x
= 18e0.3x
At y = 6:
6 = 18e0.3x
1

= e0.3x

3
1

ln = 0.3x
3

ln

1
3

0.3

3.66

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Ex 8.2

13(i) Linearization
y=a+

b
x

= b( ) + a

Plot y against
1
x

1
x

2.50 0.59 0.50 0.39 0.31 0.25 0.20

Y -0.5 0.8 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.75 1.8


Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(0.5)(1.8)

(0.5) [(2.50)(0.20)] (2.50)


2
Domain = [0,2.5]
X-interval =

(2.5)(0)
(10)

= 0.25 0.25

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


Range

= [0.5,2]

Y-interval =

(2)(0.5)
12

0.21 0.2

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.2 units


13
Correction
(ii)(a) Abnormal reading: y = 0.8 (2nd data)

Correct reading:y 1.4


13
Gradient & Y-intercept
(ii)(b) (X1 , Y1 ) = (0,2)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (2,0)
(2)(0)

gradient (0)(2)
b

Y intercept = 2.0
a
2

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14(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
T
= kx n
ln T = ln(kx n )
= ln k + ln x n
= ln k +n ln x
= n ln x + ln k
ln x
ln T

4.06
-1.43

4.68
-0.48

5.43
0.63

6.66
2.47

7.26
3.38

Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.43)(3.38)

(1.43) [ (4.06)(7.26) ] (4.06)


7.53
Domain = [0,7.26]
X-interval =

(7.26)(0)
10

0.73 0.5

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


Range

= [7.53,3.38]

Y-interval =

(3.38)(7.53)
12

0.91 0.5

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


14(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 7.5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (5,0)
Gradient
n

(7.5)(0)
(0)(5)

1.5

Y intercept 7.5
ln k
7.5
k
5.5 104
14(iii) Substitution
Put 1.5, 5.5 104 = ,
T = (5.5 104 )(x)1.5
149.6 106 km = 149.6 million km
T|149.6 = (5.5 104 )(149.6)1.5
1

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Ex 8.2

15(i) The graph shows an upward sloping


curve instead of a line.

15(ii) Linearization
Plot P against ln t
P = a ln t + b
[P] = a[ln t] + b
ln t 0.00 0.69 1.61 2.30 2.71 3.00 3.40
P 30 42 50 65 73 77 85
Scale (optional)
c = 30
Domain = [0,3.4]
X-interval =

(3.4)(0)
10

= 0.34 0.25

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


Range

= [30,85]

Y-interval =

(85)(30)
12

4.58 2.5

Y-scale: 1 cm to 2.5 units


15(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0.9, 44)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3.2, 80)
(44)(80)

Gradient = (0.9)(3.2)
a

15.7

Y intercept 30
b
30
15(iii) Substitution
P = 15.7 ln t + 30
P = 95:
(95)
= 15.7 ln t + 30
15.7 ln t
= 65
ln t 4.15
t 63.6s

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16(i)

Ex 8.2

Quadratic eqn
y = ax 2 + bx
y
= ax + b
x

Plot

y
x

against x

x 2 3
4
5
6
7
y
9 11 13 15 17 19
x

Exponential eqn
y = khx
lg y = lg k
+ lg hx
= x lg h + lg k
= lg h (x) + lg k
Plot

y
x

x
lg y

against x
2
3
4
5
6
7
1.26 1.52 1.72 1.88 2.01 2.12

By inspection, Quadratic equation fits better


16(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (6.5,18)
(5)(18)

Gradient (0)(6.5)
a

Y intercept = 5
b
=5
16(iii) Substitution
y
= 2x 2 + 5x
y|x=4.5 = 2(4.5)2 + 5(4.5)
= 63
16(iv) No.
x = 1 is outside the data range and thus the computed
value is not reliable.

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17

Ex 8.2

Quadratic Equation
It is the only one among the 3 that has a turning point
to fit the data given that increases then decreases.

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Rev Ex 8
A2

Rev Ex 8
A1(a) Points:

m=

Y-intercept:
Linear eqn:
Non-linear eqn:

(0,5) (6,1)

Gradient:

51
06

2
3

= X+

Gradient = 0.75
a

= 0.75

) =5

= ( )+

2xy

=5
3

b x

Linear eqn:

=5
2x

2
b
2

3
2
3

y (1 +

a 1

b x
a 1

= ( ) +

= xy + 5

y+

= +2

y
1

= mX + c
= X+5

2xy

y
1

+ =2

x
b

c=5
Y

Method 1 (linear)
Non-linear eqn:

5
2
1+ x
3

15
3+2x

= 0.75b

Y intercept = 0.5

= 0.5

A1(b) Points:
Gradient:

A(1,1) or B(2,7)
mAB =

Linear eqn:

Y Y1
Y (1)
Y1
Y
Non-linear eqn: (lg y)
lg y
lg y
y

17
(1)2

6
(3)

(1)

= 4

b
=2

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


a|b=4 = 0.75(4)
=3

= m(X X1 )
= 2[X (1)]
= 2X + 2
= 2X + 3
= 2(lg x) + 3
= lg x 2 + lg 103
= lg 1000x 2
= 1000 x 2

Method 2 (non-linear)
Gradient:
m = 0.75
Y intercept: c = 0.5
Linear eqn:
Y = mX +c
0.75X 0.5
Non-linear eqn:
1

( )

= 0.75 ( ) 0.5

3
x
a
x

0.75

x
4
y
b
y

1
y

0.75
x

0.5

= 0.5
=2
=2

a=3
b = 4
A3

y = ax + b
y 2 = ax + b
Plot y 2 against x
gradient = a
y 2 intercept = b

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Rev Ex 8

A4(i) Linearization
y = Aebt
ln y = ln(Aebt )
= ln A + ln ebt
= ln A + [(bt) ln e]
= bt + ln A
= bt + ln A
t
1
2
3
4
5
ln y 2.50 1.95 1.39 0.83 0.26
A4(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 3.06)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (4.3, 0.65)
Gradient =
b
b

(3.06)(0.65)
(0)(4.3)

0.56
0.56

Y intercept 3.06
ln A
3.06
A
21.3

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A5(i)

1
u
1
v

Rev Ex 8

0.050 0.040 0.033 0.025 0.020


0.050 0.059 0.067 0.077 0.080

A5(ii) Linearization
1
u
1
u

+ =

1
v

1
f

Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(0.05)(0.08)

(0.05) [(0.05)(0.02)] (0.05)


0.1
Domain = [0,0.05]
X-interval =

(0.05)(0)
10

= 0.005 0.005

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.005 units


Range

= [0.05,0.1]

Y-interval =

(0.1)(0.05)
12

0.0042

0.0025
Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.0025 units
2 cm to 0.005 units
Gradient & Y-intercept
Y intercept = 0.10
1
f

= 0.10
10

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A6(i)

Rev Ex 8

Linearization
xm yn
lg(x m y n )
lg x m + lg y n
m lg x + n lg y
n lg y

= 200
= lg 200
= lg 200
= lg 200
= m lg x + lg 200

lg y

m
n

lg x +

lg 200
n

lg x 0.00 0.48 0.70 0.86


lg y 1.15 0.43 0.10 -0.12
Scale (optional)
c = 1.15
Domain = [0,0.86]
X-interval =

(0.86)(0)
10

= 0.086 0.05

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.05 units


Range

= [0.12,1.15]

Y-interval =

(1.15)(0.12)
12

0.11 0.1

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.1 units


A6(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0.1,1.0)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.78,0)
(1.0)(0)

Gradient = (0.1)(0.78)

m
n

1.47

(1)

Y intercept = 1.15
lg 200
n

= 1.15
2

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


m

1.47
2

m
3
A6(iii) Substitution
x 3 y 2 = 200
y = 10:
x 3 (10)2 = 200
x3
=2
x
1.26

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B1(i)

Rev Ex 8

Method 1 (linear)
Non-linear eqn:
y
1
y
1
y

=
=

B1(i)

Method 2 (non-linear)
Points:
A(10,1) B(0, 4) C(r, 2)
Gradient:

2x+k
2x+k

(1)(4)
(10)(0)

1
2

Y intercept: c = 4

h
2

= ( )x +

Linear eqn:
Y = mX +c
1

Linear eqn:
2

Y = X+

m =

= X 4
2

Non-linear eqn:
1

At A(10,1):
2

1 = (10)
1 =

h
20+k

k
h

At B(0, 4):
k

h
k

= (0) +

2
x

2
x8

2
2
x8
4
2x16
h
2x+k

h=4
k = 16

4h = k

(1)

y
1

h = 20 + k

= (x) 4

y
1

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


4(20 + k) = k
80 4k
=k
80
= 5k
k
= 16

B1(ii) C(r, 2) lies on Y = 1 X 4.

Put k = 16 into (1):


h = 20 + (16) = 4

B2(a) y =

(2) = (r) 4
2

1
2

=4

x
y

=2

x
px+q

= px + q

B2(b) y = pqx
lg y = lg(pqx )
= lg p
+ lg qx
= lg p
+(x) lg q
= lg q (x) + lg p

B2(c) ey = px 2 qx
ey
x

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= px q

228

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B3(i)

Rev Ex 8

Linearization
axy b = a(x 2 + bx)
axy b = ax 2 + abx
axy ax 2 = abx + b
a(xy x 2 ) = abx + b
xy x 2

= bx

x
1
2
3.00
xy x
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1

b
a

2
1.00

3
-0.99

4
-3.00

(3)(3)

(3) [ (1)(4) ] (1)


5
Domain = [0,4]
(4)(0)

X-intercept =

10

= 0.4 0.25

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


2 cm to 0.5 units
Range

= [3,5]
(5)(3)

Y-intercept =

12

0.67 0.5

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


B3
Graphical Reading
(ii)(a) x = 1.5
X = 1.5
Pt (1.5,2.0)
Y
xy x 2
(1.5)y (1.5)2
y

=2
=2
=2
2.83

B3(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,5)
(b)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3.5, 2)
(5)(2)

Gradient = (0)(3.5)
2

(1)

Y intercept = 5
b

=5

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(2)
a

=5
= 0.4

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B4(i)

Rev Ex 8

Linearization
y = Kax
lg y = lg(Kax )
= lg K + (lg ax )
= lg K + (x) lg a
= lg a (x) + lg K
x 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
lg y 1.19 0.99 0.79 0.48 0.38 0.18 -0.05

B4
Graphical reading
(ii)(a) Flawed reading
y = 3.0 (4th data)
Correct reading
Y 0.59
lg y 0.59
y 3.89
B4
Gradient & Y-intercept
(ii)(b) (X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.4)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (6.9,0)
(0)(1.4)

Gradient = (6.9)(0)
lg a
a

= 0.2
1.58

Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.19) [

Y intercept = 1.4
lg K
= 1.4
K
= 101.4
= 25.1

(1.19)(0.05)
(1)(7)

] (1)

1.38
Domain = [0,7]
X-interval =

(7)(0)
10

= 0.7 0.5

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


B4
Graphical Reading
(ii)(c) y = 10
lg y = 1
Y =1

Range

= [0.05,1.38]

Y-interval =

(1.38)(0.05)
12

0.12 0.1

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.1 unit

Point (2,1)
X =2
x =2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5(i)

Rev Ex 8

Linearization
y = ln(ax 2 + b)
ey = ax 2 + b
x2
ey

0.04 0.16 0.36 0.64 1.00


1.38 1.62 2.02 2.58 3.30

B5(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.3)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.9,3.1)
Gradient
a

(1.3)(3.1)
(0)(0.9)

Y intercept 1.3
b
1.3
B5
Graphical Reading
(iii)(a) y = ln 3
ey = 3
Y =3
Pt (0.85,3)
X = 0.85
x 0.92
B5
Graphical Reading
(iii)(b) x = 0.1
x 2 = 0.01
X = 0.01
Pt (0.01,1.32)
Y 1.32
y 0.28

Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.38) [
1.3
Domain

(0.04)(1)

] (0.04)

= [0,1]

X-interval =

(1)(0)
10

= 0.1 0.1

X-scale:

1 cm to 0.1 units

Range

= [1.3,3.3]

Y-interval =
Y-scale:

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(1.38)(3.30)

(3.3)(1.3)
12

0.17 0.1

1 cm to 0.1 units

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231

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 8

B6(i) Linearization
P
= kc t
lg p = lg(kc t )
= lg k
+ lg c t
= lg k
+t lg c
= lg c (t) + lg k
t
1
2
3
4
5
lg P 1.14 1.40 1.67 1.93 2.20
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.14) [

(1.14)(2.20)

] (1)

(1)(5)

0.88
= [0,5]

Domain

X-interval =

(5)(0)
10

= 0.5 0.5

X-scale:

1 cm to 0.5 units

Range

= [0.88,2.2]

Y-interval =
Y-scale:

(2.2)(0.88)
12

0.11 0.1

1 cm to 0.1 units

B6(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept


(x1 , y1 ) = (0,0.87)
(x2 , y2 ) = (3.5, 1.8)
Gradient =
lg c
c

(0.87)(1.8)
(0)(3.5)

= 0.27
1.86

Y intercept = 0.87
lg k
= 0.87
k
7.41
B6(iii) Substitution
P = (7.41)(1.86)t
P|t=10 = (7.41)(1.86)10
3.7 103

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.1
1(c)

Ex 9.1
1(a)

1(b)

x
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
y 3.16 2.83 2.45 2.00 1.41 0

y 2 = 4x for 0 x 5
x
0
1
2
3
y
0
2 2.83 3.46
Line of symmetry: y = 0

y 2 = 2x for 5 x 0

4
4

5
4.47

Line of symmetry: y = 0

y 2 = 0.5x for 0 x 10
x
y

0
1
2
3
4
0 0.71 1.00 1.22 1.41

5
6
7
8
9
10
1.58 1.73 1.87 2.00 2.12 2.24
Line of symmetry: y = 0

2(i)

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(2,4) lies on y 2 = 4ax,


(4)2 = 4a(2)
16 = 8a
a
=2

233

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(ii)

Ex 9.1

y 2 = 4(2)x
= 8x

4(i)

Points A & B
At A & B, y = 2x + 4 meets y = x 2 4,
2x + 4
= x2 4
x 2 2x 8
=0
(x + 2)(x 4) = 0
x = 2
or x = 4
y|x=2 = 2(2) + 4
y|x=4 = 2(4) + 4
=0
= 12
A(2,0)
B(4,12)

4(ii)

Length of AB

x 0
1
2
3
4
5
y 0 2.83 4 4.90 5.66 6.32

|AB| = [(2) 4]2 + (0 12)2


= 36 + 144
= 180
= 36 5
= 65
5(i)

Line & Curve


y 2 = 2x 1
y = mx

(1)
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


(mx)2
= 2x 1
2 2
m x 2x + 1 = 0

Discriminant
For line & curve to meet at one point:
b2 4ac
=0
(2)2 4m2 (1) = 0
4 4m2
=0
2
m 1
=0
(m + 1)(m 1) = 0
m = 1 or m = 1

2y = x + 3
y

= x+

(1)

y 2 = 2x + 3
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
1

3 2

2
3

2
1

4
3

( x+ )
1 2
x
4
1 2
x
4
2

= 2x + 3

+ x+
x

= 2x + 3

5(ii)

=0

x 2x 3 = 0
(x + 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1
or x = 3
1

y|x=1 = (1) +
=1
(1,1)

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y|x=3 = (3) +
=3
(3,3)

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Point ( = )
y 2 = 2x 1 (1)
y = x
(2)

Point ( = )
y 2 = 2x 1
(1)
y=x
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


(x)2
= 2x 1
2
x 2x + 1 = 0
(x 1)2
=0
x=1
y|x=1 = 1
(1, 1)

sub (2) into (1):


x2
= 2x 1
2
x 2x + 1 = 0
x 2 2x + 1 = 0
(x 1)2
=0
x=1
y|x=1 = 1
(1, 1)

234

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

y2 = x + 4

Ex 9.1
7(i)

x -4 -3 -2
-1
0
y 0 1 1.41 1.73 2

x 5
6
7
8
y 5.48 6.00 6.48 6.93

x
1
2
3
4
5
6
y 2.24 2.45 2.65 2.83 3 3.16

6(ii)

6(iii)

4x 2 13x
= 5
2
4x 12x + 9 = x + 4
(2x 3)2
=x+4

y 2 = 6x
x 0 1
2
3
4
y 0 2.45 3.46 4.24 4.90

7(ii)

y>3
x > 1.5

7(iii)

4x 2 10x + 1 = 0
4x 2 4x + 1 = 6x
(2x 1)2
= 6x
2
(2x 1)
= y2
y
= (2x 1)
Draw y = 2x 1:

4x 13x = 5
(2x 3)2 = x + 4
(2x 3)2 = y 2
y
= (2x 3)
Draw y = 2x 3 or y = 2x + 3
x = 0.45 or 2.8

x = 0.1 or 2.4

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(i)

Ex 9.1

Points A and B

10(i)
2

At A and B, y = x + meets y = 2x 1:
x

x+

= 2x 1

x1

=0

x2 x 2
=0
(x + 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1
or
y|x=1 = 2(1) 1
= 3
B(1, 3)
8(ii)

x=2
y|x=2 = 2(2) 1
=3
A(2,3)

Points A and B
At A and B, y 2 = 3x meets y = 6 x
(6 x)2
= 3x
2
x 12x + 36 = 3x
x 2 15x + 36 = 0
(x 3)(x 12) = 0
x=3
or x = 12
y|x=3 = 6 (3)
y|x=12 = 6 (12)
=3
= 6
A(3,3)
B(12, 6)

10(ii) Area of triangle OMB


1

Area of triangle PAB


P(5,0) A(2,3) B(1, 3)

Area of OMB = (Area of OAB)


2
1 1

0 12 3 0
|
0 6 3 0
= [0 + 36 + 0 0 (18) 0]
= |
2 2
1

Area of PAB
1 5
= |
2 0

2
3

1
3

5
|
0

4
1

= (54)
4

= [15 + (6) + 0 0 (3) (15)]

= 13 unit 2

= [9 (18)]

11(i)

=
9(i)

27
2

unit 2

Points A & B
1

At A & B, y = meets y = 2x + 1:
x

= 2x + 1

1
= 2x 2 + x
2x 2 + x 1
=0
(x + 1)(2x 1) = 0
x = 1

or x =

y|x=1 =

1
(1)

y|x=1 =
2

= 1
B(1, 1)
9(ii)

Points A & B
At A & B, y 2 = 12 2x meets y = 2 x
(2 x)2
= 12 2x
2
x 4x + 4
= 12 2x
2
x 2x 8
=0
(x + 2)(x 4) = 0
x = 2
or
x=4
y|x=2 = 2 (2)
y|x=4 = 2 (4)
=4
= 2
A(2,4)
B(4, 2)

11(ii) bisector of AB

1
( )
2

AB bisector of AB

=2
1

A ( , 2)
2

Point:

Point M
At M, y = 2x + 1 cuts y-axis (x = 0):
y|x=0 = 1
M(0,1)

MAB = (

(2)+4 4+(2)

Gradient: mAB =
=

2
1

mAB
1
6
)
6

) = (1,1)

1
(4)(2)
((2)(4))

=1

Ratio :
1

AB :

Recall A ( , 2) M(0,1) B(1, 1)


2

By similar triangles (using x-coordinates)


1

AM: MB = ( 0) : [0 (1)]

y y1 = m (x x1 )
y 1 = (1)(x 1)
y1 =x1
y=x

1
2

=1

:1
:2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

Ex 9.1

Points A & B
At A & B, y = x 2 + x 2 meets y = 2x
x2 + x 2
= 2x
2
x x2
=0
(x + 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1
or x = 2
y|x=1 = 2(1)
y|x=2 = 2(2)
= 2
=4
B(1, 2)
A(2,4)

13(i)

A(2, 4) lies on y = x + k:
4 = 2 + k
k = 6
Point B
At B, y = x 6 meets y 2 = 8x
(x 6)2
= 8x
2
x 12x + 36 = 8x
x 2 20x + 36 = 0
(x 2)(x 18) = 0
x = 2 or x = 18
(taken) y|x=18 = (18) 6
= 12

12(ii) Length of AB
|AB| = [(1) 2]2 + [(2) 4]2
= 9 + 36
= 45

13(ii) bisector of AB

= 9 5
= 35 units

Recall A(2, 4) B(18,12)

12(iii)
Recall A(2,4) B(1, 2) C(3,4) |AB| = 35

AB bisector of AB
Point:

F Foot of from C to AB
|CF| distance from C to AB

MAB = (

2+18 (4)+12
2

Gradient: mAB =
Equating Area of ABC:
1
2
1
2

(base)(height) = area by shoelace formula


|AB||CF|

|AB||CF|
35 |CF|
35 |CF|
|CF|

3 1 2
|
4 2 4
2 3 1 2
|
=|
4 4 2 4
8 + 6 + (4)
]
=[
(12) (4) (4)
1

= |
2

2
4

AB :

1
mAB
1
16
(
)
16

) = (10,4)
1

(4)(12)
( (2)(18) )

= 1

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (4)= (1) [x (10)]
y 4 = x + 10
y
= x + 14

= 30
=
=
=

30
35
10
5
105
5

= 25

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14(i)

Ex 9.1

Points A & B
At A & B, y 2 = 2x 3 meets 2x + 3y = 7
y 2 = 2x 3
(1)

14(iii) distance from P to AB


F Foot of from P to AB
|PF| = distance from P to AB

2x + 3y = 7
3y
= 2x + 7
y

Area of PAB =
1

= x+

2
1

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


( x + )
3
4 2
x
9
4 2
x
9
2

= 2x 3

28
9
46
9

x+
x+

|AB||PF|

2
1 513

7 2

(base)(height) =

49

) |PF|

|PF|

= 2x 3

9
76

=
=

=0

2x 23x + 38 = 0
(x 2)(2x 19) = 0
x=2

or
2

y|x=2 = (2) +

x=

15
19
2
2 19

y|x=19 = ( ) +
2

=1

= 4

A(2,1)

B ( , 4)

35
2
35
2
35
2
35
2
14
13
14
13

units

13 units

Point B
B(b1 , b2 ) lies on y 2 = 2x:
(b2 )2 = 2b1
1

= (b2 )2

b1

B ( (b2 )2 , b2 )
2

19
2

Midpoint of AB
1

Length of AB

A(2,6) B ( (b2 )2 , b2 )
2

19 2

|AB| = (2

) + [1

2+ (b2 )2 6+b2
2

(4)]2

MAB = (

325

513
2

= (x, y)

52 13

x=

1
2

2+ (b2 )2
2

[shown]
y =

14(ii) Area of triangle PAB

6+b2
2

2y = 6 + b2
b2 = 2y 6
(2)
sub (2) into (1):

19

P(6,3) A(2,1) B ( , 4)
2

19

1 6 2
6
2
|
Area of PAB = |
2
3 1 4 3
1
57
19
= [6 + (8) +
6
2

(24)]

1
2

2+ (2y6)2

= 1 + (2y 6)2

= 1 + (4y 2 24y + 36)

2
1
4
1
4

x = 1 + (y 2 6y + 9)
x = y 2 6y + 10
0 = y 2 6y x + 10
y 2 6y x + 10 = 0

= (35)
2

= 17 unit 2
2

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238

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(i)

Ex 9.1

Point P
P(a, b) lies in y 2 = 8x:
b2 = 8a
b = 8a or b = 8a (rej b > 0)

17(ii) Line AC
Point:

P(a, 8a)

A(0,2at) or C(at 2 , 2at)

Gradient:

mAC =

AC:

y y1

(2at)(2at)

(0)(at2 )

4at
at2

4
t

= m(x x1 )
4

y (2at) = [x (0)]
Length of PF
P(a, 8a) F(2,0)

y
2

PF = (a 2)2

+ (8a)

( x + 2at)
t
16 2
x
t2
16 2
x
t2
2

= (a2 4a + 4) + 8a
=

= x + 2at
t

Another point of intersection


At point where AC meets y 2 = 4ax

+ (8a 0)

= (a 2)2
a2

t
4

+ 4a + 4
2)2

= (a +
= a + 2 units
16(ii) Length of PQ
PQ = (x coordinate of P) (x coordinate of Q)
=a
(2)
=a+2
PF = PQ [shown]
16(iii) Area of triangle PQF
P(a, 8a) PQ = a + 2

= 4ax

16ax + 4a2 t 2

= 4ax

20ax + 4a2 t 2

=0

16x 20at 2 x + 4a2 t 4 = 0


4x 2 5at 2 x + a2 t 4
=0
(4x at 2 )(x at 2 )
=0
x=
y|

at2

or

at2
x=
4

4 at2

= (
t

x = at 2 (taken)

) + 2at

= at + 2at
= at
Another point of intersection (

at2
4

, at)

Area of PQF = (base)(height)


2
1

= (PQ) (y coordinate of P)
2
1

= (a + 2)(8a)
2
1

= (a + 2)(4 2a)
2
1

= (a + 2)22a
2

= (a + 2)2a
17(i)

D(at 2 , 2at)
2 = 4

A(0,2at)

B(0, 2at)

C(at 2 , 2at)

A(0,2at), B(0, 2at) & C(at 2 , 2at)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.1

17(iii) A(0,2at)

18(i)

l2 : y = x
l1 l2

2
2 1 C(at , 2at)
= OA

OM
+AM
2

= OA
+
AC

OA
)
+ (OC
3
2

= OA

+ OC
3
2

2 =

0
) + ( at )
3 2at
2at

=(

3
2

= OA
= (

at 2
2

at

19(i)

= (2.2)2 + 12

= 5.84
2.416609195

Method 2
Let M be (xm , ym )

MC

Distance in km
= (2.416609195)(93 106 )(1.609)
361 106
3.61 108

2
1

x coordinates
xm xa
=2
xc xm
x1 0

y coordinates
ym ya
=2
yc ym
y1 2at

=2

at2 x1

2aty1

=2

3x1

= 2at 2 2x1 y1 2at = 4at


2y1
2
3y1
= 2at
= 2at

x1

= at 2

x1

3
2

S(0.1,0) C(2.3,1)
|SC| = [(0.1) (2.3)]2 + [(0) (1)]2

M ( at , at)

AM

OA

+ OC

1
3
1

18(ii)

2+1
2

= OA

l1 : y 2 = x
y = x

y1

= at
3

M ( at , at)
3

17(iv) Line (through M and )


A(0,2at) B(0, 2at) C(at 2 , 2at) D(at 2 , 2at)
2

Point:

M ( at 2 , at)

Gradient:

m =
=

Line:

mAC
1
(

4at
)
at2

1
(2at)(2at)
(
)
(0)(at2 )

4
t

t
4

= m(x x1 )

y y1
2

4
t

4
t

6
1

y ( at) = [x ( at 2 )]
2

y + at

= x at 3

= x at 3 at

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240

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.1

19(ii) S(0.1,0) C(c1 , c2 )


C(c1 , c2 ) lies on x = 2.3y 2
c1 = 2.3(c2 )2
C(2.3(c2 )2 , c2 )
|SC| = [(0.1) (2.3(c2 )2 )]2 + (c2 )2
= [2.3(c2 )2 0.1]2 + (c2 )2
= [5.29(c2 )4 0.46(c2 )2 + 0.01] + (c2 )2
= 5.29(c2 )4 + (0.54)(c2 )2 + 0.01
f(c2 ) = 5.29(c2 )4 + (0.54)(c2 )2 + 0.01
f(c2 )=

21.16(c2 )3 +(1.08)(c2 )
25.29(c2 )4 +(0.54)(c2 )2 +0.01

Minimum |SC|
f (c2 )
=0
21.16(c2 )3 +(1.08)(c2 )
25.29(c2 )4 +(0.54)(c2 )2 +0.01
21.16(c2 )3 + (1.08)(c2 )
c2 (21.16c 2 + 1.08)

=0
=0
=0

c2 = 0
Sign Test
c2
0 0 0+
f(c2 ) sign 0 +
f(c2 ) is minimum
1 AU = 93 million miles
= 93 106 miles
= 93 106 [1.609] km
= 93 106 [1.609][103 ]m
= 93 106 [1609] m
d = |SC||c

2 =0

f(0)

93 106 [1609]

93 106 [1609]

[0.01] 93 106 [1609]


1.49637 1010
V=

k
d

1.171010
1.496371010

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241

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.2
2(a)

Ex 9.2
1(a)

1(b)

Centre (0,1)
Radius: r = 4
Circle: (x a)2 +(y b)2 = r 2
(x 0)2 + (y 1)2 = 42

Comparing coefficients:
2g = 2
2f = 10
g=1
f = 5

Radius: r = f 2 + g 2 c = (5)2 + 12 1 = 4

2
(3, 2)

Method 2 (standard form)


x 2 + y 2 + 2x 10y + 1
x 2 + 2x
+y 2 10y
(x + 1)2 12 +(y 5)2 52
(x + 1)2
+(y 5)2
2
[x (1)]
+(y 5)2

Centre: (3, 2)
Radius: r = 2
Circle: (x a)2 + (y b)2
= r2
(x 3)2 + [y (2)]2 = 22
(x 3)2 + (y + 2)2
= 22
1(c)

2(b)
3

(3,4)

Radius: f 2 + g 2 c = (3)2 + (2)2 4 = 3


Method 2 (standard form)
x 2 + y 2 4x 6y + 4
x 2 4x +y 2 6y
(x 2)2 22 +(y 3)2 32
(x 2)2
+(y 3)2
(x 2)2
+(y 3)2

(2,2)

Centre: (2,2)
Radius: r = 2
Circle: (x a)2
+(y b)2 = r 2
[x (2)]2 +[y (2)]2 = 22
(x + 2)2
+(y 2)2 = 22

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

c=4

Centre: (g, f) = (2,3)

Method 1 (general form)


x 2 + y 2 4x 6y +4 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx +2fy +c = 0
Comparing coefficients:
2g = 4
2f = 6
g = 2
f = 3

Centre: (3,4)
Radius: r = 3
Circle: (x a)2
+(y b)2 = r 2
2
[x (3)] +(y 4)2 = 32
(x + 3)2
+(y 4)2 = 32

=0
= 1
= 1
= 25
= 52

Centre: (1,5)
Radius: 5

1(d)

c=1

Centre: (g, f) = (1,5)

Method 1 (general form)


x 2 + y 2 + 2x 10y +1 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx +2fy +c = 0

=0
= 4
= 4
=9
= 32

Centre: (2,3)
Radius: 3

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242

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3

Method 1

Ex 9.2

A(8,0)

B(0, 4)
10

C(0, 16)

= 10
5(i)

centre (8, 10)


radius = 10

=5
= 25
= 20
= 20

Centre C
C(0,0)

= x3

(1)

y 2x = 0
sub (1) into (2):

(2)

=0

At A(8,0):
(8)2 + (0)2 + 2g(8) + 2f(0) + c
64 16g + c
(1)
At B(0, 4),
(0)2 + (4)2 + 2g(0) + 2f(4) + c
16 8f + c
(2)

=0
=0

( x 3) 2x = 0
2

=0

=3

= 2

=0
=0

y|x=2 = (2) 3 = 4
2

P(2, 4)
Radius r
r = |CP| = [(2) 0]2 + [(4) 0]2 = 20
Circle
(x a)2 + (y b)2

Solving (1), (2) & (3):


g = 8, f = 10, c = 64
x + y + 2(8)x + 2(10)y + 64
x 2 + y 2 + 16x + 20y + 64

x3
2
3

At C(0, 16),
(0)2 + (16)2 + 2g(0) + 2f(16) + c = 0
256 32f + c
=0
(3)

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

=5

Point P on circle
At point P on circle, where x 2y = 6 meets y
2x = 0,
x 2y = 6
2y
=x6

Circle:
(x a)2
+(y b)2
= r2
[x (8)]2 +[y (10)]2 = 102
(x + 8)2
+(y + 10)2
= 102

5 c
5c
c
c

(4)+(16)

g2

12 + (2)2 c = 5

y coordinate of centre

Method 2
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c

=5

f 2

x coordinate of centre
= 8

C(2, 1) = (g, f)
Comparing coefficients:
g = 2
f=1

(x 0)2 + (y 0)2
x + y2
=0
=0

5(ii)

sleightofmath.com

= r2
2

= (20)
= 20

Check point (2,6) lies on circle


(2)2 + (6)2 = 20
40
= 20 [inconsistent]
No, (2,6) does not lie in circle

243

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

Ex 9.2

Points A & B
At A & B, 12x 5y = 11 cuts x 2 + y 2 6x +
2y 15 = 0
12x 5y= 11
5y
= 12x + 11
y

12x+11

(1)

or

12x+11 2

5
144x2 +264x+121

y|x=1 = 2(1) y|x=3 = 2 ( )


5

=2

=0

6x + 2 (

) 6x +

25

x=

(2)

12x+11

5
24x+22

P(1,2)

x +(

Points P & Q
At P & Q, x 2 + y 2 + 4x 6y + 3 = 0 & y = 2x meet
x 2 + (2x)2 + 4x 6(2x) + 3 = 0
x 2 + 4x 2 + 4x 12x + 3
=0
2
5x 8x + 3
=0
(x 1)(5x 3)
=0
x=1

x 2 + y 2 6x + 2y 15 = 0
sub (1) into (2):
x 2 + y 2 6x + 2y 15
x +(

7(i)

3 6

Q( , )
5 5

) 15 = 0
15 = 0

7(ii)

bisector of PQ
3 6

P(1,2) Q ( , )
5 5

x2
+

144 2
x
25

264

25

PQ bisector of PQ

121
25

Point:

6x
+

24
5

234

25

144

13

A (
6(ii)

x=

24
13

12( )+11

24
13

6
13

13

=
)

B(

6
13

12( )+11
5

13

29
13
29

8(i)

43

13
43

A (

13

29

) B(

13

43

)
2

24
6
29
43
|AB| = [( ) ( )] + [( ) ( )]
13

13

13

mPQ

6
5

4 8

)= ( , )
5 5

= (2)(6 =
)

5
3
(1)( )
5

1
4
( )
5
2
( )
5

1
2

(x x1 )

=m

8
5

2
1

= x+

= x+2
2

x 2 + y 2 2x + 8y 23 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx +2fy +c
=0

c = 23

Centre: (g, f) = (1, 4)


Radius: f 2 + g 2 c
= (4)2 + (1)2 (23)

= 36
=6

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

Comparing coefficients
2g = 2
2f = 8
g = 1
f=4

13 13

13

2+

13 13

Length of AB
24

y y1

3
5

y ( ) = ( ) [x ( )]

y|x= 6 =

PQ :

=0
=0
or

13

=0
=0

25

24

y|x=24 =

Gradient: m =

169x +234x 144


(13x + 24)(13x 6)
x=

MPQ = (

22

15
169 2
x
25
2

1+

= 40 = 4 10 = 210

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244

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 9.2

Tangent AB

10

P(3, 10)
210
AB

bisector of AB
AB bisector of AB

C(1, 4)

Point:

Point:

P(3, 10)

Gradient: mAB =

Points on circle
A(2,3) B(1,6)

1
mPC

1
(10)(4)

( (3)(1) )

1
6
)
2

1
AB :

y y1

9(i)

= x 11

3
1

bisector of AB

9(ii)

9(iii)

(2)+4
2

= 1

Centre C
At C, y = 6 2x meets AB (x = 1)
y|x=1 = 6 2(1)
=4
C(1,4)

2 2

1
(3)(6)

[(2)(1)]

= 3 =
3

= m (x x1 )
1

9
2

=x

1
2

=x+4

Radius r
r = |AC| = [2 (3)]2 + (3 1)2 = 29
Circle
(x a)2

Radius r
r = |AC| = [(2) 1]2 + (0 4)2 = 25 = 5
Circle
(x a)2 +(y b)2 = r 2
(x 1)2 +(y 4)2 = (5)2

1 9

)=( , )

Centre C
At C, AB (y = x + 4) meets 2x + 5y = 1
2x + 5(x + 4) = 1
2x + 5x + 20 = 1
7x
= 21
x
= 3
y|x=3 = (3) + 4
=1
C(3,1)

Points on circle
A(2,0) B(4,0)

x=

mAB

y (10) = ( ) [x (3)]

y ( ) = (1) [x ( )]

= x1

y y1

= mAB (x x1 )

y + 10

(2)+(1) (3)+(6)

Gradient: mAB =

AB:

MAB = (

+(y b)2

= r2

[x (3)]2 +(y 1)2 = (29)


(x + 3)2 +(y 1)2
= 29
11(i)

Points A & B
At A & B, x 2 + y 2 4x + 6y 12 = 0 cuts x
axis (y = 0).
x 2 + (0)2 4x + 6(0) 12 = 0
x 2 4x 12
=0
(x + 2)(x 6)
=0
x = 2 or x = 6
A(2,0)
B(6,0)
Length of AB
|AB| = 6 (2) = 8

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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245

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.2

11(ii) Centre C
x 2 + y 2 4x + 6y 12 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

12(ii)

Comparing coefficients:
2g = 4
2f = 6
g = 2
f=3

= MAD

(2, 3) = (
2 =

(2)+(d1 ) (0)+(d2 )
2

(2)+(d1 )
2

and

12(i)

3 =

d1 = 6
D(6, 6)

Centre C of
At C, AB (y = x) cuts circle (x 2 + y 2 = 36)
x 2 + (x)2 = 36
2x 2
= 36
2
x
= 18
x
= 18 = 9 2 = 32
x = 32
or
x = 32
y|x=32 = 32
y|x=32 = 32

)
(0)+(d2 )
2

d2 = 6

=
5
5

C(32, 32)

C(32, 32)

Radius r of
r = |BC|

5
Centre: A(5, 5) or B(5,5)
Radius: r = 5
C1 :
C2 :

Circle with centre (, ) & radius 6


(x 0)2 + (y 0)2 = 62
x2 + y2
= 36

Point D
D(d1 , d2 )
C


AB : y = x

= (g f) = (2, 3)

Centre C

= (5 32) + [5 (32)]

[x (5)]2 + [y (5)]2 = 52
(x 5)2 + (y 5)2 = 52

= (25 302 + 18) + (25 + 302 + 18)


= 96
Circle
C3 :

[x (32)]

or [x (32)]

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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2
2

+[y (32)]
+[y (32)]

2
2

= (96)
2

= (96)

246

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(i)

Ex 9.2

Tangent
x + 2y = 5
2y
= x 5
y

= x

Normal
Point:

14
C(1,3)
P

x + 2y = 5

Normal:

1
mtan

1
1
2

( )

=2

y y1 = mnorm (x x1 )
[x (1)]
y (3)= (2)
(x + 1)
y3 =2
y 3 = 2x + 2
y
= 2x + 5

Centre C
x 2 + y 2 4x 8y 5 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

Point P on circle
1

At P, tangent (y = x ) meets normal


(y = 2x + 5)
1

Comparing coefficients
2g = 4
2f = 8
g = 2
f = 4

x = 2x + 5
5
2

15
2

= 3

Centre C

y|x=3 = (3)

Area of ABC = | |

13(ii) Centre
C(1,3)

Radius
r = |CP| = [(3) (1)]2 + [(1) 3]2 = 20

2
1

5
8

2
4

2
||
1

1 16 + 20 + (2)
|
|
2 (5) 16 8

1
|15|
2

= 7.5 units 2
= r2

[x (1)]2 +(y 3)2 = (20)


(x + 1)2 +(y 3)2
= 20

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

= (g, f) = (2,4)

Area of triangle ABC


A(2, 1) B(5,8) C(2,4)

= 1
P(3, 1)

Circle
(x a)2 +(y b)2

=0
=0
=0

10x 2 70x + 100 = 0


x 2 7x +10
=0
(x 2)(x 5)
=0
x=2
or x = 5
y|x=2 = 3(2) 7
y|x=5 = 3(5) 7
= 1
=8
A(2, 1)
B(5,8)

C(1,3) or P

Gradient: mnorm =

Point A & B
At A & B, (y = 3x 7) cuts
(x 2 + y 2 4x 8y 5 = 0)
x 2 + (3x 7)2
4x 8(3x 7) 5
2
2
x + (9x 42x + 49) 4x 24x + 56 5
(10x 2 42x + 49)
28x + 51

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247

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 9.2

x 2 + y 2 + 4x +6y 12 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx +2fy +c = 0
Comparing coefficients
2g = 4
2f = 6
g=2
f=3

16

Line & Circle


y = mx 1
x 2 + y 2 4x + 3 = 0

(1)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 + (mx 1)2
4x + 3 = 0
2
2 2
x +(m x 2mx + 1) 4x + 3 = 0
(1 + m2 )x 2 + (2m 4)x + 4
=0

c = 12

Centre C = (g, f) = (2, 3)


Radius r = f 2 + g 2 c

Discriminant
For two distinct points:
b2 4ac
(2m 4)2 4(1 + m2 )(4)
(4m2 + 16m + 16) 16(1 + m2 )
(4m2 + 16m + 16) 16 16m2
12m2 + 16m
3m2 4m
m(3m 4)

= 32 + 22 (12) = 25 = 5

(3, 1)

(2, 3)

= [(2) (3)]2 + [(3) (1)]2


=

+
4

Distance from centre to point (3, 1)


12

>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

0 < m < [shown]

(2)2

= 5
< radius
point lies inside circle

17

any line passing through (-3,-1) cannot be


tangent to circle

Centre
x 2 + y 2 + 2x 2y 3 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
C(1,1)

Comparing coefficients:
2g = 2 2f = 2
g=1
f = 1

P(1,2)
Tangent

Centre: C(g, f) = (1,1)


Tangent
Point:

P(1,2) or C(1,1)

Gradient: mtan =
=

1
mnorm

1
(1)(2)

[(1)(1)]

1
mCP

1
1
)
2

= 2

Tangent: y y1 = mtan (x x1 )
y (2)= (2)[x (1)]
y 2 = 2x + 2
y
= 2x + 4

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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248

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18(i)
P(x, y)

Ex 9.2
19(ii) bisector of PQ ( )
P(2, 2) Q(6,0)

A(a, 0) B(a, 0)

Point:
PA

= 2PB

[x (a)]2 + (y 0)2

= 2(x a)2 + (y 0)2

(x + a)2 + y 2

= 2(x a)2 + y 2

(x + a)2 + y 2

= 4[(x a)2 + y 2 ]

(x 2 + 2ax + a2 ) + y 2

= 4[(x 2 2ax + a2 ) + y 2 ]

x 2 + 2ax + a2 + y 2

= 4x 2 8ax + 4a2 + 4y 2

3x 2 + 10ax 3a2 3y 2

=0

x2

10
3

ax + a2 + y 2
2

Gradient: mPQ =
=
PQ :

19(iii)
2

3
5

+ a2 + y 2 = 0

(x a) + y 2

(x x1

)2

+ (y y1

)2

16 2
a
9

= r [shown]

1
1
2

= 2

(x a)2 + (y b)2
= r2
(x 6)2 + [y (5)]2 = (5)2
(x 6)2 + (y + 5)2
= 25
[wrong answer in textbook]

4
3

Circle
Centre: P(2, 2)
Point: Q(6,0)
Radius: r = |PQ|

20(i)

= (2 6)2 + [(2) 0]2


(4)2

(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2 = r 2
(x 2)2 [y (2)]2 = (20)
(x 2)2 + (y + 2)2 = 20

x 2 + y 2 4x 4y = 1
y=x+c

(1)
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


x 2 + (x + c)2
4x 4(x + c)
2
2
2
x + (x + 2cx + c ) 4x 4x 4c
(2x 2 + 2cx + c 2 )
8x 4c
2
2
(2c
2x +
8)x + c 4c 1

(2)2

= 20

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

19(iv) C2 :

radius = a

C1 :

2
4

1
(2)(0)

[ (2)(6) ]

Radius of C2 = 5
Centre of C2 =(6, 5)

) = (4, 1)

18(ii) centre (5 a, 0)

19(i)

y y1 = mPQ (x x1 )
y (1) = (2) [x (4)]
y+1
= 2x + 8
y
= 2x + 7

25 2
a
9

mPQ

(6,0)

(x a)

[(x a) ( a) ] + a + y = 0
3

2+6 (2)+(0)

=0

MPQ = (

x 2 + (c 4)x +

c2 4c1
2

=1
=1
=1
=0
=0

[shown]

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249

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.2

20(ii) Sum of roots


Roots: x1 & x2

21
b

Sum of roots = x1 + x2 =

(c4)
1

(2)]2

=4c

P(9,2)
C(2, 1)

By Pythagoras Theorem,
|PT|2 = |PC|2

Midpoint of PQ

=(
=(
=(
=(

2
x1 +x2
2
x1 +x2
2
4c
2
4c
2

2
x1 +x2 +2c

2
x1 +x2 +2c

2
(4c)+2c

2
4+c

(x, y) = MPQ (
x =
2x
c

4c 4+c
2

= 72 + 32
= 58
= 45

)
)
PT

22

y=

= 45

Method 1 (graphical inspection)

x = (y k)2 + h

4c
2

(h, k)

4+c
2

two y intercepts

(2)

Method 2 (solution)
x = a(y k)2 + h

sub (1) into (2)


y=

13
13

= 35

=4c
= 4 2x (1)

y=

= 9 5

20(iii) Curve traced by midpoint

|CT|2

= [(9 2)2 + [2 (1)]2 ] (13)

(x1 +c)+(x2 +c)

= (13)

Q(x2 , y2 ) lies on y = x + c:
y2 = x2 + c
Q(x2 , x2 + c)

x1 +x2

= 13

(1)]2

[x
+ [y
Centre: C(2, 1)
Radius: r = 13

Points P & Q
P(x1 , y1 ) lies on y = x + c:
y1 = x1 + c
P(x1 , x1 + c)

MPQ = (

Circle
(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2

4+(42x)
2
82x

At y axis (x = 0):
0
= a(y k)2 + h
2
a(y k) = h > 0
h<0

y = x + 4

(y k)2

(y k)

= k

>0

a>0

h
a
h
a

two y intercepts

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250

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


22

Ex 9.2

Method 3 (discriminant)
a(y k)2 + h
=0
a(y 2 2ky + k 2 ) +h = 0
ay 2 2aky +ak 2 + h = 0
i.e. A = a, B = 2ak, C = ak 2 + h

23

9
4

Grad: mAB =
AB :

1
mAB

=
=

31
8
31
18

31

y|x=31 = 2 ( )
18

18

D(

31

9
31 31
18

31

31

= [(3) ( )] + [(1) ( )]
18

) = ( , 3)

2465
324

(1)(5)

[(3)(4)]

Circle
(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
1

(x

y (3)= ( ) [x ( )]
1

4
1

y3 = x+
y

Radius r
r = |AD|

3+4 1+5
2


AB bisector of AB
,

x + 3 = 2x

Points
A(3,1) B(4,5) C(1,3)

Point: MAB = (

At D, AB (y = x + 3 ) meets AC (y = 2x).

Discriminant
B 2 4AC = (2ak)2 4(a)(ak 2 + h)
= 4a2 k 2 4a2 k 2 4ah
= 4ah
>0
a > 0, h < 0
two y-intercepts
23

Centre D

= x+3
4

31 2

) + (y

18

31 2
9

= r2
2

= (

2465
324

7
8


AC bisector of AC
Point: MAC = (
Grad: mAC =
AC :

3+(1) 1+3
2
1
mAC

) = (1,2)

1
(1)(3)
[(3)(1)]

=2

y y2 = mAC (x x2 )
y (2)= (2) (x 1)
y 2 = 2x 2
y
= 2x

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251

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 9
A2

Rev Ex 9
A1(i)

Line AC
A(4,4) C(6,0)
Point:
A(4,4) or C(6,0)
(4)(0)

Gradient: mAC = (4)(6) =

4
2

(1)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(mx + 1)2
=x
2 2
m x + 2mx + 1
=x
2 2
m x + (2m 1)x + 1 = 0

= 2

y y1 = m (x x1 )
y (0)= (2)[x (6)]
y = 2x + 12

AC:

Line & Curve


y = mx + 1, m > 0
y2 = x

Point B
At B, AC meets y 2 = 4x
(2x + 12)2
= 4x
2
4x 48x + 144 = 4x
4x 2 52x + 144 = 0
x 2 13x + 36
=0
(x 4)(x 9)
=0
x=4
or x = 9
(taken)
y|x=9 = 2(9) + 12
= 6
B(9, 6)

Discriminant
For two distinct points:
b2 4ac
(2m 1)2 4(m2 )(1)
(4m2 4m + 1) 4m2
4m + 1
4m

>0
>0
>0
>0
> 1

<

1
4

Combine inequalities:
m > 0 and m <

1
4

0 < m < [shown]


4

A1(ii) A(4,4) B(9, 6) C(6,0)


|AC| = (4 6)2 + (4 0)2
=

(2)2

A3(i)

(10,18)

42

= 4 + 16

13

= 20
= 4 5
= 25 units

13

Radius: r = 13
Point: (10,18)
y coordinate of centre C = 13

|CB| = (6 9)2 + [0 (6)]2


C1 : (x a)2 + (y b)2
= r2
2
2
(x a) + (y 13)
= 132
[(10) a]2 + [(18) 13]2 = 169
(10 a)2 + 52
= 169
2
(10 a)
= 144
a2 20a + 100
= 144
2
a 20 44
=0
(a + 2)(a 22)
=0
a = 2
or
a = 22
C(2,13)
C(22,13)

= (3)2 + (6)2
= 9 + 36
= 45
= 9 5
= 35
A1(iii) AC: CB

= 25: 35
= 2: 3

[x (2)]2 + (y 13)2 = 132


or (x 22)2 + (y 13)2 = 132

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252

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 9

A3(ii) Centre: (2, 13) or (22, 13)


Radius: r = 13
[x (2)]2 + [y (13)]2 = 132
C2 :
or (x 22)2 + [y (13)]2 = 132

A4(iii) Radius
1

r = |AB|
2

= [(2) 6]2 + [4 (2)]2


2
1

A4(i)

= 100 = 5
2

Points on circle
A(2,4) B(6, 2)

Circle
(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2 = r 2
[x (2)]2 + [y (1)]2 = (5)2
(x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 25

Centre C
C = MAB = (

(2)+6 4+(2)
2

) = (2,1)

A4(ii) Line DE
Point:
C(2,1)
Gradient: DE AB,
mDE =
DE:

1
mAB

Points D & E
=

1
(4)(2)

[(2)(6)]

1
[

6
]
8

4
3

y y1 = mDE (x x1 )
y (1)=

4
3
4

[x (2)]

y1 = x
y

3
4

3
5

+ [( x ) 1]

(x 2)2

+( x )

25 2
x
9
25 2
x
9
2

= x

(x 2)2

100
9
100
9

3
3
16 2
64
+( x x
9
9
100

x+
x

= 25
= 25

64
9

)= 25
= 25
=0

=0
=0
or x = 5

y|x=1 = (1)
= 3
E(1, 3)

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9
125

x 4x 5
(x + 1)(x 5)
x = 1

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3
2

8 2

(x 2 4x + 4)

At D & E, circle meets DE (y = x )

y|x=5 = (5)
=5
D(5,5)

253

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5(i)

Rev Ex 9

Circle & Line


x 2 + y 2 + 6x 8y = 0
y = mx

B1(i)
(1)

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


1 2

x 2 + (mx )

+6x 8 (mx ) = 0

x +

(m2 2

3
2

9
1

3
8

x mx + ) +6x 8mx +

(1 + m2 )x 2 mx +
(1 + m2 )x 2 + (6

26
3

+(6 8m)x +

m) x +

25

=0
=0
=0

Discriminant
b2 4ac
= (6

26
3

m)

B1(ii) Length of AB
A(9, 6) B(4,4)

25

4(1 + m2 ) ( )

|AB| = [(9) (4)]2 + [(6) 4]2

= (36 104m +
= (36 104m +

676
9
676
9

m2 )

100

2)

100

9
9

= 125

(1 + m2 )

100
9

= 25 5
= 55 units

224

= 64m2 104m +

B1(iii) Area of triangle CAB


A(9, 6) B(4,4) C(4, 4)

For line to intersect circle at two distinct points:


b2 4ac
>0
224

Area of CAB

1 4 4 9 4
|
|
2 4 4 6 4
1
= [(16) + 24 + 36 16 (36) 24]
2
1
= (40)
2

24

= 20 unit 2

64m2 104m +

>0

576m2 936m + 224 > 0


72m2 117m + 28
>0
(24m 7)(3m 4)
>0
+

m<

24

or m >
3

A5(ii) For line to be tangent to circle:


b2 4ac
=0
64m2 104m +
m=

Points A & B
At A & B, y 2 = 4x meets y = 2x + 12
(2x + 12)2
= 4x
2
4x + 48x + 144 = 4x
4x 2 + 52x + 144 = 0
x 2 + 13x + 36
=0
(x + 9)(x + 4)
=0
x = 9
or x = 4
y|x=9 = 2(9) + 12
y|x=4 = 2(4) + 12
= 6
=4
A(9, 6)
B(4,4)

7
24

224
9

B1(iv) distance from C to AB


F Foot of from C to AB
|CF| = distance from C to AB

=0

Equate area of CAB:

2
1

or m =

A5(iii) For line to not meet circle:


b2 4ac
<0
64m2 104m +

224
9

|AB||CF|

= 20

(55)|CF| = 20

CF

40
55

8
5

85
5

units

<0

(24m 7)(3m 4) < 0


+

7
24

24

<x<

4
3

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B2(i)

Line & circle


y = mx
x 2 + y 2 4mx + 3 = 0

Rev Ex 9

(1)
(2)

B2(iii) Line & Circle


line is parallel to y = x,
y=x+c

x 2 + (x + c)2 4x + 3 = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
x 2 + (x + c)2
4x + 3 = 0
2
2
2
x + (x + 2cx + c ) 4x + 3 = 0
(2x 2 + 2cx + c 2 )
4x + 3 = 0
2x 2 + (2c 4)x + (c 2 + 3)
=0

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 + (mx)2 4mx + 3 = 0
x 2 + m2 x 2 4mx + 3 = 0
(1 + m2 )x 2 4mx + 3 = 0
Discriminant
For no intersection:
b2 4ac
(4m)2 4(1 + m2 )(3)
16m2 12(1 + m2 )
4m2 3(1 + m2 )
4m2 3 3m2
m2 3
(m + 3)(m 3)
+

(1)

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<0

Discriminant
For line to be tangent to circle:
b2 4ac
=0
2
2
(2c 4) 4(2)(c + 3)
=0
2
2
(4c 16c + 16) 8(c + 3) = 0
(4c 2 16c + 16) 8c 2 24 = 0
4c 2 16c 8
=0
2
c + 4c + 2
=0

c=

3 3
3 < m < 3
m is positive integer,
m=1

(4)(4)2 4(1)(2)
2(1)
422
2

48
2

= 2 2

Line with =
y = x + (2 2)
= x 2 2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B3

Rev Ex 9

Method 1 (algebraic)
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
(13,0): 132 + 2g(13) + c = 0
169 + 26g + c = 0
(27,0): 272 + 2g(27) + c = 0
729 + 54g + c = 0

B3

Method 2 (graphical)
bisector of PQ
PQ bisector of PQ
PQ : x =

(1)

(13)+(27)
2

= 20

(0,9)
O

bisector of PR
Point:

(2)

MPR = (
=(

(0,9):

02 + 92 + 2f(9) + c = 0
81 + 18f + c
= 0 (3)

Gradient: mPR =
PR :

(1) (2): 560 28g = 0


28g
= 560
g
= 20

13+0 0+9
2
13 9
2

, )
2

mPR

y y1

(27,0)
(13,0)

9
]
13

13
9

(x x1 )

=m

1
(0)(9)

[(13)(0)]

13

13

y ( ) = ( ) [x ( )]
2

9
2

Put g = 20 into (1):


169 + 26(20) + c
=0
c
= 351

=
=

9
13

169

9
13

18
44

x
x

Centre C
At C, PQ (x = 20) meets PR (y =

Put g = 20 & c = 351 into (3):


81 + 18f + 351 = 0
f
= 24

y|x=20 =

13
9

(20)

13
9

44
9

44
9

= 24
C(20,24)
Radius r
C(20,24) P(13,0) Q(27,0) R(0,9)
r = |CP| = (20 13)2 + (24 0)2
= 625 = 25
Circle
(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2 = r 2
(x 20)2 + (y 24)2 = 252
B4(i)

x 2 + y 2 6x 2y 15 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
Comparing coefficients:
2g = 6,
2f = 2,
g = 3
f = 1
Centre:

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c = 15

Z(3,1)

256

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B4(ii)

Rev Ex 9
B4(iii)

(2,3)

(3,1)

AB:

(3,1)

Chord AB
Point: M(2,3)
Grad: mAB =

1
mZM

1
(1)(3)

[(3)(2)]

1
2
)
1

1
2

Line CD
Point:
Z(3,1)
Gradient: CD AB

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )

mCD = mAB =

y (3)= [x (2)]
2
1

1
2

y y1 = m(x x1 )

CD:

y3 = x1
y

y (1)= ( ) [x (3)]

2
1

= x+2

y 1= x

3
2

= x

(1)

Points C & D
1

At C & D, CD (y = x ) meets
circle (x 2 + y 2 6x 2y 15 = 0)
1 2

x2 + ( x )
2
1
2
x + ( x2
4
5 2
1

2
1

x+ )

( x x+ )
4

5 2
x
4
2

2
15
2

4
55

=0

6x x + 1 15

=0

7x 14

=0

=0

(6)(6)2 4(1)(11)
2(1)

y|x=325

645
2

= 3 25

y|x=3+25

= (3 25)

=0

5x 30x 55
x 2 6x 11
x=

6x 2 ( x ) 15

= (3 + 25)

3
1
3
1
= ( + 5)
= ( 5)
2
2
2
2
= 1 + 5
= 1 5
C(3 25, 1 5) D(3 + 25, 1 + 5)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5
Circle & line
x 2 + y 2 4x 2y + 1
x 2 4x + y 2 2y + 1
x 2 4x + (y 1)2 12 + 1
x 2 4x + (y 1)2

Rev Ex 9
B5(i)
=0
=0
=0
=0

For two distinct points:


b2 4ac
>0
4k(3k + 4) > 0
+

(1)

3
4

k < or k > 0

kx y = k + 1
y
= kx + k + 1
y
= kx k 1

B5(ii) For intersection at one exact point:


b2 4ac
=0
4k(3k + 4) = 0

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


x 2 4x + [(kx k 1) 1]2
x 2 4x +(kx k 2)2
x 2 4x +[kx (k + 2)]2
x 2 4x +[k 2 x 2 2k(k + 2)x + (k + 2)2 ]
(1 + k 2 )x 2 +[4 2k(k + 2)]x +(k + 2)2
(1 + k 2 )x 2 +(4 2k 2 4k)x +(k + 2)2
(1 + k 2 )x 2 +(2k 2 4k 4)x +(k + 2)2

k = 0 or k =
3

=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0

B5(iii) For no points of intersection:


b2 4ac
<0
4k(3k + 4) < 0
+

4
3

+
0

<k<0
3

Discriminant
b2 4ac
= (2k 2 4k 4)2 4(1 + k 2 )(k + 2)2
= (2)2 (k 2 + 2k + 2)2 4(k 2 + 1)(k 2 + 4k + 4)
= 4(k 2 + 2k + 2)2
4(k 2 + 1)(k 2 + 4k + 4)
k 2 (k 2 + 2k + 2)
k 2 (k 2 + 4k + 4)
]
= 4 [+2k(k 2 + 2k + 2)] 4 [
+1(k 2 + 4k + 4)
2
+2(k + 2k + 2)
= 4(k 4

4(k

+2k 3
+2k 3
4

= 4(k 4
4(k 4

+4k

+4k 3
+4k 3

= 4k 4
+16k 3
4k 4
16k 3
= 12k 2 + 16k
= 4k(3k + 4)

+2k 2
+4k 2
+2k 2
+4k 2
+k 2

+4k
+4k

+4)

+4k

+4)

+8k 2
+5k 2

+8k
+4k

+4)
+4)

+32k 2
20k 2

+32k
16k

+16
16

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258

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.1

Ex 10.1
1(i)

1(ii)

AD = CD
(S)
BDA = BDC (A)
BD = BD
(S)
ABD CBD

(D is mid pt of AC)
(BD AC)
(common side)
(SAS congruency)

(corr. s of s)

ABD = CBD
i. e. BD bisects ABC

2(i)

(given)
AP
= QE
AP + PQ = QE + PQ
AQ
= EP

AQ = EP
(S)
BAQ = DEA (A)
BQA = DPE (A)

D
C

(Proven)
(Given)
(iso. CPQ with
CP = CQ)
(AAS congruency)

ABQ EDP
2(iii)

QBA = PDE

(corr. s of s)

2(ii)

D
C
A

D
C
A

3(i)

BOA ~ BYT

AB
BO

BT
BY

(given)
(corr. s of s)

A
B

3(ii)

(SS)

AB
BO

BT
BY

(A) ABT = OBY


BAT ~ BOY

(proven)

ABC = AMN (A)


ACB = ANM (A)
ABC ~ AMN

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(opp. )
(SAS similarity)

4(i)

(corr. )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)

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259

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(ii)

AC

BC

Ex 10.1

AN

(corr. s of s)

MN

AC MN = AN BC
NC AC = AN BC (MN = NC;
equal sides of iso. MNC
with NMC = NCM)

5(i)

CAB = BCD (A)


ACB = CBD (A)
ABC ~ CDB

(90)
(alt. )
(AA similarity)

B
5(ii)

AC

CB

CB

(corr. s of s)

BD

AC BD = CB 2
6

AC GF
AC GE
GE BD
AC BD

(BG = GA, BF = FC, mid pt thm)

(given)
E
G

7(i)

DE BC

AD = DB, AE = EC,
mid pt thm

7(ii)

DE = BC
2
1

= (2x)
2

(AD = DB, AE = EC, mid pt thm)

(BC = 2x)

=x

2
C

8(i)

SDM = TCM (A)


DMS = CMT (A)
DM = CM
(S)
SDM TCM

(given)
(opp. )
(M is mid-pt of DC)
(AAS congruency)

D
A
S

M
C

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 10.1

In DSB & CTA,


DSB = CTA(A)
DS = CT
(S)
SDM = TCM
2SDB = 2TCA
SDB = TCA(A)

( SDM TCM)
( SDM TCM)
( SDM TCM)
(DB bisects SDM &
CA bisects TCM)

DSB CTA
SB = TA

(AAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)

D
A
S

Prove: ANT ELR

10

(A) (iso. AGE with AG = EG)


(given)
(given)

R
I

(S)
(SAS congruency)

11(i)

ZX = ZQ
(S) (given)
JXZ = FQZ
(A) (iso. QZX with QZ = XZ)
JQ
= XF
JQ + QX = XF + QX
(given)
JX
= FQ
(S)
JZX FZQ

AR
= ET
(given)
AR (TR) = ET (TR)
AT
= ER
(S)
NAT = LER
AG
= EG
NG
= LG
Subtracting sides,
AG NG = EG LG
AN
= EL
ANT ELR

(SAS congruency)

JX = FQ

BAE = DAC (A)

(AE bisects BAD)

AEB = DEC
= DCE
= ACD (A)

(opp. )
(iso. CDE with DE = DC)
(common )

ABE ~ ADC

(AA similarity)

A
D

11(ii)

AB
AE

AD
AC

E
B

( ABE ~ ADC)

AB AC = AD AE

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

DEB = FDE (A)

(alt. )

BDE = CEF
= EFD (A)

(90)
(alt. )

BDE ~ EFD

(AA similarity)

12(ii) EFD = CEF (A)

13(i)

Ex 10.1
A

FED = DBE
= ECF (A)

( BDE ~ EFD)
(iso. ABC with AB = AC)

EFD ~ CEF

(AA similarity)

13(ii) FAC = EBC (A)


FCA = ECB (A)
AFC ~ BEC

(alt. s)

AFC = 180 ACF CAF


180)
= 180 (BCE) (EAF)
= 180 BCE (EBF)
= BEC
180)

(s in AFC =

(common )
(EAF = EBF)
(s in BEC =

(EAF = EBF)
(common )
(AA similarity)

13(iii)

CF

CA

CE
CB

( AFC ~ BEC)

CF CB = CE CA

14(i)

In DEC & ABC,


EDC = BAC
(A)
DCE = ACB
(A)
DEC ~ ABC
CD
CA

=
=

(right angles)
(common )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of ~ s)

CE
CB
1

E
B

(E is mid-pt of BC)

D is the mid-point of AC
14(ii) In ADE & CDE,
DA = DC
(S)
ADE = CDE (A)
DE = DE
(S)
ADE CDE
AE = CE
AEC is isosceles
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(D is mid-point of AC)
(90)
(common side)
(SAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)
( with 2 equal s)

E
B

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

DBG = ABC
= ACB
= DGB
DBG is isosceles
DG = BD
= CE

15(ii) DG = EC
(S)
DFG = EFC (A)
DGF = ECF (A)
DGF ECF

Ex 10.1
A

(iso. ABC with AB = AC)


(corr. )
( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso. DBG)
(BD = CE)

(proven)
(opp. )
(alt. )
(AAS congruency)

15(iii) DF = FE

(corr. sides of s)

16(i)

BP = AC
AB = QC

(S)
(S)

(Given)
(Given)

FBP = 90 FPB
= 90 EPC
= ECP
ABP = QCA (A)

(FBP)
(opp. )
(ECP)

A
F
E
P

B
C

ABP QCA
16(ii) BAP = CQA
AP = QA
QAP is isosceles
CQA = APQ
BAP = APQ

(SAS congruency)
(corr. s of s)
(corr. sides of s)
( with 2 equal sides)
(equal s of iso.)

A
F
E
P

B
C

16(iii) QAP = FAQ + BAP


= FAQ + (CQA)
( ABP QCA)
= FAQ + (90 FAQ) (FAQ)
= 90
AP AQ

A
F
E
P

B
C

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(i)

In FEC & BAC


FCE = BCA (A)
FEC = BAC (A)
FEC ~ BAC
CF
CB

=
=

CE
CA
1

Ex 10.1
B

(Common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of ~ s)

BF: BC = 1: 2
17(ii) AB = 2EF

(CE = EA, CF = FB,


midpt thm)

In DCA & FEA,


DAC = FAE (A)
DCA = FEA (A)
DCA ~ FEA
CD
EF

CD =

AC
AE
AC
AE

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of~ s)

EF

= 2EF
AB: CD = 1: 1
18(i)

AC
= 3EC
(Given)
AE + EC = 3EC
= 2EC
= 2(2EF) (F is mid pt of EC)
= 4EF

E
G
B

18(ii) BE DF

AG
AD

AG =

AE
AF
AE
AF
4
5

AG
GD

E
G
B

F
D

AD

= AD

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of ~ )

(CD = DB, CF = FE,


mid pt thm)

In GAE & DAF,


GAE = DAF (A)
AGE = ADF (A)
GAE ~ DAF

(AE = 4EF)

=4

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19

Ex 10.1

1st pair of similar triangles


In EFC & ABC,
EFC = ABC (A)
ECF = ACB (A)
EFC ~ ABC

A
AC = BC = 1cm

E
EF
FC

=
=

AB
BC
AB
AB

(AB = BC)

=1
EF = FC

B
(1)

DF
BD = DC = 0.5cm

2nd pair of similar triangles


In BFE & ABD,
BFE = ABD
(A)
(90)
EBF = ABD ABE
= 90 ABE (ABD = 90)
= BAD (A)
(BAD)
BFE ~ ABD
(AA similarity)
BF
FE

AB
BD
AB

=1
2

BC

AB

=1
2

AB

(corr. sides of ~ s)
(D is midpoint of BC)
(AB = BC)

=2
BF = 2EF

(2)

Sum of sides
BF + FC
=1
sub (1) & (2) into (3):
(2EF) + (EF)
=1
3EF
=1
EF

(3)

1
3

20(i)

ADB = CDA
(A)
ABD = 90 BAD
= CAD
(A)
ABD ~ CAD

20(ii)

BD
AB

BD =
BD
DC
AD
AB
AD
AB

=
=
=

AD

(corr. sides of ~ s)

CA
AD2
CD
AD2
CD2
CD
CA
AB
AC

(90)
( BAD)
(BAC = 90)
(AA similarity)

(1)
(corr. sides of ~ s)
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


BD
DC

AB2
AC2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.2

Ex 10.2
1(i)

1(ii)

AEB = ECD (A)


AE = CE
(S)
BE = DE
(S)
ABE CDE

(opp. )
(AC and BD bisects at E)
(AC and BD bisects at E)
(SAS congruency)

E
B

ABCD is a parallelogram (diagonals bisect


each other)

E
B

2(i)

BF = DE
(S)
AFB = CED (A)
AF = CE
(S)
ABF CDE

(Given)
(90)
(Equal sides of square)
(SAS congruency)

2(ii)

AB = CD

(= sides)

BF = ED
FC = EA

ABD = CDB (A)


ADB = CBD (A)
BD = DB
(S)
ABD CDB

ABF CDE

(2 pairs of equal
opp. sides)

(alt. )
(alt. )
(common side)
(AAS congruency)

3(ii)

( ABD CDB)
AB = CD (= sides)
( ABD CDB)
AD = CB (= sides)
ABCD has 2 pairs of equal
sides

4(i)

A + B + C + D
A + B + (A) + (B)
2(A + B)
A + B

4(ii)

A = C (= )
(Given)
B = D (= )
(Given)
ABCD is a parallelogram (2 pairs of equal opp. s)

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(given)
(equal sides of
square AFCE)

Adding sides,
BF + FC = ED + EA
BC
= DA (= sides)
ABCD is a parallelogram

3(i)

= 360 (s of quad = 360)


= 360 (A = C, B = D)
= 360
= 180

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266

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

Ex 10.2

In ABC & CDA,


BAC = DCA
AC = CA

(A)
(S)

(given)
(common side)

XBA
= YDC
180 XBA = 180 YDC
ABC
= CDA (A)
ABC CDA
BA = DC (= )
BC = DA (= )
ABCD is a parallelogram

(given)
(s in a line = 180)
(AAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)
(corr. sides of s)
(2 pairs of equal opp. sides)

( ) (alt. , BAC = ACD)


BA CD
(corr. , BA CD)
XBA = XCD
XBA = YDC
(given)
XCD = YDC
( ) (alt. )
BC AD
(2 pairs of sides)
ABCD is a parallelogram
6)

( sides of ABCD)

AD BC
DX BY
AD
AX = CY

( )
= CB

AD + (AX) = CB + (CY)
DX
= BY (= )

(Equal opp. sides of


ABCD)
(given)
(AX = CY)

B
C

D
Y

XBYD is a parallelogram (1 pair of equal


& opp. sides)
7(i)

BE = DF
AB = CD

(S)
(S)

EBA = FDC (A)


ABE CDF

7(ii)

(given )
(Equal opp sides of
ABCD)
(alt. )
(SAS congruency)

D
F
E

(= )
AE = CF
( ABE CDF)
AEB
= CFD
( ABE CDF)
180 = 180

D
F
E

( )
AE CF
(alt. )
AECF is a parallelogram (1 pair of equal
& opp. sides)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(iii)

AE = CF
= 7cm

Ex 10.2

( ABE CDF)
(CF = 7cm)

D
F
E

8(i)

AC = AC
(S)
AB = AD
(S)
BC = DC
(S)
ABC ADC

(common side)
(equal adj. sides of kite)
(equal adj. sides of kite)
(SSS congruency)

E
B

D
C

8(ii)

CE = CE
(S)
BEC = DEC (A)
BE = DE
(S)
BCE DCE

(common side)
(Diagonals are )
(Longer diagonal bisects
shorter diagonal)
(SAS congruency)

E
B

D
C

8(iii)

BD AC

(Diagonals of kite are )

E
B

D
C

9?

(incomplete)
Diagonals are only equal if x = y = z = 90

x
A

1)

Statements
x = z

2)
3)
4)
5)

BAD = x
ABC = y
BCD = z
BAD + ABC = 180

6)

AD BC

7)

ABC + BCD = 180

8)

AB DC

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Reasons
x + y = y + z
x = z
opp.
opp.
opp.
BAD + ABC
= x + y
= 180

Supplementary int. s
ABC + BCD
y + z
= 180
Supplementary int. s

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

EH BD
GF BD
EH GF

Ex 10.2

(AE = ED, AH = HD, Mid pt thm)


(CF = FB, CG = GD, Mid pt thm)

D
H
A
G
E
I
B

EID = 90
EFG = 90

(BD DF)
(corr. )

D
H
A
G
E
I
B

10(ii) EH GF
EFG = 90
1

(proven) [ ]
(proven) [ ]

(AE = ED, AH = HD, mid pt thm)

GF = BD

(CF = FB, CG = GD, mid pt thm)

EFGH is a
rectangle

In EBF & ABD,


EBF = ABD (A)
EFB = ADB (A)
EFB ~ ADB
BF

=
=

I
C

( & equal opp. sides & 1 right )

EF BC

BD

G
E

[. ]

EH = GF

11(i)

D
H

EH = BD
2
1

BE
BA
1

(AE = EB, AF = FC, midpt thm)

A
F

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. s of ~ s)

F is midpt of BD
11(ii) In FDG & BDC,
FDG = BDC
DFG = DBC
DFG ~ DBC
DG
DC

=
=

DF
DB
1
2

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. s of ~ s)

D
F
G

(F is midpt of BD)

G is midpt of CD
11(iii) AF = FC
(Given)
BF = FD
(F is midpt of BD)
ABCD is a parallelogram (Diagonals bisect each
other)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

Ex 10.2

In BAD & CDA,


BA = CD
(S)
AD = DA
(S)
Draw line through A to DC
ABC = AFB
= DCB
BAD = CDA
BAD CDA

(given)
(common side)

(A)

(equal s of iso.
ABF)
(corr. )
(supple. int. s)
(SAS congruency)

D
E

C
A

D
E
F

B
( BAD CDA)
12(ii) ADB = DAC
ADE is isosceles ( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso.)
AE = DE

D
E

B
12(iii) BD
= CA
BD (DE) = CA (AE)
BE
= CE
BEC is isosceles

( BAD CDA)
(AE = DE)

D
E

( with 2 equal sides)

B
13(i)

AE = AD
(S)
EB = DC
(S)
AED
= ADE
AED + 90 = ADE + 90
AEB
= ADC (A)
ABE ACD

13(ii) AE = AD

(S)

(given)
(equal opp. sides of rect.)
(iso. AED)
( of rect. )
(SAS congruency)

D
F

( ABE ~ ACD)

AED = ADE
AEF = ADG (A)

(iso. AED)

AEF ADG

(AAS congruency)

D
F

2EF
1

(BF = 2EF)

(1)
E

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D
F

30 (2)
60

EBF = 30
ABC = 60

13(iii) sin EBF = EF


=

(given)

EAB = DAC
EAF = DAG (A)

BF
EF

60
C

(Complementary )

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270

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.2

AB = AC
iso. ABC
ABC = ACB = 60
ABC is equilateral
14(i)

AE XY

( ABE ACD)
( with 2 equal sides)
(equal s of iso.)
( with 2 s = 60)

(CX = XA, CY = YE, mid pt thm)

A
X
C
D
Y

F
E

14(ii) AE XY
XY BF
AE BF

(Proven)
(DX = XB, DY = YF,mid-pt thm)

A
X
C
D
Y

F
E

14(iii) AB DC
EF DC
AB DC ( )
( )
AE BF
BAEF is a
parallelogram

(ABCD is a )
(CDEF is a )

A
X

(proven)
( opp. sides )

C
D
Y
F
E

15

In ADE & CBF,


AE = CF
(S)
EAD = FCB
(A)

given
alt.

JH GI [= ] (given)
ED BF [= ] ( opp. sides of EBFD)
JG IH
HJGI is a
parallelogram

AD = CB
(S)
(equal opp. sides of ABCD)
ADE CBF
(SAS congruency)
DE = BF
[= ]
AED = CFB
DEF = BFE
(s in a line = 180)
DE BF
[ ] (alt. )
EBFD is a parallelogram (1 pair of equal & opp.
sides)

E
A

( opp. sides)

1)

C
F

2)

2)
E
A

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1)
G

I
B

271

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.3

Ex 10.3
1

ABC + ABD = 90 + ABD


( in semicircle)
= 90 + 90
( in semicircle)
= 180
i.e. C, B and D lie on a straight line

D
B
C

3(i)

APB = ABP
= 180 ABC
= ADC
CDP = CPD
CDP is isosceles
CD = CP

(iso APB with AB = AP)


(s in a line = 180)
(s in opp segment)

C
B
P
A

( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso.)

AEF + CDA
= AEF + (180 CBA)
= AEF + (ABF)
= AEF + (180 AEF)
= 180

(s in opp. segment)

C
B

(s in a line st. line)


(s in opp. segment)

D
F
A
E

3(ii)

AEF + CDA = 180


CD FE

(Proven)
(Supplementary int. s)

C
B

D
F
A
E

PB = PA
= PC

(Equal tangents from ext pt)


(Equal tangents from ext pt)

C
B
A

5(i)

ABC = ACB
= BAT

(iso. ABC with AB = AC)


(alt. segment thm)

B
O

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(ii)

ABC = BAT
CB ST

Ex 10.3

(proven)
(alt. s)

B
O

6(i)

OA = OD
OD = OC

(S)
(S)

(radius)
(radius)

B
O

AOD = OBC
= OCB
= DOC (A)

(corr. )
(iso. OCB with OC = OB)
(alt. )

C
A
D

AOD DOC
AD = CD
6(ii)

(SAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)
B

O
C
A
D

CDE = 180 ODC


ODA
= 180 ODC
(OCD)
= COD
7(i)

(s in a line = 180)
( AOD DOC)
s in = 180

EDC = DAC + DCA (ext. = sum of int. opp. s)


= DAC +
(iso. ADC with AD = DC)
(DAC)
= 2DAC

E
D
A
C

7(ii)

ABD = ACD
= CAD
= CBD

(s in same segment)
(iso. ADC with DA = DC)
(s in same segment)

E
D
A
C

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(i)

APB = 90
= PQA

Ex 10.3

(A)

( in semicircle)
(Given)

B
P

PBA = QAP
(A)
ABP ~ PAQ

(alt. segment thm)


(AA similarity)

8(ii)

1)

AP

AB

PQ

ABP ~ PAQ

PA

(AP)2 = AB QP
= AB QP

AP
9

BFD = BAF + ABF


(ext. = sum of int. opp. s)
= BAF + (BAF) (iso. AFB with FA = FB)
= 2BAF
(alt. segment thm)
= 2ACB

B
O

10(i)

APC = BPA (A)


PAC = PBA (A)
APC ~ BPA

(common )
(alt. segment thm)
(AA similarity)

C
A

10(ii)

PC
AP

PA
BP

( APC ~ BPA)

BP CP = AP 2
11

In BAN & BPL,


BAN = 90
= BPL (A)
BNA

= ALN
= BLP (A)
BAN ~ BPL
ABN = PBL
ABL = PBL

12(i)

PBL = ABN (A)


BPL = 90
= BAN (A)
BPL ~ BAN

(tan rad)
( in semicircle)

P
L
O

(iso. ALN with AN = AL)


(opp. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. of ~ s)

(BN bisects ABP)


( in semicircle)
(tan rad)
(AA similarity)

B
P
L

M
A

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274

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.3

12(ii) BPL = 90
= BMA (A)
= AMN (A)

( in semicircle)
( in semicircle)
(s in a line = 180)

B
P
L

13

14(i)

PBL = ABM
= MAN (A)

(BN bisects ABP)


(alt. segment thm)

BPL ~ AMN

(AA similarity)

M
A

PQ + QR + RP
= PQ + QT + TR
+RP
= PQ + (QU) + TR +RP (Equal tangents QT = QU)
= PQ + QU + (RS) +RP (Equal tangents TR = RS)
= (PQ + QU) +(RS + RP)
= PU
+PS
= PU
+PU
(Equal tangents PS = PU)
= 2PU
BAC = CAP (A)

(common )

ABC = CAX
= ACP (A)

(alt. segment thm)


(alt. )

ABC ~ ACP

(AA similarity)

T
P
Q

14(ii)

AC
AB
AC2
AB

16(i)

(corr. sides of ~ s)

AC

= AP

PA =
15

AP

AC2
AB

PCB = PCA
= CAX
= PBC
PBC is isosceles
PB = PC
BEC = 90
= DAC

(PC bisects BCA)


(alt. )
(alt. segment thm)
( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso.)

C
X

CE AB
(A) ( in semicircle)

(s in same segment)
CBA = CDA
CBE = CDA (A)
(AA similarity)
EBC ~ ADC

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O
A
B

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E
D

275

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.3

16(ii) area of ABC

= (AB)(CE)
2

EC
BC

EC =

AC

( EBC ~ ADC)

DC
BCAC

A
E

DC

area of ABC
1

= (AB)(CE)
2
1

BCAC

2
1

DC
BCAC

= (AB) (
= (AB) (
=
=
17(i)

1)
2)
3)
4)

5)
5)

6)

2
2r
ABBCAC
2(2r)
ABBCAC
4r

)
)

(diameter DC = 2r)

AP BR = PQ2
PQ2 = PC PA
(AP) BR = PC (PA)
RB = PC
AB = AC

given
Tangent-secant thm
(1,2)

AQ is line of symmetry
of iso APR
[Trigonometric proof]
[geometric]
2
2
2
Pythagoras thm
AQ = AP PQ
2
2
[
]
AQ = AP PC PA tangent
secant thm
= AP[AP PC]
= AP[AC]
2
(4)
AQ = AP AB

17(ii) (work in progress)


(S) AQ = AQ
(A) AQP = AQR
(S) QP = QR
AQP AQR

(common side)
(90)
(AQ is line of symmetry)
[Trigonometric proof]
SAS(1,2,3)
R

17(ii) (R) ABQ = ACQ


(H) AQ = AQ
(S) AB = AC
ABQ ACQ

rt in semicircle
common side
AQ is line of symmetry
[trigonometric proof]
RHS(1,2,3)

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276

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(iii) AP = AR
AP
=1
AR
AC = AB
AC
AB
AP
AR

=1
=

AC
AB

=1

Ex 10.3
AQ is line of symmetry
[trigonometric proof]
AQ is line of symmetry
[trigonometric proof]
(1,2)

AP AB = AR AC

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17

Ex 10.3

Proposition
Given
AE is tangent to diameter CD
AB = EF
Then
CD is line of symmetry
Proof
0 < < 90
cos =
tan =

AB
AD
2r
AD

AD =
AD =

AB
cos
2r
tan

Equate AD:
AB
2r
=
cos tan
(AB) tan = 2r cos
(AB) sin = 2r cos 2
(AB) sin = 2r[1 sin2 ]
(AB) sin = 2r 2r sin2
2r sin2 + (AB) sin 2r = 0
(2r)[sin ]2 + (AB)[sin ] 2r = 0
sin =

(AB)(AB)2 4(2r)(2r)
2(2r)

sin =

(AB) (AB)2 + 16r 2


4r

(AB)+(AB)2 +16r2
4r

or sin =

(AB)(AB)2 +16r2
4r

<0

[rej sin > 0 for 0 < < 90]


There could only be 1 angle for a certain fixed length AB
Similarly, there could be only 1 angle for the same fixed length EF
AB = EF
=
CAD CED
CD is line of symmetry
Alternate proof
Increasing function of sine when is increasing from 0 to 90 and adjacent is increasing

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18

Ex 10.3

area of ABC
= area of ABO + BCO + CAO
1

2
1

= (AB)r + (BC)r + (CA)r


= r(AB + BC + CA)
2
1

= r(AB + BC + CA)
2
1

= r(perimeter of ABC)
2
1

= r(2s)
2

(S is semi-perimeter of ABC)

= rs

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279

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 10

Rev Ex 10
A1(i)

Prove: GHI ABC

H
I

HI = BC
GHI = ABC

(S)
(A)

(Given)
(alt. )

AH
= GB
AH (AG) = GB (AG)
GH
= AB
(S)
GHI ABC
A1(ii) Prove: CA GI

(Given)

G
A
C
B

(SAS congruency)
H
I

HGI = BAC
( GHI ABC)
AGI = GAC (s in a line = 180)
(alt. )
CA GI

G
A
C
B

A2(i)

Prove: APQ ~ ABC


APQ = ABC (A)
PAQ = BAC (A)
APQ ~ ABC

A2(ii) Prove: AQ =
AQ
AP

AQ = (
=(
=
A3(i)

AB
AC

AB
AC2

2AB

(Given)
(Common )
AA similarity

AC2
2AB

AC
AB
AC

( APQ ~ ABC)
) AP
AC

)( )
2

(AP =

AC
2

Prove: AEF ~ DEG


(A) AEF = DEG
(A) EAF = EDG
AEF ~ DEG

A
F

(opp. )
(alt. )
(AA similarity)

E
B

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G
C

280

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 10

A3(ii) Prove: BF = 4AF

(1)
DG
AF

DE
AE

(4)

(AE = AD)

=2

In FCB & GCD,


FCB = GCD (A)
FBC = GDC (A)
FCB ~ GCD
BF

(2)

DG = 2AF

GD

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)

BC
DC

=2
BF = 2DG
= 2(2AF)
= 4AF
A3(iii) Find: |AB|

(D is midpt of BC)
(DG = 2AF)
A

1 cm

A4(i)

AB = AF + BF
= AF + (4AF)
= 5AF
= 5cm
Prove: DPC = BQA
In PDC & QBA,
PD = QB
(S)
PDC = QBA (A)
DC = BA

(S)

BF = 4AF

4 cm

AF = 1cm

G
C

D
A

B
Q

(given)
(equal opp. s of ABCD)
(equal opp. sides
of ABCD)
(SAS congruency)

PDC QBA
DPC = BQA
A4(ii) Prove: AQCP is parallelogram
DPC = BQA
DPC = PCQ
PCA = BQA
PC QA ( )
PC = QA (= )
AQCP is a parallelogram

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B
Q

(proven)
(alt. )

P
D

(corr. )
(1 pair of & eq. sides)

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5(i)

Rev Ex 10

Prove: TU = PQ

There is only 1 straight line connecting T & U.

If V is the midpoint of PR,


TV SR
(PT = TS, PG = GR, mid pt thm)
VU PQ
(RU = RQ, RG = GP, mid pt thm)

U
V
Q

TU = TV + VU
TU SR PQ (SR PQ)
TU = TV

+VU

= ( SR) +VU
2

(PT = TS, TV = VR, midpt thm)

+ ( PQ) (RV = VR = RU =

= SR
2

UQ, midpt thm)


1

2
1

= ( PW) + PQ
1 1

(equal height of trapezium)

= ( PQ) + PQ
2 2
1

2
1

= PQ

+ PQ

4
3

= PQ
4

A5(ii) TU = 3 PQ
4
3

8 = PQ
PQ =
A6(i)

4
32
3

Prove: CE DG
C

In ABD & ACD,


AB = AC
(H)
AD = AD
(S)
ADB = 90
= ADC (R)
ABD ACD
BD = CD
CE DG

(given)
(common side)
( in semicircle)
(s in a line = 180)
(RHS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)

D
F
A

(BD = CD, BG = GE,


mid pt thm)

A6(ii) Prove: AF = 1 AD

(A) FAE = DAG


(A) AFE = ADG
FAE ~ DAG
AF
AD

=
=

AE
AG
1
2
1

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of~ s)

D
F
A

(AE = AG)

= AD
2

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A7(i)

Rev Ex 10

C
D
A

Prove: PDF ~ POC


DPF = OPC

(A) (common )

PDF = 180 CDF (s in line = 180)


= CAE
(s in opp. segments)
= 2OAC
(OA bisects CAE arc AC =
arc AE)
= OAC
(iso. OCA with 2 sides as radius)
+ OCA
= POC (A) (ext. = sum of int. opp. s)
(AA similarity)
PDF ~ POC
A7(ii) Prove: PD PC = PF PO
PD

PF

PO

( PDF ~ POC)

PC

PD PC = PF PO
A7(iii) Prove: PB PA = PF PO
In PBD & PCA,
BPD = CPA (A)
PDB = 180 BDC
= PAC (A)
PBD ~ PCA

PB
PD

(common )
(s in a line)
(s in opp. segments)
(AA similarity)

PC
PA

PB PA = PD PC
= PF PO
A8(i)

from (ii)

P
F
D

Q O

ADQ + QDC + CDF


= ADQ + (90) + CDF
= ADQ + 90 + (CFD)
= ADQ + 90 + (OFA)
= ADQ + 90 + (OAF)
= ADQ + 90 + (90 ADQ)
= 180
i.e. A,D and F lie on straight line

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(tan rad)
(iso. CDF with CD = CF)
(Common )
(iso. OAF with OA = OF as radius)
(ADQ)

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283

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 10

A8(ii) Prove: AD AF = AQ AB
[

AD
AQ

AB
AF

] or

AD
AB

In ADQ & ABF,


DAQ = BAF (A)
ADQ = 90
= AFB ()
ADQ ~ ABF

B1(i)

AD

AQ

P
F

AQ
AF

(common )
(given)
( in semicircle)
(AA similarity)

Q O

AB
AF

AD AF = AQ AB
Prove: ABF = EDF

(given)
ABD
= EDB
(given)
FBD
= FDB
Subtracting angles,
ABD FBD = EDB FDB
ABF
= EDF
B1(ii) Prove: ABF EDF

F
C

(proven)
(iso. ACE with CA = CE)
(iso. DBF
with FBD = FDB)
(AAS congruency)
ABF EDF
B1(iii) Prove: F is the mid point of AE
ABF = EDF(A)
BAF = DEF(A)
BF = DF
(S)

F
C

AF = EF
( ABF EDF )
F is the mid-point of AE

B2(i)

Prove: YDC ~ XYB


YCD = XBY(A)
YDC = XYB(A)
YDC ~ XYB

X
Y

(corr. )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)

B2(ii) Prove: YC = 2XB


YC
XB

=
=
=

DC
YB
AB
YB
(2YB)

X
A

( YDC ~ XYB)
(DC = AB;
equal opp. sides of ABCD)
(AB = 2YB)

YB

(1)

(2)
D

=2
YC = 2XB

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B3(i)

Rev Ex 10

Prove: CE = GE

A
D

In CAE & GAE,


CAE = GAE (A)

(AE bisects BAC)

ACB = 90
= ADF
= AGE (A)

(given)
(AB CD)
(corr.)

G
B

AE = AE
(S)
CAE GAE
CE = GE
B3(ii) Prove: CF = CE

B4(i)

(Common side)
(AAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)
A

CEA = 90 CAE
= 90 DAF
= DFA
= CFE
iso. CEF
CF = CE
Prove: SM = 2TU

( ACE)
(AE bisects BAC)
( AFD)
(opp. )
( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso.)

SM QT

(PS = SQ, PM = MT,


mid pt thm)

In RSM & RUT,


SRM = URT (A)
RSM = RUT (A)
RSM ~ RUT
SM
RM

UT
RT

=2
SM = 2TU
B4(ii) Prove: 4TU = QT
QT = 2SM
= 2(2TU)
= 4TU
4TU = QT

D
F

G
B

common
corr.
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of ~ s)

(2)

(1)
U
Q

(RM = 2RT)

P
(PS = SQ, PM = MT,
mid pt thm)
(SM = 2TU)

T
U
Q

B4(iii) Find: area of TQR

area of TQR
= (QT)(height)
= (4TU)(height)
2

= 4 [ (TU)(height)]

1
2
1

QT = 4TU

U
Q

T
R

= 4(area of UTR)
= 4x

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5(i)

Rev Ex 10

Prove: BXDY is a parallelogram


EX BY
XD BY

(AE = EB, AX = XY,


mid pt thm)

FY BX
BX YD

(CF = FB, CY = YX,


mid pt thm)

A
X
E
Y
B

(S)

E
Y
B

(equal opp. sides


of BXDY)

(SAS congruency)
AXB CYD
B5(iii) Prove: ABCD is a parallelogram
AB = CD (= )
CAB = ACD
AB CD( )
ABCD is a

( AXB CYD)
( AXB CYD)
(alt. )
(1 pair of equal & opp.
sides)

B6

Prove: BCD = 2BDA

B7

BCD = BCA + DCA


= (BDA) + DCA (s in same segment)
= BDA + (DBA) (s in same segment)
= BDA + (BDA) (iso. ABD with AB = AD)
= 2BDA
Prove: BC QR

D
X

E
Y
B

F
C

D
B

R
QRP = PQC
= PBC
BC QR

D
X

(S) (given)

YXB = XYD
(alt. )
AXB = CYD (A) (s in a line = 180)
XB = YD

( opp. sides)
BXDY is a
B5(ii) Prove: AXB ~ CYD
AX = CY

C
P

(alt. segment thm)


(s in same segment)
(alt. )

B
Q

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 10

B8(i)

A
C

C
O

H
R

Prove: PC 2 = PA PB AC BC
In APQ & QPB,
APQ = QPB
PQA = PBA
APQ ~ QPB
PQ
AP

(common )
(alt. segment thm)
(AA similarity)

PB
QP

PQ2 = PA PB
PC 2 = PH 2 + HC 2
= (PQ2 QH 2 ) + HC 2
= PQ2 + (HC 2 QH 2 )
= PQ2 + (HC + QH)(HC QH)
= PQ2 + (CH + HR)(QC)
= PQ2 QC RC
= PQ2 AC BC
= PA PB AC BC

B8(ii) Prove:
PC 2

PC

= (

2 PA

1
PB

(pythagoras thm)
(pythagoras thm)
[a2 b2 = (a + b)(a b)]
QH = HR
(QC RC = AC BC)
(PQ2 = PA PB)
(tangent secant thm)
(not in syllabus)

= PA PB AC BC
= PA PB (PC PA) (PB PC)
= PA PB + (PA PC) (PB PC)
= PA PB + (PA)(PB) (PA + PB)(PC) + PC 2
= 2(PA)(PB) (PA + PB)(PC) + PC 2

PC(PA + PB) = 2(PA)(PB)


PC
1
PC

=
=

2(PA)(PB)
PA+PB
PA+PB
2(PA)(PB)
1 1
1

= (

2 PA

PB

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287

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.1
4(b)

Ex 11.1
1(a)

sin 45
cos 30+sin 60

1(b)

2
2
3 3
+
2
2

2
2

2
23

6
6

1st quadrant
= 390 360
= 30

=1
+1
=2

sin cos
=
=

3
6
3
3
( )( )
2
2
3
4
5

+ cos
+
+

4(c)

2
1

tan
3

sin tan +cos


3
4
6

Method 1 (graphical)

=
1(d)

3
(

3
3
)(1)+( )
2
2

3
3

1 2

=1

sin =

4(d)

Method 1 (graphical)

= 100

=
4

= 2(2)

1
tan A
1
2

Method 2 (non-graphical)
= 100 260
3rd quadrant
= 180
= 260 180
= 80

3rd quadrant
= 180 100
= 80

+ tan(90 A)

= 2 tan A +

= 60

2 tan A

Method 2 (non-graphical)
= 60 300
4th quadrant
= 360
= 360 300
= 60

4th quadrant
= 60

sin cos(90 ) = sin sin


= (sin )2
=( )

Method 2 (non-graphical)
= 390 30
1st quadrant
=
= 30

tan 45 + tan 30 tan 60


= (1) + ( ) (3)

1(c)

Method 1 (graphical)

= 390

tan A = 2

=4
2

4(a)

Method 1 (graphical)

= 250

3rd quadrant
= 250 180
= 70

Method 2 (non-graphical)
= 250
3rd quadrant
= 180
= 250 180
= 70

5(a)

= 20
= , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 20, 160, 200, 340

5(b)

= 70
= , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 70, 110, 250, 290

5(c)

= 35
= , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 35, 145, 225, 315

6(a)

= , , + , 2
2 4 5
= , , ,
3

6(b)

= , , + , 2
4 6 9
= , , ,
5

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(c)

7(i)

Ex 11.1

= 0.3
= , , + , 2
= 0.3, 2.84, 3.44, 5.98
R=

2(v0 )2
g

9(i)

Right angle triangle


sin A =

By Pythagoras Thm,

sin cos

adj = (3) 12

If v0 = 10, g = 10, = 30:


2(10)2

R =

3 1
A
adj

10

= 3 1
= 2

sin 30 cos 30
1

3
2

cos A =

= 20 ( ) ( )
2

2
3

, tan A =

1
2

= 53
Trigonometric ratio
7(ii)

If v0 = 7, g = 9.8, = 45:
2(7)2

R =
=

sin 45 cos 45

9.8
98 2
( )
9.8 2
2

2
( )
2

=
9(ii)

= 10 ( )
4

1
2

5
A
3

3
5

By Pythagoras Thm,
52

opp =

32

= 2
10(i)

+ tan ( A)
2

4
3

= +
= +
3

= tan A +

8(ii)

sin(90 A)tan 60
= cos A
(3)
= ( )

Trigonometric ratio

=2

9(iii)

=4

sin A = , tan A =

tan A

Right angle triangle


cos A =

tan A sin 45 = ( ) ( )

=5
8(i)

3
2
3
2

cos A cos 30 = ( ) ( )

A = 230

tan A

= 230 180
= 50

1
12

4 sin A

For 0 < B < 360


B = , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 50, 130, 230, 310

+ cos ( A)
2

= 4 sin A + sin A
= 5 sin A

10(ii)

= 5( )

=4

A = 320

= 360 320
= 40
For 0 < B < 360
B = , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 40, 140, 220, 320

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

Ex 11.1

Right angle triangle


opp
sin A = k =

12

A
adj

hyp

Right angle triangle


cos 35 = k
By Pythagoras Thm,

By Pythagoras Thm,

opp = 1 k 2

adj = 1 k 2

tan 35 =
Trigonometric ratio
cos A = 1 k 2

= 1 k 2 ( )
3

1k2

11(iii)

2 cos
6

tan(90A)

3
2( )
2
1
tan A

= (3) tan A
= 3 (
= k

1k2
k

Trigonometric ratio
tan 35
+ tan 45 + tan 55

11(ii) sin(90 A)tan 30


= cos A tan 30

1 opp
35
k

)
2

1k2
k

+1

=1

=1

=1

=1

=1

+ tan(90 35)

1k2

k
1k2

1k2
k

k
1k2
k
1k2 +k2
k1k2
1
k1k2

1
tan 35
1

k
1k2

1k
3

1k2

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290

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.2
3(a)

Ex 11.2

cos 330 = cos 30


=

Coordinates
x = 1

3
2

A
330

T
C
= 360 330 = 30

y = 3
3(b)

sin 225 = sin 45

r = (1)2 + (3) = 2

cos 240 =
tan 240 =
sec 240 =
csc 240 =
cot 240 =
2(a)

y
r
x
r
y
x

T
C
= 360 225 = 45

(3)

=
=

(2)
(1)
(2)

1
sin 240
1
tan 240

3
2

3(c)

=
=
=

sin 230 < 0

cos 350 > 0

tan 340 < 0

sin 160 > 0

cos

3
4

1
1
2

( )
1
3
( )
2

1
(3)

= 2
=
=

2
3

1
3

9
8

5
6

3(e)

cos(150) = cos 30

3(f)

A
350

C
A
340

) = tan ( )
3

sin = 0.2
3rd or 4th quadrant
11.5

S A
T C

3
2
3

tan = 3
2nd or 4th quadrant
71.6

0 < < 360

0 < < 360

= 180 + , 360
191.5, 348.5

4(b)

S A
150
T C
= 180 150 = 30

=
4(a)

A
160

tan (

= 3

= 180 , 360
108.4, 288.4

>0

tan(45) = tan 45 S A
= 1
45
T C
= 45

<0

3(d)

A
230

T
tan

2(f)

= 3

T
2(e)

= sin
2

T
2(d)

T
2(c)

T
2(b)

sin

(1)

cos 240

(3)

A
225

Trigonometric ratio
sin 240 =

A
9
8

T
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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(c)

cos =

Ex 11.2

5(a)

1st or 4th quadrant

=
4

S
T

tan A =

8
15

< 0 2nd or 4th quadrant

90 < A < 180 2nd quadrant


2nd quadrant

0 < < 2
= , 2
7
= ,
4

Quadrant

Coordinates
tan A =

8
15

r A

15
4(d)

cos = 0.7
2nd or 3rd quadrant
0.795

x = 15, y = 8,

r = 82 + (15)2 = 17

Trigonometric ratio

0 < < 2
= , +
2.35,3.94
4(e)

tan2 = 3
tan = 3
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant
= 60

5(b)
S

(17)
8

17

15
17

2
5

< 0 3rd or 4th quadrant

90 < B < 270 2nd or 3rd quadrant


3rd quadrant
Coordinates
sin B =

2
5

3 sin = 2
2

sin

sin

3
2

y = 2, r = 5,

Quadrant
sin B =

= , 180 , 180 + , 360


= 60, 120, 240, 300

(15)

r
y

sin A = =

0 < < 360

4(f)

cos A = =

x = (5) (2)2
= 5 4 = 1

Trigonometric ratio

1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant


0.955

cos B = =
r

0 < < 2

cot B =

= , , + , 2
= 0.955 2.19, 4.10, 5.33

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1
tan B

1
5

1
y
x

1
(2)
(1)

=
2

292

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6

Ex 11.2

Quadrant

8(i)

cos A = > 0

Coordinates
sin 20 = k =

1st or 4th quadrant

y
r

y = k, r = 1,

cos A & sin A have same sign


1st or 3rd quadrant

20
x

x = 1 k 2

1st quadrant
Trigonometric ratio
sin 200 = sin 20 = k

Coordinates
1

cos A = =

A
8(ii)

x = 1, r = 2,
y = 22 12 = 3

8(iii)

Trigonometric ratio
y

sin(A) = sin A = =
r

tan A = =
x

7(i)

3
1

8(iv)

5
12

9(a)

<0

12

y
x

9(b)
5

(5)2

13

sin A = =

= 13
x

12

13

, cos A = =

cos(A) = cos A =

7(iii)
7(iv)

12

y
x

cos(9070)

k
1k2
1
cos 20

1
1k2

100 + 71 sec x = 0
71 sec x
= 100
sec x

cos x

13

13

tan A

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71
71

1
5
12

( )

100

= 180 , 180 +
135.2, 224.8

5 cot x + 3 = 2 + 3 cot x
2 cot x
= 1
=

1
2

0 < x < 360

cos ( A) = sin A =

100

x = 180 , 360
= 116.6, 296.6

tan(A) = tan A = (

tan ( A) =

1
sin 70

tan x
= 2
63.4
2nd or 4th quadrant

Trigonometric ratio

7(ii)

csc 70 =

cot x

y = 5, x = 12,
r=

tan(20) = tan 20 =

Coordinates

122

= 1 k 2

0 < x < 360

4th quadrant

12

44.8
2nd or 3rd quadrant

tan A & cos A have opp. signs


3rd or 4th quadrant

[typo in book]

2nd or 4th quadrant

tan A =

1k2

= 3

Quadrant
tan A =

cos 20 = =

) =

12

5
12

12
5

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9(c)

Ex 11.2
10(a) 2 sin x 3 = 0

5 cos x = 3 sin 60
3
2

5 cos x = 3 ( )
5 cos x =
cos x

sin x

2
3
10

0 < x < 360

2 sin(x) = 0.3
2 sin x = 0.3
sin x
= 0.15
8.6
3rd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 2

72.5
1st or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 360

x = ,
2
= ,
3

10(b)

cos x1
0.5cos x

=2

cos x 1 = 1 2 cos x
3 cos x = 2
cos x
S

0.841
1st or 4th quadrant
0 < x < 2

x = 180 + , 360
188.6, 351.4
9(e)

3
2

1st or 2nd quadrant

x = , 360
= 72.5, 287.5
9(d)

S
T

x = , 2
0.841,5.44

2 cos x = sec x
2 cos x =
cos 2 x =
cos x

10(c)

cos x
1

=7

4
= 7 14 tan2 x
14 tan2 x = 3

4
12 tan2 x

1
2

= 45
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 360

tan2 x

tan x

14
3
14

0.434
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

x = , 180 , 180 + , 360


= 45, 135, 225 , 315

0 < x < 2
9(f)

3 sin x + 2 = cot 15
3 sin x
= cot 15 2
1

sin x

= tan 15

0 < x < 360


x = , 180
35.3, 144.7

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x = , , + , 2
0.434, 2.71, 3.58, 5.85

sin x
0.57735
35.3
1st or 2nd quadrant

11(i)

sin (x ) = sin [ ( x)]


= sin ( x)
2

= cos x [shown]

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294

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.2

11(ii) 3 sin (x ) + 3 = 3 cos x


2

13

3( cos x) + 3 = 3 cos x
3 3 cos x
= 3 cos x
23 cos x
=3
cos x
=

3
2

3 sin B + 2 = 0
3 sin B
= 2
S

1st or 4th quadrant

12

= <0
3

3rd or 4th quadrant


A & B are in different quadrant,
Case 1: A in 1st quadrant, B in 3rd quadrant
Case 2: A in 1st quadrant, B in 4th quadrant
Case 3: A in 3rd quadrant, B in 4th quadrant
Coordinates of A
1st quadrant:
y
x1 = 1
tan A = 2 =
x
in 1st or 3rd quadrant y1 = 2

x = , 2
11

sin B

0 < x < 2
= ,

Quadrant
tan A = 2 > 0
1st or 3rd quadrant

Quadrant
tan = 7 > 0 1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < < 180 1st or 2nd quadrant
1st quadrant

r1 = 12 + 22 = 5
r1

Coordinates
y
tan = 7 =

y = 7, x = 1,

1
2

3rd quadrant:
x2 = 1
y2 = 2

1
r2

r2 = 12 + 22 = 5
3rd quadrant:
y3 = 2
r3 = 3

Coordinates of B

r = 12 + 72

sin B = =

= 50 = 25 2 = 52

in 3rd or 4th quadrant

x3 = 32 (2)2 = 5

Value
v=
=

770 sin 135


sin
3852
7
52

770 sin 45

= 3852

y
r

52
7

770(

2
)
2

x3

7
52

385(5)(2)
7

2
= 550

x4

4th quadrant:
2 y4 = 2
r4 = 3

3 3

x4 = 32 (2)2 = 5
Values
Case 1: 3 sin A tan B
y

r1
2

x3
2

= 3 ( 1) ( 3)
= 3( ) (

) =

4
5

Case 2: 3 sin A tan B


y

r1
2

x4
2

= 3 ( 1) ( 4)
=3 ( )( ) =

Case 3: 3 sin A tan B


y

r2
2

x4
2

= 3 ( 2) ( 4)

=3 ( )( ) =

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14(i)

Ex 11.2

Coordinates
y
sin 130 = k =

15(i)

1 130

k
x

y = k, r = 1,
x = 1 k 2

k
1

14(ii) Coordinates
y
sin 50 = k =
r

50

y = k, r = 1,
x = 1 k 2

y
( )
x

k
1k2

1k2
k

15(ii)

y = 1
r=

k 2

k2, x

= k,

=0

40 1
k

x
r

T C
x 180 + , 360
185.7, 354.3
Combine answers:
x = 161.6, 198.4

cos(220)
( )

Trigonometric ratio

18.4
3rd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 360

= 1 k 2 + k 2
=1

sec(220) =

1
10

10 sin x + 1 0

k2

2
k2)

+ (1

3
10

sin x
<0
x=
10

5.7
161.6, 198.4
3rd or 4th quadrant

y
x

3+10 cos x
10 sin x+1

14(iii) Coordinates
1k2

sin x

Combine answers:
x = 161.6

Trigonometric ratio
tan 40 = cot(90 40)
tan 50

10 sin x + 1 0

18.4
2nd or 3rd quadrant 0 < x < 360
0 < x < 360
S A
S A

T
C

x 180 + , 360
T C
198.4, 341.6
x = 180 , 180 +
161.6, 198.4

sin 50 = sin(180 130) = = k

tan 40 =

=0
10 sin x + 1
3 + 10 cos x = 0
= 3
10 cos x
cos x

Trigonometric ratio

3 + 10 cos x

k
1

1
cos(220)
1

=
k

1
cos(40)

16(i)
(a)

3 sin x 2 = 0
sin x

2
3

41.8
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < x < 360
x = , 180
41.8, 138.2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(i)
(b)

tan x 4 = 0
tan x
=4
76.0
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < x < 360
x = , 180 +
76.0, 256

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

Ex 11.2
16(ii) 3 sin x tan x 12 sin x 2 tan x + 8 = 0
3 sin x (tan x 4) 2(tan x 4) = 0
(tan x 4)(3 sin x 2)
=0
S

tan x = 4 or sin x =

2
3

x = 41.8, 76.0, 138.2, 256.0

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297

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3
1(e)

Ex 11.3
1(a)

(sin x 1)(sin x + 1) = 0
sin x = 1
or sin x = 1
0 x 360

0 x 360

90 180 270 360

1(b)

90 180 270 360

x = 90

x = 270

(3 sin x 1)(tan x + 1) = 0
1
tan x = 1
sin x =
or
3
= 45
19.5
2nd or 4th quadrant
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 x 360
0 x 360
S A
S A

T
C
T C
x = 180 , 360
x = , 180
= 135, 315
= 19.5, 160

2(a)

1 sin x
1
7 7 sin x
7
10 7 sin x 3 4

90 180 270 360

90 180 270 360


1

x = 0, 360

x = 180

sin x (2 cos x 3) = 0
3
sin x = 0
or
cos x =
2

0 x 360

(no solution)

90 180 270 360

For y = 7 sin x 3,
min = 10
sin x = 1
0 x 360
x = 270

x = 0, 180, 360
1(d)

1(f)

0 x 360

1(c)

(cos x 1)(cos x + 1) = 0
cos x = 1
or cos x = 1

T C
x = 0, 180, 360 x = 180 , 360
104.0, 284.0
90 180 270 360

0 x 360

0 x 360

sin2 x (tan x + 4) = 0
tan x = 4
sin2 x = 0
or
76.0
sin x = 0
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 360

tan x (2 cos x 1) = 0
tan x = 0
or cos x = 1

90 180 270 360

0 x 360

= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

max = 4
sin x = 1
x = 90

0 x 360
90 180 270 360

x = 0, 180, 360
T C

x = , 360
= 60, 300

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(b)

1
5
3

Ex 11.3

cos x
1
5 cos x
5
5 cos x + 2 7

For y = 5 cos x + 2,
min = 3
cos x = 1
0 x 360
x = 180

90 180 270 360

max = 7
cos x = 1
x = 0, 360
2(c)

1 sin x
1
3 3 sin x
3
1 4 3 sin x 7
For y = 4 3 sin x,
min = 1,
sin x = 1
0 x 360
x = 90

90 180 270 360

max = 7
sin x = 1
x = 270

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299

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

3(a) y = 3 cos(2x) + 2
i.e. a = 3, b = 2, c = 2

y = 3 cos(2x) + 2
5

Amplitude = |a| = |3| = 3


Period =

360
b

360

= 180

180

360

Workings

Domain
0 x 360
Axis with
y=23
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
3600

Cycle

180

=2

3(b) y = 5 sin 2x
= sin 2x + 5
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 5
Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1
Period

2
b

2
2

y = 5 sin 2x

5
4

Workings
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
y=51
Amplitude
Shape
sin
20

Cycle

3(c)

=2

y = 4 sin 8x
i.e. a = 4, b = 8, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4
Period

360
b

360
8

= 45

y = 4 sin(8x)
45

-4

90

Workings

Domain
0 x 90
Axis with
y=04
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
Cycle

900
45

=2

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300

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

3(d) y = 6 cos (x) 4

i.e. a = 6, b = , c = 4

2
b

2
1
2

Amplitude = |a| = |6| = 6


=

Period

= 6 cos ( ) 4

10

= 4

Workings
Domain
0 x 4
Axis with
y = 4 6
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
40

Cycle

=1

3(e) y = 2 sin(3x) 1
i.e. a = 2, b = 3, c = 1
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

360
b

360
3

= 120

1
1

= 2 sin(3)
120 180

Workings
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
y = 1 2
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
1800

Cycle

3(f)

120

= 1.5

y = 2(2 cos 5x)


= 4 2 cos 5x
= 2 cos 5x + 4
i.e. a = 2, b = 5, c = 4

y = 2(2 cos 5x)


6
4

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

360
b

360
5

= 72

72

144 180

Workings
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
y=42
Amplitude
Shape
cos
Cycle

1800
72

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301

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

3(g) y = 1 2 sin x

y = 2 sin ( x) + 1

= 2 sin ( x) + 1
3

i.e. a = 2, b = , c = 1

360
b

360
1
3

810

-1 O

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

= 1080
Workings

Domain
0 x 810
Axis with
=12
Amplitude
Shape

8100
3
Cycle
=
1080

3(h) y = 1.3 + 1.2 cos 2t


= 1.2 cos 2t + 1.3
i.e. a = 1.2, b = 2, c = 1.3

y = 1.3 + 1.2 cos 2t


2.5

Amplitude = |a| = |1.2| = 1.2


Period

2
2

1.3
0.1

Workings
Domain
0 2
Axis with
= 1.3 1.2
Amplitude
Shape
+
20
Cycle
=2

4(ii) y|t=4 = 1.2 cos[2(4)] + 1.3


= 1.2 cos 8 + 1.3
= 1.13m
5(i)

y = p cos ( ) + q
2

i.e. a = p, b = , c = q
2

Period

2
b

2
1
2

= 4

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302

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

5(ii) q = min+max = (5)+(3) = 1


2

|p| =

maxmin
2

(3)(5)

=4

p = 4 or p = 4
5(iii) p < q
p = 4, q = 1

y = 4 cos ( x) 1
2

3
x

y = 4 cos ( ) 1
2

-1

Amplitude = 4
Period
= 4

-5

Workings
Domain
0 x 4
Axis with
y = 1 4
Amplitude
Shape
cos
40

Cycle

6(i)

=1

y1 = 4 sin 2x
i.e. a = 4, b = 2, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4
Period

360
b

360
2

= 180

y2 = 2 cos x 1
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 1
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

360
b

360
1

4
1

3
4

180

2 = 2 cos 1

360
1 = 4 sin 2

= 360

Workings
1 = 4 sin 2
Domain
0 < x 360
Axis with
y=04
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
Cycle

3600
180

=2

2 = 2 cos 1
Domain
0 < x 360
Axis with
y = 1 2
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
Cycle

3600
360

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303

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

6(ii) 4 sin(2x) + 1 = 2 cos x


4 sin 2x
= 2 cos x 1
y1
= y2
4 Intersections
4 real roots
7(a) y = 5 tan x
i.e. a = 5, b = 1, c = 0
Period

180
b

180
1

= 180

y = 5 tan
x
360

180

= 90

= 270
Workings

Domain
0 x 360
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+
3600
Cycle
=2
180

7(b)

y = 4 tan 3x
i.e. a = 4, b = 3, c = 0
180
180
Period =
=
= 60
b

= 4 tan 3

60

= 30

120

= 90

180

= 120

Workings
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape

1800
Cycle
=3
60

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304

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(c)

Ex 11.3

y = 3 tan 2x
i.e. a = 3, b = 2, c = 0
Period

= 3 tan 2

2
=

3
4

3
2

5
4

7
4

Workings
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+tan
20

Cycle

=4

7(d) y = 1.5 tan 4x


i.e. a = 1.5, b = 4, c = 0
Period

= 1.5 tan 4

3
8

5
8

7
8

Workings
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape

0
Cycle
=4

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(a)

Ex 11.3
10(d) A = maxmin = (3.5)(0.5) = 1.5

sin1 ( ) =
2

= 30
8(b) cos 1 ( 1) = 180
2

= 180 60
= 120
8(c)

tan1 (3) =
3

1
2

b=
c=

A = sin1 ( )

4th quadrant

B = cos 1 h, h < 0 2nd quadrant


C = tan1 k
1st or 4th quadrant
A and B cannot be in the same quadrant
9(ii) For A and C to be in the same quadrant,
they have to be in the 4th quadrant.
k<0
10(a) A = maxmin = (5)(1) = 3
2

c=
10(b) A =

=
=

2
(3.5)+(0.5)
2

=2

11(ii) 1 sin 4t 1
20 20 sin 4t 20
max = 20
20 sin 4t = 20
sin 4t = 1

4t =
t

0.393
11(iii) I = 20 sin 4t
i.e. a = 20, b = 4, c = 0
Amplitude
= |a| = |20| = 20
=

2
b

2
4

=
2

a = 3
360

Period

T = 90

b=

T
4
max+min

) =
=

9(i)

a = 1.5

11(i) I = 20 sin 4t
i.e. a = 20, b = 4, c = 0
Amplitude
= |a| = |20| = 20

=
8(d) sin1 (

T = 4

360

T
90
max+min

2
maxmin

= 20 sin 4

= 4

20

(5)+(1)
2
1(3)
2

=2

0
-20

= 2

T=
Workings
a=2
b=
c=

max+min

Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
= 0 20
Amplitude
Shape
+

= 2

(1)+(3)
2

= 1

10(c) A = maxmin = (4)(2) = 3


2

Cycle

T = 180

0
1

=2

a = 3
b=
c=

360

T
180
max+min
2

=2
=

(4)+(2)
2

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306

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

12(a) y = |6 sin 3x + 2|
i.e. a = 6, b = 3, c = 2

Amplitude = |a| = |6| = 6


Period

2
b

8
4
2

y = |6 sin 3x + 2|

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
=26
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
3
Cycle
2 =
2

12(b) y = |4 cos (x) 1|

i.e. a = 4, b = , c = 1
2

Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4


Period

2
b

2
1
2

= 4

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
= 1 4
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
1
Cycle
=
4

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307

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

12(c) y = |2 tan 3x|


i.e. a = 2, b = 3, c = 0
Period

y = |2 tan 3x|

3
=

2
3
=

5
6

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
Cycle
=3

12(d) y = |5 + 3 sin x|
= |3 sin x + 5|
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 5

8
Amplitude = |a| = |3| = 3
Period

2
b

2
1

= |5 + 3 sin |

= 2

Workings

Domain
0x
Axis with
=53
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
1
Cycle
=
2

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308

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

12(e) y = |sin 2x + 1| for 0 x .


i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 1

= |sin 2 + 1|

2
Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1
Period

2
b

2
2

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
=11
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
Cycle
=1

12(f) y = |1.5 cos 4x 2| for 0 x .


i.e. a = 1.5, b = 4, c = 2
Amplitude = |a| = |1.5| = 1.5
Period

2
4

=
2

= |1.5 cos 4 2|

3.5
2
0.5

-2

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
y = 2 1.5
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
0

Cycle

=2

13(i) Amplitude = 4
a=4
Period
360
b

= 120
= 120
=3

c = max amplitude
=24
= 2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(ii) y = 4 sin 3x 2
13(iii) Amplitude = 4
Period
= 120
y = b + c cos ax
= 3 2 cos 4x
= 2 cos 4x + 3
Amplitude = 2
Period

360
4

Ex 11.3
y
5
2
1

-2

= 3 2 cos 4
90

180

= 4 sin 3 2

-6

= 90
Workings

= 4 3 2
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
= 2 4
Amplitude
Shape
+
1800
Cycle
= 1.5
120

y = b + c cos ax
= 3 2 cos 4x
= 2 cos 4x + 3
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
=32
Amplitude
Shape

1800
Cycle
=2
90

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310

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

14(i) y = a sin (x) + c

16(i) Vertical
component
r sin

Amplitude = 4
a=4
Period
2
1
b

( )

2b
b
14(ii) c

a=

40

= 20

2
2

= 4

b=

= 4

c = 25

= 4
=2

16(ii)

( , sin )

360

180

y
y = 20 sin

45

= min + amplitude
=1+4
=5

180

t + 25

25
5

14(iii) y = 4 sin ( x) + 5

Amplitude = 4
Period
= 4

16(iii) y
20 sin

9
5

(, 9)

sin

(5, 9)

180

180

= 40
t + 25 = 40

3
4

0.848
1

y = 4 sin ( x) + 5
2

(3, 1)

6
Workings

180

180

180

t 2

t = ,
t = 0.848,2.29
= 48.6s, 131. s

Domain
0 x 6
Axis with
=54
Amplitude
Shape
+
60

Cycle

15

3
2

y = a sin bt
Period
2
b

=4
=4
=

Max = 0.55 a = 0.55

y = 0.55 sin t
2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17

Ex 11.3

y1 = 2 cos 2x
i.e. a = 2, b = 2, c = 0

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

2
b

2
2

y2 = 1 + sin x
= sin x + 1
i.e. a = 1, b = 1, c = 1

1 = 2 cos 2

2
1
O

2 = sin + 1
x

-2

Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1


Period

2
b

2
1

= 2

Workings
1 = 2 2
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
=02
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20

=2

2 = + 1
[0,2]
Domain
Axis with
=11
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
2

=1

17(i) 2 cos 2x = sin x + 1


y1 = y2
4 intersections
4 distinct values of x
17(ii)

y
= 2 cos 2

2
O

= sin + 1
x

-2

7 intersections

7 distinct values of x

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312

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

18(i) y1 = sin x
i.e. a = 1, b = 1, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1
Period

2
b

= 2

y2 = 2 cos x
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

2
b

2
1

y
2
1


-1 2

2 = 2 cos

x
2
1 = sin

-2

= 2

18(ii) 2 intersection 2 roots

<x<

Workings
1 =
Domain
0 2
Axis with
=01
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
2

=1

2 = 2
Domain
0 2
Axis with
=02
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
2

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313

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19

Ex 11.3

y1 = tan 3x
i.e. a = 1, b = 3, c = 0

Period = =
b

y2 = tan 2x
2

2 tan 3x

= 5 tan 2x

tan 3x

= tan 2x

i.e. a = , b = 2, c = 0
2

2 = tan 2

Period =

1 = tan 3

5
2

y1
= y2
6 intersections
6 solutions

5
6

Workings
1 = 3
Domain
0x
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+
0

Cycle

=3

y2 = tan 2x
2

Domain
0x
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape

Cycle

=2

20(a) tan [cos 1 (1)] = tan()


2

= tan ( )
3
= 3
20(b) sin[tan1 (1)] = sin()

= sin ( )
4

= sin ( )
4

20(c) cos [sin1 ( 3)] = cos()


2

= cos ( )
3

= cos
3
1
=
2

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


20(d) cos 1 [cos 4]

Ex 11.3

= cos 1 ( cos )

= cos 1 ( )
2

2
3

21(i) y = 3 cos x + 2
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 2
Amplitude = |a| = |3| = 3
Period

2
b

2
1

= 2

21(ii) x = is line of symmetry


+
2

y
= 3 cos + 2

5
2

-1

= 2

Workings
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
=23
Amplitude
Shape
+

Cycle

20
2

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315

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

22(i) y1 = 2 + cos x
= cos x + 2
i.e. a = 1, b = 1, c = 2
Amplitude
= |a| = |1| = 1
Period

= 2

y
4
3

= 2 + cos

y2 = 4 sin x
2

i.e. a = 4, b = , c = 0

1
= 4 sin
2
x
2

Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4


Period

2
b

2
1
2

= 4

Workings
1 = 2 +
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
=21
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
2

=1

1
2 =
2
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
=04
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
4

1
2

22(ii) 2 sin 1 x k cos x = 1


2

1 k cos x

= 2 sin x
2

2 + 2k cos x

= 4 sin x

y1

= y2

2 + cos x

= 4 sin x
2

Compare coefficient of cos x


2k = 1
1

k=
2

22(iii) x = is line of symmetry


a+c
2

=
= 2 a

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316

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


23

Ex 11.3

y1 = 3.1 tan 2x
i.e. a = 3.1, b = 2, c = 0
Period

180

180
2

= 90

1 = 3.1 tan 2
2

y2 = 2 cos 4x
i.e. a = 2, b = 4, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

360

360
4

90

2 = 2 cos 4

180

= 90
= 45

= 135

Workings
1 = 3.1 2
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape

1800

Cycle

90

=2

2 = 2 4
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
= 0 2
Amplitude
Shape
+
1800

Cycle

90

=2

T = 90
45 < < 90
2 cos 4x + 3.1 tan 2x = 0
3.1 tan 2x
= 2 cos 4x
3.1 tan 2x = 2 cos 4x
y1
= y2
Period = 90
x = , + 90, + 180, + 270
24(a) Let A = cos 1 ( 1)
5

2nd quadrant
1

cos A = =

5
1

x = 1, r = 5
y = 52 (1)2 = 24

= 26

sin [cos 1 ( )] = sin A=

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26
5

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317

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

24(b) Let B = sin1 ( 2)

4th quadrant
2

sin B = =

y = 2, r = 3,
x = 32 (2)2 = 5
2

tan [sin1 ( )] = tan B =

2
5

25(a) y = cos x tan x


Familiar
y = sin x
25(b) y = sin2 x
y = cos 2 x
Complementary shape
26(a) [check for error]
sin1 (sin x) = x
Dgf = Df =
True
26(b) sin(sin1 x) = x

Dgf = Df = [ , ]
2 2
False
26(c) cos 1 (cos x) = x
Dgf = Df =
False
26(d) tan(tan1 x) = x

Dgf = Df = ( , )
2 2
False
26(e) < x <
2
2
1 (tan
tan
x) = x


Dgf = Df = ( , ) = ( , )
2 2
2 2
True
26(f) If cos x = 0.2 then x = cos 1 0.2
Not necessarily true.
x can assume other values depending on the domain restriction

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318

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11
A2(i) Quadrant

Rev Ex 11

tan A = > 0
A1(a) 2 cos x 1 = 4 cos x
2 cos x
= 1
cos x

cos B = < 0 2nd or 3rd quadrant


5

Same quadrant 3rd quadrant

1
2

= 60
2nd or 3rd quadrant

0 x 360
x = 180 , 180 +
= 120, 240

Coordinates of A

sin x
=

-3

r = (3)2 + (4)2 = 5
Coordinates of B
3

x2

r2

cos B = =
3
2

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th quadrant

-3
y2

x2 = 3, r2 = 5

y2 = 52 (3)2 = 4
Trigonometric ratio

0 x 2
x = , , + , 2
2 4 5
= , , ,
3

-4
r

y = 3, x = 4,

tan A = =

A1(b) 4 sin2 x = 3
sin2 x

1st or 3rd quadrant

sin A = =

A2(ii) tan(B) = tan B = (y2 ) = (4) = 4


x2

A1(c) (2 sin x + 1)(2 cos x + 5) = 0


sin x =

1
2

or

cos x =

A2(iii) sec A tan B =

(no solution)
= 30
3rd or 4th quadrant
0 x 360
S

=
=

1
2

or

x
r

( )
1
4
5

( )
x2

( )
3

A3(i) y = a cos bx + c

cot x =
tan x =

Amplitude = 3
|a|
=3
a = 3 or a = 3
(rej a is a positive integer)

3
2
2
3

1st or 4th quadrant 0.588


2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 2
S

T C
x = , 2
5
= ,
3

tan B

cos A
1 y2

A1(d) (2 cos x 1)(2 cot x + 3) = 0


=

T C
x = 180 + , 360
= 210, 330

cos x =

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

0 x 2

Period = 60
360
b

T C
x = , 2
= 2.55,5.70

= 60
=

360
6

=6
A3(ii) c
(a)

sleightofmath.com

= min + |a|
=4
+3
= 7

319

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A3(ii)
(b)

Rev Ex 11
A4(ii) 3 intersections
3 sol

= 3 cos 6 + 7
10
7

A5(a) 4 tan1 1 cos 1 ( 3)


2

60

120

180

= 4( )

( )

( )

Workings

Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
y=73
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
1800
Cycle
=3

A5(b) cos [sin1 (

1
2

)] = cos()

= cos ( )

60

= cos
=

1
2

A4(ii) y = 5 tan 2x
i.e. a = 5, b = 2, c = 0
Period

2
= 5 tan 2

Workings
Domain
0 x 2\pi
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+tan
20
Cycle
=4

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320

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

A6(i) y1 = cos 2x
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 0
Amplitude
= |a| = |1| = 1
Period

2
b

2
2

y2 = 2 sin x
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 0
Amplitude
= |a| = |2| = 2
Period

2
b

2
1

= 2

y
2
1

1 = cos 2

-1

2 = 2 sin

-2

Workings
y1 = cos 2x
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
y=01
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
20
Cycle
=2

y2 = 2 sin x
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
y=02
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
20
Cycle
=1
2

A6(ii) cos 2x = 0.6 for 0 x 2


(a)
y1 = 0.6
4 intersections 4 sol

1
O

1 = cos 2 = 0.6

-1
A6(ii) cos 2x = 2 sin x for 0 x 2
(b)
y1 = y2
2 intersections 2 sol

2
1
O

1 = cos 2

-1

4 sol

2 = 2 sin

-2
A6(ii) cos 2x 2 sin x = 1
for 0 x 2
(c)
cos 2x
= 2 sin x + 1
y1
= 2 sin x + 1

y
3
1
O

= 2 sin + 1
1 = cos 2

-1

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321

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

A6(ii) 2|sec 2x| = |csc x| for 0 x 2


2
1
(d)
=
|cos 2x|
|cos 2x|
2

|sin x|

= |sin x|

|cos 2x| = |2 sin x|


|y1 |
= |y2 |

= 2|sin |
= |cos 2|

4 sol
B1(a) (2 sin2 x + sin x)(tan x 3 cos 20) = 0
sin x (2 sin x + 1)(tan x 2.82)
=0
1
sin x = 0
or
sin x =
or
2
0 x 360
= 30

3rd or 4th quadrant


1
90 180 270 360

x = 0, 180, 360

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

0 x 360
S

T C
x = 180 + , 360
= 210, 330

tan x = 2.82
70.5
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 x 360
S

T C
x = , 180 +
= 70.5, 250.5

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322

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

B1(b) |3 tan x 1| = 2
3 tan x 1 = 2
3 tan x
=3
tan x
=1
= 45
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 x 360
S

tan x

0 < x < 2

r = 12 + (2)2 = 5
Trigonometric ratio

1
tan A

1
2

=
2

B3(iii) sin ( A) cos 150


2

( cos 30)

= cos A

0 < x < 2

y = 2, x = 1

B3(ii) cot A =

S A

T C
x = , +
3
5
= ,

x=

Coordinates
y
tan A = 2 =

sin(A) = sin A = = ( ) =

2nd or 3rd quadrant

B3(i) Quadrant
A = tan1 (2) 4th quadrant

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 161.6, 341.6

B1(c) tan x (2 cos x + 1) = 0


tan x = 0
cos x =

18.4
2nd or 4th quadrant

T C
x = , 180 +
= 45, 225

B1(d)

0 x 360

90 180 270 360

B2(iv) q = 6
p = 2 8 = 6

3 tan x 1 = 2
3 tan x
= 1

=
=
=

1
5
1
5
5
5

5
5

15
10

3
)
2

3
)
2

3
)
2

=3

sec x1

sec x 1 =
sec x

cos x

2
3
5
3
3
5

0.927
1st or 4th quadrant

S
T

0 < x < 2
x = , 2
= 0.927,5.36
B2(i) A = maxmin = (2)(6) = 4
2
2
B2(ii)
T = 8
a = 4
b=
c=

T
8
max+min
2

=
=

4
2+(6)
2

= 2

B2(iii) (6 + 8, 2)
(14, 2)
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323

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

B4(i) y1 = |2 cos x 1|
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 1

B5(ii) y = 3 tan x + 1
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 1
180 180
Period =
=
= 180
b
1

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

2
b

2
1

= 2

3
1

1 = |2 cos 1|
2

y = 3 tan x + 1

y2 =

2x
3

+1

150

330

= 90

Workings
Domain
0 < x < 2
Axis with
y = 1 2
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
20
Cycle
=1

360

180

= 270

Workings
Domain
0 x 360
Axis with
y=1
Amplitude
Shape
+tan
3600
Cycle
=2

180

B4(ii) 2x + 3 = 3|2 cos x 1|

2x
3

+1

= |2 cos x 1|
B5(iii) 3 tan x + 1 0

y2
= y1
3 sol

0 x < 90 or 150 x < 270


or 330 x 360

B5(i) 3 tan x + 1 = 0
tan x

1
3

= 30
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 360
x = 180 , 360
= 150, 330

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324

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

B6(i) y = cos 2x
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 0

Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1


Period

2
b

2
2

2
1
1
2

= cos 2
x

= 2 sin 6

y = 2 sin 6x
i.e. a = 2, b = 6, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

2
b

2
6

Workings
y1 = cos 2x
Domain
0x
Axis with
y=02
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
0
Cycle
=3

y2 = 2 sin 6x
Domain
0x
Axis with
y=01
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
0
Cycle
=1

B6(ii) cos 2x = 2 sin 6x


[Symmetry]

x = is vertical line of symmetry for y = cos 2x


2

( , 0) is point of symmetry for y = cos 2x


2

x=+( )
2

Period of collective graph =


x = + ()

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325

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.1
2(i)

Ex 12.1
1(a)

sec x cos x =

1
cos x

1(d)

sin x cot x = sin x (

cos x
sin x

3rd quadrant:
y = 1, r = 3,

x = 32 (1)2 = 8
4th quadrant:
y2 = 1, r2 = 3,

sin x
(1cos x)(1+cos x)

sec =

sin x
1cos2 x
sin x

sin2 x
1

sin x

sin =

2(ii)

cos = 1 sin2

sec =

tan =

x
r

2
1(1)
3

1
8

= 8 =
3

3
8

3(a)

3
8
3
8

or

1
8
3

3
8

= sin sec
1

3
1

x
1
8
1

=(

cos

= ( ) (

y
1

or

1
cos x

LHS = sec x

sin

or

8
3

1sin2
1

tan =
=

cos = 1 sin2
cos

-1

cos
1

=
Method 1 (non-graphical)

-1

x2

x2 = 32 12 = 8
Values

= csc x

2(ii)

(sec x + 1)(sec x 1)
= sec 2 x 1
= (tan2 x + 1) 1
= tan2 x

2(i)

3rd or 4th quadrant

= cos x
1(c)

sin = = < 0

cos x

=1
1(b)

Method 2 (graphical)
Coordinates

sin x
) sin x

sin x
cos x

= tan x

= RHS [proven]

3(b)

LHS = cos x tan x


= cos x (

sin x
cos x

= sin x
= RHS [proven]
3(c)

LHS =
=

cos2 x+sin2 x
1cos2 x
1
sin2 x

= csc 2 x
= RHS [proven]

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326

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(d)

3(e)

Ex 12.1

LHS = 2 + 3 sin2 x
= 2 + 3(1 cos 2 x)
= 2 + (3 3 cos 2 x)
= 5 3 cos 2 x
= RHS [proven]

6(ii)

1
cos2 x

sin2 x
cos2 x
2

1
sin2 x
1

sin x

sin x

sin (

7(c)

2+2 cos 2+2 cos

1
cos2 x

LHS

= (1 +
=(

sin x
1
cos x
1
) (1 +
)

+
cos x cos x
sin x sin x

cos x+sin x1
cos x

sin x+cos x+1


sin x

(sin x + cos x)2 12


sin x cos x

= 4 cot [shown]

sin2 x + 2 sin x cos x + cos 2 x 1


sin x cos x

x
= 3 cos
x
cos =

= sin (
=

sin2

4 cos
sin

= 2 tan

=2

(1)

sin

1
2

(2)

=2
= RHS [proven]

sub (1) into (2):


1

2
xy

2 sin x cos x + sin2 x + cos 2 x 1


sin x cos x
2 sin x cos x + (1)
1
=
sin x cos x
2 sin x cos x
=
sin x cos x

cos

sin = y cos

= (1 + tan x sec x) (1 + cot x + csc x)

1cos2

xy

= tan2 x
= RHS [proven]

1cos
1+cos
2(1+cos )2(1cos )

= sin (

6(i)

LHS = sin2 x + tan2 x sin2 x


= sin2 x (1 + tan2 x)
= sin2 x (sec 2 x)
= sin2 x (

LHS = (sin + cos )2


= sin2 + 2 sin cos + cos 2
= sin2 + cos 2 +2 sin cos
=1
+2 sin cos
= RHS [shown]
2

7(b)

= csc x cot x
= RHS [proven]
4

xy 2

LHS = sin4 x cos 4 x


= (sin2 x)2 (cos 2 x)2
= (sin2 x + cos 2 x) (sin2 x cos 2 x)
(sin2 x cos 2 x)
=1
= sin2 x cos 2 x
= RHS [proven]

) cos x
cos x

+ (6

7(a)

LHS = (1 + cot 2 x) cos x


= (csc 2 x) cos x
=(

= 4x 2

= 4(9 cos 2 ) +36 sin2


= 36 cos 2 +36 sin2
= 36(sin2 + cos 2 )
= 36

= tan x
= RHS [proven]
3(f)

+x 2 y 2
+(xy)2

= 4(3 cos )2 +(6 sin )2 x = 3 cos , sin =

LHS = sin2 x (1 + tan2 x)


= sin2 x (sec 2 x)
= sin2 x (

4x 2
= 4x 2

sin = y ( )
sin =

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327

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(e)

Ex 12.1

LHS
=

8(ii)

LHS = csc 2 x + sec 2 x

3 6 cos 2 x
sin x cos x

=
=

3(sin2 x + cos 2 x)
6 cos 2 x
=
sin x cos x
2

3 sin x + 3 cos x
6 cos x
sin x cos x

3 sin2 x 3 cos 2 x
sin x cos x

1
sin2 x

1
cos2 x

cos2 x+sin2 x
sin2 x cos2 x
1
sin2 x cos2 x

= csc 2 x sec 2 x
= RHS [proven]
8(iii)

3(sin2 x cos 2 x)
=
sin x cos x
3(sin x + cos x)(sin x cos x)
=
sin x cos x

LHS = (cot x + tan x)2


= (csc x sec x)2
= csc 2 x sec 2 x
= csc 2 x + sec 2 x

= 3(sin x + cos x)

= RHS [deduced]

= RHS [proven]
9
7(f)

LHS
1

=
1

1
1

1
1
tan2 x
=

cot x)

1
1 (tan2 x + 1)

1
1
1 sec 2 x

LHS
= (sec x + tan x)(sec x tan x)
+(csc x + cot x)(csc x

1
1 + cot 2 x

= sec 2 x tan2 x

+ csc 2 x cot 2 x

= (tan2 x + 1) tan2 x

+(cot 2 x + 1) cot 2 x

=1

+1

=2
1

1
1
csc 2 x
1
1
=
=
= sec 2 x = RHS
2
1 sin x cos 2 x

= RHS [proven]
10

LHS
= (sin + cos )2 (sin + cos )(sin cos )
= (sin + cos )[(sin + cos ) (sin cos )]

[proven]

= (sin + cos )(2 cos )


8(i)

LHS = cot x + tan x


=
=
=

cos x
sin x

= 2 cos (sin + cos )

sin x

= RHS [proven]

cos x

cos2 x+sin2 x
sin x cos x
1
sin x cos x

= csc x sec x
= RHS [proven]

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11

Ex 12.1

sin x + sin y = a
sin y
= a sin x

13
(1)

cos x + cos y = a
cos y
= a cos x

1sin x

LHS =

1+sin x
1sin x

1+sin x

(2)

(1)2 + (2)2 :
sin2 y + cos 2 y = (a sin x)2
+(a cos x)2
2
2
1
= (a 2a sin x + sin x) +(a2 2a cos x +
cos 2 x)
1
= 2a2 2a(sin x + cos x) + sin2 + cos 2 x
1
= 2a2 2a(sin x + cos x) +1
2a(sin x + cos x) = 2a2
sin x + cos x = a
k=
1
k

=
=
=
=
=

1sin x
1sin x

(1sin x)2

12(i)

1sin2 x

(1sin x)2

=
=

cos2 x

1sin x
cos x

(1 sin x) > 0
[
]
cos x > 0
for acute x

= sec x tan x
= RHS [proven]
Different restriction results in different output of
trigo f(x)

1+sin x
cos x

13(i)

cos x
1+sin x
cos x
1+sin x

1sin x
1+sin x

1sin x
1sin x

cos x(1sin x)

1 sin x 1 sin x

1 + sin x 1 sin x

(1 sin x)2
1 sin2 x

(1 sin x)2
cos 2 x

1sin2 x
cos x(1sin x)
cos2 x
1sin x
cos x

[proven]

12(ii) k + 1 = 1+sin x + 1sin x


k
k2 +1
k

cos x =

cos x
2

cos x
2k
k2 +1

Put cos x =
2k2
k2 +1

2k
k2 +1

into k =

= 1 + sin x

=
=
=

sin x = 1
sin x

1 sin x
cos x
x is obtuse, (1 sin x) > 0, cos x < 0
= sec x + tan x
= tan x sec x

cos x

1+sin x
cos x

,
13(ii)

2k2
k2 +1

2k2
k2 +1
2k2
k2 +1
k2 1
k2 +1

={

k2 +1

1 sin x
1 + sin x

14

k2 +1

sec x tan x , for x in 1st or 4th quadrant

tan x sec x for x in 2nd or 3rd quadrant

4 sin A cos A +(cos 2 A 10 sin A cos A + 25 sin2 A)


+9 cos 2 A + 6 sin A cos A + sin2 A
= 10 cos 2 A + 26 sin2 A
= 10 cos 2 A + 26(1 cos 2 A)
= 26 16 cos 2 A
= p cos 2 A + q
p = 26
q = 16

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329

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.2
2(b)

Ex 12.2
1(a)

5 cos x + 2 sin x = 0
2 sin x
= 5 cos x
tan x

5
2

90 180 270 360

0 < x < 360


x = , 180 +
53.1, 233.1

3(b)

0 < x < 360


x = 180 , 360
= 149.0, 329.0

T C
x = 180 + , 360
= 191.5, 348.5

90 180 270 360

x = 270

2 tan2 x 3 tan x 2 = 0
(2 tan x + 1)(tan x 2) = 0
1
tan x =
or tan x = 2
2
63.4
26.6
1st or 3rd quadrant
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 360
S

sin x sin x tan x = 0


sin x (1 tan x) = 0
sin x = 0
or
tan x = 1

= 45
1
1st or 3rd quadrant
90 180 270 360

0 < x < 360

T C
x = , 180
= 30, 150

41.0
2nd or 4th quadrant

11.5
3rd or 4th quadrant

2 sin2 x + sin x 1
=0
(2 sin x 1)(sin x + 1) = 0
1
sin x =
or sin x = 1
2
0 x 360
= 30

1st or 2nd quadrant


1
0 x 360

3 cos x + 7 sin x = 2 sin x


5 sin x
= 3 cos x
tan x

2(a)

3(a)

53.1
1st or 3rd quadrant

1(c)

0 < x < 360


x = 180

3(sin x cos x) = cos x


3 sin x 3 cos x = cos x
3 sin x
= 4 cos x

0 < x < 360


x = 180 , 360
111.8, 291.8

tan x

68.2
2nd or 4th quadrant

1(b)

tan x + 5 tan x sin x = 0


tan x (1 + 5 sin x) = 0
tan x = 0
or sin x = 1

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 153.4, 333.4

0 x 360
S

T C
x = , 180 +
= 63.4, 243.4

0 < x < 360

0 < x < 360


x = 180

T C
x = , 180 +
= 45, 225

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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330

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(c)

Ex 12.2

6 cos 2 x 5 cos x 1
=0
(6 cos x + 1)(cos x 1) = 0
1
cos x =
or cos x = 1

4(a)

4 sin x cos x 3 sin x = 0


sin x (4 cos x 3) = 0
3
sin x = 0
or
cos x =
4

0 x 2

80.4
0 x 360
2nd or 3rd quadrant

0.723
1st or 4th quadrant

0 x 2

0 x 360
S A

T C
x = 180 , 180 +
= 99.6, 260.4
3(d)

90 180 270 360

90 180 270 360

1
3

x = 0, , 2

x = 0, 360

4(b)

or sec x = 2

cos x = 3
(no solution)

3 sec 2 x 7 sec x + 2 = 0
(3 sec x 1)(sec x 2) = 0
sec x =

cos x =

3 sin2 x + sin x cos x


sin x (3 sin x + cos x)
sin x = 0
or
0 x 2

= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

90 180 270 360

x = 0, , 2

0 x 360
S

T C
x = , 360
= 60, 300
3(e)

x = 0, 180, 360

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

4(c)

0 x 360
S

=0
=0
3 sin x = cos x
tan x =

1
3

0.322
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 2
S

T C
x = , 2
= 2.82,5.96

7 sin3 x + sin2 x = 0
sin2 x (7 sin x + 1) = 0
sin x = 0
or sin x = 1
7
0 x 360
8.2

3rd or 4th quadrant


1
90 180 270 360

T C
x = , 2
= 0.723,5.56

2 csc 2 x 7 csc x 4 = 0
(2 csc x + 1)(csc x 4) = 0
1
csc x = 4
csc x =
or
2

sin x = 2
(no solution)

sin x =

1
4

0.253
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 x 2

T C
x = 180 + , 360
188.2, 351.8

T C
x = ,
= 0.253, 2.89

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331

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(d)

Ex 12.2

2 cos 2 x cos x 1 = 0
(2 cos x + 1)(cos x 1) = 0
1
cos x =
or cos x = 1
=

0 x 2
1

90 180 270 360

S A

T C
x = , +

4(e)

2 4
3

x 60 = , 180 +
= 30, 210
x
= 90, 270

x = 0, 2
5(c)

3 sin 2x + 2 = 0
sin 2x

2
3

41.8
3rd or 4th quadrant

2 cos x 3 cos x sin x = 0


cos x (2 3 sin2 x) = 0
cos x = 0
or 3 sin2 x = 2
0 x 2

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

2
3
2

sin x =

90 180 270 360


1

x= ,
2

5(a)

sin2 x =

1
3

0 < x
< 360
60 < x 60 < 300

0 x 2

tan(x 60) =

= 30
1st or 3rd quadrant

2nd or 3rd quadrant

5(b)

2x = 180 + , 360 , 540 + , 720


= 221.8, 318.2,
581.8, 678.2
x = 110.9, 159.1,
290.9, 339.1

0.955
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quad.
0 x 2

S A

T C
x = , , + , 2
= 0.955,2.19,4.10,5.33

cos 2x = 0.5
= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

5(d)

0 < x
< 360
40 < 2x 40 < 680

2x 40 = ,
, 360 ,
360 + , 720

= 36.9, 36.9, 323.1, 406.9, 683.1


x
1.6,
38.4, 181.6, 218.4

T
0 < x < 360
0 < 2x < 720
2x = , 360 , 360 + , 720
= 60, 300, 420, 660
x = 30, 150, 210, 330

cos(2x 40) = 0.8


36.9
1st or 4th quadrant

6(a)

10 sin 2x = 3
sin 2x

3
10

0.305
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < x < 2
0 < 2x < 4

2x = , ,
2 + , 3
= 0.305, 2.84, 6.59, 9.12
x = 0.152, 1.42, 3.29, 4.56

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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332

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

Ex 12.2

cot 2x = 2
tan 2x =

R
= 55
64 sin 2 = 55

0.463
2nd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 2
0 < 2x < 4

sin 2

tan ( x) =

0.983
1st or 3rd quadrant
S
0 < x < 2

0< x<
2

1
2

x
6(d)

3 sin x + 2 cos x = 2(sin x + 3 cos x)


3 sin x + 2 cos x = 2 sin x + 6 cos x
sin x
= 4 cos x
tan x
=4
76.0
1st or 3rd quadrant
S A

0 < x < 360


T C
x = , 180 +
76.0, 256.0

8(b)

sin x3 cos x

5
4
4
5

2x = , + ,
2.50, 3.79
x 1.25, 1.89

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2 sin x+cos x

=2

sin x 3 cos x = 4 sin x + 2 cos x


3 sin x
= 5 cos x

0.644
2nd or 3rd quadrant
0 < x < 2
0 < 2x < 4

8(a)

4 sec 2x + 5 = 0
cos 2x

64

2 = , 180
59.2, 120.8
29.6, 60.4

0.983
1.97

55

0 < < 90
0 < 2 < 180

x = , +

sec 2x

59.2
1st or 2nd quadrant

2x = , 2 , 3 , 4
= 2.68, 5.81,
8.96, 12.1
x = 1.34,2.91,
4.48, 6.05
6(c)

R = 64 sin 2

tan x

5
3

59.0
2nd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 360


x = 180 , 360
121.0, 301.0

3 , 3 +
8.78, 10.1
4.39, 5.03

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333

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(a)

2 sin x

Ex 12.2

= tan x

2 sin x

9(d)

sin x

cos x

2 sin x cos x
= sin x
sin x (2 cos x 1) = 0
sin x = 0
or cos x = 1
2

0 < x < 360

6 2 cos 2 x
6 2(1 sin2 x)
6 2 + 2 sin2 x
2 sin2 x 9 sin x + 4
(2 sin x 1)(sin x 4)
sin x =

= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

= 9 sin x
= 9 sin x
= 9 sin x
=0
=0
or sin x = 4

1
2

(no solution)
= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant

90 180 270 360

T C
x = , 360
= 60, 300

x = 180

9(b)

0 < x < 360

0 < x < 360

sec 2 x
= 4 sec x 3
2
sec x 4 sec x + 3
=0
(sec x 1)(sec x 3) = 0
sec x = 1
or sec x = 3
1
cos x = 1
cos x =

T C
x = , 180
= 30, 150
9(e)

90 180 270 360

no solution

9(c)

70.5
1st or 4th quadrant

cos x =

1
2

1
cos2 x

or

cos x = 3

0 < x < 360

T C
x = , 360
70.5, 289.5

T C
x = , 360
= 60, 300
9(f)

2 tan x

= 3 + 2 cot x

2 tan x

= 3 + 2(

1
tan x

2 tan x
= 3 tan x + 2
2
2 tan x 3 tan x 2
=0
(2 tan x + 1)(tan x 2) = 0

or cos x = 3

= 60
(no solution)
2nd or 3rd quadrant

tan x =

1
2

or tan x = 2

26.6
63.4
2nd or 4th quadrant 1st or 3rd quadrant

0 < x < 360

S A

T C
x = 180 , 180 +
= 120, 240

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

7 cos x 3

2
sec2 x
2

(no solution)
= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

2 sin2 x + 5 cos x + 1
=0
2
2(1 cos x) + 5 cos x + 1 = 0
2 2 cos 2 x + 5 cos x + 1 = 0
2 cos 2 x + 5 cos x + 3
=0
2
2 cos x 5 cos x 3
=0
(2 cos x + 1)(cos x 3) = 0

cos x =

0 < x < 360

7 cos x 3

7 cos x 3
= 2 cos 2 x
2
2 cos x 7 cos x + 3 = 0
(2 cos x 1)(cos x 3) = 0

0 < x < 360

0 < x < 360


S

T C
x = 180 , 360
153.4, 333.4

sleightofmath.com

0 < x < 360


S

T C
x = , 180 +
63.4, 243.4

334

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.2

10(a) 2 tan2 x 1
= 5 sec x
2
2(sec x 1) 1
= 5 sec x
(2 sec 2 x 2) 1
= 5 sec x
2
2 sec x 5 sec x 3 = 0
(2 sec x + 1)(sec x 3) = 0
sec x =

1
2

11(b)
|2 cos x + 3 sin x| = sin x
2 cos x + 3 sin x = sin x or
2 sin x
= 2 cos x
tan x
= 1
45
2nd or 4th quadrant

or sec x = 3

cos x = 2
(no solution)

cos x =

0 < x < 180

0 x 2

T C
x = 180 , 360
135

T C
x = , 2
= 1.23, 5.05

2nd or 4th quadrant


0 x 2

0 x 2
S

T C
x = , +
= 0.785, 3.93

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

0 < x
< 360
10 < 2x + 10 < 730
0
2x + 10 = 180 , 360 , 540 , 720
116.6, 296.6,
476.6, 656.6
x

0 < x < 180


x = , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 55, 125

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 153.4

12(b) cot(2x + 10) = 0.5


tan(2x + 10) = 2
63.4
2nd or 4th quadrant

1sin 20

= 55
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

2x 20 = ,
, 360 ,
360 + , 720

= 18.2, 18.2, 341.8, 378.2, 701.8


x
= 0.9,
19.1, 180.9, 360.9

11(a) 2 cos 2 x + sin 20 = 1


2 cos 2 x
= 1 sin 20
=

0 < x < 180

cos x

26.6
2nd or 4th quadrant

0 < x
< 360
20 < 2x 20 < 700

1st or 3rd quadrant

T C
x = , 2
= 2.82, 5.96

12(a) cos(2x 20) = 0.95


18.2
1st or 4th quadrant

10(b) csc 2 x
+2 cot x = 4
2
(cot x + 1) + 2 cot x = 4
cot 2 x + 2 cot x 3 = 0
(cot x + 3)(cot x 1) = 0
cot x = 3
or
cot x = 1
1
tan x = 1
tan x =
3

=
0.322

tan x

1.23
1st or 4th quadrant

2 cos x + 3 sin x = sin x


4 sin x
= 2 cos x

53.3, 143.3,

233.3, 323.3

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335

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.2

12(c) csc(2x + 60) = 4


sin(2x + 60) =

13(b) sin (3x + 5) = 3


2

14.5
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < x
< 360
60 < 2x + 60 < 780

<x

<

0.833 <
2x + 60
= , 180 , 360 + , 540 , 720 + , 900

= 14.5, 165.5, 374.5, 525.5


734.5, 885.5
x 52.8,
157.24, 232.8, 337.2

3x
2

0 < x
< 360
60 < 2x 60 < 660
2x 60
= , 180 , 360 ,

+
+

6
5
6

< 3 +

5
6

< 10.258

= , , 2 + , 3 ,

4 + ,

= 0.448,2.69, 6.73, 8.97,


= 1.24,
3.93, 5.43

13.0

sin(2x 3)

0.216
3rd or 4th quadrant

14
3
3
14

0 <x
< 2
3 < 2x 3 < 4 3
3 < 2x 3 < 9.57

495, 675

2x 3
= 2 , + , ,
3 + , 4 ,

277.5

x = 7.5, 97.5, 187.5


13(a) cot(3x + 0.5) = 3

+ , 2 ,

= 6.50
2.93, 0.216, 3.36, 6.06,
9.64, 12.4

1
3

0.22
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 <x
< 2
0.5 < 3x + 0.5 < 6 + 0.5
0.5 < 3x + 0.5 < 19.3

3x + 0.5
= , + ,
2 + , 3 + ,
6 +

x 0.988,
6.22

2
3x

< 2
5

csc(2x 3)

540 , 720 ,

= 45, 135,315,

0.322,3.46,
19.2

3x

13(c) 3 csc(2x 3) + 15 = 1

12(d) tan(2x 60) = 1


= 45
2nd or 4th quadrant

tan(3x + 0.5) =

0.448
1st or 2nd quadrant

14(a) sin(3x + 70) = 0.2


11.5
1st or 2nd quadrant

4 + , 5 + ,

6.60, 9.75,

12.88, 16.03,

2.04, 3.08,

4.13, 5.17

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 0.0372, 1.39, 3.18, 4.53

sleightofmath.com

0 < x
< 180
70 < 3x + 70 < 610
3x + 70 = , 180 ,
= 11.5, 168.5,
x
= 32.8,

360 + , 540
371.5, 528.5
100.5, 152.8

336

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.2

14(b) 8 csc 2x cot 2x


8(

1
sin 2x

)(

cos 2x
sin 2x

=3
)

=3

8 cos 2x
8 cos 2x
8 cos 2x
3 cos 2 2x + 8 cos 2x 3
(3 cos 2x 1)(cos 2x + 3)
cos 2x =

1
3

16

= 3 sin2 2x
= 3(1 cos 2 2x)
= 3 3 cos 2 2x
=0
=0

1
cos

or cos 2x = 3

2
3

=4

cos

2
2

cos =

1
4

is obtuse
2nd quadrant
(rej cos
< 0 in 2nd quadrant)

is obtuse
2nd quadrant

0 < x < 180


0 < 2x < 360

3
-2

T C
2x = , 360
= 70.5, 289.5
x = 35.3, 144.7

x = 2, r = 3,
y = (3)2 (2)2
= 5
y

tan = =
x

2 sin x cos x cos x


+4 sin x 2
(2
= cos x sin x 1)
+2(2 sin x 1)
= (2 sin x 1)(cos x + 2)

15(ii) 2 sin x cos x 2


= cos x 4 sin x
2 sin x cos x cos x + 4 sin x 2 = 0
(2 sin x 1)(cos x + 2)
=0
1
cos
x
= 2
sin x =
or
2
(no solution)
= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant
360 x 360
S

cos =

(no solution)
70.5
1st or 4th quadrant

15(i)

2 tan2
= 5 sec + 10
2
2(sec 1)
= 5 sec + 10
2 sec 2 2
= 5 sec + 10
2
2 sec 5 sec 12 = 0
(2 sec + 3)(sec 4) = 0
3
sec = 4
sec =
or

5
2

5
2

17(a) 3 cos 2 2x + 4 sin 2x


3(1 sin2 2x) + 4 sin 2x
3 3 sin2 2x + 4 sin 2x
3 sin2 2x 4 sin 2x 2

sin 2x =
=
sin 2x =

=1
=1
=1
=0

4(4)2 4(3)(2)
2(3)
4210
6
2+10
3

1.72
(no solution)

440
6

4410
6

210
3

sin 2x =

210
3

0.387

22.8
3rd or 4th quadrant
0 < x < 360
0 < 2x < 720

T C
x = 360 + , 180 ,
, 180

T C
2x = 180 + , 360 ,
540 + , 720

= 330, 210,
30, 150

202.8, 337.2,
562.8, 697.2
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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101.4, 168.6,
281.4, 348.6

337

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(b) sec x (tan x 2)
(

1
cos x

Ex 12.2
= 2 csc x

) (tan x 2)

sin x
cos x

= 2(

(tan x 2)

=
=

sin x
2

cos

sin x
)
cos x

tan x

223
2

212
2

243
2

(
tan x = 1 + 3
69.9
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < x < 360

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 143.8, 323.8

3x = ,
2

2,
x

3
2

+ 2

6 2

= ,

(2)

2010 sin A 2
F

) +(

(3)

10 cos A 2

=1

100 cos2 A

=1

F2

400 400 sin A + 100 sin2 A + 100 cos 2 A = F 2

T C
x = , 180 +
= 69.9, 249.9

2010 sin A

F2

400 400 sin A + 100(sin2 A + cos 2 A)

= F2

400 400 sin A + 100

= F2

F2

= 500 400 sin A

F = 500 400 sin A or F = 500 400 sin A

(NA)
18(ii)

tan =

sin
cos

2010 sin A
)
F
10 cos A
(
)
F

2010 sin A
10 cos A

2sin A
cos A

[shown]
18(iii) Put A = 30 in F = 500 400 sin A,

0x
0 3x 3

400400 sin A+100 sin2 A

17(c) sin 3x (4 sin 3x 3 cos 3x)


=4
2
4 sin 3x 3 sin 3x cos 3x
=4
2
4(1 cos 3x) 3 sin 3x cos 3x = 4
(4 4 cos 2 3x) 3 sin 3x cos 3x = 4
4 cos 2 3x 3 sin 3x cos 3x
=0
cos 3x (4 cos 3x + 3 sin 3x)
=0
cos 3x = 0
3 sin 3x = 4 cos 3x
4
0x
tan 3x =
3
0 3x 3
0.927

2nd or 4th quadrant


1
90 180 270 360

(1)

sin2 + cos 2 = 1
sub (1) & (2) into (3):

= 1 3

tan x = 1 3
36.2
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 < x < 360

10
cos A

sin

tan x 2 tan x
=2
2
tan x 2 tan x 2 = 0
2(1)

10 sin A + F sin = 20
F sin
= 20 10 sin A

2(2)2 4(1)(2)

= cos

cos A

tan x =

10 cos A = F cos
10

(tan x 2)

tan x 2

18(i)

F|A=30 = 500 400 sin 30


1
= 500 400 ( )
2
= 500 200 = 300 = 103
Put A = 30 in tan =
tan =

T C
3x = , 2 ,
3

2sin 30
cos 30

1
2
3
2

2sin A
cos A

3
2
3
2

= 3

= 60

= 2.21, 5.36,
8.50
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 0.738, 1.79,
2.83

sleightofmath.com

338

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12
A2(a) 5 sin2 x 8 sin x cos x = 0
sin x (5 sin x 8 cos x) = 0
sin x = 0
or
5 sin x = 8 cos x

Rev Ex 12
A1(a) x = a sin (1)
(i)
a2 x 2
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
= a2 (a sin )2
= a2 a2 sin2
= a2 (1 sin2 )
= a2 cos 2

tan x =

90 180 270 360

0 x 360
x = 0, 180, 360

= (1

A2(b) 5 cot 2 x

5(

3
sin2 )2

=
= cos 3

A1(b) Coordinates of
(i)
2 cos = sin
y
tan
= 2 =
x

is obtuse 2nd quadrant


y = 2, x = 1,
2

1
1
( )
3

cos2 x
sin2 x
2

-1

+7

= 11 csc x

) +7

11
sin x

= 3

T C
x = , 180
= 30, 150

Trigonometric ratio
tan() = tan = (2) = 2
x
r

0 x 360

r = (2) + (1)2 = 3

5 cos x +7 sin2 x
= 11 sin x
2
2
5(1 sin x) +7 sin x= 11 sin x
5 5 sin2 x +7 sin2 x = 11 sin x
2 sin2 x 11 sin x + 5 = 0
(2 sin x 1)(sin x 5) = 0
1
sin x = 5
sin x =
or
2
(no solution)
= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant

3
(cos 2 )2

A1(b) sec = 1 =
cos
(ii)

0 x 360

T C
x = , 180 +
58.0, 238.0

(a sin )2 2
a2

58.0
1st or 3rd quadrant

3
A1(a)
x2 2
(1 2 )
(3)
(ii)
a
sub (1) into (3):

= (1

A2(c) 1 + 2 cos (3 x + 75) = 0


2

cos ( x + 75)
2

1
1
A1(b) csc(90 ) =
=
= 3
sin(90)
cos
(iii)

1
2

= 60
2nd or 3rd quadrant
0 x

360

A
C

75 x + 75 615
2

3
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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x + 75 = 180 , 180 + , 540 , 540 +


= 120, 240,
= 30, 110,

480, 600
270, 350

339

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

A3(a) 10 cos 3x + 8 = 0
cos 3x

A4(b) Prove:

LHS =

A5(i)

C
=

=
=

3x2
4
3x2
4

< 14.5

1
cos
1

1
1

sin cos
1
sin
1
sin

sin

1cot x
1+cot x

= + , 2 , 3 + , 4 ,

5 +

3.87, 5.55,
16.4

16.4

sin

cos )

1cos2
cos
sin2
cos

sin
cos

= tan

10.2, 11.8,

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

2x = , 180 + ,
= 45, 225,

360 + , 540 +
405, 585

x = 22.5, 112.5, 202.5, 292.5


A4(a) Prove:

LHS =

1csc x
cot x

1csc x
cot x

= RHS

cos

A5(ii) sec 2x csc 2x cot 2x = 1


tan 2x
=1
45
1st or 3rd quadrant

< 20

= RHS [proven]

0.730
3rd or 4th quadrant
x

Prove: sec csc cot = tan

A3(c) 3 sin (3x2) = 2


=

tan x+1

tan x
1

tan x tan x
tan x
1
+
tan x tan x

LHS = sec csc cot

2x 70 = 180 , 180 + , 1260 , 1260 + ,


1620 , 1620 +
= 110,250,
1190, 1330,
1550, 1690
x
= 700

tan x1

LHS = ln(sec x + tan x)(sec x tan x)


= ln(sec 2 x tan2 x)
= ln[(tan2 x + 1) tan2 x]
= ln 1
=0
= RHS [proven]

1+cot x

A4(c) Prove: ln(sec x + tan x) + ln(sec x tan x) = 0

A3(b) cos(2x 70) = sin 200


= sin 20
= cos 70
= 70
S

2nd or 3rd quadrant

T
x
< 800
2x 70 < 1530

sin (

1cot x

[proven]

3x = , + , 3 , 3 + , 5 , 5 +
, 7
= 2.50, 3.79, 8.78, 10.1, 15.1, 16.4,
21.3
x 7.12

4
3x2

tan x+1

0.644
2nd or 3rd quadrant
x >6
3x > 18

tan x1

= tan x sec x

1
sin x
cos x
sin x

sin x1
sin x
cos x
sin x

sin x1
cos x

= tan x

sec x = RHS [proven]

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340

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A6(i)

Rev Ex 12

1st curve
y = 4 cos 3x
Point P
y|x=0 = 4 cos[3(0)]
P(0,4)

=4

Intersection point
At intersection point,
y = 4 cos 3x cuts x axis (y = 0)
4 cos 3x = 0
cos 3x = 0

3x =

90 180 270 360

( , 0)

2nd curve
y = 2 sin x + k

At ( , 0),
6

2 sin ( ) + k = 0
6

2( ) + k = 0
2

= 1

y = 2 sin x 1
Point Q

At max, x =
y|

x=
2

= 2 sin 1
2

= 2(1) 1
=1

Q ( , 1)
2

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341

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

A6(ii) y1 = 4 cos 3x
i.e. a = 4, b = 3, c = 0

Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4


Period

360
b

360
3

= 120

y2 = 2 sin x 1
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 1

4
1

180
= 2 sin 1
= cos 3

3
4

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

360
b

360
1

= 360
Workings

1 = 4 cos 3
Domain
0 180
Axis with
=04
Amplitude
Shape
+
1800
Cycle
= 1.5
120

2 = 2 sin 1
Domain
0 180
Axis with
= 1 2
Amplitude
Shape
+
1800
1
Cycle
=
360

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342

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A7

P = 105 20 cos (

Rev Ex 12

16t

B1(b) 4 sin x cos x

4 sin x cos x

= 100

105 20 cos (
20 cos (
cos (

16t
7

16t
7

16t
7

) = 100

= 5

16t
7
16t
7
16t
7

> 10
>

160
7

sin x = 0
0 x 2

90 180 270 360

x = 0, ,2

B1(a) sec 2x = 2
1

cos 2x =
2

=
3
1st or 4th quadrant
A

3 3
5

= ,
6

,
,

2 + , 4
7 11

3
3
7 11
6

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

1
2

1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

2 4 5

= ,
3

B1(c) (tan x + 1)(2 tan x 1) = 5


2 tan2 x + tan x 1
=5
2
2 tan x + tan x 6
=0
(2 tan x 3)(tan x + 2) = 0
3
2

tan x = 2

0.983
1.11
1st or 3rd quadrant 2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 2
S

= ,

S A

T C
x = , , + , 2

tan x =

1
cos x
1

0 x 2

= , 2 , 22 + , 24

2x = , 2 ,

1.32,4.97, 70.4,74.1
10.3

) =0

cos x

> 71.8

0 x 2
0 2x 4

cos x

cos 2 x =

sin x
cos x
1

4 cos x =

sin x (4 cos x

1.318
1st or 4th quadrant
t

= tan x

T C
x = , +
= 0.983,4.12

sleightofmath.com

0 x 2
S

T C
x = , 2
= 2.03,5.18

343

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

B2(i) x = 4 sin + 3 cos


y = 4 cos 3 sin

B3(b) Prove:
LHS =

y
= 2x
4 cos 3 sin = 2(4 sin + 3 cos )
4 cos 3 sin = 8 sin + 6 cos
11 sin
= 2 cos
tan

2
11

10.3
2nd or 4th quadrant
obtuse
90 < < 180

cos x
1sin x

= 180 , 360
= 169.7, 349.7
B2(ii) x 2 + y 2
= (4 sin + 3 cos )2 + (4 cos 3 sin )2

cos x
1sin x

1
cos x

= tan x

1
cos x

cos 2 x
(1 sin x)
(1 sin x) cos x

cos 2 x
1 + sin x
(1 sin x) cos x

(1 sin2 x) 1 + sin x
(1 sin x) cos x

sin x sin2 x
(1 sin x) cos x

sin x (1 sin x)
(1 sin x) cos x

sin x
cos x

= tan x
= RHS [proven]

= (16 sin + 24 sin cos + 9 cos )


+(16 cos 2 24 sin cos + 9 sin2 )
= 25 sin2 + 25 cos 2
= 25(sin2 + cos 2 )
= 25 [shown]
B3(a) LHS
2

1 tan x
1 + tan2 x

1 (sec 2 x 1)
sec 2 x

2 sec 2 x
sec 2 x
2
=
1
sec 2 x
2
=
1
1
cos 2 x
=

B3(c) LHS = ln(1 + cos x) + ln(1 cos x)


= ln(1 cos 2 x)
= ln(sin2 x)
= ln[(sin x)2 ]
= 2 ln(sin x)
= RHS [proven]
B4(a) tan 5x = 0.6
2

0.540
1st or 3rd quadrant
x
5x
2
5x
2

>4
> 10

= , 2 + , 3 , 4 +
0.540,2.60, 6.82, 8.88,
5.24

13.11

= 2 cos 2 x 1
= RHS [proven]

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344

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

B4(b) csc 2x = 6
sin 2x =

1
6

0.167
1st or 2nd quadrant
x <5
2x < 10

2x

63.4
18.4
= 26.6
2nd or 4th quad. 2nd or 4th quad. 1st or 3rd quad.

cos ( )

0 < < 180


S

4
3
3

2x

> 666.67

3
2x

A
C

, 900 +
138.6,221.4,
858.6, 941.4
x 1287.9
3

0 < < 180


S

T C
= 180 ,
360
= 161.6

or tan =

0 < < 180


S

T C
= , 180 +
= 26.6

1
cos 2x

cos 2x 1 + sin 2x

(1 + sin 2x) cos 2 2x


cos 2x (1 + sin 2x)

(1 cos 2 2x) + sin 2x


=
cos 2x (1 + sin 2x)

= 180 , 180 + , 540 , 540 + ,

or tan = 3

B6(i) f(x)

> 1000

T C
= 180 ,
360
= 116.6

41.4
2nd or 3rd quadrant
x

tan = 2

sec ( )
3
2x

=2

= 4

6 tan3 + 11 tan2 3 tan

B4(c) 3 sec (2x) + 4 = 0


3 sec ( )

= 2 cot

6(tan )3 + 11(tan )2 3(tan ) 2 = 0

2x = , , 2 + , 3 , 4 +
= 0.167,2.974, 6.451,9.257 12.734
x 4.63
3
2x

B5(ii)
6 tan2 + 11 tan 3

900
=

sin2 2x + sin 2x
cos 2x (1 + sin 2x)

sin 2x (sin 2x + 1)
cos 2x (1 + sin 2x)

sin 2x
cos 2x

498.6,581.4

B5(i) 6x + 11x 3x 2
=0
2
(x + 2)(6x + + )
(x + 2)(6x 2 + 1)
(x + 2)(6x 2 x 1)
=0
(x + 2)(3x + 1)(2x 1) = 0
1

= tan 2x [shown]

x = 2 or x = or x =

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345

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

B6(ii) y = f(x)
= tan 2x
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 0
Period

180
b

B7(i)

t
2

i.e. a = 1.6, b = , c = 0
v = 1.6 sin

T=

180

= 90

B7(ii) v

= ()

90

180 270

t
2

Workings

= 4s

t
2

t
2

= 1.3
=

13
16

0.948
1st or 2nd quadrant

x = 45 x = 135 x = 225

= 1.3

1.6 sin
sin

= ,
0.948,2.193
0.604, 1.40

Domain
0 x 270
Axis with
y=0
Amplitude
Shape
+tan
Cycle

2700
90

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=3

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346

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.1

Ex 13.1
1(a)

1(b)

1(c)

LHS = sin(90 + )
= sin 90 cos + cos 90 sin
= (1) cos +(0) sin
= cos
= RHS [proven]
LHS = cos(90 + )
= cos 90 cos sin 90 sin
= (0)
cos (1) sin
= sin
= RHS [proven]
LHS = sin (

3
2
3

3(a)

sin 15 cos 75 + cos 15 sin 75


= sin(15 + 75)
= sin 90
=1

3(b)

sin 50 cos 20 cos 50 sin 20


= sin(50 20)
= sin 30
1

=
2

3(c)

=
)
3

= sin ( )

cos cos ( ) sin

3(d)

= [ sin ( )] cos cos ( ) sin


= (1)
cos (0) sin
= cos
= RHS [proven]
1(d)

3(e)

2(c)

2(d)

sin 15 sin 30 cos 15 cos 30


= (cos 15 cos 30 sin 15 sin 30)
= cos(45)
=

2
2

tan 35+tan 10
1tan 35 tan 10

1+tan 2 tan
(0)tan
1+(0) tan

LHS = sin cos 2 + cos sin 2


= sin( + 2)
= sin 3
= RHS [proven]
LHS = sin 2 cos cos 2 sin
= sin(2 )
= sin
= RHS [proven]
Prove: LHS = cos 3 cos 2 + sin 3 sin 2
= cos(3 2)
= cos
= RHS [proven]
Prove: LHS =

tan 3tan 4
1+tan 3 tan 4

= tan(3 4)
= tan()
= tan
= RHS [proven]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= tan(35 + 10)
= tan 45
=1

tan 2tan

3(f)

= tan
= RHS [proven]

2(b)

3
2

LHS = tan(2 )
=

2(a)

cos 70 cos 40 + sin 70 sin 40


= cos(70 40)
= cos 30

tan 30tan 75
1+tan 30 tan 75

= tan(30 75)
= tan(45)
= tan 45
= 1

4(a)

cos 75 = cos(30 + 45)


= cos 30 cos 45 sin 30 sin 45
2
3
2
2
62

= ( )( )
=
4(b)

2
2

sin 15 = sin(45 30)


= sin 45 cos 30 cos 45 sin 30
2
3
2
2
62

= ( )( )
=
5(a)

( )( )

2
2

( )( )
2

LHS
= sin(A + B)
+ sin(A B)
= sin A cos B + cos A sin B + sin A cos B
cos A sin B
= 2 sin A cos B
= RHS [proven]

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347

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.1

5(b)
LHS
= cos(A + B)
cos(A B)
= cos A cos B sin A sin B (cos A cos B + sin A sin B)
= cos A cos B sin A sin B cos A cos B sin A sin B
= 2 sin A sin B
= RHS [proven]

6(d)
LHS

6(a)
LHS

1
cos( )

1
1
cos cos
=
=
cos cos + sin sin cos cos + sin sin
cos cos
sec sec
1 + tan tan

= RHS [proven]

sin(A + B) sin(A B)
cos(A + B) cos(A B)

(sin A cos B + cos A sin B) (sin A cos B cos A sin B)


(cos A cos B sin A sin B) (cos A cos B + sin A sin B)

sin A cos B + cos A sin B


=
cos A cos B sin A sin B
2 cos A sin B
=
2 sin A sin B

7(a)

LHS = tan(A + 45) tan(A 45)


=

sin A cos B + cos A sin B


cos A cos B sin A sin B

=
=

= cot A

7(b)

sin(A + B)
=
cos(A B)

tan A(1)
1+tan A(1)

tan2 A1
1tan2 A

LHS = tan A + tan B


=

sin A cos B + cos A sin B


cos A cos B + sin A sin B
sin A cos B + cos A sin B
cos A cos B
=
cos A cos B + sin A sin B
cos A cos B
tan A + tan B
=
1 + tan A tan B

7(c)
LHS

= RHS [proven]

= cot(x + y)

sin A
cos A

sin A
cos B

sin A cos B +sin A cos A


cos A cos B
sin(A+B)
cos A cos B

= RHS [proven]

6(c)
LHS

1
tan(x + y)

1
= tan x + tan y
1 tan x tany

sin(A + B)
=
sin(A B)
sin A cos B + cos A sin B
sin A cos B + cos A sin B
cos A cos B
=
=
sin A cos B cos A sin B sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos A cos B
tan A + tan B
=
tan A tan B

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

tan Atan 45
1+tan A tan 45

= RHS [proven]

LHS

= RHS [proven]

tan A+(1)
1tan A(1)

= 1

= RHS [proven]
6(b)

tan A+tan 45
1tan A tan 45

1 tan x tan y
1 tan x tan y
cot x cot y 1
tan x tan y
=
= tan x + tan y =
tan x + tan y
cot y + cot x
tan x tan y
=

cot x cot y 1
cot x + cot y

= RHS [proven]

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348

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.1

7(d)
LHS

9(i)

cos A sin B =

10

cos A sin B

9(ii)

= RHS [proven]

2
2
2
= 2 [sin A ( ) + cos A ( )] [cos A ( )
2
2
2
2
sin A ( )]
2
2
2
= 2 ( ) (cos A + sin A) (cos A sin A)
2
2
2
2

sin A cos B =

10

1
5

=
5

10

sin A cos B =
=
9(iii)

tan A
tan B

=
=
=
=

= cos A (1 cos A)
= 2 cos 2 A 1
= RHS [proven]

9
10

7
10

, cos A sin B =

1
5

sin A
cos A
sin B
cos B

sin A
cos A

cos B
sin B

sin A cos B
sin B cos A
7
10
1
5

sin A cos B =

7
10

, cos A sin B =

1
5

=
2

10

LHS
= cos(A + B + C)
= cos[(A + B) + C]

sin(A+B)
sin A cos B+cos A sin B

= cos A cos B cos C sin A sin B cos C


sin A cos B sin C cos A sin B sin C
= RHS [proven]

= cos A sin A cos A


sin2 cos A cos A sin2 A

sin A cos B

= cos A 3(1 cos A) cos A

= 5

cos A sin B

= 5

tan A cot B
tan(A B)
tan Atan B
1+tan A tan B
3
tan B
4
3
1+ tan B
4

=
=
=

25
24
25
24
25

tan A =

24

18 24 tan B = 25 +
4

= cos A 3 sin A cos A


2

= 5 cos A sin B

sin A cos B

3 sin A cos B + 3 cos A sin B = 2 sin A cos B 2 cos A sin B

171
3

sin A cos Bcos A sin B

11

LHS = cos 3A
= cos A cos A cos A sin A sin A cos A
sin A cos A sin A cos A sin A sin A

sin(AB)

= cos(A + B) cos C sin(A + B) sin C


= (cos A cos B sin A sin B) cos C
(sin A cos B + cos A sin B) sin C

2
1

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

= 2 ( ) (cos A sin A)

8(ii)

2
1

=( )+( )

7(e)
LHS = 2 sin(A + 45)
cos(A + 45)
= 2[sin A cos 45 + cos A sin 45] [cos A cos 45
sin A sin 45]

8(i)

cos A sin B

sin y cos x sin x cos y sin(y x)


=
sin y cos x + cos y sin x sin(y + x)

4
2

sin A cos B cos A sin B =

sin y sin x sin y cos x sin x cos y


tan y tan x cos y cos x
cos x cos y
=
=
=
sin
y
sin
y
cos
x + cos y sin x
sin
x
tan y + tan x
+
cos y cos x
cos x cos y
=

sin(A B)

tan B

tan B

75
4

3
4

tan B

= 7
=

28
171

= cos 3 A 3 cos A + 3 cos 3 A


= 4 cos 3 A 3 cos A
= RHS [proven]
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

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349

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

Ex 13.1

Quadrant

13(i)

tan A = > 0

1st or 3rd quadrant

Coordinates of A
cos A = for 90 < A < 180
5

3
5

-4

sin B =

12
13

for 0 < B < 90

13
B 12

x = 132 122 = 5

y = 12, r = 13,

Coordinates of B
sin B = in 3rd quadrant

Coordinates of B

r = (4)2 + (3)2 = 5
sin A = = , cos A = =

sin A = = , tan A = =

-3

y = 4, x = 3,

-4

y = 52 (4)2 = 3

Coordinates of A
3

-3

13

cos B = =

12

tan B = =

Trigonometric ratio
sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

y = 3, r = 5,
x = (5)2 (3)2 = 4

12

33

13

13

65

= ( )( ) + ( )( ) =
x

cos B = = , tan B = =

tan A+tan 45

1tan A tan 45

13(ii)

4
( )+(1)
3
4
1( )(1)
3

tan(A + B) =

13(iii) sec(A B)=


=

= ( )( ) +( )( )
=

5
24
25

tan A+tan B
1tan A tan B

= 7

12(ii) cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B


3

Trigonometric ratio
tan(A + 45) =

x = 4, r = 5,

same quadrant 3rd quadrant

tan A = in 3rd quadrant

sin B = < 0 3rd or 4th quadrant

3
12
)+( )
4
5
3
12
1( )( )
4
5

33
56

1
cos(AB)
1
cos A cos B+sin A sin B
1
4
5
3 12
)( )+( )( )
5
13
5 13

65
16

12(iii) sin(B A) = sin B cos A cos B sin A


3

= ( )( )
=

7
25

( )( )

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350

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14

Ex 13.1

Right angle triangle


hyp =

(24)2

sin =

7
25

72

, cos =

24 hyp

= 625 = 25

24
25

, tan =

= cos(x 50)

cos x cos 10 sin x sin 10 = cos x cos 50 + sin x sin 50

24

15(c)
cos(x + 10)

cos x cos 10 cos x cos 50 = sin x sin 10 + sin x sin 50


Trigonometric ratio
sin A = sin( + 60)
= sin cos 60 + cos sin 60
7

24

= ( )( )
=

25
2
7+243
50

cos x (cos 10 cos 50)


cos 10cos 50

= tan x

sin 10+sin 50

3
2

+( )( )
25

= sin x (sin 10 + sin 50)

tan x

cos A = cos( + 60)


= cos cos 60 sin sin 60
24

= ( )( )
=

25
2
2473
50

3
2

tan A = tan( + 60)


=

tan +tan 60
1tan tan 60

7
24

( )+(3)
7
1( )(3)
24

7+243
2473

15(a) sin(x + 30)


= 2 cos x
sin x cos 30 + cos x sin 30 = 2 cos x
3
sin x ( )
2
3
sin x ( )
2

+ cos x ( )
2

= 2 cos x

= 20
1st or 3rd quadrant

= 3

cos x cos 60sin x sin 60


2

0 < x < 360

= 5 sec(x 20)

1
2

cos x( )sin x(

=
=

3
)
2

5
cos(x20)
5
cos x cos 20+sin x sin 20
5
cos x cos 20+sin x sin 20
5

5
2

3 sin x + 2 sin x sin 20

= cos x 2 cos x cos 20


2

sin x ( 3 + 2 sin 20)


2

x = , 180 +
= 60, 240

= cos x ( 2 cos 20)


2

tan x

=5
2

2
2

2
2

= 3 sin x
= 3 sin x

tan x
7.1
1st or 3rd quadrant

2 [cos x ( ) sin x ( )]

= 3 sin x

2 cos x 2 sin x
2 cos x

= 3 sin x
= (3 + 2) sin x

tan x

17.8
1st or 3rd quadrant

0 < x < 360

2 cos x cos 20 + 2 sin x sin 20 = cos x 3 sin x


2
2

15(b) 2 cos(x + 45)


2(cos x cos 45 sin x sin 45)

= ( ) cos x

0 < x < 360


x = , 180 +
= 20, 200

1050

= tan 20

cos(x+60)

10+50
1050
) sin(
)
2
2
10+50
1050
2 sin(
) cos(
)
2
2

2 sin(

tan x

15(d)
2 sec(x + 60)

tan x
= 60
1st or 3rd quadrant

sin 10+sin 50

= tan (

( )( )
25

cos 10cos 50

2
3+2

0 < x < 360


x = , 180 +
= 7.1, 187.1

5
2 cos 20
2

3+2 sin 20

0.124
S

x = , 180 +
= 17.8, 197.8
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

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351

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(a)

tan x+tan 15
1tan x tan 15

Ex 13.1
17(a) sin x cos 1 cos x sin 1 = 0.2
sin(x 1)
= 0.2
0.201
S A
1st or 2nd quadrant

T
C
0 <x
< 2
1 < x 1 < 2 1

=2

tan(x + 15) = 2
63.4
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < x
< 360
15 < x + 15 < 375

x 1 = ,
= 0.201,2.94
x
= 1.20, 3.94

x + 15 = , 180 +
63.4, 243.4
x
48.4, 228.4
17(b)

16(b) 2 tan x + 3 tan(x 45) = 0


2 tan x + 3 (
2 tan x + 3 [
2 tan x +

tan xtan 45
1+tan x tan 45
tan x(1)

1+tan x(1)
3 tan x3

1+tan x

2 tan x

T C
x = , 180 +
= 26.6, 206.6

tan(2x 1) =

)= 0

1
2
1
2

0.464
1st or 3rd quadrant

=0
=0
=

33 tan x

0 <x
< 2
1 < 2x 1 < 4 1

1+tan x

2 tan x + 2 tan2 x
= 3 3 tan x
2 tan2 x + 5 tan x 3
=0
(2 tan x 1)(tan x + 3) = 0
1
tan x = 3
tan x =
2
71.6
26.6
2nd or 4th quadrant
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < x < 360

tan 2xtan 1
1+tan 2x tan 1

2x 1 = , + ,
= 0.464, 3.61,
x
= 0.732,2.30,

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 108.4, 288.4

16(c) tan 5x
sin 5x
cos 5x

sin 5x cos 2x
sin 5x cos 2x sin 2x cos 5x
sin(5x 2x)
sin 3x

2 + , 3 +
6.75, 9.89
3.87, 5.44

sin 2x
cos 2x

cos 0.4

tan x

tan x
0.339
1st or 3rd quadrant

0.353

0 < x < 2
x = , +
0.339, 3.48

= tan 2x
=

17(c) cos(x 0.4)


= 3 sin x
cos x cos 0.4 + sin x sin 0.4 = 3 sin x
cos x cos 0.4
= sin x (3 sin 0.4)

0 < x < 360


S

3sin 0.4

= sin 2x cos 5x
=0
=0

=0
1

0 < x < 360


0 < 3x < 1080

90 180 270 360

3x = 0,180, 360,540
720,900,
1080
x = 60,
120, 180, 240, 300

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352

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(d) 3 cos x
3 cos x
3 cos x
3 cos x + 4 cos x sin 2
cos x (3 + 4 sin 2)
tan x

Ex 13.1
= 4 sin(x 2)
= 4(sin x cos 2 cos x sin 2)
= 4 sin x cos 2 4 cos x sin 2
= 4 sin x cos 2
= 4 sin x cos 2
=

cos(A + B) =

cos(A + B) =

5
A
2

<0

5
13

Recall

12

13

10

y = 3, r = 10,

x = (10) 32 = 1

1+tan B tan A

13

13

, cos(A + B) =

( )

13
56
65

13

( )

19(ii) Coordinates of C
acute C 1st quadrant
sin C =

12
13

13
C 12

= ,
r

x = 132 122 = 5
x

13

cos C = =

=3
tan Btan A

12

y = 12, r = 13,

Trigonometric ratio

tan(B A) =

-5

cos A = ,

12

and B is acute

A+B

sin A = ,

=( )

13

sin B = sin[(A + B) A]
= sin(A + B) cos A cos(A + B) sin A

18(ii) Coordinates

tan B = =

Q2 or Q3

sin(A + B) =

tan A = = [shown]

18(iii)

13

Q1 or Q2

Q2

Trigonometric ratio

sin(A + B) = =

y = (13)2 (5)2 = 12

y = (5) 22 = 1

Coordinates of ( + )
A and B are acute

and A is acute

10

x = 5, r = 13,

x = 2, r = 5,

sin B =

A
3

y = 52 32 = 4

4 cos 2

18(i) Coordinates
2

cos A = for acute A

sin A = = ,

3+4 sin 2

tan x
3.99
1.33
S A
2nd or 4th quadrant

T C
0 < x < 2
x = , 2
1.82, 4.96

cos A =

19(i) Coordinates of A

3
1

1
2
3 1
1+( )( )
1 2

( )( )

=1

Recall

sin C =

12

13

cos C =

sin(A + B) =

B A = 45

5
13

12

13

13

, cos(A + B) =

sin(A + B + C)
= sin[(A + B) + C]
= sin(A + B) cos C + cos(A + B) sin C
=

12
13

( )
13

12

13

13

+( )

=0
19(iii) sin(A + B + C) = 0
0 < A + B + C < 270
A + B + C = 180
Yes, A, B and C are angles of triangle
Daniel & Samuel
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353

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


20

Ex 13.1

Show: sin(A + B) sin(A B) = sin2 A sin2 B


LHS = (sin A cos B + cos A sin B)(sin A cos B
cos A sin B)
= sin2 A cos 2 B
cos 2 A sin2 B
2 (1
2
= sin A sin B)
(1 sin2 A) sin2 B
= sin2 A sin2 A sin2 B sin2 B +
sin2 A sin2 B
= sin2 A sin2 B
= RHS [shown]

tan( + )
tan +tan

90 180 270 360


90 180 270 360

5
x

( )+tan

5+x tan

x5 tan

tan (x +
tan (

20(ii) LHS = sin 15 sin 75


= sin 75 sin 15
= sin(45 + 30) sin(45 30)
= sin2 45 sin2 30

=
=

2
4
1

1 2

( )
2

1
4

10
x
10
x
10

tan =

5
x

10
x

= 10

50
x

tan

50
x

) = 10 5

x2 +50
x

) =5

tan

5x
x2 +50

21(ii) tan(2 + ) = tan[ + ( + )]


=

2x = , 180 ,
4x = 0,180,
= 0,180,
360,540,
720 x = 0, 45,
x = 0, 45,
90, 135, 180

2
2

5
1( ) tan
x

=( )

1tan tan

5 + x tan

20(i) sin2 3x
= sin2 x
sin2 3x sin2 x
=0
sin(3x + x) sin(3x x) = 0
sin 4x sin 2x
=0
sin 4x = 0
sin 2x = 0
0 x 180
0 x 180
0 2x 360

0 4x 720

21(i) tan = 5

360 +
360
180

tan +tan(+)
1tan tan(+)
5
x

10
x
5 10
1( )( )
x
x

( )+( )

10

tan = , tan( + ) =
=
=

15
x
x2 50
x2

15x
x2 50

0 < 2 + < 90
tan(2 + ) > 0
15x
x2 50

>0
x

>0

(x+50)(x50)
x

>0

(x+52)(x52)

= RHS [shown]

52

+
0

+
52

52 < x < 0 or x > 52 ?

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354

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


21(ii) tan(2 + )

=
=

Ex 13.1

tan 2+tan

0 < 2 + < 90
tan(2 + )

1tan 2 tan
2 tan
(
)+tan
1tan2
2 tan
1(
) tan
1tan2

5x

x2 +50

tan = , tan =

>0

15x[x2 +25]

>0

x2 25x2 +25

25+(25)2 4(1)(25)
25(25)2 4(1)(25)
[x
][x
]
2(1)
2(1)

tan(2 + )

>0

25+525
25525
[x
][x
]
2
2

5
2( )
x ] + ( 5x )
[
x 2 + 50
5 2
1( )
x
=
5
2( )
x ] ( 5x )
1[
5 2 x 2 + 50
1( )
x

+
0

25525
2

22
A+B+C
tan(A + B + C)

10
5x
)
[ 2 x
]+( 2
x 25
x + 50
x2
=
10
5x
)
1[ 2 x
]( 2
x 25 x + 50
x2

tan(A+B)+tan C
1tan(A+B) tan C

tan(A + B) + tan C
tan A+tan B
1tan A tan B

25525 25+525
2

0<x<

>0

+ tan C

or x >

25+525
2

= 180
= tan(180)
=0
=0
=0

tan A + tan B + tan C tan A tan B tan C = 0


tan A + tan B + tan C
= tan A tan B tan C [shown]

10x
5x
[ 2
]+( 2
)
x

25
x
+ 50
=
10x
5x
](
)
1[ 2
x 25 x 2 + 50
10x
5x
(x 2 25)(x 2 + 50)
2 25] + (x 2 + 50)
x
=
2
10x
5x
(x 25)(x 2 + 50)
](
)
1[ 2
x 25 x 2 + 50
[

10x(x 2 + 50) + 5x(x 2 25)


(x 2 25)(x 2 + 50) 50x 2

10x 3 + 500x + 5x 3 125x


x 4 + 25x 2 + 25 50x 2

15x 3 + 375x
x 4 25x 2 + 25

15x[x 2 + 25]
= 2
x 25x 2 + 25

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355

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.2
2(b)

Ex 13.2
1(a)

Coordinates
1

A = cos 1 ( ) for obtuse A


1

cos 2 22 sin2 22 = cos(45)


=

2
2

cos =

1
2

-1

y = (2)2 (1)2 = 3
1(b)

2 sin cos

= sin ( )
=

1(c)

2 cos 2
12

2
2

3
,
2

cos =

1
2

Trigonometric ratio
sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A

1 = cos ( )
6

3
2

=
1(d)

sin =

(cos 75 + sin 75)2


= cos 2 75 + 2 sin 75 cos 75 + sin2 75
= (sin2 75 + cos 2 75) +2 sin 75 cos 75
= (1)
+ sin 150
(1)
=
+ sin 30
=1

3
2

= 2( )( )

3
2

1 2

3
2

cos 2A = cos 2 A sin2 A = ( ) ( )


2

1
2

tan 2A =

2 tan A
1tan2 A

2(

3
)
1

1(

3
)
1

23
13

= 3

=
2

1(e)

3(i)

sin2 67.5 =
=
=
=

1(f)

2 tan 15
1tan2 15

1cos(135)

3(

2
1( cos 45)

1(

1
3

3(ii)

sin 2x

=
9

3(iii)
5

cos 8x = cos[2(4)]
= 2 cos 2 4x 1
1 2

= 2( )

x = 52 32 = 4
= ,
5

tan =

3
4

4(a)

Trigonometric ratio
3

24

25

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A= 2 ( ) ( ) =

LHS =
=

3 2

25

4(b)

LHS =
=

2 tan A
1tan2 A

3
4
3 2
1( )
4

2( )

24
7

9
79

81

cos 2A
cos A+sin A
cos2 Asin2 A
cos A+sin A

(cos A+sin A)(cos Asin A)


cos A+sin A

cos A sin A = RHS [proven]

4 2

cos 2A = cos 2 A sin2 A = ( ) ( ) =

tan 2A =

sin = for acute A

2 2

cos =

=1

cos 4x = cos[2(2)]
= 1 2 sin2 2x

=1

= 1 2( )

Coordinates

sin 2x

2
)
2

2
2+2

sin 2x

= tan 30
=

2(a)

3 sin x cos x = 1

4(c)

LHS =

1cos 2A
sin 2A
sin A
cos A

1(12 sin2 A)
2 sin A cos A

2 sin2 A
2 sin A cos A

= tan A = RHS [proven]

1cos 2A
1+cos 2A
2

1(12 sin2 A)
1+(2 cos2 A1)

2 sin2 A
2 cos2 A

= tan A = RHS [proven]


Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

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356

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(d)

Ex 13.2

LHS = 4 sin A cos 3 A 4 sin3 A cos A


= 4 sin A cos A (cos 2 A sin2 A)
1

6(i)

(cos 2 A sin2 A)

= 4 ( sin 2)
2

sin A =

= 2 sin 2 cos 2
= sin 4A
= RHS [proven]
5(a)

1
cos A

)(

LHS =
=

1
sin A

)=

1
sin A cos A

=1
2

1
sin 2A

sin 2A

5(c)

LHS =

Trigonometric ratio
cos 2A = cos 2 A sin2 A

6(ii)

=
2

cos 4A = 2 cos 2A 1
1 2

= 2 ( ) 1
2

)(

cos A
sin A

)=

1
sin A cos A

=1
2

1
sin 2A

A
sec 2
2

1
cos2

A
2

1
1+cos A
2

2
1+cos A

6(iii)

sin 4A = 1

1 2

6(iv)

cos A
cos

21
2

= 2 cos

2
2 tan A
)
1tan2 A

A =

1+cos A
1cos A

1
2
1
1[12 sin2 ( A)]
2

1+[2 cos2 ( A)1]

1
cot 2 ( A)
2

3
2

A1

1+cos A

1tan2 A
tan A

2
1
2

1+cos A

cos A =
tan 2A

cos 2 4

= 1 ( )

= 2 csc 2A = RHS [proven]

LHS = 2 cot 2A =

LHS =

1
2

1+( )
2

= cot A tan A = RHS [proven]


5(e)

3
2

RHS [proven]
5(d)

1 2

1
)
cos2 A
sin A
(
)
cos A

= ( ) ( )

tan A

2
sin 2A

cos2 A

cos A = = , tan A = = 3

sec2 A

=(

2 A

3
2

= 2 csc 2A = RHS [proven]


5(b)

3
2

x = (2)2 (3) = 1

LHS = sec A csc A


=(

Coordinates
obtuse A 2

1+cos A

or cos A =

rej cos A > 0


2
1

for 45 < A < 90

1
2
1
2 sin2 ( A)
2

2 cos2 ( A)

1
2

= RHS [proven]

=
2

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357

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(i)

Ex 13.2

Coordinates
2
tan A =
3
3
<A<
3

-3
-2

8(i)

Coordinates
1
1

cot = k tan = =

= 1, = ,

r = 12 + k 2 = 1 + 2
r=

(2)2

sin =

(3)2

2
13

= 13

, cos =

sin =

1
1+ 2

, cos =

1+ 2

13

Trigonometric ratio
Trigonometric ratio
tan 2A =
7(ii)
7(iii)

tan 3A =

2 tan A
1tan2 A

2
2( )
3
2 2
1( )
3

tan 2A+tan A
1tan 2A tan A

tan A

sin 2 = 2 sin cos = 2 (


=

1
2
1
1tan2 A
2

12
5

2
3
12 2
1( )( )
5
3

6 tan A

tan A =
2
1

313

8(ii)
=

46
9

1tan tan 45
tan +tan 45

8(iii)

sec 2 =
=

1
2 tan2 A
2

0
=

or tan A =

8(iv)

313
2

7(iv)

Recall sin =
csc 2A =
=

1
sin 2A
1
12
13

2
13

=
13
12

rej tan A < 0

2
1

for < A <

, cos =
1

2 sin A cos A

1
k

1( )(1)
1
k

( )+(1)

cos 2

2k
1+k2

1
cos2 sin2

1+k2
k2 1

k
1
(
) (
)
2
1 + k
1 + k 2
1

1+k

k2 1
1+k2

tan +tan 45
1tan tan 45

k1

k2
1 + k2

1
1 + k2

tan 2+tan
1tan 2 tan
2 tan
)+tan
1tan2
2 tan
1(
) tan
1tan2

2 tan +(tan tan3 )


(1tan2 )2 tan2

3
13

1
2
3
2(
)(
)
13 13

=
9(a)

3 tan tan3

3 1

k k3
3
1 2
k

LHS =
1
2
1
cos A
2

9(b)

9(c)

sleightofmath.com

3k2 1

k3 3k

sin A
1+cos A

1 3
k
1 2
13( )
k
1
k

3( )( )

3k2 1

k(k2 3)
1
2

1
2

2 sin A cos A
1
2

1+(2 cos2 A1)

1
2

1
2

2 sin A cos A
1
2

2 cos2 A

= tan A = RHS [proven]

LHS =
=

13 tan2

sin A

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

) =

2
1

k
1+k2

tan 3 = tan(2 + )
=

3+13

tan(+45)

cot( + 45) =

2(1)

)(

=2

2
1
21
2 tan A + 6 tan A 2 =
2
2
1
21
tan A + 3 tan A 1 =
2
2
1
3(3)2 4(1)(1)

tan A =

( )+( )

2 tan A

12

1
1+k2

1+tan2 A
1tan2 A

cos2 A+sin2 A
cos2 Asin2 A

sin2 A
cos2 A
sin2 A
1 2
cos A

1+

1
cos 2A

cos2 A+sin2 A
cos2 A
cos2 Asin2 A
cos2 A

= sec 2A = RHS [proven]

LHS = cos 4 A sin4 A


= (cos 2 A + sin2 A) (cos 2 A sin2 A)
(cos 2A)
=1
= cos 2A
= RHS [proven]
358

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(d)

9(e)

LHS = cos 4A
= cos(2 2)
= 1 2 sin2 2A
= 1 2 (sin 2A)2
= 1 2(2 sin A cos A)2
= 1 2(4 sin2 A cos 2 A)
= 1 8 sin2 A cos 2 A
= 1 8 sin2 A (1 sin2 A)
= 1 8 sin2 A + 8 sin4 A
= 8 sin4 A 8 sin2 A + 1
= RHS [proven]

Ex 13.2
10(a) 4 sin 2x
4(2 sin x cos x)
8 sin x cos x
sin x (8 cos x 1)

=
=
=

0 < x < 360

82.8
1st or 4th quadrant

90 180 270 360

0 < x < 360

T C
x = , 360
= 82.8, 277.2

x = 180

1cos 2A 2

2
12 cos 2A+cos2 2A
4

10(b) 4 sin x cos x = 1


4(

4
24 cos 2A+1+cos 4A

2 sin 2x

=1

sin 2x

= (3 4 cos 2A + cos 4A)


= RHS [proven]
1+cos 2A+sin 2A

1 + (2 cos 2 A 1) + (2 sin A cos A)


1 (1 2 sin2 A) + (2 sin A cos A)

2 cos 2 A + 2 sin A cos A


2 sin2 A + 2 sin A cos A

2 cos A (cos A + sin A)


2 sin A (sin A + cos A)

= cot A

=1
1
2

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

1cos 2A+sin 2A

= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant

LHS =

sin 2x

1+cos 4A
12 cos 2A+(
)
2

9(f)

or cos x = 8

sin x = 0

LHS = (sin2 A)2


=(

= sin x
= sin x
= sin x
=0

2x = , 180 ,
= 30, 150,
x = 15, 75,

360 + , 540
390, 510
195, 255

10(c) (sin x cos x)2


=2
sin2 x 2 sin x cos x + cos 2 x = 2
(sin2 x + cos 2 x) 2 sin x cos x = 2
1 sin 2x
=2
sin 2x
= 1

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

= RHS [proven]

90 180 270 360

2x = 270,
x = 135,

Daniel & Samuel


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270 + 360
315

359

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.2

10(d) cos 2x 3 cos x + 2


=0
(2 cos 2 x 1) 3 cos x + 2 = 0
2 cos 2 x 3 cos x + 1
=0
(2 cos x 1)(cos x 1)
=0
1
cos x =
or cos x = 1
2
0 < x < 360
= 60

1st or 4th quad.


1
0 < x < 360

90 180 270 360

T C
x = , 360
= 60, 300

90 180 270 360

x = 0,

x = 0, 2

cos x [5 (

sin 2
2

0 x 2

0.927
3rd or 4th quadrant

2
90 180 270 360

(no solution)

x= ,
2

2 tan x

1tan2 x
2

11(c) cos 2x
1 2 sin2 x
2 sin2 x sin x 1
(2 sin x + 1)(sin x 1)

=3

) tan x = 3
=3
= 3 3 tan2 x
=3

tan2 x

sin x =
=

3
5

37.8
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

or

= sin x
= sin x
=0
=0

sin x = 1

7 11
6

3 + , 4
10.4, 11.6
5.18, 5.82

90 180 270 360

T C
x = + , 2
=

sleightofmath.com

0 x 2

x = , 180 , 180 + , 360


= 37.8, 142.2, 217.8, 322.2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

3rd or 4th quad.


0 x 2

2x = + , 2 ,
4.07,5.36,
x 2.03, 2.68,

2 tan x
5 tan2 x

tan x

0 x 2
0 2x 4

x = 180

1tan2 x
2 tan2 x

=0

or sin 2x = 5

cos x = 0

=0
=0

=0

+ 2]

cos x ( sin 2x + 2)

tan 2x tan x

sin x =

or

90 180 270 360

10(f)

= 3 sin x
= 3 sin x
= 3 sin x
= 2 sin2 + 3 sin
=0
=0

0 < x < 360

90 180 270 360

11(b)
5 sin x cos 2 x + 2 cos x
cos x (5 sin x cos x + 2)

10(e) cos 2x 1
(1 2 sin2 x) 1
2 sin2 x
0
2 sin2 x + 3 sin x
sin x (2 sin x + 3)
sin x = 0

11(a) 2 sin x
= sin 2x
2 sin x
= 2 sin x cos x
sin x
= sin x cos x
sin x (cos x 1) = 0
sin x = 0
or cos x = 1
0 x 2
0 x 2

x =
2

360

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.2

11(d) 2 cos 2x
= 11 cos x + 1
2
2(2 cos x 1)
= 11 cos x + 1
4 cos 2 x 2
= 11 cos x + 1
2
4 cos x 11 cos x 3 = 0
(4 cos x + 1)(cos x 3) = 0
1
cos x = 3
cos x =
4
(no solution)
1.32
2nd or 3rd quadrant

12(i)

At x-axis,
y
=0
2
3 sin 2x + 2 cos x
=0
3(2 sin x cos x) + 2 cos 2 x = 0
6 sin x cos x + 2 cos 2 x
=0
2
3 sin x cos x + cos x
=0
cos x (3 sin x + cos x)
=0
cos x = 0
3 sin x = cos x

0 x 2

S A

T C
x = , +
= 1.82, 4.46
11(e) tan 2x

90 180 270 360

0 < x < 360

2 tan x
= 3 tan x 3 tan3 x
3 tan3 x tan x
=0
2
tan x (3 tan x 1) = 0
tan x = 0
or tan2 x = 1

tan x =

3
1

0 x 2

1st, 2nd, 3rd or


4th quadrant

x = 0, , 2

0 x 2
S

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

12(ii) y
=2
2
3 sin 2x + 2 cos x
=2
2
3(2 sin x cos x) + 2(1 sin x) = 2
6 sin x cos x + (2 2 sin2 x) = 2
6 sin x cos x 2 sin2 x
=0
2
3 sin x cos x sin x
=0
sin x (3 cos x sin x)
=0
sin x = 0
3 cos x = sin x

tan x = 3
1
71.6

1st or 3rd quadrant


90 180 270 360
1

5 7 11
6

18.4
2nd or 4th quadrant

x = 180 , 360
= 161.6, 341.6

0 < x < 360

x = , , +
, 2
= ,

T C
x = , 360
= 90, 270 0 < x < 360

= 3 tan x

1tan2 x

tan x

= 3 tan x

2 tan x

90 180 270 360

y = 3 sin 2x + 2 cos 2 x

0 < x < 360


S

x = 180

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T C
x = , 180 +
= 71.6, 251.6

361

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(i)

Ex 13.2
14(ii) 8 cos 3 x
8 cos 3 x 6 cos x
2(4 cos 3 x 3 cos x)
2 cos 3x

a = cos x + sin x
b = cos x sin x
a + b = 2 cos x

a+b

cos x =

a b = 2 sin x

sin x =

cos 3x

a+b 2
2

a2 +2ab+b2
4

= 60
2nd or 3rd quadrant

ab
2

0 < x < 180


0 < 3x < 540

cos 2x = cos 2 x sin2 x


=(

= 6 cos x 1
= 1
= 1
= 1

ab 2

1
2

A
C

2
a2 2ab+b2

3x = 180 , 180 + ,
= 120, 240,
x = 40, 80,

4ab
4
= ab
=

540
480
160

sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x


= 2(

ab
2

)(

a+b
2

) = 2(

a2 b2
4

) =

a2 b2
2

13(ii) a2
+b2
= (cos x + sin x)2
+(cos x
sin x)2
= (cos 2 x + 2 sin x cos x + sin2 x) +(cos 2 x
2 sin x cos x + sin2 x)
= 2 cos 2 + 2 sin2
= 2(cos 2 + sin2 )
= 2 [proven]
14

14(i)

LHS = cos 3x
= cos(2x + x)
= cos 2x cos x
= (2 cos 2 x 1) cos x
= 2 cos 3 x cos x
= 2 cos 3 x cos x
= 2 cos 3 x cos x
= 4 cos 3 x 3 cos x
= RHS [shown]

sin 2x sin x
(2 sin x cos x) sin x
2 cos x (sin2 x)
2 cos x (1 cos 2 x)
2 cos x + 2 cos 3 x

8 cos 3 10
6 cos 10
3
= 2(4 cos 10 3 cos 10)
= 2 cos 30
3
2

= 2( )
= 3

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362

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 13.2

Prove: tan x = cot x 2 cot 2x

16
Prove: cos 6 + sin6 =

RHS = cot x 2 cot 2x


2
= cot x
tan 2x
2
= cot x 2 tan x
= cot x

1tan2 x
1tan2 x

tan x

= (sin cos )2 + (

tan x
= cot x 2 cot 2x
2 cot 2x = cot x tan x
=

LHS
= cos 6 + sin6
= (cos 2 )3 + (sin2 )3
= [cos 2 + sin2 ] [(cos 2 )2 (cos 2 )(sin2 ) +
(sin2 )2 ]
[(cos 2 )2 sin2 cos 2 +
=1
(sin2 )2 ]
= sin2 cos 2 +(cos 2 )2
+(sin2 )2

= cot x cot x + tan x


= tan x
= LHS [proven]

cot 2x

5+3 cos 4

= ( sin 2)

cot xtan x

= sin 2

Show: 2 tan 20 + 4 tan 40 + 8 tan 80 =


9(cot 10 tan 10)

1 1cos 4

= (
=

LHS = 2 tan 20
+4 tan 40
+8 tan 80
= 2(cot 20 2 cot 40) +4(cot 40
2 cot 80) +8(cot 80 2 cot 160)

=
=
=

4
2
cos 41

8
cos 41
8
cos 41
8
5+3 cos 4

+
+
+
+

1+cos 2 2
2

1+2 cos 2+cos2 2


4
2+2 cos2 2

+(
+

1cos 2 2

12 cos 2+cos2 2
4

4
2+2(

1+cos 4
)
2

4
2+1+cos 4
4
3+cos 4
4
6+2 cos 4
8

= RHS [proven]

= 2 cot 20 4 cot 40
+4 cot 40 8 cot 80
+8 cot 80 16 cot 160
= 2 cot 20 16 cot 160
= 2 cot 20
= 2 cot 20

16
tan 160
16
tan 20

= 2 cot 20 +16 cot 20


= 18 cot 20
= 18 (

cot 10tan 10
2

cot 2x =

cot xtan x
2

= 9(cot 10 tan 10)


= RHS [shown]

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363

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(i)

Ex 13.2

3 +4 cos 2 x
= 3 +4 (

1+cos 2x
2

= 3 +2 + 2 cos 2x
= 2 cos 2x + 5
17(ii) y = 3 + 4 cos 2 x
= 2 cos 2x + 5

7
5.5
5
4
3
2.5

i.e. = 2, = 2, = 5
Amplitude = || = |2| = 2
Period

2
2

= 3 + 4 cos 2

= 4 3 sin cos

17(iii) y = 4 3 sin x cos x


1

= 4 3 ( sin 2x)
2

= sin 2x + 4
2

i.e. = , = 2, = 4
2

Amplitude = || = | | =
Period

2
2

17(iv) 4 cos + 3 1 = 0
4 2
= 1 3
2
3 + 4
= 4 3
4 intersections 4 sol
Workings
1 = 2 cos 2 + 5
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
y=52
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
20
Cycle
=2

2 = 4 3 sin cos
Domain
0 x 2
3
Axis with
y=4
2
Amplitude
Shape
sin
20
Cycle
=2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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364

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18

R=

1 2
v sin cos
4.9

R|v=16
1
4.9

(16)2

19

x
Show: 2 + 2 + 2 cos x = 2 sin

LHS = 2 + 2 + 2 cos x

= 25
sin cos = 25

sin cos
1

Ex 13.2

sin 2

sin 2

=
=
=

= 2 + 2 + 2 [2 cos 2 ( x) 1]

245

512
245
512
490

= 2 + 2 + 4 cos 2 ( x) 2
2

512

73.1
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < < 90
0 < 2 < 180

= 2 + 4 cos 2 ( x)
2

= 2 + 2cos 2 ( x)
2

2 = , 180
73.1,106.9
36.6, 53.4

= 2 + 2 [ cos ( x)]
2

cos x < 0 for 135 < < 180


1

= 2 2 cos ( x)
2

= 2 2 [1 2 sin2 ( x)]
4

= 2 2 + 4 sin2 ( x)
4

= 4 sin2 ( x)
4

= 2sin2 ( x)
4

= 2 sin

x
4
1

sin ( ) > 0 67.5 < < 90


= RHS [shown]

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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365

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3
4(a)

Ex 13.3
1(a)

R = 32 + 42 = 5
4
= tan1 ( ) 53.1
3
y = 5 sin( 53.1)

cos + sin

R = 12 + 12 = 2
1
= tan1 ( ) = 45
1

max = 5
sin( 53.1) = 1
0 <

< 360
53.1 < 53.1 < 306.9
53.1 = 90

143.1

cos + sin = 2 cos( 45)


1(b)

3 cos sin
2

R = (3) + 12 = 3 + 1 = 2

= tan1 ( ) = 30

3 cos sin = 2 cos( + 30)


1(c)

R = 32 + 42 = 5
(4)
= tan1 [(3)] 53.1

3 sin + 4 cos = 5 sin( + 53.1)


1(d)

4(b)

R = 12 + (2) = 1 + 2 = 3
=

2
tan1 ( )
1

3(i)

1.18

90 180 270 360

I = 15 sin(120t) 8 cos(120t)

Min = 10
+ 71.6 180

108.4

R = 152 + 82 = 17
8
= tan1 ( ) 0.489 96
15

I = 17 sin(120t 0.489 96)


3(ii)

R = 12 + 32 = 10
3
= tan1 ( ) 71.6

Max = 10
cos( + 71.6) = 1
0 <

< 360
71.6 < + 71.6 < 431.6
+ 71.6 0, 360

288.4

R = 52 + 122 = 13
12
tan1 ( )
5

= 54.7

5 sin 12 cos = R sin( )

90 180 270 360

y = 10 cos( + 71.6)

sin 2 cos = 3 sin( 54.7)


2

= sin

y = cos 3 sin

sin 2 cos

min = 5
sin( 53.1) = 1
53.1 = 270

323.1

3 sin + 4 cos

y = 3 sin 4 cos

A = 17

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366

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(c)

Ex 13.3

y = 6 cos + 5 sin

62

5(a)

3 cos x 4 sin x = 1
R = 32 + 42 = 5
4
= tan1 ( ) 53.1
3
5 cos(x + 53.1)= 1

52

R=
+
= 61
1 (5)
= tan
39.8
6

y = 61 cos( 39.8)

cos(x + 53.1)
max = 61
cos( 39.8) = 1
0
<

< 360
39.8 < 39.8 < 320.1
39.8 0

39.8

90 180 270 360

x + 53.1 , 360
78.5,281.5
x
25.3, 228.4
5(b)

3 sin x cos x = 1
2

R = (3) + 12 = 3 + 1 = 2

= tan1 ( ) = 30

2 sin( 30) = 1

sin( 30)

y = 35 sin( + 63.4)

min = 35
sin( + 63.4) = 1
x + 63.4 270
x
206.6

0 < x
< 360
53.1 < x + 53.1 < 413.1

R = 32 + 62 = 45 = 9 5 = 35
6
= tan1 ( ) 63.4

max = 35
sin( + 63.4) = 1
0 <

< 360
63.4 < + 63.4 < 423.4
x + 63.4 90
x
26.6

y = 3 sin + 6 cos

78.5
1st or 4th quadrant

min = 61
cos( 39.8) = 1
39.8 180

219.8
4(d)

1
2

= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant

= sin
90 180 270 360

0 < x
< 360
30 < x 30 < 330

x 30 = , 180
= 30,150
x
= 60, 180
5(c)

6 cos x 2 sin x = 3.5

R = 62 + 22 = 40 = 4 10 = 210
2
= tan1 ( ) 18.4
6

10 cos(x + 18.4) = 3.5


cos(x + 18.4)

3.5
210

56.4
1st or 4th quadrant
0 < x
< 360
18.4 < x + 18.4 < 378.4

S
T

x + 18.4 , 360
56.4,303.6
x
38.0, 285.2

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367

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(d)

Ex 13.3
6(i)

sin x + 2 cos x = 2

12

R=
+
= 5
1 (2)
= tan
63.4
1

R = 82 + 62 = 10
6
= tan1 ( ) 0.643 50
8

G(t) = 10 cos(4t 0.643 50)

5 sin(x + 63.4) = 2
sin(x + 63.4)

G(t) = 8 cos 4t + 6 sin 4t

22

6(ii)

39.2
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < x
< 360
63.4 < x + 63.4 < 423.4

1 cos(4t 0.643 50)


1
10 10 cos(4t 0.643 50) 10
min = 10
10 cos(4t 0.643 50) = 10
cos(4t 0.643 50)
= 1

x + 63.4 , 180 , 360 +


39.2,140.8, 399.2
x
77.3, 335.8

t
>0
4t 0.643 50 > 0.643 50

90 180 270 360

5(e)

4t 0.643 50 =
t
0.946

2.1 cos x sin x = 1.6

R = (2.1)2 + (1)2 =
1

= tan1 ( )
2.1

1
10

541

25.5

7(i)

541 cos(x + 25.5) = 1.6


10

cos(x + 25.5)

16

541

46.5
1st or 4th quadrant

0 < x
< 360
25.5 < x + 25.5 < 385.5

= 5(1 + 0)
= 5 coulombs

7(ii)

16

R = 12 + ( ) =

= tan1 ( 4 ) 0.245

17
4

R=
+ 17.26
1 ( e )
= tan
40.9

17.26 cos(x 40.9) 2

17

q=

e2

cos(x 40.9)

1 2

cos x + e sin x = 2
2

q= 5e10t (cos 60t + sin 60t)


4

x + 25.5 , 360
46.5,313.5
x
21.1, 288.0
5(f)

1
q = 5e10t (cos 60t + sin 60t)
4
1
10(0) (cos
q|t=0 = 5e
0 + sin 0)

17
5e10t [ cos(60t
4
517 10t

A =

4
517
4

0.245)]

cos(60t 0.245)

B = 0.245
2

7(iii)

17.26

61.2
1st or 4th quadrant
0
<x
< 360
40.9 < x 40.9 < 319.1

S
T

10t
e
0
q
0

x 40.9 , 360
61.2,298.8
x
102.1, 339.6

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368

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(a)

Ex 13.3

y = 4 sin + 3 cos 2

8(c)

R=
+
=5
1 (3)
= tan
36.9
4
y = 5 sin( + 36.9) 2
42

32

1 sin( + 36.9)
5 5 sin( + 36.9)
7 5 sin( + 36.9) 2

1
5
3

max = 3
sin( + 36.9) = 1
0 <

< 360
36.9 < + 36.9 < 399.9
+ 36.9 90

53.1

R = 12 + (2) = 3

= tan1 ( )

2
1

54.7

1 sin( 54.7)
1
3 3 sin( 54.7) 3
33 3 sin( 54.7) 53

max = 53
sin( 54.7) = 1
0
<

< 360
54.7 < 54.7 < 305.3
54.7 90

144.7

= sin

90 180 270 360

= sin

min = 33
sin( 54.7) = 1
54.7 270

324.7

y = 3 7 cos + 24 sin
= 3 + (24 sin 7 cos )
R = 242 + 72 = 25
7
= tan1 ( ) 16.3
24
y = 3 + 25 sin( 16.3)

8(d)

y = 7 + 15 cos 2 + 8 sin 2
= 7 + (15 cos 2 + 8 sin 2)

max = 24
cos(2 28.1) = 1

90 180 270 360

= sin
90 180 270 360

1 cos(2 28.1)
1
17 17 cos(2 28.1)
17
10 17 cos(2 28.1) + 7 24

max = 28
sin( 16.3) = 1
0
<

< 360
16.3 < 16.3 < 343.7
16.3 90

106.3
1

90 180 270 360


1

R = 152 + 82 = 17
8
= tan1 ( ) 28.1
15
y = 7 + 17 cos(2 28.1)

1 sin( 16.3)
1
25 25 sin( 16.3)
25
22 3 + 25 sin( 16.3) 28

min = 22
sin( 16.3) = 1
16.3 270

286.3

y = 3 sin( 54.7) + 43

min = 7
sin( + 36.9) = 1
+ 36.9 270

233.1
8(b)

y = sin 2 cos + 43
= (sin 2 cos ) + 43

0
<

< 360
28.1 < 2 28.1 < 691.9
2 28.1 = 0, 360

= 14.0, 194.0

min = 10
cos(2 28.1) = 1
2 28.1 180, 180 + 360

104.0, 284.0

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369

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(i)

Ex 13.3

10(a)

h = 1.6 + 0.5 sin ( ) 1.2 cos ( )

h = 1.6 + 1.3 sin (


1

sin (

x
6

1.3 sin (

x
6
x
6

1.18)

1.18)

1.3 1.3 sin (


0.3

1.3

sin (

x
6

x
6

4
13

0.313
1st or 2nd quadrant
0
<x
< 24
x
1.18 < 1.18 < 11.39

5 cos(2x 26.6) = 2
=

2
5

26.6
2nd or 3rd quadrant

1.18

, ,
2 + , 3
0.313,2.83,
6.60,9.11
x 2.84h, 7.64h,
14.8h, 19.6h
2h 51 min, 7h 39 min
14h 51min, 19h 39min
02: 51, 07: 39,
14: 51, 19: 39

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

R = 22 + 12 = 5
1
= tan1 ( ) 26.6

cos(2x 26.6)

10(b) 2 cos 2x + sin 2x + 2 = 0


2 cos 2x + sin 2x
= 2

x 56.3 , 180
56.3,123.7
x
112.6, 180

1.18) = 2

1.18)

3
13

0
<x
< 360
56.3 < x 56.3 < 303.7
=2

1.6 + 1.3 sin (

56.3
1st or 2nd quadrant

1.18) + 1.6 2.9

sin(x 56.3)

max. = 2.9
min. = 0.3
9(ii)

R = 22 + 32 = 13
3
= tan1 ( ) 56.3

13 sin(x 56.3) = 3

1.18)

=2

sin x+cos x

4 sin x cos x 3 = 2 sin x + 2 cos x


2 sin x 3 cos x = 3

R = 0.52 + 1.22 = 1.69 = 1.3


1.2
= tan1 ( ) 1.18
0.5

4 sin xcos x3

sleightofmath.com

0
<x
< 360
26.6 < 2x 26.6 < 693.4
2x 26.6
180 , 180 + ,
153.4,206.6,
x 90, 116.6,

A
C

540 , 540 +
513.4, 566.6
270, 296.6

370

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3

10(c) sin 1 x cos 1 x +2 cos x = 1


2

1
2

10(e) 2 sin x(2 sin x cos x) = 1


4 sin2 x
2 sin x cos x = 1

sin x

+2 cos x = 1

4(

1 2

17

R = ( ) + 22 =

= tan1 ( 1 ) 76.0

17
2

17
sin(x
2

+ 76.0) = 1

sin(x + 76.0)

17

x + 76.0 , 180 ,
29.0,151.0
x
75.0,

cos x
sin x

= 3 + 2(

1
sin x

x 45,

11(i)

1
5

360 + , 540 ,

720 +

386.6, 513.4,

746.6

161.6, 225,

341.6

V = 70 sin t + 85 cos t

R = 702 + 852 110.11


85

= tan1 ( ) 0.881 87
70
V = 110.11 sin(t + 0.881 87)

13 cos(x + 56.3) = 2
=

2x + 63.4
, 180 ,

26.6, 153.4,

R = 22 + 32 = 13
3
= tan1 ( ) 56.3

cos(x + 56.3)

R = 12 + 22 = 5
2
= tan1 ( ) 63.4

0 < x
< 360
63.4 < 2x + 63.4 < 783.4

360 + , 540
389.0, 511.0
313.1

2 cos x
= 3 sin x + 2
2 cos x 3 sin x = 2

=1
=1

26.6
1st or 2nd quadrant

= 3 + 2 csc x
)

2 2 cos 2x sin 2x
sin 2x + 2 cos 2x

sin(2x + 63.4)

0 < x
< 360
76.0 < x + 76.0 < 436.0

2(

=1

5 sin(2x + 63.4) = 1

29.0
1st or 2nd quadrant

10(d) 2 cot x

) sin 2x

1cos 2x

2
13

56.3
1st or 4th quadrant
0 < x
< 360
56.3 < x + 56.3 < 416.3

S
T

11(ii) 1
sin t
1
110.11 110.11 sin(t + 0.881 87) 110.11
max = 110.11
110.11 sin(t + 0.881 87) = 110.11
sin(t + 0.881 87)
=1

x + 56.3 , 360 , 360 +


56.3,303.7 416.3
x
247.4

t
0
t + 0.881 87 0.881 87

= sin
90 180 270 360

t + 0.881 87
t

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0.689 ms 1

371

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3

11(iii) V
= 50
110.11 sin(t + 0.881 87) = 50
sin(t + 0.881 87)

0.471
1st or 2nd quadrant
t
0
t + 0.881 87 0.881 87

13(i)

In QRS, cos =

110.11

SR
8

R = 22 + 82 = 68 = 4 17 = 217
8

= tan1 ( ) 76.0
2

OR = 217 sin( + 76.0)


max = 217
sin( + 76.0) = 1
0 <

< 90
76.0 < + 76.0 < 166.0
+ 76.0 = 90

14.0

10

x = 149 cos(8t 0.611)


12(ii) 1
cos t
1
149 149 cos(8t 0.611) 149

90 180 270 360

13(ii) OR
=6
217 sin( + 76.0) = 6

max. = 149

sin( + 76.0)
x

= 149
149 cos(8t 0.611) = 149
cos(8t 0.611)
=1
t
0
8t 0.611 0.611

3
17

46.7
1st or 2nd quadrant

90 180 270 360

0 <
< 90
76.0 < + 76.0< 166.0

+ 76.0 , 180
46.7,133.3

57.4

8t 0.611 0
t
0.0763
12(iii) x

=9
149 cos(8t 0.611) = 9
=

14(i)
9

0
<t
<1
0.611 < 8t 0.611 < 7.39
8t 0.611 , 2 ,
0.741, 5.54,
t
0.169, 0.769,

3 sin + 4 cos(60 )
=2
[
]
3 sin + 4 cos 60 cos + sin 60 sin = 2
1

149

0.742
1st or 4th quadrant

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

OR = OS +SR
= PT +SR
= (2 sin +8 cos ) cm [shown]

R = 102 + 72 = 149
7
= tan1 ( ) 0.611

cos(8t 0.611)

SR = 8 cos

x = 10 cos 8t + 7 sin 8t

PT

PT = 2 sin

50

t + 0.881 87 ,
0.471,2.67
t
1.79 ms
12(i)

In PQT, sin =

=2

3 sin + 2 cos + 23 sin


(3 + 23) sin + 2 cos

=2
=2

S
T

3
2

3 sin + 4 [( ) cos + ( ) sin ]

2 +
7.02
0.954

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372

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3

14(ii) For (3 + 23) sin + 2 cos

15(ii) OM

=4
29 cos( 68.2) = 4

R = (3 + 23) + 22

cos( 68.2)

= (9 + 123 + 12) + 4

= tan1 (

2
3+23

25 + 123 sin( + 17.2) = 2

15

17.2
1st or 2nd quadrant

tan =
AC

16(i)

360 +
377.2
360

= 2 cot

sin

sin

(5,2)
2
5

OM
OA
OM
5+2 cot

cos
sin

18
16

tan x

90 180 270 360

= tan x
=

9
8

48.4
1st or 3rd quadrant

R = 22 + 52 = 29
5
= tan1 ( ) 68.2

0 < x < 90
x = , 180
48.4, 131.6

OM = 29 cos( 68.2)
max = 29
cos( 68.2) = 1
0
<

< 90
68.2 < 68.2 < 28.8
68.2 = 0

= 68.2

16
area of COD = 2(area of AOB)
(ii)(b) 18 cos x
= 2(8 sin x)
18 cos x
= 16 sin x

For 2 cos + 5 sin

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

+18 cos x [shown]

Max = 297
sin(x + 66.0) = 1
0 <

< 90
66.0 < + 66.0 < 156.0
x + 66.0 = 90
x
24.0

= 5 sin +2 cos
= 2 cos +5 sin [shown]

= 8 sin x

sin (5 + 2 cot ) = OM
OM
= sin (5 + 2 cot )

15(i)

+ (6)(6) sin(90 x)

S = 297 sin(x + 66.0)

= sin (5 + 2

= (4)(4) sin x

16
For 8 sin x + 18 cos x,
(ii)(a) R = 82 + 182 = 297
18
= tan1 ( ) 66.0

OA = OC +CA
=5
+2 cot [shown]

S = area of AOB +area of COD


2

68.2 ,
, 360
42.0
42.0, 318.0

26.2

25+123

AC

sin( + 17.2)

+ 17.2 , 180 ,
17.2,162.8,

0, 146,

0
<
< 90
68.2 < 68.2 < 28.8

) 17.2

0
360
17.2 + 17.2 377.2

29

42.0
1st or 4th quadrant

= 25 + 123

90 180 270 360


1

17(i)
p = A sin(t)
+B sin(t + c)
= A sin(t)
+B[sin(t) cos(c) + cos(t) sin(c)]
= A sin(t)
+B cos(c) sin(t) + B sin(c) cos(t)
= [A + B cos(c)] sin(t) +B sin(c) cos(t)
= B sin (c) cos(t) +[A + B cos (c)] sin(t)

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373

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3

17(ii) Why?
R2 = [Bsin (c)]2

18(v) In ABC,

+[A + B cos(c)]2

= B 2 sin2 (c)

In OBN,

+A2 + 2AB cos(c)

cos =

ON

AM = AC
= AC
= 2 cos
= 6 sin

2 cm

sin =

+CM
+BN
+6 sin
+2 cos

AM = R sin( + )
18(vi) OAM area = 1 (base)

2
1

(height)

= OM

AM

2
1

ON = 6 cos
In ABC,

BN

2 cm

sin =

= A2 + B 2 + 2AB cos c [shown]


In OBN,

BN = 6 sin

= B 2 [sin2 (c) + cos 2 (c)] +A2 + 2AB cos(c)

18(i)

AC

AC = 2 cos

+A2 + 2AB cos(c)


+B 2 cos 2 (c)

= B 2 [1]

cos =

= R cos( + ) R sin( + )

BC

2
1

= R2 ( ) [2 sin( + ) cos( + )]

2
1

BC = 2 sin

= R sin 2( + )
4

1
2
(40) sin 2( + )
4
= 10 sin 2( + ) [shown]

OM = ON
MN
= ON
BC
= 6 cos 2 sin [shown]
18(ii)

R = 62 + 22 = 40 = 4 10 = 210
2
= tan1 ( ) 18.4

18(vii) 1 sin 2( + )
1
10 10 sin 2( + ) 10

OM = 210 cos( + 18.4)

max
10 sin 2( + )
sin 2( + )

18(iii) OM
=5
210 cos( + 18.4) = 5
cos( + 18.4)

0 <
< 90
36.9 < 2( + 18.43) < 216.9

5
210

37.8
1st or 4th quadrant
0 <
< 90
18.4 < + 18.4 < 108.4

= 10
= 10
=1

S
T

90 180 270 360

2( + 18.43) = 90

26.6

+ 18.4 , 360
37.8, 322.2

19.3
18(iv) OA = R cm [pythagoras thm]
AOB =

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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374

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19

Ex 13.3

P = (k 1) sin 4t + (2 + k) cos 4t
R = (k 1)2 + (2 + k)2
= (k 2 2k + 1) + (4 + 4k + k 2 )
= 2k 2 + 2k + 5
max = 2k 2 + 2k + 5
= 2(k 2 + 1) + 5
1 2

1 2

= 2 [(k + ) ( ) ] + 5
1 2

= 2 (k + ) + 5
1 2

= 2 (k + ) +

1 2

(k + ) 0
2

3
2
3

2
2
3

max cannot be less than 2


2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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375

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13
A1(b) y = 2 cos (3 2x) + 3

Rev Ex 13

A1(a) cos 105 = cos(60 + 45)


= cos 60 cos 45
1

2
( )
2
2
13
2
( )(
)
2
2
26

=( )
=
=

sin 60 sin 45
3
2

( )

2
2

= 2( sin 2) + 3
= 2 sin 2 + 3
i.e. = 2, = 2, = 3

( )
Amplitude

= || = |2| = 2

Period

5
3
2
3

2x)
+ sin ( ) sin(2x)

= cos ( ) cos(2x)

+ [ sin ( )] sin 2x

= (0) cos 2
= sin 2x
= RHS [shown]

+(1) sin 2

2
2

= 2 sin 2 + 3

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
y=32
Amplitude
Shape
sin

Cycle

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

3
3

= cos ( ) cos(2x)
2

A1(b) Show: cos (3 2x) = sin 2x


LHS = cos (

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=1

376

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A2(i)

Rev Ex 13

Coordinates of
90 < < 180 2nd quad.
4

cos = =
= 4,
y=

52

5
13

= 5,

-4

(4)2

=3

sin x =

Coordinates of
180 < < 270 3rd quad.
sin =

=5

A3(a) 4 cos 2x +2 sin x


4(1 2 sin2 x) +2 sin x
4 8 sin2 x +2 sin x
8 sin2 x 2 sin x 1
(4 sin x + 1)(2 sin x 1)

13

= 13

0 < x < 360


S

tan tan 45

tan( 45) =

1+tan tan 45

24

25

3
)(1)
4
3
1+( )(1)
4

cos 2 = 1 2 sin2 = 1 2 (

cos 2 =

1
2 cos 2 ( )
2
1+cos

7(
5 2

119

13

169

) =

1
2

sin 2x
2

sin 2x

1+cos
2

T C
x = , 180
= 30, 150

=2
=

4
7

34.8
1st or 2nd quadrant

cos

A3(b) 7 sin x cos x = 2

= 2( )( ) =

0 < x < 360

T C
x = 180 + , 360
194.5, 345.5

7
A2(ii) sin 2 = 2 sin cos

A2(iv) cos

sin x =

-5

x = 132 (5)2 = 12
Trigonometric ratio

A2(iii)

or

14.5
= 30
3rd or 4th quadrant 1st or 2nd quadrant

=3
=3
=3
=0
=0

cos < 0
2
1

for 90 < < 135

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

12
)
13

1+(

2
1

= 13
2

=
=

26
1

26

2x , 180 ,
34.8,145.2,
17.4, 72.6,

360 + , 540
394.9, 505.2
197.4, 252.6

A3(c) sin 2x
= sin2 x
2 sin x cos x
= sin2 x
sin x (2 cos x sin x) = 0
sin x = 0 or
2 cos x = sin x

tan x = 2
1
63.4

1st or 3rd quadrant


90 180 270 360
1

0 < x < 360


x = 180

0 < x < 360


S

T C
x = , 180 +
= 63.4, 243.4

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377

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A3(d) cot 2x

Rev Ex 13

= 1 + cot x

A5(i) 7 cos x + 24 sin x 12

= 25 cos(x 73.7) 12

= 1 + cot x

tan 2x
1

=1+

2 tan x
1tan2 x
1tan2 x

2 tan x

1 cos(x 73.7)
1
25 25 cos(x 73.7)
25
37 25 cos(x 73.7) 12 13

1
tan x

tan x+1
tan x

1 tan2 x
= 2 tan x + 2
2
tan x + 2 tan x + 1 = 0
(tan x + 1)2
=0
tan x
= 1
= 45
S A
2nd or 4th quadrant

T
C
0 < x < 360

max = 13
cos(x 73.7) = 1
x 73.7 0
x
73.7

sin A
cos A

sin A
cos A

cos(x 73.7)

(2 cos 2 A 1)

= (cos 2 2A sin2 2A)

2
5

x
> 0
x 73.7 > 73.7

sec 2 2A

= cos(2 2A)

66.4
1st or 4th quadrant

= tan A (cos 2A)


= cos 2A tan A
= RHS [proven]
A4(b) LHS = cos 4A

A5(ii) 7 cos x
= 10 24 sin x
7 cos x + 24 sin x = 10
25 cos(x 73.7) = 10

tan A

= 2 sin A cos A

90 180 270 360

min = 37
cos(x 73.7) = 1
x 73.7 180
x
253.7

x = 180 , 360
= 135, 315
A4(a) LHS = sin 2A

x 73.7 360 + , ,
293.6, 66.4,
x
7.3

cos2 2A
1
cos2 2A

= 1 tan 2A
= RHS [proven]

, 360
66.4,293.6

A6(i) LHS = 1cos +sin


1+cos +sin

A4(c) LHS =

sin(A+B)
sin A cos B

sin A cos B+cos A sin B


sin A cos B

=1+

cot A tan B = RHS [proven]


A5(i) 7 cos x + 24 sin x = R cos(x )
R = 72 + 242 = 25
24

= tan1 ( ) 73.7
7

2
2

1+(2 cos2 1)+(2 sin cos )


2
2
2

2
2
2

2 cos2 +2 sin cos


2
2
2

2
2
2

2 cos (cos +sin )


2
2
2

1(12 sin2 )+(2 sin cos )

2 sin2 +2 sin cos

2 sin (sin +cos )

= tan

= RHS [proven]

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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378

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13

A6(ii) 1 + sin
= 2 cos
sin 2 cos = 1

B1(i)

cos(A+B)
cos A cos B+sin A sin B

R = 12 + 22 = 5
2
= tan1 ( ) 1.11

7
5
7
5

5 cos A cos B + 5 sin A sin B = 7 cos A cos B


7 sin A sin B

cos A cos Bsin A sin B

5 sin( 1.11) = 1
sin( 1.11)

cos(AB)

1
5

0.464
3rd or 4th quadrant
0
<
<
1.11 < 1.11 < 2.03

2 cos A cos B

= 12 sin A sin B

cos A cos B

= 6 sin A sin B
[proven]

tan A tan B

B1(ii) tan( + )
1.11 , ,
2.68, 0.464,

0.644

+ , 2
3.61,5.82

= tan(45)

tan +tan

=1

1tan tan
tan +tan
1

(1)

=1

1
6

tan + tan =
6

A7(i)
2.5

1 A
m

1.5

cos 2 A =

= 1,
y=

4
1

7.25 cos( 68.2) = 1.5

68.2 360 + , ,
303.9, 56.1,

12.1

3
2

3
2

= ( )( ) ( ) ( )

7.25

0
<
< 90
68.2 < 68.2 < 21.8

-1

3
2

1.5

56.1
1st or 4th quadrant

2 A

(1)2 = 3

Trigonometric ratio
cos(A + 60) = cos A cos 60 sin A sin 60

=2

22

sin =

R = 12 + 2.52 = 7.25
2.5
= tan1 ( ) 68.2

cos( 68.2)

cos A = = =

A +B
= 1.5
1 cos +2.5 sin = 1.5
cos + 2.5 sin = 1.5 [shown]
A7(ii)

B2(i) Coordinates
A is obtuse 2nd quadrant

= 1
S
T

, 360
56.1, 303.9

B2(ii) Recap

sin =

3
, cos
2

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A=

2
1
3
2( )( )
2
2

3
2

B2(iii) cos 2A = 2 cos 2 A 1= 2 (1) 1 = 1


4

B2(iv) sin 3A = sin 2A cos A + cos 2A sin A


1
3
)( )
2
2
3
3

4
4

= (
=

3
2

+ ( ) ( )
2

=0

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379

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13

B3(a) 4 sin 3x cos x 4 cos 3x sin x + 1 = 0


4(sin 3x cos x cos 3x sin x)
= 1
4 sin(3x x)
= 1
sin(2x)

B3(d) cos 2x 3 cos x


(2 cos 2 x 1) 3 cos x
2 cos 2 x 3 cos x 2
(2 cos x + 1)(cos x 2)

1
4

cos x =

14.5
3rd or 4th quadrant
0 < x < 180
0 < 2x < 360

2nd or 3rd quadrant

0x
S A

T C
x = , +
=

= 2 cos x
= 2 cos x
=0
=0
sin x = 1
0 < x < 360

3(

90 180 270 360

x = 90, 270

x = 90

1
cos 2x

= 8 sin 2x

) = 8 sin 2x

= 8 sin 2x cos 2x

= 8(

= 4(sin 4x)

sin 4x

0
<x
< 360
63.4 < 2x 63.4 < 656.6

2 + , 3
7.13, 8.58
1.78, 2.14

B4(a) sin(x y)
=p
(i)
sin x cos y cos x sin y = p
q cos x sin y = p
qp
= cos x sin y
cos x sin y
=
(1)

26.6
1st or 2nd quadrant

sin cos
360 + , 540
386.6, 513.4
225, 288.4

(2)

sin(x + y) = sin(x) cos(y) + cos(x) sin(y)


=q
+q p (2) & (3)
= 2q
p
B4(a)
(ii)

tan x
tan y

=
=
=

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

4x = , ,
0.848,2.29,
x 0.212, 0.573,

5 sin(2x 63.4) = 1

2x 63.4 , 180 ,
26.6,108.4,
x
45, 108.4,

sin 4

0x
0 4x 4

R = 12 + 22 = 5
2
= tan1 ( ) 63.4
=

0.848
1st or 2nd quadrant

B3(c) sin 2x
= 2 cos 2x + 1
sin 2x 2 cos 2x = 1

sin(2x 63.4)

2 4

B3(e) 3 sec 2x

90 180 270 360

or

2x = 180 + , 360
194.5, 355.5
x 97.2, 172.8
B3(b) sin 2x
2 sin x cos x
sin x cos x cos x
cos x (sin x 1)
cos x = 0
or
0 < x < 360

=1
=1
=0
=0
cos x = 2
(no solution)

sleightofmath.com

sin x
cos x
sin y
cos y

sin x cos y
cos x sin y
q
qp

380

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13
B5(b) cos 2 x = 1+cos 2x

B4 (a) sin 2x sin 2y = 2 sin x cos x (2 sin y cos y)


(iii)
= 4 sin x cos y (cos x sin y)
= 4q (q p)

y = 4 cos 2 x
= 4(

B4(b)
A + B + C = 90
C
= 90 (A + B)

1+cos 2x
2

= 2 cos 2 + 1

180

-1

= 2 + 2 cos 2x 1
= 2 cos 2x + 1
i.e. = 2, = 2, = 1

Show: tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A = 1


Amplitude = || = |2| = 2
LHS
= tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A
= tan A tan B + tan B tan[90 (A + B)]

Period

90
] tan A
(A + B)
= tan A tan B + tan B cot(A + B) + cot(A + B) tan A
= tan A tan B + cot(A + B) [tan B + tan A]
+ tan [

= tan A tan B +
= tan A tan B +

1
tan(A+B)
1

= tan A tan B + (

tan A+tan B

360
2

= 180

Workings
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
y=12
Amplitude
Shape
+cos

(tan A + tan B)

1tan A tan B

360

max. = 1 + (2) = 3
min. = 1 + (2) = 1

(tan A + tan B)

tan A+tan B
1tan A tan B

) (tan A + tan B)

1800

Cycle

= tan A tan B +1 tan A tan B


=1
= RHS [shown]

180

=1

B5(a) For 2 cos x 3 sin x,


R = 22 + 32 = 13
3

= tan1 ( ) 56.3
2

B6(a) LHS = cos(x+y)

(2 cos x 3 sin x)2


= [13 cos(x + 56.3)]
= 13 cos 2 (x + 56.3)
13 [shown]

cos 2 (x + 56.3) 1

0 < x
< 360
56.3 < x + 56.3 < 416.3
x + 56.3 , 180 ,
360 + , 540
= 0,180,
483.7
x
= 123.7,

sin(xy)

(cos x cos ysin x sin y)+(cos x cos y+sin x sin y)

= (sin

Trigonometric equation
(2 cos x 3 sin x)2 = 13
13 cos 2 (x + 56.3) = 13
cos(x + 56.3)
= 1

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

+cos(xy)

sin(x+y)

x cos y+cos x sin y)(sin x cos ycos x sin y)

2 cos x cos y
2 cos x sin y

= cot y
= RHS [proven]

B6(b) LHS

90 180 270 360

1+sec 2
tan 2

=
180 + , 360 ,

1
cos 2
sin 2
cos 2

1+

(2 cos2 1)+1
2 sin cos
cos
sin

cos 2+1
cos 2
sin 2
cos 2

cos 2+1
sin 2

2 cos2
2 sin cos

= cot = RHS [proven]

360,
303.7

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381

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13

B6(c) LHS = sin2 2 (cot 2 tan2 )


= sin2 2 (
= sin2 2 (
= sin2 2 [
2

cos2

sin2

sin2
cos2
4
cos sin4

>0
17 sin( 28.1) > 0

sin2 cos2
(cos2 +sin2 )(cos2 sin2 )
(sin cos )2

= sin 2 [

B7(iii) Given: 0 < < 90

(1) cos 2
2

1
2

AB

AB = 17 sin( 28.1)
118.1

O 28.1

( sin 2)
cos 2

= sin2 2 (1
4

sin2 2

= 4 cos 2
= RHS [proven]
B7(i) AB = OB OA
= 15 sin 8 cos

R = 152 + 82

= 17

= tan1 ( ) 28.1
15
AB = 17 sin( 28.1)
B7(ii) AB
=5
17 sin( 28.1) = 5
sin( 28.1)

= 90

5
17

17.1
1st or 2nd quadrant

28.1 < < 90


B7(iv) shaded area
= area of OPB
1

= (15 sin )(15 cos ) (8 sin )(8 cos )


=
=
=
=

225
2
161
2

sin cos
sin cos

2
161
4

( sin 2)
2

sin 2
sin 2

161
4

161
4

max =
161
4

32 sin cos

161 1

B7(v) 1

0
<
< 90 [by inspection]
28.1 < 28.1 < 61.9
S A
28.1 , 180

17.1,162.9
T C

45.2

area of OAQ

sin2 =

sin 2

sin 2

161
4

161
4
161

=1

90 180 270 360

0 < < 90
0 < 2 < 180
2 = , 180
= 90
= 45

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382

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.1
3(a)

Ex 14.1
1(a)

d
dx

(3x 7 ) = 3

(x 7 )

dx

55

5 d

( x 2 ) =

dx 2

=
d
dx

(3x 2
d

d
dx

x3

3(c)

= 4

dx

d
dx

=
=
=
2(d)

d
dx

=
=
=
2(e)

d
dx

dx

(1)

d
dx

(x 2 )

= 4(3x 2 ) +5(2x)
= 12x 2
+10x
2(c)

(x)

dx

+5

2 x 2

3
2 d

2x4
5

(x 2 )

3(d)

3 dx
2

(2x)

3
22
3

20
3 d

dx

(12)

x9

11
8
(x )

100
x

2 d

(9x 2
d
dx

x2

dx 2

4(a)
dx

(x 2 )

dx x3
d

x3

+ 3)
x

dx

(x 3 )

4 )

d
dx

x4

2 )

d
dx

(3)

+0

x2

(3x + 2x 3)
d
dx

(x)

+2

(x 2 )

dx
1
1
+2 ( x 2 )
2
1

d
dx

(3)

(8x 2 + 3x x)
d
dx

(x 2 ) +3

d
dx

(x)

+3(1)

= 16x

+3

(x 1 )

(x

18

2x2 +4x
x

d
dx

(x 2 )

dx
1
1
( x 2 )
2
1

2x

(2x + 4)
d

dx

(x)

= 2(1)
=2

(x 3 )
2 dx
b
0
(3x 2 )
2
3b
x2
2

(x 2 )

= 8(2x)

b d

d
dx

=2

( )

= 18x

dx
d

x2

3(2x 3 )

=8

(x 9 )

11 dx

(9x 8 )
11
9
x 8
11

( x3 ) =

100

= 9(2x)

dx
d

(x 1 )

(x 2 ) 3

=3
3(f)

dx

= 3(1)

(x 2 ) +100

= 200x

=3

(x 4 )

5 dx
2
(4x 3 )
5
8 3

(3a) +b

+100(x 2 )

dx

= 100(2x)

=
3(e)

(3a + bx 2 )
dx

d
dx

2
x2

20 dx
3
(8x 7 )
20
6 7
x
5

(100x 2 +

= 6(3x

=0
+b(2x)
= 2bx
2(f)

=6

3x8

(x 1 )

=9

+4(1)
+4

(x 3 )

d
dx

=4

= 100

(x 5 )

(4x 3 + 5x 2 12)
d

(x) +2

+2(x 2 )

dx

+ 4x 1)

= 3(2x)
= 6x

dx

(x 2 ) +4

dx

= 4(1)

dx

=3

2(b)

( x 2 )

2 dx
5 2 3
( x 5)
2 5
1

2(a)

3(b)

2 dx
5 d

(4x + )

=4

= 3(7x 8 )
= 21x 8
1(b)

d
dx

d
dx

(4)

+0

dx 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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383

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(b)

d
dx

=
=

Ex 14.1

x2 6x+4

6(b)

dx
d
dx

(x 6 + )
(x)

x
d

=1

dx

(6)

+4

d
dx

d
dx

(x 1 )

= 1.5 t

x2

6(c)

dx

=2

(x 2 )

dx

= 2(2x)

d
dt

( )

dx

=
=

( )

dx 2

2x2

( +

5(a)

d
dx

2
x2

6(d)

dx 2

dx

dx

6(e)
)

(3x1.5
d

dx

(x1.5 )

= x
2
dx

2x

d
dx

=3

(3x
d

dx

(x)

= 3(1)
=3
6(a)

d
dt

1
2

(x )

dx
1
1
+ ( x 2 )
2
1

6x2 x+2

x 2 )

+ x1.5

= 3(1.5x 0.5 )

dx

1
2

(x )

3
1
( x 2 )
2
1

2x

x 2

2
1 d

4(2.5t1.5 )

= 24t

10t 2

2xx

(x )

d
dx

6(f)

(x 1 )

1
x2

= 2(2t)
= 4t

+1
+1

+t
d

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

d
dt

d
dt

(9)

+0

d
dt

(t)

d
dt

(3)

2t 1 )
2

d
dt

(t 1 )

2(t 2 )
+

2
t2

y = 4x 2 6x + 1
dx

1)
(t)

+12(1)
+12

=2

dy

d
= (2t 2
dt
d
= 2 (t 2 )

(2t

= 2(1)

7(a)

(t + 1)(2t 1)

d
dt

=2

dt

d (2t + 1)(t 2)
[
]
dt
t
d 2t 2 3t 2
= (
)
dt
t
=

+(x 2 )

4xx

d
(2t + 3)2
dt
d
= (4t 2 + 12t + 9)
dt
d
d
= 4 (t 2 ) +12 (t)
= 4(2t)
= 8t

+ x 1 )

2 dx
3
1
1
( x 2 )
2
2
1

dt

dt

= 12(2t)

dt

dt

[4t 2 (3 t)]

=3

5(b)

(x 2 )

3x2 +x1

(1)

dt

+2(2x 3 )
4

dt

d
(12t 2 4t 2.5 )
dt
d
d
= 12 (t 2 ) 4 (t 2.5 )

( ) +2

x3

dt
d

dx 2
d 1

(1 + t)(1 t)

= 1

=0

=0

x2 +4

2x2
d 1

2(1)

dt

dt
d

(t)

d
(1 t)
dt
d
d
= (1) (t)

dx 2x
3 d
(x 1 )

2 dx
3
(x 2 )
2
3

= 4x
4(d)

0.5

d
dt

dx 2
d 5

= t
2

d
5 3
= (2x 2 )
dx
2 2x
d
d 5
2
= (2x ) ( )

2t)

4x3 5x3
2x

t(t 2)
d
= (t1.5
dt
d
= (t1.5 )
dt

+4(x 2 )

=1
4(c)

dt

= 8x 6

Gradient at (2,5):

(1)

dy

dx x=2

= 8(2) 6
= 10

sleightofmath.com

384

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(b)

Ex 14.1
8(b)

y = x(2 x)
= 2x xx
= 2x
dy

dx

1
2

y = 2x 2 + 3x
dy

= 4x + 3

dx

3
2

1
1
2 ( x 2 )
2
1

Curve at y = 2:
2x 2 + 3x
=2
2
2x + 3x 2 = 0
(2x 1)(x + 2) = 0

3 1

x2
2
3

x
2

x=
dy

dx x=9

=
=

9
2

9
1

Gradients at x = , 2:
2

dy

dx x=1

(3)

or x = 2

Gradient at x = 9:

25
6

= 4( ) + 3 = 5
2

dy

= 4(2) + 3 = 5

dx x=2

7(c)

y=
=

(x+1)(2x3)
x
2x2 x3

8(c)

= 2x 1

= x + 4x 1

= 2 0 3(x
=2

dx x=1

=1

Curve at y = 5:

=2+

x2 +4

3
(1)2

dx

=5

x
2

x +4
= 5x
2
x 5x + 4 = 0
(x 1)(x 4) = 0
x = 1 or x = 4

y = x 2 2x
dy

4
x2

x2

=5
8(a)

= x + 4(x 2 )

dx

2 )

Gradient at x = 1:
dy

dy
dx

=x+

= 2x 1 3x 1
dy

x2 +4

y=

= 2x 2
Gradients at x = 1,4:

Curve at y = 1:
x 2 2x
= 1
2
x 2x + 1 = 0
(x 1)2
=0
x=1

dy

dx

Gradient at x = 1:
|

dx x=1

= 2(1) 2

= 1 (4)2 =

3
4

= 4x 5

Gradient at y axis (x = 0):


dy

=0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

y = 2x 2 5x + 1
dy

dy

= 1 (1)2 = 3

dx x=4

9(a)

dx x=1
dy

dx x=0

sleightofmath.com

= 4(0) 5 = 5

385

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(b)

y=

Ex 14.1

x4

10(a) y = 3x 2 + 6x + 2

dy

=1

dx

= 1 4x 1
dy

Gradient is 3:
dy

= 0 4(x 2 )

dx

6x + 6 = 3

x2

dx x=4

y=

= (4)2

1 2

1
4

10(b) y = ax 2 + b

= ax 2 +bx 1

x+2

dy

dx

=1 +

( , )

=0

Gradient at x = 4:

9(c)

y|x=1 = 3 ( ) + 6 ( ) + 2

=4

dy

=3

dx

Curve crosses x axis (y = 0):


y
=0
x4

= 6x + 6

= a(2x) +b(x 2 )

= 2ax

x2

= 1 +2x 1
Gradient is 2 at x = 1:
dy

dy

= 0 +2(x 2 )

dx

=2

2a b
b

x2

Curve crosses y = x:
x

dx x=1

=2
= 2a 2

(1)

Gradient is 1 at x = 4:

x+2

dy

dx x=4
b

x
=x+2
2
x x2
=0
(x + 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1 or x = 2

8a

16

= 1
= 1

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


8a

2a2
16
1a

= 1

Gradient at x = 1,2

8a +

dy

64a + 1 a
63a

= 8
= 9

dx x=1
dy
dx x=2

2
(1)2
2
(2)2

= 2
1

=
2

= 1

(3)

sub (3) into (1):


1

16

b = 2 ( ) 2 =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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386

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11

Ex 14.1

Line:
4y 3x = 7
4y
= 3x + 7
y

= x+

13

y=

x+

4
3 2
x
8
2

4
3

8
9

=9
(2)

x2

Tangent x axis:
dy

=0

dx

= x2 +

x
1

= 9 +(x 2 )

dx

sub (1) into (2):


3

= 9x +x

(1)

dy

= x2 +

= 9x +

Curve:
3x 2 8y = 5
8y
= 3x 2 5
y

9x2 +1

=0

x2

=9

x2
2

=0

3x 6x 9 = 0
x 2 2x 3 = 0
(x + 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1 or x = 3

=
1

1
9

(x + ) (x ) = 0
3

x=

or

x=

dy

y|x=1 = 6

= x
4

14
3

y=

= (3) =

dx x=3

12

2
1

x
1

dy
dy

= x 2 +3x 2

= (1) =

dx x=1

( ,6 )

Gradient at x = 1, 3:
dy

( , 6)

dx

y|x=1 = 6
3

Curve gradient:

= ( x 2 ) +3 ( x 2 )

dx

2 2

4x

3
2xx

y = x(x 2)
3
2
= x(x 4x + 4) 3
= x 3 4x 2 + 4x 3
dy
dx

Gradient at x = 1:
dy

dx x=1

= 3x 2 8x + 4
15(i)

Gradient is 7:

dx

=7

dx

3x 2 8x + 4 = 7
3x 2 8x 3 = 0
(3x + 1)(x 3) = 0
1

x=

or

y|x=1 = 4
3

22
27

22

27

( , 4

4(1) 2(1)(1)

3
4

y = x 3 + px + q
dy

dy

= 3x 2 + p

Curve at (3,16):
(16) = (3)3 + p(3) + q
16 = 27 + 3p + q
q
= 3p + 11

x=3
y|x=3 = 0

Gradient at (3,16) is 20:

(3,0)

dy

dx x=3
2

= 20

3(3) + p = 20
27 + p
= 20
p
= 7
q|p=7 = 10
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

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387

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.1

15(ii) Curve & its gradient with p = 7, q = 10:


y = x 3 7x 10
dy
dx

19(i)

f(0) = 0
x=0

= 3x 2 7

Gradient is 20:
dy

= 20

dx

3x 2 7
= 20
2
3x 27
=0
2
x 9
=0
(x + 3)(x 3) = 0
x=3
or x = 3
(taken)
y|x=3 = (3)3 7(3) + 10
=4
(3,4)
16

f(x) = x[x 2 + kx + (2k 3)]

19(ii) Observe quadratic factor


[x 2 + kx + (2k 3)]
i.e. a = 1, b = k, c = 2k 3
Discriminant
For 2 non real roots,
b2 4ac
<0
2
k 4(1)(2k 3) < 0
k 2 8k + 12
<0
(k 2)(k 6)
<0
+

f(x) = x

f(x + x) = x + x

= lim

x0

= lim

19(iii) f(x) = x 3 + kx 2 + (2k 3)x


f (x) = 3x 2 + 2kx + 2k 3
i.e. a = 3, b = 2k, c = 2k 3
Roots: &

x0

2<k<6

f(x+x)f(x)

f (x) = lim

x+xx x+x+x
x
x+x+x
x+xx

x0 x(x+x+x)
x

= lim

x0 x(x+x+x)
1

Sum of roots

= lim
=
=
17

x0 (x+x+x)
1

Product of roots =

= (

= (x 3 + 1)(x 2 + 1)(x + 1)

= (x 5 + x 3 + x 2 + 1)(x + 1)
+x 4
+x

+x 3
+x 3

+x
+x

+1

= x 6 + x 5 + x 4 + 2x 3 + x 2 + x + 1
dy
dx

b
a

=
=

2k

3
2k3
3

( )2 = ( + )2 4

= x6

x + x x as x 0

x+x
1
2x

=+ =

4k2

4 (

2k3

3
8k12

9
4k2 24k+36

9
4
9
4

(k 2

6k + 6)

= (k 3)2
9

2 distinct roots
( )2 0

= 6x 5 + 5x 4 + 4x 3 + 6x 2 + 2x + 1

18
f(x) = (x 1)(x + 1) (x 2 + 1) (x 4 + 1)
= (x 2 1) (x 2 + 1) (x 4 + 1)
(x 4 + 1)
= (x 4 1)
= (x 8 1)

= (x1024 1)
= x 2048 1

2k 2

4
9

(x1024 + 1)
(x1024 + 1)
(x1024 + 1)
(x1024 + 1)

(k 3)2

0
3

(x1024 + 1)

f (x) = 2048x 2047


Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

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388

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19(iv) | |

( )2
4
9

(k 3)

(k 3)
k 2 6k + 9
k 2 6k + 8
(k 2)(k 4)
+

Ex 14.1

20

3
4

dy
dx

9
4

= 5x
5

y = x2

y=

1
1
0
0

21

+
4

2k4

2
5 2
x
2

Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:

+1
x + x + + x = x2
1 + 1 + + 1 = 2x
x = 2x
[wrong]
1=2

The number of x should not be disconnected from


x and be excluded from being differentiated

Combine inequalities,
2 k 4 and k 3 and 2 < k < 6 and k

and k

k=4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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389

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.2
2(b)

Ex 14.2
1(a)

d
dx

) =2

dx

(x + 2)

=
2(c)

d
3
[
]=
dx (34x)3

d
dx

(2x 1)

= 4(2x 1) 2
= 8(2x 1)3
1

( x + 2)

d
dx

=
2(d)

dx 4

= 5 ( x + 2)
4

= 5 ( x + 2)
4

d
6
[
]
dx (2x)2

[(3 4x)3 ]

( x + 2)

dx 4

1
4

= ( x + 2)
1(d)

d
dx

12
(2x)3
12

(2x)3

dx

(1 4x)10

= 10(1 4x)

d
dx

(2x 3) =

d
dx

=
3(b)

(2 3x 2 )4

= 4(2 3x 2 )3

d
dx

d
dx

d
dx
1

[(2x 3)2 ]
1

(2 3x 2 )

2x3

d
dx
1

dx

(x + x

2 )3

= 3(x + x 2 )2

d
dx

3(c)

(x + x 2 )

) =4

dx 2x+7

d
dx

53x2

4
(2x+7)2
8
(2x+7)2

=
d
dx

(2x + 7)

3(d)

x2 +2x+2

(6x)

d
dx

(x 2 + 2x + 2)

d
(x 2 x + 1)
dx
1
d
= [(x 2 x + 1)2 ]
dx
1

1
2

=
=
sleightofmath.com

(5 3x 2 )

(2x + 2)

2x2 +2x+2
x+1

= (x 2 x + 1)2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

d
dx

1
d
[(x 2 + 2x + 2)2 ]
dx

= (x 2 + 2x + 2)2

[(2x + 7)1 ]

(x 2 + 2x + 2)

= 4[(2x + 7)2 ]
=

d
dx

= 3(x + x 2 )2 (1 + 2x)
= 3(x + x 2 )2 (2x 1)
2(a)

253x2
3x

=
d

[(5 3x 2 )2 ]

(2x 3)

= (5 3x 2 )2

= 4(2 3x 2 )3 (6x)
= 24x(2 3x 2 )3
1(f)

d
dx

22x3
1

(5 3x 2 ) =

(2 x)

(1)

= 10(1 4x)9
(4)
9
= 40(1 4x)
1(e)

d
dx

= (2x 3)2

(1 4x)

(3 4x)

[(2 x)2 ]

4 4

3(a)

d
dx

(4)

= 6[2(2 x)3 ]

5 1

d
dx

(6x 2 + 5)

9
(34x)4
36

(34x)4

=6

d
dx

12x

+5)2
24x
(6x2 2
+5)

= 3[3(3 4x)4 ]

= 4(2x 1)

[(6x 2 + 5)1 ]

= (6x2

(2x 1)4
3

1(c)

d
dx

= 5(x + 2)4 1
= 5(x + 2)4
d

(x + 2)5

= 5(x + 2)

dx

= 2[(6x 2 + 5)2 ]
4

1(b)

dx 6x2 +5

1
2x2 x+1
2x1
2x2 x+1

d
dx

(x 2 x + 1)

(2x 1)

390

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(a)

Ex 14.2

y = (3x 1)4
dy

4(d)

= 4(3x 1)

dx

d
dx

y = (4x5)3
= (4x 5)3

(3x 1)

= 4(3x 1)3 3
= 12(3x 1)3

dy

= 3(4x 5)4

dx

= (4x5)4
12

Curve at y =
y = 5 2x
= (5 2x)
dy

1
2

= (5 2x)2

dx

= 12(2)3 = 96

dx x=1

4(b)

(4x 5)

= (4x5)4

Gradient at x = 1:
dy

d
dx

252x
1

52x

d
dx

(5 2x)

(2)

27
1

1
(4x5)3

(4x 5)3
(4x 5)3
4x 5
x

= 27
= 33
=3
=2

27

Gradient at x = 2:
dy

12

= (4(2)5)4 =

dx x=2

Gradient at x = :

27

dy

dx x=1

4(c)

1
1
52( )
2

1
51

1
2

5(a)

2x3

dx
d

(2 x)

dx

= 6(2 x) [0

= (2x 3)2

dx

= 6(2 x) [

= (2x 3)1
dy

[(2 x) ]

= 6(2 x)

y=

d
dx

= (2x3)2

d
dx

= 6(2 x) (

(2x 3)

(2)

(x 2 )]

dx
1 1
x 2]
2
1
2x

3
x

(2 x)

= (2x3)2
5(b)
Curve at y = 1:
1
2x3

2x 3
x

dx [(11)3 ]
x

d
1 3
= [(1 ) ]
dx
x

=1
=1
=2

1 4

= 3 (1 )
x

Gradient at x = 2:
dy

dx x=2

= (2(2)3)2 = (1)2 = 2

=
=
=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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3
1 4
(1 )
x

3
1 4
(1 )
x

3
1 4
(1 )
x

d
dx
d

(1 )

dx

(1)

d
dx

(x 1 )]

[0 (x 2 )]

1
x2

3
1 4
x2 (1 )
x

391

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(c)

Ex 14.2
6(a)

2]

y = (x + 2)2 x + 2
1

dx 2(32)

= (x + 2)2 (x + 2)2

2
1 d 3
[( 2) ]
2 dx x
1

= (x + 2)2

= [2 ( 2) ]
=
=

dy

dx x
d

dx

[3

3
3
( 2)
x

1
3
x

( 2)
dx

(x 1 )

[3(x 2 ) 0]

( 2 )

d
dx

2
5

(2)]

3
x

=
5(d)

d
dx

3
3
x

x2 ( 2)

=
=

6(b)

d
dx

dy

1
2

1
(23x2 )2

(2x + 2)

dx

[2

22x+2
1

1
2

(x ) +

dx

d
dx

= 1.52 3x 2
(2)]

[2 ( x ) +0]
2

22x+2
1

22x+2
1

d
dx

(2 3x 2 )

(6x)

= 9x2 3x 2
7(i)

x
1+x

(1+x)1
1+x
1

=1

[shown]

1+x

7(ii)

dx 1+x
d

1 3

[(x ) ]
x

1 2

dx

(x )

dx

(x)

d
dx

(x 1 )]

1 2

x2

8(i)
[(x + 2x) ]

= 4(x + 2x)

3
3

d
dx
d

1
2

(x ) +2

dx
1
3
1
2x) [ x 2
2
3
1
2x

(1)

dx

)
[(1 + x)1 ]

[(1 + x)2
[(1 + x)

1
(1+x)2

d
dx

(1 + x)]

1]

d
dx

2x1
(x1)2

x1

+ (x1)2

Cover-up rule:

(x + 2x)

= 4(x + 2x) (

1+x
d

= 4(x + 2x)

dx

(1

=0

= 3 (x ) [1 (x 2 )]
= 3 (x ) (1 +

dx
d

=0

1 2

= 4(x +

= 1.5(2 3x 2 )0.5

dx

1 2

(23x2 )

[(2x + 2) ]

= 3 (x ) [

dx

23x2

= 3 (x )

5(f)

= (2 3x 2 )2

1
2

2x(2x+2)

5(e)

(23x2 )

y=
=

= (2x + 2)
2

= (x + 2)2

(x + 2)

3
2

2
5

( 2)

d
dx

= (x + 2) 1

( 2)

= (x + 2)2

x = 1:

(x)]

+2(1)]

1
( )2

Substitution:

+ 2)

x = 0:

= A + B

=2

A
2x1

(x1)2 =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

B=1

=B

sleightofmath.com

2
x1

+ (x1)2

392

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.2

8(ii)

10

y = (1 x)4

d 2x1

dy

dx (x1)2

dx

d
dx

[(x 1)1 ]

= 2[(x 1)

2 ]

+
d
dx

d
dx

[(x 1)2 ]

(x 1) +2[2(x 1)

= 2[(x 1)2 ] 1

3 ]

(1 x)

Gradient is 4:

d
dx

dy

(x 1)

= 4

dx
3

4(1 x) = 4
1x
=1
x
=0
y|x=0 = 1
(0,1)

+2[2(x 1)3 ] 1
2

= (x1)2

d
dx

= 4(1 x)3 (1)


= 4(1 x)3

+ (x1)2 ]

dx x1

=2

= 4(1 x)3

(x1)3

= (x1)3 [(x 1) +1]


2

= (x1)3 (x)

11

y = x 2 2x + 5

2x

= (x1)3
9(a)

= (x 2 2x + 5)3

y = (x 2 2x 4)3

dy

dy

= 3(x 2 2x 4)2

dx

d
dx

At

y=

1
1

= (1 + x)2

dx

=
=

d
dx

(1 + x)

12

2(1+x)2
1

dy

3
2(1+x)2

dx x=3

2(4)2

= (a x)2

dx

=0

= (a x)2

2
3

d
dx

(a x)

1
2

= (a x) (1)
2

Gradient at x = 3:
dy

= 0:

dx
2x2

y = (a x)3

dy

x
=1
3
y|x=1 = 1 2 + 5
3
= 4
3
(1, 4)

1+x

= (1 + x)2
dy

2x2

3(x2 2x+5)3

= 12
9(b)

(x 2 2x + 5)

3(x2 2x+5)3

= (12)(1 + 2 4)2

d
dx

(2x 2)

2
3(x2 2x+5)3

Gradient at x = 1:
dx x=1

(x 2 2x 4)

= 3(x 2 2x 4)2 (2x 2)


= (6x 6)(x 2 2x 4)2

dy

= (x 2 2x + 5)3

dx

1
16

= a x
2

Gradient of
dy

dx x=2
3

at x = 2:

1
3
1

a 2 =
2
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

a 2

a2

2
9
4
81
166
81

393

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.2

13
y = [(x 2 1)2 + 4]5

16(i)

y = (x 2 + 1)n
dy

dy

= 5[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4

dx

d
dx

= 5[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4 [

[(x 2 1)2

d
dx

+4]

[(x 2 1)2 ]

= 5[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4 [2(x 2 1)

dx

d
dx

= n(x 2 + 1)n1 (2x)


= 2nx(x 2 + 1)n1 [shown]

d
dx

(4)]

(x 2 1) +0]

16(ii)
d2 y
dx2

= 2nx [(n 1)(x 2 + 1)n2

= 5[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4 [2(x 2 1) 2x]

d
dx

(x 2 + 1)]

= 20x(x 2 1)[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4

14
y=

(416x2 )

= 4nx 2 (n 1)(x 2 + 1)n2

dy

+2n(x 2 + 1)n1

= 2n(x 2 + 1)n2 [2x 2 (n 1) + (x 2 + 1)]

dx
3

= 2(4 16 x 2 )
=
=
=
=

15

(2nx) (x 2 + 1)n1

= 2nx[(n 1)(x 2 + 1)n2 2x] +2n (x 2 + 1)n1

= (4 16 x 2 )

d
dx

2
(416x2 )

d
dx
d

(4 16 x 2 )

dx

(4)

d
dx

[0 (16 x 2 )2

[0 (16 x 2 )2 (2x)]

dx

16x2 (416x2 )

dy

(1)

dx x=1
n)

n(2
1
3

= (x 2 + 3)2
2

dx2 x=1

x2 +3

d2 y

16x2

= 2n(2n1 )
= n(2n )

d
dx

(x 2 + 3)

17

2x

3
2(x2 +3)2

= 2n[(1)2 + 1]n2 [2(1)2 (n 1) +((1)2 + 1)]


= 2n(2)n2 [2(n 1) + 2]
= n(2)n1 [2n]
= n2 (2n )

dx

]]

= 2n(1)[(1)2 + 1]n1

dx x=1

= (x 2 + 3)2
dy

1
2

(16 x 2 )]

(416x2 )
2x

2)

2
(416x2 )
2

dy

[(16 x

(416x2 )

y=

d2 y

dx2 x=1
2 (2n )

:n
: n [shown]
f(x) = 1 + x
= (1 + x)

1
2

x
3

(x2 +3)2
x
1

(2)

x2 +3 x2 +3

sub (1) into (2):


dy

dx

(x 2 + 3)
(x 2 + 3)

dy
dx
dy
dx

f (x) = (1 + x)

x
x2 +3

=
y
=

= xy

+ xy = 0 [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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1
21+x
1
21+x
1
21+x
1
4x+xx

1
2

d
dx
d

(1 + x)

dx

(1) +
1

d
dx

(x 2 )]

[0 + x 2 ]
2

1
2x

[shown]

394

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18

Ex 14.2

x2 + y2 = 1
y2
= 1 x2

19
1

y=

1
1
1
+
+
x2 +1 x2 +2 x2 +3

= 1 x 2

=(
dy

dx

=
=

1
21x2
1
21x

d
dx

1
x2 +1

x2 +2

x2 +3

(1 x 2 )
dy

(2x)
2

dx

= (

x
1x2

1
x2 +1

1
x2 +2

( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

Gradient at x = :

x2 +3

dx x=1
2

1
( )
2
2
1(1)
2

1
2
3

1
3

1
2
3
4

1
1

( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

dx
d

dy

1
2
1
1
1
( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

2x
2
1
1
1
( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

x2 +3

(x 2 + 2)1

2
1
[+ dx (x + 3) ]

[(x 2 + 1)2 ][2x]


[+[(x 2 + 2)2 ][2x]]
+[(x 2 + 2)2 ][2x]

[ (x2

2x

+1)2

2x

(2x) [(x2
[(x2

] + [ (x2

+ [ (x2

( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

x2 +2

2x

(x 2 + 1)1

dx
d

2
1
1
1
( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

dx x2 +1
x2 +2
x2 +3
1
1
1

dx x2 +1

dy

1
+1)2

1
+1)2

+2)2

]
}

+ (x2

+ (x2

+3)2

+2)2

1
+2)2

+ (x2

+ (x2

1
+3)2

1
+3)2

dx x=1

=
=
=
=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2(1)
2
1
1
1
( 2 + 2 + 2 )
(1) +1 (1) +2 (1) +3

2
1 1 1 2
( + + )
2 3 4

2
13 2
( )
12

[((1)2

+1)2

+ ((1)2

+2)2

+ ((1)2

+3)2

[(2)2 + (3)2 + (4)2 ]


1

16

( + +

122
169

sleightofmath.com

395

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.3
2(a)

Ex 14.3
1(a)

d
dx

d
dx

d
dx

[(2x 1)3 ]

= x 3(2x 1)2 2
= 6x(2x 1)

d
dx

(x) (2x 1)3

+1 (2x 1)3
+(2x 1)

= 2x(1 x)

= (2x 1)2 (8x 1)


1(b)

dx

=
[(x 1)(x + 2)2 ]

= (x 1)

d
dx

[(x + 2)2 ] +

d
dx

2(b)

(x + 2)2

= (x 1) 2(x + 2) 1

+1

= 2(x 1)(x + 2)

+(x + 2)2

= (x + 2) [2(x 1)

(x 1) (x + 2)2

= (x + 2) (2x 2

dx

+x + 2)

= 3x(x + 2)

=
=

= (1 2x)

d
dx

4]

[(3x + 2)

=
4]

d
dx

2x
1x
2x
1x

(1 2x) (3x + 2)

2(c)

= (x 2 + 1)

d
dx

[(1 + x)2 ]

d
dx

(x 2 + 1) (1 + x)2

(1 + x)2

= (x 2 + 1) 2(1 + x) 1

+2x

= 2(x 2 + 1)(1 + x)

+2x(1 + x)2

= 2(1 + x) [(x 2 + 1)

+x(1 + x)]

= 2(1 + x) (x 2 + 1

+x + x 2 )

[x

1
1+3x
1+2x

+1

1 + 2x

+(1 + 2x)]

(1 + 3x)

1+2x

(x 2 1 2x 2 )

+1 + 2x

1+2x

3x 2)

[(x 2 + 1)(1 + x)2 ]

(1 + 2x) + (x) 1 + 2x
dx

= x2

dx

1+2x

(3x + 2)]

1(d)

+(1 x)]

= 2(3x + 2)3 [6(1 2x)

2x

[4x

21+2x

= x2

= 2(3x + 2) (4 15x)

(1x)2

dx

2(3x + 2)4

(1 x)2

(x1 + 2x)

= 12(1 2x)(3x + 2)3

= 2(3x + 2) (6 12x

1
2x

+(1 x)2 ]

2x

+(2) (3x + 2)4

(x) (1 x)2

[4x(1 x)

(1x)(15x)

= (1 2x) 4(3x + 2)3 3

dx

d
dx

(1 5x)

2x

=x

= (x + 2) 3x

[(1 2x)(3x + 2)

=x

1(c)
d

d
dx

+(x + 2)]

+
+

= (2x 1) [6x +(2x 1)]

[(1 x)2 ]

dx

= x 2(1 x) (1)

= x

[x(2x 1)3 ]

=x

[x(1 x)2 ]

d
dx

(1 2x 2 )
1

212x2

(4x)

2x3
1
2x

12x2
2x
12x2

d
dx

+2x

(x 2 ) 1 2x 2
1 2x 2

+2x1 2x 2

12x2

12x2

[2x 3

+2x(1 2x 2 )]

[x 2

+(1 2x 2 )]

(1 3x 2 )

2x(13x2 )
12x2

= 2(1 + x) (2x 2 + x + 1)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

396

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.3

2(d)
d
dx

3(a)
1)3x 2

[(4x

= (4x 1)

dx

=
=
=
=
=

23x2 +1

6x

1
3x2 +1
1
3x2 +1

dx

= (x + 2)2 (3 +

1
2x+1

d
dx
3

dx

3
2

(x + 1) x + 1

+ x

3
x2 +1

1
2

x + 1

[x 2 + 1

+3x(x + 1)]

(xx + 1

+3xx + 3x)

(4xx + 3x + 1)

2x+1

4xx+3x+1
2x+1

=
=

[(2x + 3)1 4x]

= (2x + 3)
= (2x + 3)

=
=
=
=

d
dx

1
2
14x

14x

1
x14x
1
x14x
16x8x
x14x

d
dx

(2x + 3)

(4) + [2 (

2(2x+3)

14xx

(1 4x) +

214x

x2

+
+

1
2x

) + 0]

1
x

1 4x

1 4x

1 4x

d
dx

(x + 2)]

x2

+(3x 2 2x) 5 + 6x

25+6x

x
5+6x
x
5+6x
x
5+6x
x
5+6x

+x(3x 2)5 + 6x

[3x 2 (x 1)

+x(3x 2)(5 + 6x)]

[3x(x 1)

+(3x 2)(5 + 6x)]

(3x 2 3x

+(3x 2)(6x + 5)]

(3x 2 3x

+18x 2 + 3x 10)

(21x 2 10)

x(21x2 10)
5+6x

dx

+(3x 2 2x)5 + 6x

5+6x
1

(x 3 x 2 ) 5 + 6x

3x2 (x1)

5+6x

(5 + 6x)

5+6x

y = x3 + x 2

[typo in question]

14x
dy

dx

=x
=x

+1 4x)

=
=

(1 6x 8x)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(x + 2)3

3(x3 x2 )

[2x(2x + 3) +(1 4x)]


(4x 6x

1
x2

) (x + 2)3

[(x 3 x 2 )5 + 6x]

= (x 3 x 2 )

d
dx

= (x 3 x 2 )

2x+1

1
x2

x2

[x 2 (x 1)5 + 6x]

+ xx + 1
2

2x+1

2x+1

3(b)

(x + 1)

dx

(1 + ) (x + 2)3

= (x + 2)2 (3 +

d
dx

+ (0

(24x 2 3x + 4)

[(x 2 + 1) x + 1]

[(x + 2)3 ]

= (x + 2)2 [3 (1 + )

= (2x + 3)

dx

2(f)
dx

+12x 2 + 4)

= (x + 1)

= (1 + )

(12x 2 3x

3
2

= 3 (1 + ) (x + 2)2

= (x + 1)

[(1 + ) (x + 2)3 ]

+4(3x 2 + 1)]

3
2

3x 2 + 1

d
dx

[3x(4x 1)

3x2 +1
d

= (1 + ) 3(x + 2)2 1

24x2 3x+4

2(e)

(4x 1) 3x 2 + 1

+43x 2 + 1

3x2 +1
3x2 +1

d
dx

+4

3x(4x1)
1

[ (x + 1)(x + 2)3 ]

dx x

3x 2 + 1
1

= (4x 1)

+ 1]

sleightofmath.com

d
dx

(3 + x 2 ) +
1

23+x2

2x

x2
3+x2
1
3+x2
1
3+x2
3+2x2
3+x2

d
dx

(x) 3 + x 2

+1 3 + x 2
+3 + x 2

[x 2

+(3 + x 2 )]

(2x 2 + 3)

397

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

Ex 14.3
7

y = xx 1
dy

=x

dx

=x
=
=
=
=
=

(x 1) +

dx

1
2x1

2x1
1
2x1
1
2x1

dy

(x) x 1

+1

[(x 4)4 ]

= x 4(x 4)3 1

= 4x(x 4)3

= x

dx

x 1

+x 1

2x1
1

d
dx

y = x(x 4)4

[x

+2(x 1)]

(x

+2x 2)

(3x 2)

3x2
2x1

dx

1
2x
(x4)3
2x
(x4)3
2x

d
dx

(x) (x 4)4

1
2x

(x 4)4

(x4)4
2x

[8x(x 4)3

+(x 4)4 ]

[8x

+(x 4)]

(9x 4)

(x4)3 (9x4)
2x

Gradient at (5,10):
dy

dx x=5

3(5)2
251

13
2(2)

13
4

dy

At

dx

1
2x

= 0:

(x 4)3 (9x 4) = 0
4

x = 4 or x =

y = (x + 1)3 (x 1)

dy
dx
3

= (x + 1)

d
dx

(x 1)

d
dx

[(x + 1)

3]

8
(x 1)

y=

x2 1
x2 +1
(x2 +1)2

= (x + 1)3 1

+3(x + 1)2 1 (x 1)

= (x + 1)3

+3(x + 1)2 (x 1)

=1

= (x + 1)2 [(x + 1)

+3(x 1)]

= 1 2(x 2 + 1)1

= (x + 1)2 (x + 1

+3x 3)
dy

= (x + 1)2 (4x 2)

dx

= (x2
at

dy
dx
4x

(x 2 + 1)

2x
2x

+1)2

=0
=0
(0)2 1

y|x=0 = (0)2

sleightofmath.com

d
dx

= 0:

(x2 +1)2

=8

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+1)2
4x

Gradient at x = 1,1:
dy
|
=0
|

= 2[(x 2 + 1)2 ]
= (x2

Curve cross x axis:


y
=0
2 (x
2(x + 1)
1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 1

dx x=1

2
x2 +1

= 2(x 2 + 1)2

= 2(x + 1)2 (2x 1)

dx x=1
dy

x2 +1

+1

= 1

398

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9

Ex 14.3
11

y = x4 x 2
dy

=x

dx

dx

(4 x 2 )
1

=x
=
=
=
=
=

24x
x2

4x2
1

(2x)
2

d
dx

y = (x a)x b

(x) 4 x 2

dy

4 x 2

+1
+4

= (x a)

dx

= (x a)

x2

[x 2 +(4 x 2 )]

4x2
1

(4 2x 2 )

4x2
1
4x2
2(2x2 )

2(2 x 2 )

x4 x 2

=x

x(4 x 2 1)

=0

or 4 x 2 = 1
4 x2 = 1
3 x2 = 0
x2
=3
x = 3 or

x=0

dx x=3
dy

2(2)

dx x=3

10

dx

d
dx

(x a) x b

+1

x b

+x b

2xb
xa +(2x2b)
2xb
3xa2b
2xb

Curve intersects x-axis (y = 0) with x = b + 1:


0 = (b + 1 a)b + 1 b
0 = (b a + 1)1
0=ba+1
a=b+1
Gradient at A:
dy

dx x=b+1

=
=

x = 3

4
2(23)

=2

43
43

2(b+1)b
(3b+3)a2b
21
b+3a
2
b+3(b+1)
2

a=b+1

2
2
= 1 [shown]

= = 2

2(23)

3(b+1)a2b

2
1

= 2

Curve & its gradient


y = 3x 2 7x + 2
dy

(1)

2xb
xa +2(xb)

=
dx x=0
dy

1
2xb

xa

Gradient at x = 0, 3, 3:
|

(x b) +

4x2

Curve cross y = x:
y
=x

dy

d
dx

= 6x 7

mtan = 6x 7
Line & its gradient
5x y = 0
y
= 5x
mline = 5
Tangent Line:
mtan = mline
6x 7 = 5
x
=2
y|x=2 = 3(2)2 7(2) + 2
=0
(2,0)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

12
d
dx

[f(x)g(x)h(x)]
d
dx

f(x)[g(x)h(x)]

= f(x)

d
dx

[g(x)h(x)]

d
dx

f(x)[g(x)h(x)]

= f(x) [g(x)h (x) + g (x)h(x)]

+f (x)

= f(x)g(x)h (x) +f(x)g (x)h(x)

+f (x)g(x)h(x)

13(i)

[g(x)h(x)]

f(a) = 0
By factor theorem, (x a) is a factor

13(ii) The gradient of f(x) at x = a is 0

sleightofmath.com

399

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.4
1(d)

Ex 14.4
1(a)

5x

d
3x 2
(
)
dx 1 4x

dx 2x+1

6x 24x 2
+ 12x 2
(1 4x)2

5
=
(2x + 1)2

6x 12x 2
(1 4x)2

1x

dx 12x

(1 4x) 6x
3x 2 (4)
=
(1 4x)2

1(e)

1
(1 2x)2

=
(

x2

d 2
d
(x ) x 2 (x + 3)
dx
dx
=
(x + 3)2
(x + 3) 2x
x2 1
=
(x + 3)2
2x 2 + 6x
x2
=
(x + 3)2
=

x(x + 6)
(x + 3)2

2x1

2(x 2 x 1)
(2x 1)2

dx x+3

(x + 3)

x2 +1

(2x 1)

d 2
d
(x + 1)
(x 2 + 1) (2x 1)
dx
dx
=
(2x 1)2
(2x 1) 2x
(x 2 + 1) 2
=
(2x 1)2
2
4x 2x
2x 2 2
=
(2x 1)2
2x 2 2x 2
=
(2x 1)2

d
d
(1 x) (1 x) (1 2x)
dx
dx
=
(1 2x)2
(1 2x) (1)
(1 x) (2)
=
(1 2x)2
2x 1
+ 2 2x
=
2
(1 2x)
=

d
dx

(1 2x)

1(c)

d
d
(3x 2 ) 3x 2 (1 4x)
dx
dx
(1 4x)2

d
d
(5x) 5x (2x + 1)
dx
dx
=
(2x + 1)2
(2x + 1) 5
5x 2
=
(2x + 1)2
10x + 5
10x
=
(2x + 1)2
(2x + 1)

1(b)

(1 4x)

1(f)

d 2x 3
(
)
dx 1 x
=

(1 x)

d
d
(2x 3 ) 2x 3 (1 x)
dx
dx
(1 x)2

(1 x) 6x 2
2x 3 (1)
(1 x)2

6x 2 6x 3
(1 x)2

6x 2 4x 3
(1 x)2

+ 2x 3

2x 2 (3 2x)
=
(1 x)2

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400

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(a)

Ex 14.4

1
2x
(1 + x)2

1
(1 + x
2x
=
(1 + x)2

(1 x)
1 x 1

1x
+

1 x

1
21 x
1
21 x

1
(1)
21 x

x
21 x

1x
[2(1 x) + x]

+ x)

2x + 1

x+1

dx 14x

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

2x]

2x)

d
1 4x dx (x + 1)

(x + 1)
2

d
4x
dx 1

(1 4x)
1 4x (1)

(x + 1)

=
1 4x
=

1 4x

1
[(1 4x)
4x
= 1
1 4x
1
(1 4x

4x
1
=
1 4x
1
(3 2x)
4x
1
=
1 4x
3 2x
=
(1 4x)1 4x

sleightofmath.com

1
(4)
21 4x

1 4x
2(x + 1)
+
1 4x

1x

1
(2 x)
21 x
=
1x
2x
=
21 x(1 x)

2x
2x
+1

2(d)

1x
(2 2x

1
(2)
22x + 1

2x

1
[2(2x + 1)
2x
+1

=
2x + 1
1
(4x + 2
2x + 1

=
2x + 1
1
(2x + 2)
2x + 1

=
2x + 1
2x + 2
=
(2x + 1)2x + 1

d
(1 x)
dx

d
2x + 1
dx

2x + 1

2x(1 + x)2

2x

22x + 1

2x)

d
x
(
)
dx 1 x
d
1 x dx (x)
=

d
2x + 1 dx 2x

1x

2x + 1 2

x 1

2(b)

2x

(2x + 1)

1
(1 x)
2x
=
(1 + x)2
=

dx 2x+1

d
d
(1 + x) (x)
x (1 + x)
dx
dx
=
(1 + x)2
(1 + x)

2(c)

d
x
(
)
dx 1 + x

+ 2(x + 1)]

+ 2x + 2)

401

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.4

2(e)
d
3x 2
(
)
dx 2x 2 3
2x 2 3

y=
dy

d
(3x 2 )
dx

(3x 2 )
2

d
2x 2 3
dx

dx

(2x 2 3)

=
6x2x 2 3
=

1
3x 2 [
(4x)]
22x 2 3
2x 2 3

2x 2 3 (6x)

6x 3
2x 2 3

dy

6x

6x 3 ]

dy

x2]

(3x2 )

d
(14x2 )
dx

(14x2 )2
(14x2 )(6x)

3x2 (8x)

(14x2 )2
6x24x3
+24x3
2
2
(14x )
6x
(14x2 )2

= (14)2 =

2
3

1x

=
=

(1x)

d
(x2)
dx

(x2)

d
(1x)
dx

(1x)2
(x2)(1)
(1x)2
+x2
(1x)2

(1x)1
1x
1

= (1x)2

(x 2 3)
Curve cross x axis:
y =0

x2
1x

2(f)
d
5x
(
)
dx 1 x 2
1 x 2

=0
=2

Gradient at x = 2:

d
5x
dx

(5x)
(1 x 2 )

dy

d
1 x 2
dx

dx x=2

= (12)2
= 1

1
5x [
(2x)]
21 x 2
1 x2

1 x 2 (5)
=
51 x 2
=

d
(3x2 )
dx

x2

dx

2x 2 3(2x 2 3)

y=

(14x2 )

dx x=1

2x 2 3

1
[6x(2x 2 3)
23
2x
=
2x 2 3
6x
[(2x 2 3)
23
2x
=
2x 2 3
6x
(x 2 3)
23
2x
=
2x 2 3

3x2
14x2

5x 2
1 x 2

1 x2

1
[5(1 x 2 )
2
1

x
=
1 x2
5
[(1 x 2 )
2
1

x
=
1 x2
5
(1)
2
1

x
=
1 x2
5
=
(1 x 2 )1 x 2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

+ 5x 2 ]

+ x2 ]

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402

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

y=

Ex 14.4

x+2

3x+1

dy
dx

y=(

5x+3 4
10x6

dy
dx

d
3x + 1 dx (x + 2)
=
3x + 1 1
=
3x + 1
=

d
(x + 2)
3x + 1
dx
3x + 1
1
(x + 2)
(3)
23x + 1
3x + 1
3(x + 2)

23x + 1
3x + 1

1
[2(3x + 1)
23x + 1
=
3x + 1
1
(6x + 2
23x + 1
=
3x + 1
1
(3x 4)
2 3x + 1
=
3x + 1
3x 4
=
23x + 1(3x + 1)

= 4(
= 4(
= 4(
= 4(
= 4(

3(x + 2)]
=
3x 6)

5x+3 3

10x6

dx 10x6

5x+3 3

(10x6)

)
)

5x+3

10x6

5x+3 3

d
d
(5x+3) (5x+3) (10x6)
dx
dx
(10x6)2

(10x6)5

10x6

5x+3 3

(5x+3)10
(10x6)2

50x30

50x30
(10x6)2

10x6

5x+3 3

60

) (10x6)2

10x6

240(5x+3)3
(10x6)5

Curve at y = 16:
y
= 16
(

5x+3 4

) = 16

10x6
5x+3

10x6

=2

5x+3

or

10x6

= 2

5x + 3 = 20x 12
15x
= 15

5x + 3 = 20x + 12
25x
=9

=1

9
25

Gradient at x = 1:
dy

dx x=1

34
24(4)

1
2(2)4

1
16

Gradient at x = 1,
dy

dx x=1
dy

dx x= 9

25

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=
=

25
240(5(1)+3)3
(10(1)6)5
9
25

240(5( )+3)
9
25

(10( )6)

= 120
3

1000
3

403

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7

y=

Ex 14.4
8

1x

x2 +3

y=
dy

dy
dx

1x

2 2
x +3

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

At

dy

1
1x
x2 +3

x2 +3
21x
x2 +3
21x
x2 +3
21x
x2 +3
21x
1
21x

1x

dx x2 +3
(x2 +3)

d
(1x)
dx

(1x)

d 2
(x +3)
dx

(x2 +3)2

dx

(x2 +3)(1)

(1x)2x

(x2 +3)2

x2 3

xa
bx
1
xa
2
bx

xa

xa

dx bx

(bx)

d
(xa)
dx

(xa)

d
(bx)
dx

(bx)2

bx

bx
2xa

bx
2xa

(bx)(1)

(xa)(1)
(bx)2

2x+2x2
(x2 +3)2

x2 2x3

bx

+xa
(bx)2

(x2 +3)2

(x1)(x3)
(x2 +3)2

(x1)(x3)

ba
bx

2xa (bx)2
ba
3

2xa(bx)2

3
(x2 +3)2

(x3)(x+1)
3

21x(x2 +3)2

Gradient at x =
dy

= 0:

dx x=a+b

dx
(x3)(x+1)
3

21x(x2 +3)2

2(

=0
2

=
=

3
a+b
a+b 2
)a(b(
))
2
2

3
a+b 2a 2b a+b 2
(
)
2
2 2
2

ba
3
ba ba 2
2
(
)
2
2

ba
2(

ba

x = 1 or x = 3

ba

a+b

ba 2
)
2

ba
(ba)2
2
22

ba
(ba)2
2

= (b a) (ba)2
=

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2
ba

[shown]

404

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(i)

Ex 14.4

1
3

x+h

y=
dy
dx

xk

1 x+h

= (

3 xk

=
=

x+h 3
( )
xk
2

2
x+h 3
3(
)
xk

1
1 2
x+h 3
3[(
) ]
xk

1
1 2
x+h 3
3[(
) ]
xk

(1)
(

x+h

dx xk
(xk)

d
(x+h)
dx

(x+h)

d
(xk)
dx

dy

(xk)2
(xk)1

dx

mtan =

(x+h)1

xk

9(ii)

dy
dx

2x

Tangent & its gradient

xh

y=

(xk)2

25
4

mtan = 0
(xk)2

(2)

Using intersection,
kx x =

25

(1)

Using gradients,
1
3y2

(k+h)
(xk)2

k
2x
k

1= 0
=1

2x

3y 2 (x k)2

1)

2x
k

(xk)2

dx

k
x

= kx x

sub (1) into (2):


dy

y = x(

kh

1 2
x+h 3
3[(
) ]
xk

10(i) Curve & its gradient

= (k + h) [shown]

= 2x

(2)

Tangent to y axis:

sub (2) into (1):

dy

(2x)x x =

2(x) x

dx
1
1 2
x+h 3
3[(
) ]
xk

kh
(xk)2

x = h or x = k (rej k > x > h)


y|x=h = 0
(h, 0)

k|x=25 = 2
4

25
4

25
4
25
4
25
4
5

= 2( ) = 5
2

10(ii) Curve gradient with = k = 5:


dy
dx

5
2x

As x ,

dy
dx

5
2x

gradient of l is 1
l passes through O and gradient is 1
y = x

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405

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

Ex 14.4

1 + x + x 2 + + x n1 + x n

xn+1 1
x1

Diff wrt x,
0 + 1 + 2x + + (n 1)x n2 + nx n1
1 + 2x + 3x 2 + + (n 1)x n2 + nx n1

=
=
=

(x1)

d
(xn+1 1)
dx

(xn+1 1)

d
(x1)
dx

(x1)2
(x1)[(n+1)xn ]

(xn+1 1)(1)

(x1)2
(x1)(n+1)xn

xn+1 +1

(x1)2

11(ii) x = 3, n = 10:
1 + 2(3) + 3(3)2 + + (10 1)(3)102 + 10(3)101 =
1 + 2(3) + 3(3)2 + + 9(3)8 + 10(3)9

(31)(10+1)310

310+1 +1

(31)2
2(11)310

311 +1
4

= 280483
12

y=

u2
v3

=
=
=

v3

d
(u2 )
dx

u2

d
(v3 )
dx

(v3 )2
v3 (2uu )
2uu v3

u2 (3v2 v )
v6
3u2 v2 v

v6

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406

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 14
A3

Rev Ex 14
A1(a)

d
dx

(1 3x 2 )

= (1 3x 2 )
2

A1(b)

d
dx

1
213x2
3x

dx

[(1 3x 2 )2 ]

dx
1

13x2

d
dx

=x

dx

[(1 + 2x)

4]

d
dx

(x) (1 + 2x)

+1 (1 + 2x)

= 8x(1 + 2x)3

+(1 + 2x)4

= (1 + 2x)3 (8x +1 + 2x)


= (1 + 2x)3 (10x + 1)
d

1+2x
x

)=
=

= x
2

=
A2

+ 2x)

dx x
1
d
(x 2 )
dx
1 3
2

+2

(x 2 )

dx
1
1
+2 ( x 2 )
2
1

2xx

A4

y = (2x5)2
= 9(2x 5)2

dy

y = (2x + 3)5x 9

= 9[2(2x 5)3 ]

dx

= 9[2(2x 5)

dy

dx

= (2x + 3)
= (2x + 3)
=
=
=
=
=

d
dx

(5x 9) +
1

25x9

5(2x+3)
1
1
25x9
1
25x9

3 ]

d
dx

(2x 5)

36
(2x5)3

(2x + 3) 5x 9

+2

Gradient at x = 1:
5x 9

dy

dx x=1

36

= (2(1)5)3 =

36
343

+25x 9

25x9
25x9

d
dx

+ (x + 1)]

n=0

1
(2)
21 2x

1 2x

1
[(1 2x)
2x
1
=
1 2x
1
(2 x)
2x
1
=
1 2x
2x
=
(1 2x)3

d
2x
dx 1

1 2x
x+1
+
1 2x

1 2x

= x 4(1 + 2x) 2

dx

(x + 1)

1 2x 1

(x + 1)

1 2x

(6x)

A1(c)

d
1 2x dx (x + 1)

(1 3x 2 )

[x(1 + 2x)4 ]
d

x+1
12x

dy
1

y=

[5(2x + 3)

+4(5x 9)]

(10x + 15

+20x 36)

(30x 21)

30x21
25x9

k = 30

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407

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5

y=

Rev Ex 14

x2 1

B1(b)

x2 +1

dx

dy
dx
=

(x 2 + 1)

d 2
d
(x + 1) (x 2 1) (x 2 1)
dx
dx
(x 2 + 1)2

(x 2 + 1) 2x

=
=

2x 3 + 2x

(x 2 + 1)2

(x 2

4x
+ 1)2

B2

4x

y|x=0 = (0)2

dx 9(87)2

5
33
5

(4x 1)

8
5

[4

8
5

(4x 1)

66
5x

(4x 1)

d
dx

[4 (

8
5

(x) (1)]
dx
1

2x

)0]

2
x

1
2

Curve

+1

y = 4x +

= 1

dx

2
3

8
( 7)
x

( 7)

4x +

dx x

d
dx

(x 1 )

d
dx

(7)]

16
3

9x2 ( 7)

x2

2
1

= x+ c

x
8

= c

= 14x +

32
x

(1)

Equate gradients:
1

8
x

x+

( 2 )

=4

2
8

9( 7)

8
x

[8

[8(x 2 ) 0]

3
8
9( 7)
x

8
x2
8

Tangent intersects curve:

7
1

= 4 +8(x 2 )

mtan = 4

= [2 ( 7) ]
= [

=4

2
1 d 8
[( 7) ]
9 dx x
1

= 4x +8x 1

33

dy

(4x 1)

= x+ c

(0, 1)

33

mtan =

=0
(0)2 1

=0

(x2 +1)2

Tangent
4y = 2x + c
y

=0

dx

(x 2 + 1)2

dy

3
d

[(4x 1) 5 ]
dx

= 11 [ (4x 1) 5 ] (4x 1)
5
dx

(x 2 1) 2x

2x 3 + 2x

[11(4x 1) 5 ]

= 11

tangent x axis:

B1(a)

x2
x2

8
x2

7
2
2
7
16

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


c| 16 = 167
x=

c|

x=

16
7

= 167

Note: Consider the discriminant approach


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408

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B3

Rev Ex 14

Curve
y = x 3 3x 2 9x + k
dy
dx

B5(i)

y=
dy

= 3x 6x 9

ax2
xb
(xb)

dx

mtan = 3x 2 6x 9

Using intersection:
x 3 3x 2 9x + k = 0
k
= x 3 + 3x 2 + 9x

ax2

d
(xb)
dx

(xb)2
ax2 1

(xb)2ax

Tangent
x axis y = 0
mtan = 0

d
(ax2 )
dx

(xb)2

2ax2 2abx
(xb)2

ax2 2abx
(xb)2

ax(x2b)
(xb)2

ax2

Curve at ( , 6):
3

Using gradients:
3x 2 6x 9 = 0
x 2 2x 3
=0
(x 3)(x + 1) = 0
x=3
or x = 1
k|x=3 = 27
k|x=1 = 5

2 6b =
a

1 2
3

a( )

1
b
3

a
9

= 18 54b
1

tangent at ( , 6) is horizontal:
3

B4

dy

y = xa 3x 2
dy

=x

dx

=x
=
=
=
=

d
dx

(a 3x 2 )
1

2a3x
3x2

a3x2
1
a3x2
1
a3x2
a6x2

d
dx

+a 3x 2

[3x

+(a 3x

2 )]

a|b=1 = 18 54 ( ) = 9

(a 6x 2 )

B5(ii) Curve & its gradient with a = 9, b = 1:


6

a3x2

y=
dy
dx

9x2
x

1
6

1
3
1 2
(x )
6

9x(x )

For horizontal tangent:

Tangent at (1, b) to y = 2x + 1:
mtan
= mline

a3

b = a 3

or b =

(rej a 0)

(b) = (1)a 3(1)2

dx x=1
a6

=0

a=0

Curve at (1, b):

dy

=0

3
1 1
a( )( 2b)
3 3
2
1
( b)
3

a 3x 2

(6x) +1
2

dx x=1

(x) a 3x 2

dy
dx
1
9x(x )
3
1 2
(x )
6

=2
=2

=0
=0

x = 0 or x =

a6
= 2a 3
2
a 12a + 36 = 4(a 3)
a2 12a + 36 = 4a 12
a2 16a + 48 = 0
(a 12)(a 4) = 0
a = 12 or a = 4 (rej)

1
3

(taken)

y|x=0 = 0
(0,0)

b|a=12 = 112 3 = 3

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409

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.1
2(a)

Ex 15.1
1(a)

y = x 3 5x + 8
dy
dx

y = x 3 + 3x 2
dy
dx

= 3x 2 + 6x

Tangent
Point:

= 3x 2 5

Normal
Point:

y|x=1 = 13 5(1) + 8
=4

(1,2)
dy

Gradient:

(1,4)
2

= 3(1) + 6(1)

dx x=1

Gradient:

dy
|
dx x=1

= 3
Tangent: y y1 =

dy

dx x=1

Normal:

(x x1 )

y y1

y=x +

Gradient:

=2

= 1
dy

dx x=1

= 10
8

= 10

2x 2 + 8
= 10x
x2 + 4
= 5x
2
x 5x + 4 = 0
(x 4)(x 1) = 0
x = 4 or x = 1 (rej x > 1)
(4,10)

= 1 (1)2

Tangent: y y1 =

x2

(1,3)
|

x
8

Normal
Point:

x2

dx x=1

[x (1)]

y = 2x +
dy

dy

= x+

2x +
Tangent
Point:

(x x1 )

= 1 +2(x 2 )
=1

dx
dx

y4 = x

= x +2x
dy

= dy

y (4) =

2(b)

x
1

1
3(1)2 5

dx x=1

y (2)= (3)[x (1)]


y 2 = 3 (x x1 )
y 2 = 3x 3
y
= 3x 1
1(b)

(x x1 )

y (3)= (1)[x (1)]


y 3 = (x 1)
y 3 = x + 1
y
= x + 4

Gradient:

Normal:

1
dy
|
dx x=4

y y1

1
2

8
(4)2

= dy

2
3

(x x1 )

dx x=4

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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y 10

y 10

= x+

= x+

3
2

(x 4)
8

3
2

3
38

410

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(a)

y=
dy
dx

Ex 15.1

x2 +5

3(b)

x+1

=
=
=
=

(x+1)

d
(x2 +5)
dx

(x2 +5)

y = 1 2x
dy

d
(x+1)
dx

dx

(x+1)2

(x2 +5)1

(x+1)2x
(x+1)2
2x2 +2x

212x
1

x2 5

212x dx
1

(1 2x)

(2)

212x

(x+1)2

Tangent & Normal


Point:
y
=3
1 2x = 3
1 2x = 9
2x
=8
x
= 4
(4,3)

x2 +2x5
(x+1)2

Tangent & Normal


Point:

y|x=3 =

32 +5

3+1

7
2

(3, )
2

Gradient:

dy

dx x=3

Tangent: y y1

32 +2(3)5
(4)2

dy

dx x=3
5

Gradient:

(x x1 )

8
5

8
13

= x

y
Normal:

15

= x+

y y1

= dy

dy

1
12(4)

3
1

3
5

y y1

= dy

( )

y
y
y

7
2
7
2

5
8

8
5
8

[x (3)]

y (3) =

(x 3)

y3
y3
y

= x+

24

5
8

5
83

10

= x+

(x x1 )

dx x=4

dx x=3

y( ) =

= x+

y
Normal:

[x (4)]

y3 = x

(x x1 )

dx x=4
1
3

(x x1 )

y 3 = ( )

dx x=4

Tangent: y y1 =

y ( ) = ( ) [x (3)]
7

dy

1
3

[x (4)]

(x + 4)
=3
= 3x + 12
= 3x + 15

4(i)

dy
dx

2x
4xx2 +1

Tangent
Point:
Gradient:

P(1,2)
dy

dx x=1

Tangent: y y1

2(1)
41+1

dy

dx x=1
1

1
2

(x x1 )

y (2) = ( ) [x (1)]
2

4(ii)

Normal:

2
1

2
3

y2

= x

= x+

y y1

= dy

1
|

(x x1 )

dx x=1

y (2) =
y2
y
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

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1
1
2

[x (1)]

= 2x + 2
= 2x + 4
411

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

y=
dy
dx

Ex 15.1

3x+1

1x

=
=
=

(1x)

d
(3x+1)
dx

(1x)3
33x

(3x+1)

dy

d
(1x)
dx

dx

(1x)2
(3x+1)(1)
(1x)2
+3x+1
(1x)2

= 6x 2

Line & its gradient


4y + x = 2
4y
= x + 2

= (1x)2
Normal
Point:

Curve & its gradient


y = 3x 2 2x + 5

mline =
At x-axis,
y
=0
3x+1
1x

1
3

( , 0)

Normal:

y y1

4
4 2
( )
3

= dy

1
4(9)
16

1
|

dx x=1
3

y (0) =
y

mtan ( )

= 1

mtan

=4

dy
|
dx x=1
3

Gradient:

Tangent
Gradient: Tangent line
m1 m2
= 1
mtan mline
= 1

=0
=

= x+

4
9
4
9
4

Point:

(x x1 )
1

[x ( )]
3

6x 2
=4
6x
=6
x
=1
2
y|x=1 = 3(1) 2(1) + 5
=6
(1,6)

(x + )

= x
9

4
27

Tangent: y y1
y (6)
y6
y

= mtan (x x1 )
= (4)[x (1)]
= 4x 4
= 4x + 2

1st curve & its gradient


y = x 3 + 2x 2 4x + 5
dy
dx

= 3x 2 + 4x 4

2nd curve & its gradient


2

y = x 3 + 3x 2 x 1
3

dy
dx

= 2x 2 + 6x 1

tangents are :
m1
= m2
2
3x + 4x 4 = 2x 2 + 6x 1
x 2 2x 3 = 0
(x 3)(x + 1) = 0
x = 3 or x = 1

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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412

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(i)

Ex 15.1

y = ax 5
dy

= 5ax

dx

9(b)
4

Curve at (1, b):


b = a(1)5
=a
dy
dx
dy

3
2

5a

b|a= 3 =
10

dy

2
3

dx

10
3
10

Tangent
Point:
Gradient:

x + = x 2 2x + 3

=0
=

dy

= 2x 2 3x + 6

Origin (0,0)

Tangent: y y1

Using gradients,
|

dx x=0

(x x1 )

y (0) = (0)[x (0)]


y
=0
9(a)

= x2 x + 3

2x2

Using intersection,

dx x=0

mnorm =

dy

= 2x 2

8(ii)

2
1

Curve
y = x 2 2x + 3

2
3

= x+

mnorm =

at (1, b):

dx x=1

Normal
2y + x = l
2y
= x + l

1
2

2x 2
2x
x

1
2x2

=2
=4
=2

Note: Consider the discriminant approach


Tangent
y = 3x + k
mtan = 3

l|x=2 = 2(2)2 3(2) + 6


=8
10(i)
y = px 3

Curve
y = 2x 2 5x + 3
dy
dx

y
B(0,8)
2

= 4x 5

mtan = 4x 5

y = px 3
dy

Using intersection,
3x + k = 2x 2 5x + 3
k
= 2x 2 8x + 3

dx

= 3px 2

Gradient at A
mtan =

Using gradients,
4x 5 = 3
4x
=8
x
=2

dy

dx x=2

= 3p(2)2 = 12p

10(ii) Point A
At A, y = px 3 has coordinate of x = 2
y|x=2 = p(2)3 = 8p
A(2,8p)

k|x=2 = 2(2)2 8(2) + 3


= 5

Gradient of AB
A(2,8p) B(0,8)
mAB =

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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8p8
20

= 4p 4

413

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.1

10(iii) Equate gradients:


mtan = mAB
12p = 4p 4
8p
= 4
1

p
11(i)

12(ii) Tangent at P(2, 3):


(3)
= (1 + 2a)(2) a2
3
= 2 + 4a
a2
a2 4a 5
=0
(a 5)(a + 1) = 0
a = 5 or a = 1

y = 2x 2 kx + 3
dy
dx

Tangent at a = 5:
y = (1 + 2(5))x (5)2

= 4x k

mtan =

dy

dx x=1

=4k

Tangent at a = 1:
y = (1 + 2(1))x (1)2

11(ii) Point A
y|x=1 = 2(1)2 k(1) + 3
=5k
A(1,5 k)

13(i)

Gradient of AB
A(1,5 k) B(5,1)
(5k)(1)
(1)(5)

y=

dy
dx

4k

dx

4k

Gradient:

8
x3

y|x=a =
(a,

a2

4
a2

Gradient: mtan =

+1

+ 1)
dy

dx x=a

a3

Tangent: y y1

= mtan (x x1 )

+ 1) = ( 3 ) [x (a)]

y(

a2

a2 y 4 a2 =

= 1 + 2x

Tangent
Point:

+1

= 4(2x 3 ) +0

Point:

Curve & its gradient


y = x + x2
dy

Tangent

4k 16 = 4 k
5k = 20
k =4
12(i)

+1

x2

Equate gradients:
mtan
= mAB
4k

= x

= 4x

mAB =

25

= 11x

Gradient at A

8
a
8

(x a)

a2 y 4 a2 = x + 8
2

y|x=a = a + a
(a, a + a2 )
dy

dx x=a

a
8

a y

= x + a2 + 12

a
8

a3

x+1+

12
a2

= 1 + 2a

Tangent: y y1

dy

dx x=a

(x x1 )

y (a + a2 ) = (1 + 2a)[x (a)]
y (a + a2 ) = (1 + 2a)x a 2a2
y
= (1 + 2a)x a2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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414

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.1

13(ii) Gradient of PQ
P(b, 0),Q(0, b)
mPQ =

0b
b0

14(ii) Normal
Point:
A(1,6) or C
Gradient: AC BD

= 1

mAC =

Equate gradients:
mtan = mPQ

a3
8

Normal:

a3
a

5
1

0b

y 6 = (x + 1)

b0

5
1

5
29

= x+

Point C
29

meets axis (y = 0).


y
=0
1

29

x+
1

Tangent at (b, 0):


(0) = (b) + 4
b =4
B(2.2,0) D(0,11) F(1,0)

At C, normal (y = x +

12

= (2)3 x + 1 + (2)2
= x + 1 + 3
= x + 4

14(i)

5
1

y6 = x

=8
=2

y y1 = mAC (x x1 )
1

Tangent with a = 2:
y

y 6 = [x (1)]

= 1

a3

1
mBD

=0
=

29
5

x
= 29
C (29,0)
14(iii) Area ABC = 1 (BC)(AF)
2
1

y = x + 7x + 12

= [29 (2.2)][6]

dy

= 3(31.2) = 93.6

dx

= 2x + 7

mtan = 2x + 7
(11)(0)

mBD = (0)(2.2) = 5
Equate gradients:
mtan = mBD
2x + 7 = 5
2x
= 2
x
= 1
y|x=1 = (1)2 + 7(1) + 12 = 6
A(1,6)

Daniel & Samuel


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415

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 15.1

& its gradient


(y 2)2 = x
y2
= x
y = 2 + x or 2 x
dy
dx

2x

or

Line & its gradient


x 2y = 4
2y
=x4

= x2
2

Point:

2x

x
=1
y|x=1 = 2 + 1
=3
(1,3)

y3

16

dy

(x 1)

2
1

2
1

2
5

y3

= x

= x+

16

5x3
2
x

1
5x3
2
x

1
5x3
2
x

at (1,2):

5x3

(1,2) lie in y =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(5x3 )

x(3x2 )

d
(x)
dx

(5x3 )1
x2

3x3

5+x3
x2

x3

5
x2

(2x

5
x2

5(1)3
2 (1)

[2(1) (1)2 ]
(2 5)

24

d
dx

(y 2 ) +
dy
dx

dy
dx

dy

(1,2) does not lie in

d
dx

+1
+y 2

(x) y 2

=0

y2

=0
=0
= 3x 2 y 2

dx

dx

5(1)3

2 = 2 [inconsistent]

y =

d
(5x3 )
dx

dy

3x2 y2
2xy

At (1,2),
dy

5x3

Method 2 (Without subjecting y)

2xy

(2) =

2 = 2 [consistent]

5x3

(x)2

3x 2 +x 2y

at (1,2):

5(1)3
(1)

3x 2 +x

or y =

(2) =

3x 2 +2xy

5x3

d
dx

x 3 +xy 2
=5
Differentiating with respect to x:

y=

5x
2

5x3

Method 1 (Subjecting y)
xy 2 = 5 x 3
2

5x
2

dx x=1

= mtan (x x1 )

Tangent: y y1

Tangent
Gradient: tangent line,
mtan = mline
mtan

1
5x3
2
x

mline =

2x

dx

dy

dx

3(1)2 (2)2
2(1)(2)
7

=
4

5x3
x

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416

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(i)

Ex 15.1

Curve & its gradient


y = x3 + 5
dy
dx

= 3x 2

Tangent
Point:
Gradient:

y|x=1 = 6
(1,6)
dy

dx x=1

Tangent: y y1

=3
=

dy

dx x=1

(x x1 )

y (6) = (3)[x (1)]


y6
= 3x 3
y
= 3x + 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

17(ii) Point
At point where curve meets tangent,
x3 + 5
= 3x + 3
3
x 3x + 2
=0
(x 1)(
)
(x 1)(x 2
)
2
(x 1)(x
2)
2
(x 1)(x + x 2) = 0
(x 1)(x + 2)(x 1) = 0
x=1
or x = 2
(taken)
y|x=2 = 3(2) + 3
= 3
(2, 3)

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417

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4

Ex 15.2
1(a)

Ex 15.2

y = 4x 1

y=
dy

dx
dy
dx

2x
x+1

=4

>0
y is increasing

=
=

1(b)

y = x 2 + 2x
dy
dx

1(c)

y=
dy

dx

= 2 1

(x+1)2
2x(1)
(x+1)2
2x+2
2x
(x+1)2
2
(x+1)2
2
(x
(x+1)(2)

= x
2

> 0 for x > 0


y is increasing
2(a)

(x2 +1)

x2 +1

2x2
(x2 +1)2

1x2
+1)2

For decreasing function:

+ +
1 1

f (x) = 3x 2
< 0 for > 0
f(x) is decreasing

x < 1 or x > 1 [shown]


6(a)

y = x 2 + 2x 4
dy

(x)

= 6x 5
< 0 for x < 0 x 5 < 0
f(x) is decreasing
f

dx

y = x 3 + 3x
dy
dx

3(ii)

dy
dx

= 2x + 2

For increasing function:


dy
dx

3(i)

<0

1 x2
< 0 (x 2 + 1)2 > 0
x2 1
>0
(x + 1)(x 1) > 0

f(x) = (x 3 + 1)

f(x) = x 6 5x

<0

dx
1x2
(x2 +1)2

(x)

= 1
<0
f(x) is decreasing

2(c)

x2x

(x2 +1)2

dy

2(b)

d
d
(x) x (x2 +1)
dx
dx
(x2 +1)2

(x2 +1)1

= (x2

f(x) = 9 x
f

d
(x+1)
dx

x2 +1

=
dx

(2x)

+ 1) > 0
for all x values except x 1
y is increasing for all real values of x [shown]

y = x 3 1

dy

d
(2x)
dx

>0

= 2x + 2

> 0 for x > 0


y is increasing

(x+1)

>0

2x + 2 > 0
x
> 1

= 3x 2 + 3
> 0 for all x values x 2 0

y increases for all real values of x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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418

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

y = 2x 3 3x 2 + 6
dy
dx

Ex 15.2
9(i)

dy

2x3 +2x
(x2 +1)2

4x
+1)2

For increasing function:


f (x) > 0

y = 3x 2 + 4x 3
= 6x + 4

4x
(x2 +1)2

>0

4x
x

> 0 (x 2 + 1)2 > 0


>0

9(ii)

For decreasing function:


f (x) < 0
x <0

10

T = 5x 2 + 90x + 65

<0

dx

2x3 +2x

= (x2

x < 1 or x > 1

dy

(x2 1)2x
(x2 +1)2

+ +
1 1

For decreasing function:

d
d
(x2 1) (x2 1) (x2 +1)
dx
dx
(x2 +1)2

(x2 +1)2x

6x 2 6
>0
x2 1
>0
(x + 1)(x 1) > 0

dx

(x2 +1)

f (x) =

>0

dx

dy

x2 +1

= 6x 2 6x

For increasing function:

7(a)

x2 1

f(x) =

6x + 4 < 0
2

<

x
7(b)

dT
dx

y = 2x 9x + 12x 3
dy
dx

= 6x 2 18x + 12

For cooling:
dT

10x + 90 < 0
10x
> 90
x
>9
11(a)

1<x<2
f(x) = (x + 1)4
f (x) = 4(x + 1)3 (1)
= 4(x + 1)3
For increasing function:
f (x)
>0
3
4(x + 1) > 0
x+1
>0
x
> 1
8(ii)

<0

dx

For decreasing function:


6x 2 18x + 12 < 0
x 2 3x + 2
<0
(x 1)(x 2) < 0

8(i)

= 10x + 90

11(b)

= ( + 1)3

11(i)

y = f(x)

(a) y = x 3

For decreasing function:


f (x) < 0
x < 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 3

(b) y
= (x + 1)3

sleightofmath.com

Interval Nature

Sign of

x>0
x<0
x > 1
x < 1

+
+
+
+

Increasing
Increasing
Increasing
Increasing

dy
dx

419

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.2

11(ii) No.

12(ii) For decreasing function:

By Definition, if

dy
dx

0 for all x, then the function is

(non-strictly) increasing.
If function is increasing,
necessarily

dx

for x >

2x1

=
=
=
=

d
2x1dx(3x+4)

could be 0, not

<

7
3

dy

(3+4)]

dx

21
(63
34)

=
=
=

For increasing function:

>0
3

>0

21
(37)

3
(2x1)2

dx
3x7

(2x 1)2 > 0 for x >

(2x1)2

3x 7 > 0

xa

xa

3x+4
2x1

21
3x7

dy

13(i) y = x2 2ax2,

2x1
[3(21)

and x >

<x<

1
(2)
(3x+4)
22x1

32x1

= 21

Combining inequalities:

d
(3x+4) 2x1
dx
2

<0

2x1

x>

<

2x13

1
21

(2x 1)2 > 0 for x >

<0

3x 7
x

(2x1)

= 21

dx

<0

dx
3x7
3
(2x1)2

>0

dx

3x+4

12(i) y =
dy

dy

dy

dy

(xa)

d
(x2 2ax2)
dx

(x2 2ax2)

d
(xa)
dx

(xa)2
(x2 2ax2)1

(xa)(2x2a)

(xa)2
2x2 4ax+2a2
x2 +2ax+2
2
(xa)
(x2 2ax)

+2a2 +2

(xa)2
[(xa)2 a2 ]

+2a2 +2

(xa)2
(xa)2

+a2 +2
(xa)2

a2 +2

= 1 + (xa)2

13(ii) For increasing function:

dy

>0

dx
a2 +2

Combine inequalities:
>

7
3

x>

and x >

1
2

7
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

1 + (xa)2 > 0
2+a2
(xa)2

> 1

all values of a
a2 + 2 > 0 and (x a)2 > 0 for x a

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420

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.3
4(i)

Ex 15.3
1(i)

h(t) =
=

t(10t)

r =3+

5
4

= t t2

4(ii)

dr

= 0 +2 [(1+t)2 ] (1)

dt
5

2
5

4
5

= (1+t)2

h (t) = (2t)
= t

dr

2
3

42
1

h (2) = (2)

= cm s 1

The balloon is deflating.

= km s
2

1(ii)

dt t=3
5

1+(0)

= 5 cm

4
2

r|t=0 = 3 +

4
10tt2
5

2
1+t

5(i)

h (6) = (6)
2

f(t) =

10 000 000

(6t 2 + 5)2

= km s 1

11am: t = 60

2(i)

l =
dl

t3
3

4t + 10

= t2 4

dt

dl

5(ii)

6(i)

s= +
8

ds

ds

v
40
1

= +
8

60
40

=1 h
8

= 2t
6(ii)
|

dt t=2

= 2(2)

7(i)(a)

= 4cm s 1
3(ii)

80

r =t +2

dr

v2

= +

dv

dt

10 000 000

dv v=60
dr

144(60)3 +120(60)

= 3.11
3 people per min

t 4 = 4
t2
=0
t
=0
3(i)

[2(6t 2 + 5)][12t]

10 000 000

f (60) =

= 4

dt
2

(6(60)2 + 5)2

10 000 000
144t3 +120t

For length is decreasing at 4 mm/s:


dl

f (t) =

=5

t 4
=5
2
t 9
=0
(t + 3)(t 3) = 0
t = 3 (rej t 0) or t = 3
2(ii)

10 000 000

46

For length is increasing at 5 mm/s:


dt
2

f(60) =

C(x) =

The initial radius is 2 cm and is increasing at an


increasing rate.
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

19 200
x

Annual gasoline costs if car gets 3km l1


= C(3)

r r = t2 + 2
2

The time taken to stop at v = 60km h1 is 1 h

sleightofmath.com

19 200
3

= $6400

421

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(i)(b) Annual gasoline costs if car gets 8km l1
= C(8)
=

Ex 15.3
7(ii)

19 200

Average rate of change in Bens annual gasoline


costs
=

= $2400

C(8)C(3)
8
24006400
83

= $800 per km/l


7(iii)

C (x) =
C

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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(5)

19200
x2
19200
52

= $768 per km/l

422

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.4
1(c)

Ex 15.4
1(a)

dx
dt

dx
dt

= 2,

dy

dt x=1

=?

= 2,

dy
dx
dy
dt

x
1

dy

x2

dt

dy

dx

= (4x

x2
2

= 8x

dx
dt

) 2

dt x=1

dx
dt

dy

= 2,

dt x=2

dy

dx

dx

dt

At y = 10, x 3 + 2 = 10
x3
=8
x
=2

= 8(1)

2
12
1

= 6 units s
1(b)

= 3x 2 2
= 6x 2

x2
dy

At x = 1,

=?

= 3x 2

dx

= 4x
=

dt y=10

y = x3 + 2
dy

y = 2x 2 +

dy

dy

=?

= 6(2)2

dt x=2

= 24 units s 1
1(d)

dx
dt

= 2,

dy

dt y=2

=?

y = (2x3)3
y=

= 3(2x 3)3

dy
dy
dx

=
dy
dt

dx

= 3[3(2x 3)4 ] 2

=
=
=

18
(2x3)4
dy
18
(2x3)4
36
(2x3)4

At x = 2,

dx

dy

dt x=2

x
x+1
(x+1)(1) x(1)
=
(x+1)2
x+1
x
(x+1)2
1
(x+1)2

dx
dy

dt

dt

dy

dx

dx
dt

= (x+1)2 2
2

= (x+1)2
36

= [2(2)3]4

At y = 2,

= 36 units s 1

x
x
dy

dt x=2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

x
x+1

sleightofmath.com

=2
= 2x + 2
= 2
2

= (2+1)2 = 2 units s 1

423

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(a)

dy
dt

= 4,

dx

dt x=3

Ex 15.4
2(c)

=?

dt

y = x 3 2x 2
dy

= 4,

dy

= 3x 4x
=

dt

dy
dx

dt

dt
dx

dy

dt

dx

dt x=3

dt

= 4,

y=
dy
dx

=
=

4 =
dx
dt

dt x=2

15

2x+7

dx
dt
dx
dt

= 42x + 7

dt

At y = 3, 2x + 7 = 3
2x + 7 = 9
x
=1

=?

1+x

dt

dx

3x2

dy

dx

4
3(3)2 4(3)

dy

4 =

3x2 4x

At x = 3, |
dy

=?

2x+7

dt

dx

2(b)

22x+7
1

dx

4 = (3x 2 4x)
dx

dt y=3

dx

dy

dx

y = 2x + 7

dx

dy

dx

(1+x)

d
(3x2 )
dx

3x2

d
(1+x)
dx

dt x=1

= 42(1) + 7 = 12 unit s 1

(1+x)2

2(d)

3x2 1

(1+x)6x

dt

(1+x)2
6x+6x2

dy

dx

dt y=5

=?

3x2
(1+x)2

y = x(x 4)
= x 2 4x

6x+3x2
(1+x)2
dy
dx
6x+3x2
(1+x)2

dx

dy

dt
dx

dx

dt

dy

4(1+x)2

dt

6x+3x2

dx

At x = 2, |

= 4,

dt x=2

4(1+2)2
6(2)+3(2)2

3
2

unit s 1

dy

dx

= (2x 4)

dx

= 2x 4

dt

dx
dt
dx
dt

4
2x4
2
x2

At y = 5, x 2 4x
=5
2
x 4x 5 = 0
(x 5)(x + 1) = 0
x = 5 or x = 1 (rej)
dx

dt x=5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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2
52

2
3

units s 1

424

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(i)

y=
dy

2x1

=
=
=
3(ii)

4(ii)

x+1

dx

Ex 15.4

dt
dy

(x+1)

d
(2x1)
dx

(2x1)

dx
dy

d
(x+1)
dx

(x+1)2
(x+1)2
(2x1)1
(x+1)2
2x+2
2x+1
(x+1)2
3

(x+1)2

y|x=0 =

1
1

dy

dx x=0

=3

dt

dt
dx
dt

=3
=3

= 1
5(a)
3

dx

dx

(x + 1)2
=4
2
x + 2x + 1
=4
2
x + 2x 3
=0
(x + 3)(x 1) = 0
x = 3 or x = 1

A(0, 1)
Gradient:

=3

dx
12
(x+1)2

Tangent
Point:

dy

((0)+1)

=3

Let A area of circle & r radius


dA
dr
= 2, |
=?
dt
dt r=6
A = r 2 [area of circle]

Tangent: y y1

dy

dx x=0

dA

(x x1 )

dr

y (1) = 3 [x (0)]
y = 3x 1
3(iii)

dx
dt

= 0.03,

dy
dt

dA
dt

dt

=
=

dy

dx
3
(x+1)2
0.09
(x+1)2

dr

y=
dy
dx

dr

dr

dt
dr

dt

1
r

dt

At r = 6,

0.03
5(b)

dr

dt r=6

1
6

cm s 1

Let A area of circle & r radius


dA
dr
= 10, |
=?
dt
dt r=2

0.09

dt x=0

4(i)

dA

dx

At A(0, 1),
dy

2 = 2r

at A(0, 1) = ?

dt
dy

= 2r

= (0+1)2 = 0.09 units s 1

A = r 2 [area of circle]
dA

2x10

dr

x+1

=
=
=

(x+1)

d
(2x10)
dx

(x+1)2
2x+2

(2x10)

dA

d
(x+1)
dx

dt

(x+1)2
(2x10)1
(x+1)2
2x+10
(x+1)2

= 2r
=

dA
dr

10 = 2r
dr
dt

12

dt
dr
dt

5
r

At r = 2,

= (x+1)2

dr

dr

dt r=2

= = 2.5 m s 1
2

> 0 [shown] (x + 1) > 0 for x 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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425

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

Ex 15.4

dV
dx
= 3, = ?
dt
dt

7(b)

Let A be Surface Area,


V be Volume & x be length of side
dA

dt

V = x + 3x [given]
dV
dx
dV
dx

= 2x + 3

dx

3 = (2x + 3)
dx

dt

6(ii)

dx

3
2x+3

dt x=3

dt x=6

A=x
dA
dx
dA
dt

1
3

cm s 1

1
5

dx

cm s 1

dV

3 A 2
( )
2 6

dV

dA

dA

dt

20

A
6
A

At x = 1, 1 =

dV

dt
dx

dt A=6

8(i)

At A = 4, x 2 = 4 x = 2

dt x=2

(2)

= 0.2

dx

dt

dV

[area of square]

dA

A 2
( )
6

= 2x
=

x=

A
6

2(6)+3

= 2x

= x2

V = ( ) =

dx

dx

sub (2) into (1):

dt

2(3)+3

10
dt

(1)

dt
dx

Let A be area & x be side


dA
dx
= 10, |
=?
dt
dt A=4
2

=?

A = 6x 2

dt

7(a)

dt x=1

dx

dA
dx

dV

V = x3

dV

= 0.2,

1
20

1=

A
6

A=6

= 0.05 cm3 s 1
6

Let y Length & x Breadth


dx
dy
= 4,
=?
dt
dt
y = 2x [given]
dy
=2
dx

= = 2.5 cm s 1
2

dy
dt

dy
dx

dx
dt

= (2) (4)
= 8 cm/s

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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426

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 15.4

Let A Area of rectangle


dx
dt

= 4,

dA

10(ii)

dt

=?

dt x=8

dx

= 2,

da

dt x=4

=?

a = x(x + 1)
A = xy
(1)
y = 2x
(2)
sub (2) into (1):
A = x(2x) = 2x 2

=
da
dx

da
dA

dt

dA

dx

dt

dx

At x = 8,

dA

11(i)

dp

dA

dt p=3

dt

dt

=( + p
=

2)

dp
dt

dA
dx
dA

dt p=3

10(i)

dt
3

dt

=?
(1)

Let a be area of triangle


1

a = (2x)(x + 1) sin 150


2

1
2

= 8x + 1
=

dA

dx

dx
dt

= (8x + 1) 1.2
= 9.6x + 1.2

= + (3)2 = 7 units 2 s 1

= x (x + 1)

dA

0.5

1 3 2
+ p
4 4

= 1.2,

sub (2) into (1):


A = x(4x + 1)
= 4x 2 + x

At p = 3,
dA

= 2(4) + 1 = 9 cm2 s 1

Q(2x, y) lies on y = 2x + 1:
y = 2(2x) + 1
= 4x + 1
(2)

=?

dA
dp
1

dt

A = xy

= + p2

dA

dx

Let A Area of parallelogram OPQR


dx

= p + p3
= 0.5,

dx

dt x=4

(1 + p2 )
2

da

da

= (p)
1

At x = 4, |

= 16(8) = 128 cm2 s 1

2
1

= 2x + 1

dt x=8

2
1

dA

= (x + )

A = (height) (sum of bases)

dt

dt

= 4x 4
= 16x

dp

= (2x) +

= 4x

dx

9(ii)

+ x

=x+

dA

9(i)

2
1 2
x
2

At x = 1.5,

dA

dt x=1.5

= 9.6(1.5) + 1.2
= 15.6 units/s

x+1
150
A 2x B

= x (x + 1) [shown]
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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427

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.4

11(ii) Let z be length of diagonal OQ


dx
dz
= 1.2, |
=?
dt
dt x=1.5

13

dx
dt

By distance formula,

= 0.6,

(1)

dy

dx

=
sub (2) into (1):
= 4x 2 + (4x + 1)2

dy

dt

= 4x 2 + (16x 2 + 8x + 1)

= 20x 2 + 8x + 1
dz
dx

=
=

dz
dt

=
=
=

1
220x2 +8x+1
20x+4

dz

20x2 +8x+1
24x+4.8

dt

dy

1.2

dt x=1.5

5.36 units per sec

14

dP
dt

dt

z
dz

dI

dx

dP

dx
x

dx
dt

0.6

36x2
0.6x
36x2

= 50,

0.6(3.6)
363.62

= 0.45

dz

dt x=144

=?

270

= x 2 + 72900
=

dz
dt

=
=
=

dy

1
2x2 +72900
x

2x

x2 +72900

dI
dt

= 800I 2
= 2400I
At I = 3,

(2x)

36x2

=
dP

236x2
x

By Pythagoras Theorem,
z 2 = x 2 + 2702

= 800I
=

Let z be distance between helicopter & lorry


dx

P = I2 R
= 400I 2 R = 400

dI

The rate at which the ladder is sliding down


is 0.45m s 1

dI
dP
= 2, |
=?
dt
dt I=3

dP

dt x=3.6

20x2 +8x+1
dz

dx

20x+4

=?

At y = 4.8, x 2 + 4.82 = 62
x2
= 12.96
x
= 3.6

20x2 +8x+1

At x = 1.5, |
12

(40x + 8)

dx

dt y=4.8

= 36 x 2

Q(2x, y) lies on y = 2x + 1,
y1 = 2(2x) + 1
= 4x + 1
(2)

dy

By Pythagoras Theorem,
x 2 + y 2 = 62
y2
= 36 x 2

z = (0 2x)2 + (0 y)2
= 4x 2 + y 2

Let x be distance from wall &


y be distance from ground

dt I=3

= 2400(2)
= 4800 W s 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

dz
dx

x2 +72900
50x

dt

(50)

x2 +72900

At x = 144,

sleightofmath.com

dx

dz

dt x=144

= 23

9
17

m s 1

428

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

Ex 15.4

Let x top of man s shadow from the lamp


y man from the lamp
By similar triangles,
2

11.1 kmh1

y
17(a)

d
dr

= x

(r 2 ) = 2r

dy
dt
dy
dx
dy
dt
5
3
dx
dt

16(i)

h after B reaches P

dt t=1

dx

t = ( ) + =

xy

2x = 7x 7y
7y = 5x

15(ii)

16(ii)

5 dx

= ,

3 dt

LHS
=?

dx
5
7
7

= ms

dx
dt
dx
dt
1

= lim

r0

= 2r
= RHS

B (0,30) at t = 0

17(b)

P A (0,0) at t = 0

+ (3600t 2 + 3600t + 900)

1
29225t2 +3600t+900
9225t+1800

( r 3 ) = 4r 2

dr 3


=
=

(18450t + 3600)

9225t2 +3600t+900

( r 3 )

dr 3
d
dr

dt

9225t+1800

V
r0 r

= lim

= lim

9225t2 +3600t+900

87.2 kmh

(4r2 )r
r

V
(Surface Area) (breadth)
(r)
(4r 2 )

V = (4r 2 )r

dx
|
87.2 kmh1
dt t=1

= lim 4r 2
r0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

4 2

(V)

r0

dx

LHS

= 9225t 2 + 3600t + 900


=

= lim 2r

x = [(75t) 0]2 + [0 (30 + 60t)]2

dt

A (length) (breadth)
(2r) (r)

A = (2r)r

A(75t, 0)
B(0,30 + 60t)

= 5625t 2

(2r)r

r0

t time after A reaches P


x distance between
the two motorists

dx

7
dy

(r 2 )

d
(A)
dr
A
= lim
r0 r

d
dr

= RHS

sleightofmath.com

429

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 15
A2(ii) For tangents:
m1 m2

Rev Ex 15
A1(i)

10

y=
dy

( |

dx

dy

10
x2

dx x=3
1

10
3

3=

(3, )
3

1
dy
|
dx x=3

=1

10

2 1
3

A3(i)

19

dy

y y1

= dy

(x x1 )

3
1

9
19
9
19
9
19

(x 3)
x
x

Gradient:

27
19
62
57

x2

1 =

10

x2
2

7
2
7

dy

10
2

dx

y|x=2 =

10
2

=3
(2,3)

8y = x 2 kx + 17
1

17

= x 2 kx +

y
dy

= 9(1)2 5 = 4

dx x=1

dy

dx x=1

(x x1 )

dy

dx x=1

9x 2 5
=4
2
x 1
=0
(x 1)(x + 1) = 0
x=1
or
x = 1
(taken)
y|x=1 = 3(1)3 5(1) + 4
=6
(1,6)

x=2

= 3
(2, 3)
A2(i)

dy

A3(ii) tangent tangent at A:


m1
= m2

x
=4
x = 2
or
y|x=2 =

A(1,2)

y (2) = (4)[x (1)]


y2
= 4x 4
y
= 4x 2

A1(ii) Tangent has gradient :


=

= 64
= 64
=0
=0
=2

Tangent: y y1

10

= 9x 2 5

Tangent
Point:

dx x=3

dx

= 1

y = 3x 3 5x + 4
dx

dy

(k + 6)(k 10)
k 2 4k 60
k 2 4k + 4
(k 2)2
k

Normal:

dx x=5
1

y|x=3 =

Gradient:

) ( |

[ (6 + k)] [ (10 k)] = 1

Normal
Point:

= 1

dy

= x k

dx

Tangent gradient at x = 3, x = 5:
dy

= (3) k

dx x=3

8
1

8
1

= (6 + k)
8

dy

dx x=5

4
5

8
1

= (5) k
=

4
1

k
8

= (10 k)
8

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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430

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A4(i)

Rev Ex 15

Curve

A5

y = ax +
dy
dx

=a

dy

x2

dx

mnorm = dy

dx x=2

1
b
a 2
2

1
b
a
4

4
4ab

> 0 [shown] for x > 2 2x > 0, (x


2) > 0, (x 1)2 > 0
A6(i)

V=
dp

b
(2)

A6(ii)

dp

b = 14 4a

(1)

dV

= 3,

dV
dp
60

=1

p2

dV

dt p=20

=?

dp
dt
dp
dt

At p = 20,
dV

= 2x +
6
x

60
202

= 0.45 units 3 s 1
A7(i)

Let A area of circular patch


r radius
Equate area of circle,
r 2 =

for a = 2, b = 6

2x + 11

dt p=20

A4(ii) Point Q
At Q, normal (y = 2x + 11) meets y = 2x +

4x + 11

p2

= 2

2
= 4a b (2)
(1)
sub
into (2):
2
= 4a (14 4a)
2
= 4a 14 + 4a
2
= 8a 14
16
= 8a
a
=2
b|a=2 = 14 4(2)
=6

60

Equate gradients,

dt

4ab

60

dt p=20

= 7 2a

4ab
2

2x2 4x
(x1)2
2x(x2)
(x1)2

Curve at P(2,7):

(x1)2
4x2 4x 2x2
(x1)2

dV

(7) = a(2) +

(x1)(4x) (2x2 )(1)

=
=

Normal
y + 2x = 11
y
= 2x + 11
mnorm = 2

x1

Gradient of normal at P(2,7)

2x2

y=

dA
dt

(t)

r 2 = (4)(16)
= 64
64

r2

64

=0

4x 2 11x + 6 = 0
(x 2)(4x 3) = 0
x = 2 (taken) or x =

3
4
3

3
4

y|x=3 = 2 ( ) +
4

19

2
3 19

Q( , )
4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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431

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A7(ii)

dA
dt

dr

= 4, |

dt t=16

Rev Ex 15
B1(i)

=?

y=
dy

A = r 2
dA
dr

dx

x
x2
d

dt

dA

dr

4 = 2r
dr

dt

dr
dt
dr

dt

2
r

=
64

At t = 16, r = ,

dr

dt t=16

A8(i)

d
dt

ds

= ,

2 dt

=
64

2
(

=?

2
8

ds

(x2)

x2

x2

dt

d
(x2)
dx

[2(x2)

x]

x2
1
2x2
1
2x2

(2x4

x)

x2
(x4)

x2
x4
2(x2)

[proven]

Point:

y|x=4 =

(4)
(4)2

4
2

= 22

(4,22)
Gradient: dy

x
2x2

B1(ii) Normal

=8
ds

1
1
2x2

x2
1
2x2

1
|

dx x=4

ds

x21

cm s 1

s = r [arc length]
= 8 r = 8

= 2r
=

dA

x2dx(x)

Normal:

(4)4
2((4)2)

x=4

dt

= (8) ( )
2

= 4 cm s 1
A8(ii)

d
dt

dA

= ,

2 dt

=?

A = r 2 [sector area]
2
1

= (8)2

r=8

= 32
dA
d
dA
dt

= 32
=

dA
d

d
dt

= (32) ( )
2

= 16 cm2 s 1

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432

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 15

B2(a) 1st curve


y = ax 2 + bx + 2
dy
dx

B2(b) Tangent
y = 2x 16
mtan = 2

= 2ax + b

Curve
y = ax 3 + bx

Tangent gradient at (1, ):


2

dy

= 2a + b

dy

1st curve at (1, ):

Gradient of tangent at x = 2

mtan =

mtan =

dx x=1

dx

= a(1)2 + b(1) + 2

= 3ax 2 + b

dy

dx x=2

= 3a(2)2 + b = 12a + b

a= b

At point of contact,
y|x=2 = 2(2) 16
= 12
(2, 12)

2nd curve
y = x 2 + 6x + 4
dy
dx

= 2x + 6
(2, 12) lies on curve:
12
= a(2)3 + b(2)
12
= 8a + 2b
12 8a = 2b
b
= 6 4a

Normal gradient at (2, 4):


mnorm = dy

1
|

dx x=2

1
2(2)+6

1
2

Tangent to 1st curve at (1, ) normal to 2nd curve


2

at (2, 4):
mtan

= mnorm

2a + b

2 ( b) + b

3 2b + b

3 b

=
5

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

b
3

Using gradients,
12a + b
=2
12a + (6 4a) = 2
8a 6
=2
8a
=8
a
=1
b|a=1 = 6 4(1) = 10

2
5
2

a|b=5 = ( ) = 1
2

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433

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B3

Rev Ex 15

Curve
y = (x + 1)2
dy

B4

Curve
y=

= 2(x + 1)

dy

mtan = 2(x + 1)

dx

dx

= x+

mline =

P(a, b)
dy

dx x=a

=
=

ab
a2
dy

b
a

(x x1 )

dx x=a
b

y (b) = ( ) [x (a)]
a

Tangent line,
mtan mline = 1
1

mtan ( )

= 1

mtan

= 4

Tangent:

x2

Tangent: y y1

Point:

ab

Gradient:

Tangent
Gradient:

Tangent
Point:

Line
4y = x + 3
y

ab

dy

dx x=3

(x a)

yb

yb

= x+b

= x + 2b

a
b
a
b
a

Point Q
At Q, tangent meets x-axis (y = 0)
y
=0

2(x + 1)
= 4
x+1
= 2
x
= 3
(3
y|x=3 =
+ 1)2
=4
(3,4)
y y1 =

x + 2b = 0
a
b

= 2b

x
= 2a
Q(2a, 0)

(x x1 )

[x (3)]
y (4)= (4)
(x + 3)
y 4 = 4
y 4 = 4x 12
y
= 4x 8

Point R
At R, tangent meets y-axis (x = 0)
b

y|x=0 = (0) + 2b
a

= 2b
R(0,2b)
Distance PQ & RP
P(a, b) Q(2a, 0)

R(0,2b)

PQ = (a 2a)2 + (b 0)2
= a2 + b 2
RP = (0 a)2 + (2b b)2
= a2 + b 2
PQ = RP [shown]
B5(i)

v2

60

s= +
ds

ds

30

= +

dv

dv v=45

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(45)

30

= +

7
4

km2 h1

434

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 15

B5(ii) If one is travelling at 45km h1 ,


for every 1km h1 increase in speed,
the stopping distance increases by 1.75 km
B6(i)

dp
dt
dA
dp

22

y=
dy

22
2 x
x

22
2 x
x

(
(

22
x2

1)

x2

1
x

) =

= 2,

dt
dy

dt

=
=

dy

dt x=2

22x2
22
2x2 x
x

22x2

dt p=5

=?
1

= (2p) + (3p2 )
2

22x2

22x2
2x2
x

2
3 2
+ p
2

dA

dp
3
(p + p2 )
2
9
3p + p2
2

2x2 22x2

2x2 22x2
dx

dA
dt

22x2

22x2

dA

= 3,

=p

x
1

dx

B6(ii)

B7(ii)

dA

At p = 5,

dt p=5

B8(i)

dx
22x2
3

2x2 22x2

dt

= 3(5) + (5)2
2

= 127.5

=?

dy

dp

dx

Let x man from lamp


y shadow length

dt

dx
dt

dy

= 2,

dt

1.5

=?
y

By similar triangles,

22x2

x2 22x2

1.5

x+y
5
3

2
3

5y = x + y
At x = 2,
dy

dt x=2

7
2222
3
22 2222

26
2218

13
36

13
6

cm s 1

y = x

2
3

= x
7

B7(i)

dy

y = x2
y|x=p = p2

dx
dy
dt

A = (RP)(PQ)
2
1

= [p
2
1

=
=

2
1 2
p
2

dy
dx
3

dx
dt

= ms 1
7

= (p + 1)p2
= (p2 + p3 )

= ( ) (2)

(1)](p2 )

2
1

B8(ii) z top of shadow from lamp


z=x+y

+ p3
2

Speed of the top of his shadow


=
=
=

dz
dt
d
dt
dx
dt

(x + y)
+

=2 +
=

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20
7

dy
dt
6
7
1

ms

435

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 16.1
3(i)

Ex 16.1
1(a)

y = x 2 5x + 1
dy
dx

At stationary point,
=0

dx

2x 5 = 0
x

5 2

= 5

(x 2 4) 2

(2x 5) 2
(x 2

4)2

2x 2 8

4x 2 + 10x
(x 2 4)2

2(x 2 5x + 4)
(x 2 4)2

2(x 4)(x 1)
(x 2 4)2

y = 5 6x + x 2
dx

d
d
(2x 5) (2x 5) (x 2 4)
dx
dx
(x 2 4)2

2x 2 + 10x 8
=
(x 2 4)2

(2 , 5 )

dy

(x 2 4)

y|x=5 = ( ) 5 ( ) + 1

1(b)

x2 4

dy
dx

= 2x 5

dy

2x5

y=

= 6 + 2x

At stationary point,
dy

3(ii)

=0

dx

dy

6 + 2x = 0
x
=3
y|x=3
= 6 + 2(3)
= 4
(3,

4)
2(i)

y=

At stationary point,
dx
2(x4)(x1)
(x2 4)2

dx

4(i)

y = 2x 3 9x 2 + 12x 4

2x+1
dy

x1

=
=
=

(x1)

d
(2x+1)
dx

(2x+1)

(x1)2
(2x+1)(1)
(x1)2
2x1
(x1)2

(x1)(2)
2x2

4(ii)

At stationary point,
dy

=0

dx

= 6x 2 18x + 12
= 6(x 2 3x + 2)
= 6(x 1)(x 2) [shown]

d
(x1)
dx

6(x 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1 or x = 2
y|x=1 = 1
y|x=2 = 0
(1,1)
(2,0)

= (x1)2
2(ii)

=0

x = 4 or x = 1

dx
dy

=0

(x1)2 0 (x1)2 < 0 for x 1


no stationary pt
4(iii)

d2 y
dx2
d2 y

= 12x 18
|

= 6 < 0 max pt (1,1)

=6 >0

dx2 x=1
d2 y
dx2 x=2

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min pt (2,0)

436

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(i)

Ex 16.1
6(b)

y = (x 5)7 + x

y = x 4 8x 2 + 2
dy

dy

= (x 5)

dx

dx

=
=
=
=
5(ii)

7 + x + dx (x 5) 7 + x
1

= (x 5)

dx

27+x

(1) +(1)

At stationary point,

7 + x

dy

dx
3x+9
27+x

+7 + x

27+x
x5

4x 3 16x
=0
x 3 4x
=0
2
x(x 4)
=0
x(x + 2)(x 2) = 0
x=0
or x = 2
or x = 2
y|x=0 = 2
y|x=2 = 14
y|x=2 = 14
(0,2)
(2, 14)
(2, 24)

+2(7+x)
27+x

x5

+14+2x
27+x

3x+9
27+x

d2 y

=0
=0

d2 y

= 3

dy

3+

sign

dx

= 3x 2 24x + 36

dy

=0
2

3x 24x + 36 = 0
x 2 8x + 12
=0
(x 2)(x 6) = 0
x=2
or x = 6
y|x=2 = 32 y|x=6 = 0
(2,32)
(6,0)

At stationary point,
=0
2

3x 12
=0
2
x 4
=0
(x + 2)(x 2) = 0
x = 2
or x = 2
y|x=2 = 16
y|x=2 = 16
(2,16) (2, 16)
d2 y
dx2

d2 y
dx2
d2 y

= 6x

2|

dx x=2
d2 y

dx2 x=2

= 6x 24
|

= 12 < 0

max. pt (2,32)

= 12 > 0

min. pt (6,0)

dx2 x=2
d2 y

d2 y

min pt (2, 14)

= 32 > 0

dx

dx

min pt (2, 14)

At stationary point,

= 3x 2 12

dy

max pt (0,2)

= x(x 6)2
= x(x 2 12x + 36)
= x 3 12x 2 + 36x

dy

y = x 3 12x
dx

= 32 > 0

dx

dy

dx2 x=2

min pt
6(a)

= 16 < 0

dx2 x=2
d2 y

6(c)
3

dx2 x=0
d2 y

Sign Test:
x

= 12x 2 16

dx2

y|x=3 = [(3) 5]7 + (3)


= 16
(3, 16)
5(iii)

=0

dx

x5

At stationary point,
dy

= 4x 3 16x

= 12 < 0

= 12 > 0

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

max pt (2,16)

dx2 x=6

min pt (2, 16)

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437

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(a)

y = 2x +

Ex 16.1

18

7(b)

y = x2 +

= 2x + 18x 1
dy

dy

= 2x + 16(x 2 )

dx

= 2 18x 2
=2

= x 2 + 16x 1

= 2 + 18(x 2 )

dx

16

= 2x 16x 2

18

= 2x

x2

16
x2

At turning point,

At stationary point,

dy

dy

=0

dx
18

=0

x2

=0

dx

2x

18

16

=0

x2

2x

x2

16
x2

x
=9
x2 9
=0
(x + 3)(x 3) = 0
x = 3
or
x=3
y|x=3 = 12
y|x=3 = 12
(3, 12) (3,12)

2x
= 16
x3 8
=0
2
(x 2)(x + 2x + 4) = 0
x=2
y|x=2 = 12
(2,12)

d2 y

d2 y

dx2

= 18(2x 3 )
=

d2 y
dx2
d2 y

|
|

dx2

36

=2+

x3

x=3

dx2 x=3

= 2 16(2x 3 )

36
27

36
26

<0

>0

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

max pt (3, 12)

d2 y

dx2 x=2

32
x3

= 6 > 0 min pt (2,12)

min pt (3,12)

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438

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(c)

Ex 16.1

4x2 +9

y=

7(d)

= 4x +

dy

dx

= 4x + 9x 1

x2

y=

x+1

=
=

dy

= 4 + 9(x 2 )

dx

= 4 9x 2
=4

dx
9

4x 2

or

x=

y|x=3 = 12

d2 y

dx2

( , 12) ( , 12)

dx2

= 9(2x
=

d2 y

dx2 x=3
2

=0

(x+1)2

d
(x2 +2x)
dx

(x2 +2x)

d
(x+1)2
dx

(x+1)4
(x+1)2 (2x+2)

(x2 +2x)2(x+1)
(x+1)4
(x2 +2x)(2)

(x+1)(2x+2)
(x+1)3
2x2 +4x+2

2x2 4x
(x+1)3

d2 y

3 )

x3

=
=

18

dx2 x=3

=0

y|x=3 = 12

=0

x=0
or x = 2
y|x=0 = 0
y|x=2 = 4
(0,0)
(2, 4)

(x + ) (x ) = 0

d2 y

x2

(x+1)2

dx
x2 +2x
(x+1)2
x(x+2)
(x+1)2

=0

4
3

(x+1)2
2x2 +2x

dy

=9
9

x=

(x+1)2
(x+1)(2x) x2 (1)

At stationary point,

=0

x2

d
(x+1)
dx

x2 +2x

=0

x2

x2

dy

d
(x2 )
dx

= (x+1)2

At stationary point,

(x+1)

16
3

16
3

<0

>0

= (x+1)3

max pt ( , 12)
2

d2 y

min pt ( , 12)
2

dx2 x=0
d2 y

=2 >0

dx2 x=2

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= 2 < 0

min pt (0,0)
max pt (2, 4)

439

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(d)

Ex 16.1

x
1
2
x +1 x
+0x +0
(x 2 +x)
x
+0
(x 1)
1

8(i)

y = 8x +

= 8x + x
2

dy

= 8 + (2x 3 )

dx

= 8 x 3

x2

y=

=8

x+1

= (x 1) +

At stationary point,
dy

=0

dx
dx

= 1 + [(x + 1)2 ](1)

= 1 (x + 1)2

x3

= 1 (x+1)2
At stationary point,
dy

=0

x3

1
x3
1
8
1
2

y|x=1 = 6

=0

dx

1
x3

1
x+1

= (x 1) + (x + 1)1
dy

1
2x2
1 2

( , 6)

1 (x+1)2 = 0

1
= (x + 1)2
1
= x 2 + 2x + 1
0
= x 2 + 2x
x(x + 2) = 0
x=0
or x = 2
y|x=0 = 0
y|x=2 = 4
(0,0) (2, 4)

8(ii)

d2 y

= (3x 4 )

dx2

=
d2 y

3
x4

dx2 x=1

= 48 > 0

d2 y
dx2

min pt ( , 6)
2

= 0 [2(x + 1)3 ](1)


9(i)

= (x+1)3

y = x 3 6x 2 + 3
dy
dx

d2 y

dx2 x=0
d2 y
2|

=2 >0

dx x=2

= 2 < 0

min pt (0,0)

9(ii)

= 3x 2 12x

At stationary point,
dy

max pt (2, 4)

=0

dx
2

3x 12x = 0
x 2 4x = 0
x(x 4) = 0
x = 0 or x = 4
9(iii)

dy

<0

dx

3x 2 12x < 0
x(x 4) < 0
+

+
4

0 < x < 4 [shown]

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440

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

y=

Ex 16.1

2x1

11(ii) At k = 12,

x2 +2

x =
dy
dx

(x 2 + 2)(2)
(x 2

(2x 1)(2x)
+ 2)2

2x 2 + 4

dy

4x 2 + 2x

dx2
d2 y

(x 2 + 2)2

= 36 > 0

min pt (1, 9)
12

y = ax +

b
x2

= ax + bx 2

2(x 2)(x + 1)
(x 2 + 2)2

dy

= a + b(2x 3 )

dx

=a

2b
x3

Curve at (3,5):

10(ii) At stationary point,


dx
2(x2)(x+1)
(x2 +2)2

= 36x 2

dx2 x=1

2(x 2 x 2)
(x 2 + 2)2

dy

= 1

= 12x 3 + 12

dx
d2 y

2x 2 + 2x + 4
=
(x 2 + 2)2
=

12

y = 3x 4 + 12x
y|x=1 = 9
stationary pt (1, 9)

d
d
(x 2 + 2) (2x 1) (2x 1) (x 2 + 2)
dx
dx
=
(x 2 + 2)2
=

12

5 = 3a +

=0

b
9

=0

= 5 3a

b = 45 27a

(1)

x = 2 or x = 1
10(iii)

At stationary pt (3,5):

dy
dx
2(x2)(x+1)
(x2 +2)2
(x2)(x+1)
(x2 +2)2

>0

dy

>0
<0

(x 2)(x + 1) < 0

a
(x 2 + 2)2 > 0

+ +
1 2

27

=0
=0
=0

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


a

1 < x < 2 [shown]


11(i)

dx x=3
2b
a (3)3
2b

2(4527a)
27
2(9)(53a)
27

=0
=0

y = 3x 4 + kx

a (5 3a) = 0

dy

3a 10 + 6a = 0
9a
= 10

dx

= 12x + k

At stationary pt:
dy

10
9

b|a=10 = 15

=0

dx

=
9

12x + k = 0
x3
x

=
3

k
12
k
12

only 1 stationary pt

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441

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13

1st curve & its gradient


y = 2x 2 4x + 5
dy
dx

Ex 16.1
14(ii) At a = 9,
dy

= 4x 4

dy

d2 y

=0

dx

15(i)

dy

= a 2b(2x 1)2
2b

= a (2x1)2
(2,7) lies on curve,
(7) = a(2) +
7

At turning pt (1,3):

dy

= 21 6a

2b

=0

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


a
a

2(216a)
9
2(72a)
3

=0
=0

3a 14 + 4a = 0
7a
= 14
a
=2

=0

6(3) + 2a(3) = 0
54 6a
=0
a
=9
b|a=9 = 8

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

=0
2b

At stationary pt (3,19):
|

(1)

a (2(2)1)2 = 0

= 6x 2 + 2ax

dx x=3
2

b
3

= 7 2a

dx x=2

Curve at (3,19):
(19) = 2(3)3 + a(3)2 + b
19 = 54 + 9a + b
b
= 73 9a

dy

b
2(2)1

At stationary pt (2,7):

y = 2x 3 + ax 2 + b
dx

= 2a +

b
3
b

=0

3 + 2a + 1 = 0
2a
= 4
a
= 2
b|a=2 = 3

dy

= a + b[(2x 1)2 (2)]

dx

= 3x + 2ax + 1

b
2x1

= ax + b(2x 1)1

2nd curve at (1,3):


3=1+a+1+b
b=1a

14(i)

y = ax +

dx x=1

= 18 < 0

max pt (3,19)

2nd curve & its gradient


y = x 3 + ax 2 + x + b

dy

dx2 x=3

4x 4 = 0
x
=1
y|x=1 = 3
turning pt (1,3)

dx

= 12x + 18

dx2

At turning point,

dy

= 6x 2 + 18x

dx
d2 y

Put a = 2 into (1):


b|a=2 = 9

sleightofmath.com

442

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 16.1
16(ii) Curve at (1,1):
1
= 12 (1 k)2
1
= 1 2k + k 2
0
= k 2 2k
k 2 2k = 0
k(k 2) = 0
k=0
or k = 2
(rej k 0)

15(ii) At a = 2 & b = 9,
y = 2x +
dy
dx

9
2x1
18

= 2 (2x1)2

At stationary point,
dy

=0

dx
18

2 (2x1)2

=0

= (2x1)2

18

y = x 2 (x 2)2
dy

(2x 1)2
=9
2
4x 4x + 1 = 9
4x 2 4x 8 = 0
x2 x 2
=0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0
x=2
or x = 1
(taken)
y|x=1 = 5
(1, 5)

dx

At stationary point,
dy

dx

=0

dx

2x(x 2)(2x 2) = 0
2x(x 1)(x 2) = 0
x=0
or x = 1
or
y|x=0 = 0
y|x=1 = 1
(0,0)
(1,1)

15(iii) 1st derivative


dy

16(iii) 1st derivative


2

dy

= 2x(x 2)(2x 2)

dx

= 2x(2x 2 6x + 4)
= 4x 3 12x 2 + 8x

2nd derivative
dx2

= 18[2(2x 1)3 ]
= 18[2(2x 1)
=

d2 y

d
dx

(2x 1)

3 ]

. (2)

2nd derivative
d2 y

72
(2x1)3

dx2

dx2 x=2

d2 y

= >0
3

y=x
dy
dx

2 (x

k)

=x

d
dx

d2 y

[(x k)

d2 y
2]

d
dx

= x 2(x k)
+2x
= 2x(x k)(2x k)

(x 2 )

=8 >0

= 4 < 0 max pt (1,1)

=8 >0

(x k)

dx2 x=2

(x k)2

min pt (0,0)

dx2 x=1

= 12x 2 24x + 8

dx2 x=0

(2,7) is min pt
16(i)

x=2
y|x=2 = 0
(2,0)

18

= 2 (2x1)2
= 2 18(2x 1)

d2 y

= 2x(x 2)(2x 2)

min pt (2,0)

16(iv)

= 2 ( 2)2
(1,1)
(0,0)

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443

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17

y=
dy
dx

1
20

Ex 16.1

18(ii) 1st derivative

x 5 x 3 + 3x 2
6

1 4
x
4

7 2
x
2

dy
dx

+ 6x

At stationary point,

At stationary point,
dy
dx
1 4
x
4
4

dy

+ 6x

3x 2 12x + 9 = 0
x 2 4x + 3 = 0
(x 1)(x 3) = 0
x=1
or
x=3
y|x=1 = 0
y|x=3 = 4
(1,0)
(3, 4)

=0

x 14x + 24x = 0
x(x 3 14x + 24) = 0
x(x
18(i)

Curve
y = x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c

2nd derivative
d2 y
dx2

touch x axis at x = 1 & cross x axis at x = 4


y = k(x 1)2 (x 4)
Compare x 3 : k = 1
y = (x 2 2x + 1)(x 4)
= x 3 2x 2 +x
= 4x 2 +8x 4
= x 3 6x 2 + 9x 4
Compare x 2 : a = 6
Compare x1 : b = 9
Compare x 0 : c = 4

=0

dx

=0
7 2
x
2
2

= 3x 2 12x + 9

d2 y

= 6x 12
|

= 6 < 0

max pt (1,0)

=6 >0

min pt (3, 4)

dx2 x=1
d2 y

dx2 x=3

18(iii) Tangent
Recall

y = x 3 6x 2 + 9x 4
dy
dx

Point:
Gradient:
Tangent:

&

= 3x 12x + 9

y|x=0 = 4
(0,4)
dy

dx x=0

y y1

=9
=

dy

dx x=0

(x x1 )

(x 0)
y (4) = 9
y
= 9x 4

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 16.2
1(d)

Ex 16.2
1(a)

dy

dx

12x

dy

=0

dx
13x

=4>0

=0
1

min

Sign test
x

= x 2 + (2x 1)2
= x 2 + (4x 2 4x + 1)
= 5x 2 4x + 1

dy
dx

dx

At stationary value,
dy

y=
dy

=0

dx

dx

10x 4 = 0

dx2

=
5

(x2 +1)

d
d
(x) x (x2 +1)
dx
dx
(x2 +1)2

(x2 +1)1

x2x

(x2 +1)2
x2 +1

2x2
(x2 +1)2

dy

= 4(x 2) (1)

4(x 2)3 = 0
x
=2

Sign test
x
dy

= 4[3(x 2)
= 12(x 2)
|

dx2 x=2

2]

=0

1x
=0
(x + 1)(x 1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 1

=0

dx

=0

dx
1x2
(x2 +1)2
2

dy

+1)2

At stationary value,

At stationary value,

d2 y

1x2

= 4(x 2)3

dx2

= (x2

= 10 > 0

y = (x 2) + 3

d2 y

dx

1+

x2 +1

min

dy

sign +

max

= 10x 4
1(e)

d2 y

1 2x

12x

d2 y

dy

(x) 1 2x

+ 1 2x

12x
13x

At stationary value,

d
dx

(2) + 1

4x 8 = 0
x
=2

dx2

1(c)

212x
x

=0

dx

1(b)

At stationary value,

1 2x

dx

=x

= 4x 8

dy

=x

dx

y = 2x 2 8x + 3
dy

y = x1 2x

dx

(1)

sign

1+

min at x = 1

dy

=0

dx

not max/min

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max at x = 1

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2

Ex 16.2

2x + y = 10
y
= 10 2x

4(iii)

dA

= 8 + 800(x 2 )

dx

= 8 800x 2
=8

At stationary value,

dA

dA

dx

= 10 4x

At stationary value,
dA

800

dx

dx

d2 A

d2 A

Fence = 36
2x + y = 36
y
= 36 2x [shown]

3(ii)

A = xy
= x(36 2x)
= 36x 2x 2 [shown]

3(iii)

dA

5(i)

dx2

By Pythagoras Theorem,
Height = (5x)2 [

=0

4(ii)

= 25x 2 9x 2
= 4x
Area of trapezium

= 4 < 0

A = (height)(sum of bases)
2
1

= (4x)[(6x + y) + y]
2

Volume = 400 [given]


x(8)h = 400
h

(6x+y)y 2

= (5x)2 (3x)2

max
4(i)

= 1.6 > 0

Wire length
= 104
y + 5x + 5x + (6x + y) = 104
16x + 2y
= 104
2y
= 104 16x
y
= 52 8x

36 4x = 0
x
=9
d2 A

x3

min

At stationary value,
dx

1600

dx2 x=10

= 36 4x

dA

= 800(2x 3 )
=

<0

max

dx

x2

x
= 100
x = 10 or x = 10 (rej x > 0)

dx2
2 = 4

800

10 4x = 0
x
= 2.5
A|x=2.5 = 12.5
d2 A

=0

x2

=0

x2

=0

dx

3(i)

800

A = xy
= x(10 2x)
= 10x 2x 2

50
x

= 2x(6x + 2y)
y = 52 8x,
A = 2x[6x + 2(52 8x)]
= 2x(104 10x)
= 208x 20x 2 [shown]

A = 8x + 2xh + 2(8)h
50

50

= 8x + 2x ( ) + 2(8) ( )
= 8x +

800
x

+ 10 [shown]

= 8x + 800x 1 + 10

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5(ii)

dA
dx

= 208 40x

Ex 16.2
7

y = 2x 3 12x 2 + x + 9
dy
dx

= 6x 2 24x + 1

At stationary value,
dA

Normal gradient (n)

=0

dx

= dy

208 40x = 0
x

=
=

y|x=5.2
d2 A
dx2

dx

208

40
52

= (6x 24x + 1)1

10

= 5.2
= 10.4

dn
dx

= 40 < 0

(12x 24)

24x+1)2
12x24

= (6x2

24x+1)2

x 4 y = 32
y

32

At stationary value,

x4

12x24
(6x2 24x+1)2

= x2 +

32
x4

[shown]

= x + 32x 4

dz

= 2x + 32(4x 5 )

dx

8(i)

= 2x 128x 5
= 2x

128

dx

2x

128
x5

128
x5

d2 z

400
r2

=0
=0

= 2r 2 + 2r (

= 2x

= 2r 2 +

800
r

400
r2

[shown]

= 2r 2 + 800r 1

= 2 128(5x 6 )
=2+

d2 z

Area
A = 2r 2 + 2rh

2x 6
= 128
6
x
= 64
x = 2 or
x=2
(rej x > 0)

dx2

Volume
V
= 400
2
r h = 400
h

x5

At stationary value,
dz

=0

12x 24
=0
x
=2
y|x=2 = 21
P(2, 21)

z = x2 + y

6(ii)

= [(6x 2 24x + 1)2 (12x 24)]


= (6x2

max A
6(i)

1
6x2 24x+1
2

dx2 x=2

640
x6

= 12 > 0

min z

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8(ii)

Ex 16.2

1st derivative
dA
dr

9(ii)

= 4r + 800(r

1st derivative
dA

2 )

dx

= 4r 800r 2
800
= 4r 2
r

= 4x 108x 2

4r

800

dA

4x

800

4x

r2

4r

r 3

= 200
3

=0

dx

=0

r2

x2

At stationary value,

=0

dr

108

= 4x

At stationary value,
dA

= 4x + 108(x 2 )

108
x2

=0
=

108
x2

x
= 27
x
=3
h|x=3 = 2

200

3.99cm
2nd derivative
d2 A

2nd derivative
d2 A
dr2

dx2

= 4 800(2r 3 )
= 4 +

=4+

1600
r3

d2 A

> 0 for r > 0


min A
9(i)

Volume
x(2x)h = 36
h

=
=

2x2
18

By Pythagoras Theorem,
25x2

16

= x
4

Perimeter PQRST = 30
2x + 2y +2RS = 30
x+y
+ RS
= 15
5

x + y + ( x) = 15
4

= 2x + 6x ( 2 )

= 12 > 0

3x 2

18

108

x3

RS = x 2 + ( ) =

x2

216

min
10

36

dx2 x=3

Area
A = 2[x(2x) + xh + 2xh]
= 2(2x 2 + 3xh)
= 2x 2 + 6xh
= 2x 2 +

= 4 108(2x 3 )

= 15 x
4

[shown]
A = triangle STR

= 2x 2 + 108x 1

3x

2
3 2
x
4
3 2
x
4
3 2
x
4

= (2x) ( )

+2xy

+2xy

=
=

= 30x

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+ rectangle PQRT

+2x (15 x)
+30x
15x2
4

4
9 2
x
2

[shown]

448

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

Ex 16.2

1st derivative
dA
dx

= 30

15

11(iv) At stationary value,


dA

=0

dx

48x
At stationary value,
dA

48x

=0

dx

30

15
2

15
2

<0

Area
A = xy
= x(40 x)
= 40x x 2

3
2

SN|x=4 = 9
By Pythagoras Theorem,
6x 2

AA = (5x)2 ( ) = 4x
2

A
5x

Volume
= 4500
( area) h = 4500
1

x2

+ (15 x)

= 15 x

11(i)

6000

Perimeter
2x + 2y = 80
y
= 40 x

10(ii) SN = 3x +y
=

12(a) Function
x length
y breadth

max
4
3x

=0

x
= 125
x
=5
A|x=5 = 1800 cm2

x= 0

2nd derivative
dx2

x2

x
=4
A|x=4 = 60 cm2

d2 A

6000

5x

A
6x

dA

x2

=0

dx

40 2x = 0
x
= 20
A|x=20 = 400 m2

11(ii) A = 2(triangle)

= 40 2x

dA

= 4500
375

dx

At stationary value,

(6x)(4x)h = 4500

12x 2 h

1st derivative

+sides

2nd derivative

2
2

d2 A

= 2 [( ) (6x)(4x)] +h(6x + 5x + 5x)


= 24x + 16xh
= 24x 2 + 16x (
= 24x 2 +

6000
x

dx2

max

375
x2

= 2 < 0

[shown]

= 24x 2 + 6000x 1
11(iii)

dA
dx

= 48x + 6000(x 2 )
= 48x

6000
x2

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12(b) Function
x length
y breadth

Ex 16.2
13

Function
E2 R

W (r+R)2
E2 R
(r+R)2
R
kE 2 [(r+R)2 ]

W=k
Area
xy = 16
y

16

1st derivative
dW

Perimeter
P = 2x + 2y

dR
16

= kE [

= 2x + 2 ( )
x

= 2x +

32
x

r + R 2R
]
= kE 2 [
(r + R)3

1st derivative
= 2x + 32(x 2 )

dx

rR
]
= kE 2 [
(r + R)3

= 2 32x 2
=2

32
x2

At stationary value,

At stationary value,
dP

dW

32
x2

32

rR

kE 2 [(r+R)3 ] = 0

=0

=r

=2

x2

=0

dR

=0

dx

d
d
R R (r + R)2
dR
dx
]
(r + R)4

(r + R)2 (1)
R 2(r + R)
]
= kE 2 [
(r + R)4

= 2x + 32x 1

dP

(r + R)2

x2
= 16
x = 4 or x = 4
(rej x > 0)

Sign Test
R

P|x=4 = 16 cm

work done is greatest when


R=r

dW
dR

r
sign +

r
0

r+

2nd derivative
d2 P
dx2

= 32(2x 3 )
=

64
x3

>0 x>0

min P

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14

Ex 16.2

Perimeter

15
1

x + 2y + ( ) x = 6
x + 2y +

2
x

=6

2y

=6

x
2

= 6 x ( + 1)

= 3 x ( + 1)

Area
A = rectangle

+semicircle

Rectangle area,
A = xy

2y

x length
y breadth
A area of rectangle

(1)

x 2

2
1

2
2

= xy

+ ( )

= xy

+ x

(1)

By Pythagoras Theorem,
x 2 + y 2 = (2a)2
y 2 = 4a2 x 2
y = 4a2 x 2 or y = 4a2 x 2
(rej y > 0)

(2)

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


sub (1) into (2):
1

2
1

8
1

A = x4a2 x 2

A = x [3 x ( + 1)] + x
= 3x ( + 1) x
2 2

= 3x ( + ) x
4
1

+ x

dx

= 3x + ( ) x
4
1

= 3x + ( ) x 2
= 3x (

8
+4
8

) x2

1st derivative
dA

=3(

dx

=3(

+4
8
+4
4

dA

3(
(

)x

= 3(

+4

=
=

dx2

4a2 x 2

(2x) +(1)

+4a2 x 2

x2

+(4a2 x2 )
4a2 x2

4a2 2x2
4a2 x2

=0
=0

x = 2a or x = 2a (rej x > 0)

12
+4
12

)(

+4

36
+4
18
+4

y|x=2a = 4a2 (2a)

12

) (

+4

= 2 (

+4
8

= 4a2 2a2 = 2a2 = 2a = x


length = breadth,
largest rectangle is square of side 2a

2 +4

144
8(+4)

Sign Test

[shown]

x
dy

2nd derivative
d2 A

(x) 4a2 x 2

=3

A|x= 12

d
dx

4a 2x 2 = 0
2x 2 = 4a2
x 2 = 2a2

)x = 0

+4

1
24a2 x2

x2

4a2 x2
2

+4
4

(4a2 x 2 )+

4a2 x2

dx
4a2 2x2

)x

=0

dx

d
dx

At stationary value,

) 2x

At stationary value,
dA

=x
=x

+ x 2

dA

8
1

dx

)<0

2a

2a

A is max when x = 2a
i.e. when rectangle is a square

max

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2a

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16

Ex 16.2

y = 12 x 2

17

A = 2xy
= 2x(12 x 2 )
= 24x 2x 3
dA
dx

= 24 6x

y 2 = 8x
y = 8x or y = 8x

At stationary value,

dy

dA

dx

=0

dx

24 6x 2 = 0
x2 4
=0
x = 2 or x = 2 (NA)
A|x=2 = 32 units 2
d2 A
dx2
d2 A

= 24 < 0

= 22 (

1
2x

)=

2
x

Normal
Point:

(4,2)

Gradient:

m = dy

= 2

dx

x
2

y y1 = m (x x1 )

Normal:

= 12x

dx2 x=2

2 = 8
(4,2)

y 2=

max

y=

x
2

x
2

[x 4]

(x 4) + 2

Point where y 2 = 8x & normal


[y =
8x

x
2

(x 4) + 2] meet.

x
2

(x 4) +2

16x = x(x 4) +22


4x = xx + 4x +22
xx = 22
x=2
(3)
sub (3) into (1):
y|x=2 = 8(2) = 4
(2,4)
Minimum distance from (2,4) to (4,2)
= (2 4)2 + (4 2)2
= 22 + 22
= 22

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A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17

Ex 16.2

Let P(a, b) be at point on y 2 = 8x,


b2 = 8a
a

18

b2

b2
P ( , b)
8

Area is not the only factor of cost


Most of the expense is incurred in joining the sides
to the rims of the cans.
Minimization of circumference must also be
factored in.

b2

D = distance from P ( , b) to (4,2)


8

= (
= (
=

b2
8
1
64

64

dD
db

4) + (b 2)2
b 4 b 2 + 16) + (b 2 4b + 4)

b 4 4b + 20
1

1
2 b4 4b+20
64

1
2 b4 4b+20
64

1
64

1
16

(4b3 ) 4]
b3 4)

At min point:
dD
db
1 3
b
16
1 3
b
16
3

b
b

a=

=0
4 =0
=4
= 64
=4

42
8

=2

(2,4)

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Rev Ex 16
A3

Rev Ex 16
A1

y = (x 2)5 x
dy

= (x 2)

dx

= (x 2)
=
=
=
=

2x

d
dx

5 x
1

25x

Function
p2 q = 9

(1)

d
dx

(x 2) 5 x

+(1)

2x

9
p2

z = 16p + 3q
9

= 16p + 3 ( 2 )

5 x

= 16p +

+5 x

25x

27
p2

= 16p + 27p2
+2(5x)

25x
2x

1st derivative

+102x

dz

25x

dp

123x

= 16 + 27(2p3 )
= 16 54p3

25x

= 16

54
p3

At stationary value,
dy
dx
123x
25x

=0

At stationary value,

=0

dp

=4

16

dz

y|x=4 = ((4) 2)5 (4)

y = 4x +

= 4x + 27x

= 16

d2 z

27

dp2

x2

At turning point,

162
p4

>0p>0

min z

=0

dx

8x

27
x2

8x
8x

3 2
2

( )

= 54(3p4 )
=

dy

=4
2nd derivative

= 8x 27x 2
= 8x

8
3
2

q|p=3 =

= 8x + 27(x 2 )

dx

27

p3

dy

=0

p3

p3

27

54

54

=2
A2(i)

=0

=0
=

A4(i)

27
x2

= 27

3
2

y|x=3 = 27

Wire length
= 2400
4(length + breadth + height) = 2400
4(3x + x + h)
= 2400
4(4x + h)
= 2400
4x + h
= 600
h
= 600 4x

( , 27)
2

A2(ii)

d2 y
dx2

= 8 27(2x 3 )
=8+

d2 y

dx2 x=3

54
x3

= 24 > 0

A4(ii) Volume
V = 3x(x)h
= 3x 2 h
= 3x 2 (600 4x)
= 12x 2 (150 x)
= 1800x 2 12x 3

min pt ( , 27)
2

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454

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A4(iii) 1st derivative
dV
dx

Rev Ex 16
A6(i)

= 3600x 36x

Volume = 100
2x(x)h = 100
h

50

2x

x2

At turning value,
dV

Total surface area


S = 2[2x(x) + 2x(h) + x(h)]
= 2(2x 2 + 2xh + xh)
= 2(2x 2 + 3xh)
= 4x 2
+ 6xh

=0

dx

3600x 36x 2 = 0
x 2 100x
=0
x(x 100)
=0
x = 0 or x = 100
(rej x > 0)
2nd derivative
d2 V

= 3600 72x

dx2

A6(ii)

= 4x

= 4x

dS
dx

d2 V
dx2

x=100

50

= 4x 2

+6x ( 2 )
x

300
x

[shown]

+300x 1

= 8x + 300(x 2 )
= 8x 300x 2

= 3600 < 0

= 8x

max V

300
x2

At stationary value,

A5(i)

dS

=0

dx

Wire length = 100


4x + 4y
= 100
4y
= 100 4x
y
= 25 x

8x

dx

3 75
2

x=

2
75

d2 S

134

= 8 300(2x 3 )
=8+

>0
min

= 2x 50 + 2x
= 4x 50

x2
75
3

dx2

= 2x +2(25 x)(1)

300

A6(iii)

=0
=

A5(iii) 1st derivative


dA

x2

8x

S|
A5(ii) Total area
A = x2 + y2
= x 2 + (25 x)2 [shown]

300

600
x3

x>0

At stationary value:
dA

=0

dx

4x 50 = 0
x

50
4

= 12.5
2nd derivative
d2 A
dx2

=4>0

min

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455

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A7(i)

Rev Ex 16

Perimeter

B1(i)

y = x2 +

x + x + (2r) = 80
= 80
= 80 r

dy
dx

= 40 r

= 2x

Area
A = semicircle + triangle
1

2
1

2
1

dy

+ (40 r)

2
1

1 1 2

2
r2

2 2

2x

A7(ii)

dA

=0

x3

16
x3

x
= 16
x=2
or
y|x=2 = 8
(2,8)

+ (80 r)2 [shown]


8
1

= r + [2(80 r)] ()

dr

32

x3

=0

dx

= r 2 + ( ) (80 r)2
=

32

At stationary point,

= r 2 + x 2
= r

= 2x + 16(2x 3 )
= 2x 32x 3

x2

= 2x + 16x 2

2x + r
2x

16

x = 2
y|x=2 = 8
(2,8)

= r (80 r)
4

= r 20 +
= ( +

2
4

2
4

B1(ii)

dx2

( +

d2 y

=0

(1 + ) r

= 20

4+
4

)r

= 20

80
+4

11.2
A7(iii)

d2 A
dr2

=+

2
4

>0

min

dx2 x=2
d2 y

) r 20 = 0

(1 + ) r 20

= 2x 32(3x 4 )
=2+

) r 20

At stationary value,
2

d2 y

96
x4

=8>0

dx2 x=2

= 4 < 0

min pt (2,8)
max pt (2,8)

B2(i)
y=

4
2x

= 4(2 x)1

9
x3

+9(x 3)1

dy
dx

= 4 [(2 x)2

d
dx

(2 x)] +9 [(x 3)2

= 4[(2 x)2 (1)]


= 4(2 x)2
4

d
dx

(x 3)]

+9[(x 3)2 (1)]


9(x 3)2
9

(x3)2

= (2x)2
d2 y
dx2

= 4 [2(2 x)3

d
dx

(2 x)]
9 [2(x 3)3

= 4[2(2 x)3 (1)]


8

= (2x)3

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d
dx

(x 3)]

9[2(x 3)3 (1)]


18

+ (x3)3

456

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 16

B2(ii) At stationary value,


dy

B4(i)

AR =

=0

dx
4
(2x)2
4
(x2)2

(x3)2

=0
=

4(x 3)2
4(x 2 6x + 9)
4x 2 24x + 36
5x 2 12x
x(5x 12)
x=0

By Pythagoras Theorem,

9
(x3)2

y|x=0 = 1

AS

[ (10)]

S Q 13cm
h

13cm P

C
R
10cm

PQ
BC
x
10
6

12 h = x
5

12

12

12

AR
12h

By similar triangles,

y|x=12 = 25

(0, 1)

(13)2

BR2

= 12

= 9(x 2)2
= 9(x 2 4x + 4)
= 9x 2 36x + 36
=0
=0

or x =

AB 2

= 12 x
5

= (10 x)

, 25)

B4(ii) Area of PQR


d2 y

dx2 x=0
d2 y
dx2

B3

12
x=
5

625
3

min pt (0, 1)

= >0
<0

max pt (

12
5

A = xh
2
1

Function
x length
y breadth

dx

dA

dx

d2 A

1st derivative

dx2

= l 2x

dA

B5(i)

BC
4x

l 2x= 0

2x

= l

= l
4

y|x=1l = l = x

= <0
5

=
=

A
3

AB
y

Y
B

3
3

= (4 x)
4

5
C

= x ( ) (4 x)
4

= x(4 x) [shown]
4

= 2 < 0

= 3x x 2
4

max A
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

XP

B5(ii) Area
A = xy

square
2nd derivative
dx2

=6

2
1

=0

By similar triangles,
XC

=0

dx
1

max A

At maximum value,

6x

x
=5
2nd derivative

d2 A

6x

= x ( l x)
= lx x

=0

6x
1

=6

Area
A = xy
1

3x2

At maximum value,

= lx

dx

(10 x) [shown]

B4(iii) 1st derivative


dA

dA

2
5
3x

= 6x

Perimeter
2x + 2y = l
2y
= l 2x
y

= x [ (10 x)]

, 25)

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457

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 16

B5(iii) 1st derivative


dA
dx

B6(ii)

dx

= (8 x)

=3 x

At stationary value,
dA

= (8 x)

=0

dx

dA

= (8 x)

3 x=0
2

3
2

=2

1
228x28

28 +(1)

14

28x 28

28x 28

28x28

28x28
14042x

28x 28 + dx (8 x) 28x 28

11214x28x+28

=3

d
dx

28x28

A|x=2 = 3(2) (2)2


4

= 3 cm2
2nd derivative

At stationary value:

d2 A

dx

dx2

dA

= <0

14042x

28x28

max A
B6(i)

P
(6 + )

=0

(6 + )

Q
R
(16 2)
By Pythagoras Thm

10
3

x
dy
sign
dx
max

(P Q)2

= (6 + x)2

Sign Test

PP = PQ2

=0

[ (16 2x)]

10

10+

= (x 2 + 12x + 36) (64 16x + x 2 )

Volume
V
= 250
r 2 h = 250

= 28x 28

= (6 +

x)2

B7(i)

10

(8 x)2

250
r2

Area
A = 2r 2 + 2rh

Area of triangle
1

A = (QR)(PP )

= 2r 2 + 2r (

2
1

= (16 2x)28x 28

= 2r +

= (8 x)28(x 1) [shown]

500
r

250
r

2 )

[shown]

= 2r + 500r 1

= (8 x)28x 28

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458

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B7(ii) 1st derivative
dA
(a)
= 4r + 500(r 2 )
dr

Rev Ex 16
B7(ii) Cost
500
(b)
(0.05)
C = 2r 2 (0.03) +

= 4r 500r 2
= 4r

500
r2

= 0.06r 2

+25r 1

At stationary value,

1st derivative

dA

dC

=0

dr

4r

500
r2

dr

r3
r

= 125
=5
52

r2

dC

= 10

= 4 +
d2 A

dr2 r=5

r2

=0

dr
25

0.12r
0.12r

= 4 500(2r 3 )

dr2

25

At stationary value,

2nd derivative
d2 A

= 0.06r 2 + 25r 2
= 0.12r

500

250

= 0.12r 25r 2

=0

4r

h|r=5 =

r
25

= 0.06r 2

= 25
3

625

h|

5.93
7.11

r3

min

=0

1000

= 4 + 8 > 0

r2

3 625
3

r=

2nd derivative
d2 C
dr2

= 0.12 25(2r 3 )
= 0.12 +

d2 C

dr2 r= 3625

50
r3

1.13 > 0

min

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459

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.1
2(d)
d 1 2 sin x
(
)
dx
cos x
d
cos x (1 2 sin x)
dx
=

Ex 17.1
1(a)

d
dx

(4 sin x 3)

=4

d
dx

(sin x)

d
dx

(3)

= 4 cos x
1(b)

d
dx

1(c)

(x 2 5 cos x)
d
dx

d
dx

= 2x

+5 sin x

(x 2 ) +3

d
dx

(tan x)

2 cos 2 x

+ sin x 2 sin2 x
cos 2 x

3(a)

d
dx

= 8x

+3 sec 2 x

[(1 cos x)3 ]

d
dx

(sin x) +3

(cos x)

dx

3(b)

[(2 + 3 sin x)2 ]

+3( sin x)

= 2 cos x

3 sin x

= 2(2 + 3 sin x)

d
dx

(tan x) +

d
dx

(x) tan x

= x sec x

+1

= x sec 2 x

+ tan x

(x 2
2

=x

d
dx

(cos x)

tan x

d
dx

(x 2 )

cos x

+2x

cos x

3(d)

x sin x

dx

(sin x)

= (x + 1)2 cos x

d
dx

=
=

d
dx

(2 tan x)
1

[(x + 1)2 ] sin x

22tan x dx
1
22tan x

[(x + 1)2 sin x]

= (x + 1)2

d
dx

cos x)

= 2x cos x
d

3(c)

= x 2 ( sin x)

dx

(2 + 3 sin x)

= 6 cos x (2 + 3 sin x)

dx

d
dx

= 2(2 + 3 sin x) 3 cos x


(x tan x)

=x

(1 cos x)

= 3 sin x (1 cos x)2

= 2 cos x

dx

dx

= 3(1 cos x)2 sin x

dx

= 3(1 cos x)2

(2 sin x + 3 cos x)

=2

2(c)

cos x (2 cos x)

+3 sec x

cos 2 x
(1 2 sin x) ( sin x)
2
cos x

sin x 2(sin2 x + cos 2 x)


cos 2 x
sin x 2
=
cos 2 x

(4x 2 + 3 tan x)
dx

d
(cos x)
dx

= 4(2x)

dx

2(b)

(cos x)

5( sin x)

=4

2(a)

(x 2 )5

= 2x

dx

1(d)

(1 2 sin x)

(2 tan x)

( sec 2 x)

sec2 x
22tan x

(sin x + 2 cos x)
1
2sin x+2 cos x
1
2sin x+2 cos x
cos x2 sin x
2sin x+2 cos x

dx

(sin x + 2 cos x)

(cos x

2 sin x)

+2(x + 1) sin x
4(a)

d
dx

(3 tan 2x) = 3

d
dx

(tan 2x)

= 3 sec 2 2x

d
dx

(2x)

= 3 sec 2 2x (2)
= 6 sec 2 2x
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460

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(b)

d
dx

Ex 17.1

dx

[4 sin ( x)] = 4

5(d)
d cos(x + )
[
]
dx
sin 3x

[sin ( x)]
2

2
1

dx 2
1

= 4 cos ( x)

( x)

= 4 cos ( x) ( )
2
1

d
d
cos(x + ) cos(x + ) sin 3x
dx
dx
=
sin2 3x
(sin 3x) [ sin(x + )] cos(x + ) (3 cos 3x)
=
sin2 3x
sin(3x) sin(x + )
3 cos(x + ) cos(3x)
=
2
sin 3x
sin(3x) sin(x + )
+ 3 cos(x + ) cos(3x)
=
sin2 3x

(sin 3x)

= 2 cos ( x)
2

4(c)

d
dx

[cos (2x )]
3

= sin (2x )
3

(2x )

dx

= sin (2x ) (2)


3

= 2 sin (2x )
3

4(d)

d
dx

[sin 3x + cos(4x 5)]


d
dx

sin 3x

= cos(3x)

d
dx

d
dx

cos(4x 5)

+[ sin(4x 5)]

(3x)

5)
= cos(3x) (3)
= 3 cos 3x

d
dx

y = sin 2x
dy

(4x

d
dx

d
dx

+
d
dx

d
dx

+ cos x cos 3x
3 sin x sin 3x

d
dx

tan 5x

d
dx

y = sin x + 2 cos x
dy

d
dx

= (1 + x 2 ) sec 2 5x 5
= 5(1 + x 2 ) sec 2 5x
5(c)

(5x)

+2x

dy

=0

dx

cos x 2 sin x = 0
2 sin x
= cos x

tan 5x

+2x tan 5x
+2x tan 5x

tan x

1
2

0.464
1st or 3rd quadrant

d
x
(
)
dx cos 2x
d
d
(x) x (cos 2x)
dx
dx
=
cos 2 2x
(cos 2x) (1)
x (2 sin 2x)
=
2
cos 2x
cos 2x
+ 2x sin 2x
=
2
cos 2x
1
+ 2x tan x
=
cos 2x

= cos x 2 sin x

At stationary point,
(1 + x 2 )

tan 5x
= (1 + x 2 ) sec 2 5x

=1

[(1 + x 2 ) tan 5x]

= (1 + x 2 )

dx
dx

(2x)

= 2( )

(sin x) cos 3x

(3x) + cos x cos 3x

= sin x ( sin 3x) 3


= cos x cos 3x
5(b)

= 2 cos

(cos 3x)

= sin x ( sin 3x)

dx x=

(sin x cos 3x)

= sin x

d
dx

= (cos 2x) (2)


= 2 cos 2x

+[ sin(4x 5)] (4)


4 sin(4x 5)
dy

5(a)

= (cos 2x)

dx

0 x 2
x = , +
0.464, 3.61

(cos 2x)

8(a)

d
dx

(2 sin3 x) = 2

d
dx

(sin x)3

= 2 3(sin x)2

d
dx

(sin x)

= 2 3 sin x cos x
= 6 sin2 x cos x

= sec 2x (1 + 2x tan x)

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461

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(b)

d
dx

(cos 2 3x) =

Ex 17.1
9(a)

(cos 3x)2

dx

= 2(cos 3x)

dt
d
dx

d
dx

dy
dx

dx

dy

[(tan 5x)2 ]
d

= 4 2 tan 5x

dx

dx

dt

(3)

d
dx

=?

dt x=
6

= 1 sin x
dy

dx

dx

dt

= (1 sin x) 0.2
= 0.2 0.2 sin x

(tan 5x) + 0

= 4 2 tan 5x (5 sec 2 5x)


= 40 tan 5x sec 2 5x
8(d)

dy

y = x + cos x

[4 tan2 (5x) + 3]

=4

= 0.2,

cos 3x

= 2(cos 3x) (3 sin 3x)


= 6 sin 3x cos 3x
8(c)

dx

dy

dt x=

At x = ,

(x) +3

1
= 0.2 0.2 ( )
2
= 0.1 unit s 1

[(sin 2x)5 ]

dx

+3 5(sin 2x)4

=1

d
dx

(sin 2x)

9(b)

dx
dt

+3 5(sin 2x)4 (2 cos 2x)


+30 sin4 2x cos 2x

=1
=1

[x + 3 sin5 (2x)]
dx

= 0.2 0.2 sin ( )

dy

=?

30 dt x=
3

y = 1 + sin x
8(e)
d
dx

dy

[(1 + x) cos 7 2x]

= (1 + x)

d
dx

(cos 7 2x)

= (1 + x) 7 cos 6 2x

d
dx

+
(cos 2x)

d
dx

dx

(1 + x) cos 7 2x

=
dy
dt

= 2(
= 2(
= 2(
=

d cos 2x 2
(
)
dx 1 x

= 2(

cos 2x
1x
cos 2x
1x
cos 2x
1x
cos 2x
1x

)
)

d
dx

cos 2x
1x

(1x)

d
dx

(1 + sin x)

21+sin x
dy

dx
cos x

21+sin x

dx
dt

30

cos x
601+sin x

dy

dt x=

At x = ,

0.0192 unit s 1

10(a) y = x 2 sin x

d
(cos 2x)
dx

(cos 2x)

dy

d
(1x)
dx

dx

= 1 2 cos x

(1x)2

(1x)(2 sin 2x) (cos 2x)(1)


(1x)2

At stationary value,

2(x1) sin 2x
+cos 2x
(1x)2

dx

4(x 1) sin 2x cos 2x


(1 x)3

1
4(x 1) ( sin 4x)
2
=
(1 x)3
=

=
=

d cos 2 2x
[
]
dx (1 x)2
=

cos 2x
7

= (1 + x) 7 cos 2x (2 sin 2x) + cos 2x


= cos 6 2x [cos 2x 14(1 + x) sin 2x]
8(f)

1
21+sin x
cos x

+1

(1x)3

=0

1 2 cos x = 0
2 cos x = 1

+ 2 cos 2 2x

cos x
=

+ 2 cos 2 2x

+2 cos2 (2x)

(2x2) sin 4x

dy

1st or 4th quadrant

0 x :
x = , 2

= ,
3

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462

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.1

10(b) y = x tan x
dy
dx

y = x + 4 tan2 2x

12

= 1 sec 2 x

dy

= 1 + 4(2 tan 2x)(sec 2 2x)(2)

dx

= 1 + 16 tan 2x sec 2 2x

At stationary point,
dy

=0

dx

1 sec 2 x
sec 2 x
tan2 x + 1
tan x

=0
=1
=0
=0

dy

dx

(0,0)
(, )

(1)

sin 3x
2 cos 3x

y=
dy
dx

(2 cos 3x)

3
2

= 0.983
1st or 3rd quadrant
S

13

2 sin x + 3 cos x = 0
2 sin x
= 3 cos x
=

=0

0 x :
x = , +
= 0.983

cos
3

= 1 + 643

At stationary point,

tan x

= 1 + 16(3)

= 2 sin x + 3 cos x

dx

dy

y = 2 cos x + 3 sin x
dy

= 1 + 16 tan ( ) (

y|x=0 = (0) tan(0) = 0


y|x= = () tan() =
11(i)

= 1 + 16 tan ( ) sec 2 ( )

90 180 270 360

0x
x = 0,

dx x=

(2 cos 3x) (3 cos 3x) (sin 3x) (3 sin 3x)


(2 cos 3x)2

6 cos 3x 3 cos 2 3x
3 sin2 3x
(2 cos 3x)2
3(sin2 3x + cos 2 3x)
(2 cos 3x)2

6 cos 3x

d
d
(sin 3x) (sin 3x) (2 cos 3x)
dx
dx
(2 cos 3x)2

6 cos 3x

3
(2

cos 3x)2

Tangent to x axis,
11(ii)

d2 y
dx2
d2 y

dy

= 2 cos x 3 sin x
|

dx2 x=0.983

dx
6 cos 3x3
(2cos 3x)2

3.61 < 0

max pt

=0
=0

6 cos 3x 3
6 cos 3x

=0
=3

cos 3x

(2 cos 3x)2 > 0

1
2

1st or 4th quadrant

0<x<
0 < 3x < 3

3x = , 2 ,

x
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

2 + , 4

3 3
5

3
7

= , ,
= ,
9

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463

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14(i)

Ex 17.1

Curve & its derivative


y = 1 + cos x
dy
dx

14(ii) Normal:

y = 2x + 1 +
3

= sin x

y|x= = 1 + cos ( )

( ,1 +
6

dy

3
2

=
3
)=
2

dy
dx

( ) [x ( )]
2

= x + + 2 + 3

2
1

12

= x+

1
2

= dy

12

1
|

dx x=
6

y (1 +

3
)
2

y (1 +

3
)
2

= 2x

3
4

1
2

+ 2 + 3

+1+

3
2

3
2

= + 2 + 3

3
2

2x

= 1

(x x1 )

=0
3
2
3
4

Area
1

= (base)

2
1

= 2x + 1 +

(height)

2 6
1 5

= [( + 2 + 3) (

=0

[x ( )]

3
2

= 1

3
2

5
4
5

= (1 +
4

sleightofmath.com

= ( + 3)
2 2
4
= (1 +

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

3
2

( )

+1+

2x + 1 +

y y1

+1+

Normal at x-axis,
y
=0

2y

x+

(x x1 )

x=
6

2y 2 3 = x +

Normal:

y y1
y (1 +

= sin =

dx x=

12

Tangent at x axis,
y
=0

3
)
2

Tangent:

2
3
)
2

=1+

Gradient:

y= x+
( ,1 +

Tangent & Normal


Point:

Tangent:

3
2

3
)
2
3
)
2

3
)]
4

(1 +
(1 +
(1 +

3
)
2
3
)
2
3
)
2

[shown]

464

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

Ex 17.1

y = 2 sin 2x 1
i.e. a = 2, b = 2, c = 1

15(iii) At point where tangent (y = 1)


meets y = 2 sin 2x 1
2 sin 2x 1 = 1
sin 2x
=1

=
2
1st or 2nd quadrant

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

2
b

1
1
3

= 2 sin 2 1

0 < x < 2
0 < 2x < 4

2x = , ,

= ,

Workings
Domain
Axis with
amplitude
Shape
Cycle

0 < x < 2
1 2

+ 2, 3

+ 2
2
5

(taken),

(
16(i)

+sin
20

5
4

, 1)

f(x) = sin x + cos x


f (x) = cos x sin x

=2
At turning points,
f (x)
=0
cos x sin x = 0
sin x
= cos x
tan x
=1

=
4

1st or 3rd quadrant

15(ii) Curve & its gradient


y = 2 sin 2x 1
dy
dx

0 x 2

x = , +

= 2(cos 2x)(2)
= 4 cos 2x

= ,
Tangent
Point:

y|x= = 2 sin 1

f ( ) = sin + cos

= 2(1) 1
=1

dy

2
+
2

dx x=

= 4 cos

( , 2)
4

=0

f ( ) = sin

Tangent: y y1 = m(x x1 )

y 1 = (0) [x ( )]

2
2

= 2

( , 1)
Gradient:

=1

4
2

+ cos

5
4

2
2

= 2
(

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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5
4

, 2)

465

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.1

16(ii) For increasing function,


f (x)
>0
cos x sin x > 0
cos x
> sin x

0x<

dS
d

or

5
4

At stationary value,
dS

64 cos 2 64 sin
=0
cos 2 sin
=0
2
1 2 sin sin
=0
2 sin2 + sin 1
=0
(2 sin 1)(sin + 1) = 0

< x 2

17(i)

<x<

5
4

cos =

AF
8
BF
8

AF = 8 sin
BF = 8 cos

2nd derivative
d2 S
d

A
8 cm
8 cm

C
B
F

= 64(2 sin ) 64 cos


= 128 sin 2 64 cos

d2 S

d2 =

35.8 < 0

max
+area of rectangle
+(BE)(BC)

= (2 BF)(AF)

+(BE)(2 BF)

2
1

or sin = 1 (rej > 0)

= (BC)(AF)
2
1

= ,

Area
S = area of triangle

1st or 2nd quadrant

0<<

By trigonometry
sin =

sin =

= cos
2
= sin

=0

For decreasing function,


f (x)
<0
cos x sin x < 0
cos x
< sin x

= 32(2 cos 2) 64 sin


= 64 cos 2 64 sin

= cos
2
= sin

17(ii) 1st derivative

y = a tanm (x n )
= a[tan(x n )]m

18

dy

= a m[tan(x n )]m1

+64 cos

= a m[tan(x n )]m1

sec 2 (x n )

= 64 ( sin 2)

+64 cos

= 32 sin 2

+64 cos

= a m[tan(x n )]m1
= amn tanm1 (x n )

sec 2 (x n ) nx n1
sec 2 (x n ) (x n1 )

= (2 8 cos )(8 sin ) +(4)(2 8 cos )

dx

= 64 sin cos
1
2

dx

[tan(x n )]
d
dx

(x n )

19(i)
y = (k + x) cos x
dy
dx

= (k + x)

d
dx

cos x

= (k + x) ( sin x)
= cos x
d2 y
dx2

= sin x[(k + x)

sleightofmath.com

(k + x) cos x

+1
cos x
(k + x) sin x
d
dx

(sin x) +

= sin x[(k + x) cos x


= sin x(k + x) cos x
= 2 sin x (k + x) cos x
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

d
dx

d
dx

(k + x) sin x]

+1
sin x

sin x]

466

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19(ii)

d2 y
dx2

Ex 17.1
22(i)

+y

= [2 sin x (k + x) cos x] + [(k + x) cos x]


= 2 sin x [independent of k]
20(i)

d
dx

(sec x)=

dx cos x
cos x

cos x(0)

d
cos x
dx

( sin x)

= LHS [shown]

sin x
cos2 x

=(

1
cos x

)(

sin x
cos x

tan x tan3 x + 2 tan x 3 tan x tan3 x


=
1 tan2 x 2 tan2 x
1 3 tan2 x

cos2 x

22(ii)

d
dx

3 tan xtan3 x
13 tan2 x

)=

= 1 (sec 2x tan 2x)(2)


= 1 2 sec 2x tan 2x

dy

dx x=3

20(iii)

dx
dt

= 2,
=

dt

13 tan2 x

)]|

x=

dy

=3

=?

dy

dx

3
12

y = x + cos x

dx

dy

dt

dx

= 1 sin x

At stationary point,
dy

3.21

sin x cos x (

1sin2 x
2
cos2 x

1 sin x = 0
sin x
=1

1+sin x
1sin x
(1sin x)+(1+sin x)

= sin x cos x (

[sin x cos x (
d
dx

=
1
1+sin x

90 180 270 360

2 x
x = 2 + , , ,

= 2 tan x
k=2

dx

=0

dx

cos2

dy

(3x)

1.61

= sin x cos x (

21(ii)

3 tan xtan3 x

= (1 2 sec 2x tan 2x) 2


At x = 3,
dt x=3

21(i)

dx

d
dx

= 3 sec 2

23(i)
dy

= 1 2 sec 6 tan 6

dt x=3

(tan 3x)

= sec 2 3x 3
= 3 sec 2 3x

20(ii) y = x sec 2x

dx

d
dx

= sec 2 3x

= sec x tan x

dy

= tan 3x

2 tan x
tan x +
tan x + tan 2x
1 tan2 x
=
=
1 tan x tan 2x 1 tan x ( 2 tan x )
1 tan2 x

cos2 x

13 tan2 x

RHS

d
(1)
dx

3 tan xtan3 x

Show:

1
1sin x

3
2

)]

2 tan x

= 2 sec 2 x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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467

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.1

23(ii) Coordinates

= sin x (1 + cos x)
= sin x + sin x cos x
1
= sin x + sin 2x
2

y|x= = + cos ( )
2

=
2

( , )

1st derivative

2 2

dy

y|x=3 =
2

=
(

3
2

3
2
3

+ cos (

dx

at stationary pt:

2
3
2

dy

cos x + cos 2x

=0

3x

2 cos ( ) cos ( ) = 0

= cos x

dx2

=0

dx

2nd derivative
d2 y

= cos x + cos 2x

3x

cos ( ) = 0

d2 y

dx2 x=

0 x 2:

= cos ( ) = 0
2

cos ( ) = 0

or

not max. or min. at ( , )


2 2

3x
2

0 x 2:
x

3:

0 < :
2

d2 y

dx2 x=3

= cos ( )

not max. or min. at (

=0

3
2

90 180 270 360

3
2

3x

90 180 270 360

2
3x

23(iv)

= + cos

= , 2 , 2 + , 4
3

= ,

2 2

3
2

3
2

y|x= = sin ( ) + sin

3
2
3


2 2

x
2

x=

2
5

x = , ,

( , )

1 3
( )
2 2

= 3
4

24

d
dx

(sin x) =
=
=

25(i)
25(ii)

d
dx

[sin (

180

180

180

cos (

( , 3)
3 4

x)]

180

x)

y|x= = sin + sin 2


2

=0
(, 0)

cos(x)

3
( , 3)
3 4

= |sin (1 + cos )|

(, 0)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

, 3)
4

10

3
2

+ (
2

3
)
2

3
= 3
4
5
3
( , 3)
3
4

= sin (1 + cos )
(

y|x=5 = sin ( ) + sin (

sleightofmath.com

468

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.1

2nd derivative
d2 y
dx2
d2 y

0600 1800

2.60 < 0

max at ( , 3)
3 4

=0

not max/min (, 0)

2.60 > 0

min at (

dx2 x=
d2 y

y = sin x

= sin x 2 sin 2x

dx2 x=
d2 y

26

dx2 x=5
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

5
3

, 3)
4

sleightofmath.com

1200

0000

Fastest when gradient is the steepest


0900, 1500, 2100 & 0300

469

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.2
3(b)

Ex 17.2
1(a)

d
dx

(ex + 1) =

dx

dx

1(b)

dx

(4ex 6) = 4

dx
d

=4

dx
x

dy
dx

(ex )

d
dx

3(c)
(6)

d
dx

(xex ) = x

dx
d

(x) ex

3(d)

dx
x

d
dx

ex

( )=

=
d
dx

d x
(e )
dx

ex

xex

= e2x

d
(x)
dx

dy
dx

x2
ex (x1)

4(a)

x2

(e2x ) = e2x

d
dx

(2x)

= e2x (2)
= 2e2x
2(b)

d
dx

dy
dx

d
(e35x )
dx
d
5e35x (3
dx
35x
(5)

(e3x + 7) =

(e3x ) +

dx
3x

=e

d
dx

d
dx

d
dx

(ex + ex ) =

d
dx
x

4(b)

(7)

=e

= ex
= ex

dx

d
(ex )
dx
d
+ex (x)
dx
x (1)

4(c)

+e
ex

=
=
=

dx

= 4e4x1

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

du
dx

dy

du

du
dx

y = 1 + ex
Let u = 1 + ex
y = u

dx

y = e3x . ex1
= e4x1
dy

= 5u4
(1 + ex )
= 5(x + ex )4 (1 + ex )
= 5(1 + ex )(x + ex )4

dy

3(a)

dy
du

y = (x + ex )5
Let u = x + ex
y = u5
dy

(3x) + 0

(ex ) +

5x)

= e3x 3
= 3e3x
2(d)

= 2u
(ex )
= 2(1 ex ) (ex )
= 2ex (ex 1)

= 5e

= 25e35x
dx

3 3

= e2x

y = (1 ex )2
Let u = 1 ex
y = u2

(5e35x ) = 5
=

2(c)

y = e3x
1

x2
ex 1

2(a)

= 2e22x

= (e3x )2

= xe
+1 e
= ex (x + 1)
1(d)

= ex+3

y = (e1x )2
= e22x
dy

(ex ) +

dx
x

(ex ) 0

= 4e
1(c)

ex
x+3

(1)

= ex + 0
= ex
d

e2x+3

=e

(ex ) +

y=

sleightofmath.com

dy
du
1
2u
1
21+ex
ex
21+ex

du
dx

(ex )
(ex )

470

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(d)

Ex 17.2
6(a)

y = x + ex
Let u = x + ex
y = u

y=
dy

dx

=
=
=
=

5(a)

dy

du
1

du
dx

6(b)

2x+ex

= (x + 1)

d
dx

(e2x )

= (x + 1) e2x

d
dx

(2x) +

= (x + 1) e2x 2
= e2x [2(x + 1)
= e2x (2x + 3)
5(b)

dx

d
dx

(x + 1) e2x

dx

=e

2x

+1 e2x
+1]

d
dx

(sin x)

(e2x )

dx
2x

+e

d
dx

dy
dx

6(c)

sin x

2x

(ex

3 +2x

dx
x3 +2x

=xe

= x ex
= ex

3 +2x

d
dx

d
dx

(x 3 + 2x) +1

(3x 2 + 2)

+ex

3 +2x

[x(3x 2 + 2)
3
= ex +2x (3x 3 + 2x + 1)

sin x
=

(x) ex
ex

3 +2x

3 +2x

dx

1x

=e

d
dx

d x
(e )
dx

ex

d
(1+e2x )
dx

(1+e2x )2
(1+e2x )ex

ex 2e2x

(1+e2x )2
ex (1+e2x

2e2x )

(1+e2x )2
ex (1e2x )
(1+e2x )2

(cos 2x)

6(d)

+1]

cos x

cos x

d 3x
d
e
e3x cos x
dx
dx
cos 2 x

cos x 3e3x

e3x ( sin x)
cos 2 x

e3x (3 cos x
+ sin x)
2
cos x

y=

x+e2x
ex

dy
dx
+

d
dx

(e1x )

cos 2x
= e1x (2 sin 2x)
+(e1x ) cos 2x
= e1x (2 sin 2x + cos 2x)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

e3x

3 +2x

y = e1x cos 2x
dy

1+e2x

dx

=
d

ex

(1+e2x )

y=

3 +2x

=x

dy

(2x) sin x

=e
cos x
+e
(2)
2x
= e (cos x 2 sin x)

5(d)

=
=

2x

y = xex

1+ex
+xex
(1+ex )2

= e2x cos x

5(c)

(x + 1) e2x

y = e2x sin x
dy

x(ex )

(1+ex )2

dx

y = (x + 1)e

dx

dy
2x

dy

y=

d
x
dx

(1+ex )1

(1 + ex )

2x+ex
1+ex

d
(1+ex )
dx
x
2
(1+e )

(1+ex )

(1 + ex )

2u
1

1+ex

dx
dy

sleightofmath.com

d
d
(x + e2x ) (x + e2x ) ex
dx
dx
=
e2x
x (1
2x )
e + 2e
(x + e2x ) ex
=
e2x
2x
(1 + 2e )
(x + e2x )
=
ex
2x
1x+e
=
ex

ex

471

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7

Ex 17.2

y = 2ex + 1

9(ii)

dx

= p,

dt x=1
dy
dx
dy

= 2ex

dx x=1

dx2
d2 y

8(i)

= 2ex
|

dx2 x=1

dt

= 2e

d2 y

dy

dy

y = 3e2x

1
e2x
3
dx

10

1
3e2
p

3e2

dx
dt
dx
dt

= p,

dt x=1

at y = 3:
3e2x = 3
e2x = 1
2x = ln 1
=0
x =0

=?

dx

= (

dt x=1

dt x=1

dy

At x = 1,

= 2e

dy

) (p)

Q = ECeRC
t

dQ

= EC (eRC )

dt

d
dt

= EC (eRC ) (
E

t
RC

1
RC

= eRC
R

8(ii)

dy

dQ

= 3(2e2x )

dx

dt x=3

= 6e2x
11(a)
dy

8(iii)

11(b)

6e2x = 3
1

e2x

2x

= ln ( )

2
1
2

1
2

d2 y

2x )(2)

= 6(e

dx2

(e2x1 + x)3
d
dx

(e2x1 + x)

d 2 + e1x
dx tan 2x
d
d
tan 2x (2 + e1x ) (2 + e1x ) (tan 2x)
dx
dx
=
tan2 2x

= ln ( )

= 3(e2x1 + x)2 (2e2x1 + 1)

=3

dx

= eRC

= 3(e2x1 + x)2

Gradient is 3,
dy

d
dx

= 6e2

dx x=1

= 12e2x

tan 2x (e1x )
e1x tan 2x

(2 + e1x ) 2 sec 2 2x
tan2 2x
2 sec 2 2x (2 + e1x )
tan2 2x

d2 y

1
2

1
2

2[ ln( )]

dx2 x=1 ln(1)


2

= 12e

= 12eln2
1
= 12 ( )
2
= 6
9(i)

y=
dy
dx

e2x
6
1

= (2e2x )
6

= e2x
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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472

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.2

11(c)
d x cos x
dx e1x2
=

dx

2 d
(x cos x)
dx

x cos x
2

e1x (x

d
cos x
dx

Gradient:

e1x [x( sin x) +1 cos x]

x cos xe1x (2x)

2 2

dy

dx x=2

= 2e41 = 2e3

(e1x )
2

= 2e2x1

Tangent & Normal


Point:
y|x=2 = e3
(2, e3 )

2 d
d
xcos x) x cos xe1x (1x2 )
dx
dx
2
1x2

2
d
(e1x )
dx

e1x

(e

y = e2x1
dy

e1x

13(i)

Tangent:

e1x (cos xx sin x)

+2x2 cos xe1x

2 2
(e1x )

+2x2 cos x

(cos xx sin x)
2
e1x

(1+2x2 ) cos xx sin x

12(i)

e1x

y=

x
k (e2k

+e

Normal:

x
2k )

y = (e
2

(x x1 )

y (e3 )
y e3
y e3
y

= 2e x (2)]
= e3 (2x 4)
= 2e3 x 4e3
= 2e3 x 3e3

y y1

= dy

dx x=2
3[

(x x1 )

dx x=2

y (e3 ) = (2e3 ) [x (2)]

At k = :
2

dy

y y1

x
1
2( )
2

1
2( )

+e

1
2e3

x+

1
e3

+ e3

= (ex + ex )
=
12(ii)

dy
dx

2
(ex +ex )
2
1

= (ex ex )
=

d2 y
dx2

[verified]

2
ex ex
2

= [ex (ex )]
2
1

= (ex +ex )
2

ex +ex
2

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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473

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.2

13(ii)

14(ii) 1st curve


y = e2x3

= 21

(2, 3 )

dy

= 2e2x3

dx

2 + 2e6

dy

Normal:
1
= 3+

Tangent:
= 2 3 3 3

1
3

= 2e2(2)3
= 2e

+ 3

Point B
At B, tangent (y = 2e3 x 3e3 ) crosses x axis
(y = 0).
y
=0
3 (2x
e
3) = 0
x

dx x=2

2nd curve
y = e3x
dy

= e3x

dx
dy

dx x=2

= e3(2)
= e

B ( , 0)
2

15(i)
Point C

y = 5xex
dy

At C, normal (y =

1
2e3

x+

1
e3

= 5x

dx

3)

+e

=0
1
2e3

1
2e3

x+

1
e3

+ e3 = 0

d2 y

dx2

e3

+e

C(2 + 2e6 , 0)
Area of ABC
1

= (base)

(height)

2
1

dy

dx

= [4 + 4e6 3]
=
14(i)

4
e3 (1+4e6 )
4

= 5ex

d
dx

ex

(1 x) +

d
dx

(5ex ) (1 x)

+(5ex ) (1 x)
(1 x)]
1 + x)

=0
x (1

5e
x) = 0
x
=1
x coordinate of S is 1

e3

At P, y = e2x3 has x-coordinates of 2


y|x=2 = e2(2)3 = e
P(2, e)

(5x) ex

15(ii) At stationary point,

= [(2 + 2e6 ) ( )] (e3 )


2
1

d
dx

= 5ex (1)
= 5ex [1
= 5ex (1
= 5ex (x 2)

= 2 + 2e6

(ex ) +

= 5x (ex ) +5
= ex (5x +5)
= 5ex (1 x)

crosses x axis (y = 0).


y

d
dx

15(iii)

d2 y
dx2
d2 y

at S,
|

dx2 x=1

= 5e1 (1 2)
5

P(2,2e) lies in y = eax


e
= ea2
1 =a2
a
=3

=
e

16(i)

y = ex 2x 1
dy
dx

= ex 2

At stationary point,
dy
dx
x

=0

e 2 =0
ex = 2
x = ln 2
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

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474

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.2

16(ii) y|x=ln 2
= e(ln 2) 2(ln 2) 1
=2
2 ln 2 1
=1
2 ln 2
0.386
d2 y

= ex

dx2
d2 y

18(iii) P|t=25
= 995 000
m(25)
650 000e
= 995 000

dx2 x=ln 2

= eln 2

18(iv)

=2
>0
min at x = ln 2

>0

dx
x

y = ex
dy
dx

25m

= ln (

= ex

2 +2x

= ex

2 +2x

d
dx

( m =

2 +2x

18(vi)

2 +2x

ln 199ln 130
(9)
25

1
sign +

1
0

dP

> 18 000

mP

> 18 000

>

mt

25

650 000e

t t years after beginning of 2006

>

18 000
m
18 000
m
9

>

mt

> ln (

>

t
( m =

325m

1
m

325m
9

ln (

325m

> 28.5
ln 199ln 130
25

t = 29
19(i)

P = 650 000 emt

m = aekt
Initial of 100g
m|t=0 = 100
ae0
= 100
a
= 100

2006 t = 0
P|t=0 = 650 000
dt

(30)

ln 199ln 130

mt

=0
=1
= e1+2
= e [shown]

Max

dP

[shown]

13 000

(x 2 + 2x)

=0

2(x 1)ex
x
y|x=1

18(ii)

25

ln 199ln 130
(8)
25
]

(2x + 2)

dx

18(i)

2 +2x

dy

dx

ln (

25
130
ln 199ln 130

650 000 [e

17(ii) At turning point,

dy

ln 199ln 130

dt

199

130
199

25
P|t=30 = 650 000e
1 083 000

= 650 000 [e

= 2(x 1)ex

17(ii)

130

P|t=9 P|t=8

e 2 >0
ex
>2
x
> ln 2
17(i)

18(v) 2014 t = 8
2015 t = 9

16(iii) For increasing function,


dy

199

e25m

= 650 000memt
= m(650 000emt )
= mP

dP
dt

P [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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475

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.2

19(ii) m = 100ekt

21(iv)

= 20 0.1

th

At 40 h, mass reduces to 90g


m|t=40
= 90
k(40)
100e
= 90
40k
e
= 0.9p
40k
= ln(0.9p)
k
19(iii)

=
(

m = 100e

ln

40

9
10

21

= ab(ebx )
>0
a > 0, b > 0, ebx > 0
increasing for all x

= m|t=0

100e
[

e 40
[

1
40

ln

2
1

1
9
ln ]t
40 10

= (100)

9
10

ln ]t
9
10

]t

2
1

22

y = ae2x + be4x
dy

= ln

f: x a(1 ebx )

f (x) = a(ebx )(b)

Decay to half:
[

dx

= 2ae2x +4be4x

2
d2 y
dx2

1
9
( ln )t
40 10

m = 100e
dm
dt

=(

1
40

ln

10

= ln
20(i)

= a(2e2x ) +b(4e4x )

263h

t
19(iv)

f(x) = a aebx

1
9
ln )t
40 10

9
10

= 4ae2x
(

) 100e

1
9
ln ]t
40 10

= 2a(2e2x ) +4b(4e4x )

1
9
ln )t
40 10

Show:

d2 y
dx2

+16be4x
=6

dy
dx

8y

RHS

n = 20e0.1t
n|t=5 = 20e0.5
33

= 6(2ae2x + 4be4x ) 8(ae2x + be4x )


= 12ae2x + 24be4x 8ae2x 8be4x
= 4a2x + 16be4x
= LHS [shown]

20(ii) n
> 200
0.1t
20e
> 200
0.1t
e
> 10
0.1t > ln 10
t
> 10 ln 10
t
> 23.026
least t = 24
20(iii)

dn

= 20(e0.1t )(0.1)

dt

= 2e0.1t
dn

dt t=15

= 2e0.1(15)
9 snails /week

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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476

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


23

Ex 17.2

y = (2 + 3x)ex

24

dy

ex x = 0
ex = x

dx
d

= (2 + 3x)

dx

(ex ) +

= (2 + 3x) (ex ) +3
= ex [(2 + 3x) +3]
= ex (2 3x +3)
= ex (1 3x)

d
dx

(2 + 3x) ex

ex

y1 = ex
y1 = ex > 0
y1 > y2

y2 = x
y2 = x
<0

x = 0:

y1 = e0 = 1
y1 > y2

y2 = 0

x > 0:

y1 = ex

y2 = x

dy1

dy2

x < 0:
dx2
d

d
(ex ) (1
dx
x ) (1

(1 3x) +

dx

d2 y

= ex

= e (3)
+(e

x
= e [3
(1 3x)]
x
= e (3
1 + 3x)
= ex (3x 4)

3x)

3x)

dx

At stationary point,
dy
dx
x (1

=0
3x) = 0

dy
dx

=e

dy1
dx

>

dx

dx

y1 > y2 at x = 0

&

dx

>

dy2
dx

for x >

0,
y1 > y2 for x > 0

1+

sign +

dy1

=1

dy2

stationary pt exist
Sign Test:
x

ex x = 0 does not have a real solution


y1 > y2 for all x

max
1

2nd derivative at x = :
3

d2 y

1
3

( )

dx2 x=1

=e

[3 ( ) 4]
3

1
e3

=
<0

max at x =

Curve at x = :
3

y|

1
x=
3
1

1
1
1
( )
( )
= [2 + 3 ( )] e 3 = 3e 3
3
1

( , 3e3 )
3

Insert ( , 3e3 ) into y = 3ex


3

1
3

1
3

( )

(3e ) = 3e

[consistent]

( , 3e ) lies on y = 3ex
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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477

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


24

Ex 17.2

Curve Eqn: y1 = ex
Curve Grad:

dy1
dx

25

y = ekx

= ex
dy
dx

= kekx

Line Eqn: y2 = x
Line Grad:

dy2
dx

d2 y

=1

dx2

= k(kekx )
= k 2 ekx

x 0:

y1 > 0
y2 0
y1 > y2

dn y
dxn

26

x > 0:

y1 > 0
y2 > 0
cannot confirm y1 and y2 don t intersect
dy1

x > 0:

dx

= ex > 1 [exponential function is an

increasing function]
dy2
dx

= k n ekx [by inspection]

Exponential function: (constant)variable


(variable)constant
Power function
ex is an exponential function with e as a constant &
x as a constant
It is wrongly treated as a power function & power
rule is wrongly applied.

=1

dy1
dx

>

dy2
dx

y1 > y2
x :

y1
> y2
y1 y2 > 0
ex x > 0
ex x 0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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478

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.3
2(d)

Ex 17.3
1(a)

d
dx

=
=
1(b)

d
dx

d
dx
1

(ln x) +2

=1
(

d
dx
1

(ln x)

dx

3(a)

) =

(1+ln x)

d
(x)
dx

d
(1+ln x)
dx
2
(1+ln x)

1
x

(1+ln x)2
1+ln x
1
(1+ln x)2
ln x

(1+ln x)2

d
dx

ln(5x + 1) =

5
5x+1

[ln(4x 3)2 ] =

=2

d
dx

=
d
dx

ln(8 x 3 ) =
=
=

8
4x3
1

8x3
1
8x3
3x2
x3 8

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

dy

dx x=3

3(b)

(0

(2)

ln(5 2x)

+ ln(5 2x)
+ ln(5 2x)

1
2x5
2

(2)

2x5

2
2(3)5

y = ln(3 2x)

dy

dx

=
dy

dx x=1

1
32x
2

(2)

2x3

2
2(1)3

= 2

(5 2x) +1

(x) ln(5 2x)

Curve crosses x axis,


y
=0
ln(3 2x) = 0
3 2x
= e0
=1
2x
= 2
x
=1
(1,0)

4x3

dx

d
dx

=2

[ln(4x 3)]

=2(

d
dx

y = ln(2x 5)

[2 ln(4x 3)]

dx

2x5

dx

52x
1

52x
2x

dy

d sin x
(
)
dx ln x
d
d
ln x (sin x) sin x (ln x)
dx
dx
=
(ln x)2
1
ln x cos x
sin x
x
=
(ln x)2
sin x
cos x ln x

x
=
(ln x)2

dx

[ln(5 2x)]

Curve crosses x axis,


y
=0
ln(2x 5) = 0
2x 5
= e0
=1
x
=3
(3,0)

ln x

(1+ln x)1

dx
1

(x 1) ln x

+ ln x

2(c)

+1

2(b)

=x

2(a)

(x)

dx 1+ln x

1(d)

dx

=x

[(x 1) ln x]

= (x 1)

+2

x ln(5 2x)

=x

(ln x + 2x)

= (x 1)

1(c)

d
dx

(8 x 3 )
3x 2 )

sleightofmath.com

479

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(c)

y = 3 ln(x 3)

Ex 17.3
4(ii)

At stationary point,
dy

dy

= 3(

dx

=0

dx
ln x1
=
(ln x)2

Curve crosses x axis,


y
=0
3 ln(x 3) = 0
ln(x 3) = 0
x3
= e0
x3
=1
x
=4
(4,0)

ln x = 1
x
=e
y|x=e =

e
=e
ln e

(e, e)
Sign Test
x
3

) (1)

x3

dy

x3

dx

sign

e+

min
dy

dx x=4

3
43

=3
3(d)

y = ln(3x 2)2
= 2 ln(3x 2)

dy
dx

= 2(

dx

y=
dy
dx

d
[ln(x+1)]
dx

ln(x+1)

d
(x+1)
dx

(x+1)2
1
(x+1)
x+1

ln(x+1)1
(x+1)2

ln(x+1)
(x+1)2

>0

dx
1ln(x+1)
(x+1)2

>0

1 ln(x + 1)
ln(x + 1)
x+1
x

) (3)

6
32

>0
x > 1
<1
<e
<e1

Combine inequalities,
1 < x < e 1

=6
4(i)

(x+1)

dy

3x2

For increasing function,

3x2

dx x=1

for x > 1

x+1

=
dy

ln(x+1)

Curve crosses x axis,


y
=0
2 ln(3x 2) = 0
ln(3x 2) = 0
3x 2
= e0
3x 2
=1
x
= 1
dy

y=

x
ln x

=
=
=

d
d
ln x (x) x (ln x)
dx
dx
(ln x)2

ln x1

dC
dt

1
x

x( )

) (1)

t+1
1

t+1

> 0 for 0 t 10

increasing function

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 0.1 + (
= 0.1 +

(ln x)2
ln x
1
(ln x)2

C = 11.9 + 0.1t + ln(t + 1)

sleightofmath.com

480

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.3

7(a)
d
dx

(3x ln x 2
d

dx

2x 3)

[ x ln(x 2 2x 3)]

dx 2
3

dx

= x

[ln(x 2x 3)]

= x
2

x2 2x3 dx

x2 2x3

= x
=

7(d)

( x) ln(x 2x 3)

dx 2

(x 2 2x 3)

3
2

=
ln(x 2 2x 3)
=

+ ln(x 2 2x 3)

(2x 2)

3x(x1)

+ ln(x 2x 3)

x2 2x3

7(b)

Method 1
d
dx

[ln(sin x cos x)]

d
1
ln ( sin 2x)
dx
2
d
1
= (ln + ln sin 2x)
=

2
1

dx

(ln ) +

dx

=0

=0

1
sin 2x
1
sin 2x

7(e)

d
dx

(ln sin 2x)


d

(sin 2x)

(2 cos 2x)

dx

= 2 cot 2x

dx

[ln(sin x cos x)]

d
= (ln sin x + ln cos x)
dx
d
d
= (ln sin x)
+ (ln cos x)
=
=

dx
1

sin x
1
sin x

d
dx

(sin x)

cos x

+
+

dx
1

cos x
1

cos x

d
dx

(cos x)

( sin x)

tan x

= cot x

d
dx

[ln (3 + e

d
dx

=
=

1
x
2

)]

1
d
x
2 )
=
1 dx (3 + e
x
2
3+e

=
=
=

x
3+e 2

1
1
x
3+e 2

d
dx

(3) +

[0 +e

1
x
3+e 2

d
dx
d

1
x2 +1x

1
2

(e

dx

[0 +e2x ( )]

x
e 2
1
x
2(3+e 2 )

2x2 +1 dx

(
(

1
2x2 +1

d
dx

(x)]

(x 2 + 1) 1]

2x

1)

1)

x2 +1

x x 2 + 1
(
)
x 2 + 1 x
x 2 + 1
1
x2 +1

ln [
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx

e2 (3x2)
4x

[ln e2 + ln(3x 2)

ln(4 x)]

[2 + ln(3x 2)

ln(4 x)]

(2) +
+

d
dx
1

3x2

[ln(3x 2)]

d
dx

(3x 2)

(3)

3x2

3x2

dx
d
dx

sin x

d
dx

[ln(4 x)]

1
4x
1
4x
1
4x

d
dx

(4 x)

(1)

[3 ln(x + 2)

+ ln(cos 3x)

ln(sin x)]

[3 ln(x + 2)]

d
dx

[ln(x + 2)]
1

x+2 dx

1
x+2

(x + 2) +

(1)

d
dx

[ln(cos 3x)]

1
cos 3x
1
cos 3x

d
dx

(cos 3x)

( sin 3x)

8(a)

1
cos 3x

d
dx

[ln(sin x)]

1
sin x

d
dx

dx

(sin x)

(3x)
1
sin x

cos x

( sin 3x) 3 cot x

3 tan 3x

x+2

cot x

y = ln(2x 1)
dy

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

ln(sin x)]

)]

( x)]

(x 2 + 1)

dx

+ ln(cos 3x)

=3
d

(x 2 + 1 x)

(x+2)3 cos 3x

1
x2 +1x

d
dx

[ln(x + 2)3

=3

dx

1
x
2

ln [

=3

1
x2 +1x

7(f)

=
7(c)

1
x2 +1x

=0

Method 2
d

1
x2 +1x

dx
d

[ln(x 2 + 1 x)]

dx

2
2x1

no stationary pts

sleightofmath.com

481

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(b)

Ex 17.3

y = ln(3x k)
dy

dx

=
=

3x5
1

dx

10

(3x k)

y = ln(2 + ex )

3x5
3

dx
dy
= 3, |
=?
dt
dt x=1

dy

3x5

dx

Curve cross x axis (y = 0) at x = 2,


6k
= e0
6k
=1
k
=5

(2,0)

Gradient:

dy

dx x=2

Normal:

dt
1
3
(
)
3(2)5

y y1 = dy

1
|

y (0)=

[x (2)]

3
1

11(i)

y = ln(x 2 4)
dy

=
9(ii)

dx

=(

dx

dt x=3
dy

dt

dy

dt x=3

dy

= 2x

dx

dt x=3

x2 4
dx

32 4

3
2e+1

d
dx

(ln x) +

d
dx

(2x) ln x

+2

ln x

=?
11(ii) At stationary point,
dy

dx

=0

dx

dt
dx

2 + 2 ln x = 0
ln x
= 1

dt

dt x=3
2(3)

+2 ln x

x
|

dt x=1

=2

dx
2x

2ex +1

dy

dt

2ex +1
3

= 2x

dy

At x = 3,

) (2x)

= p,

dx

y = 2x ln x

x2 4
2x

x2 4

1
+1

2ex

At x = 1,

dy

9(i)

2+ex

(x x1 )

= x+

(ex )

(ex )

dx

dx x=2

d
dx

dy

2+ex
ex

dy

Normal
Point:

1
2+ex
1

= p,
p

11(iii)

d2 y

dx2

2
x

d2 y

dx2 x=1

= p

2
1
e

( )

= 2e
12(i)

y=
dy
dx

ln x
x2

=
=
=
=

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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x2

d
d
(ln x) ln x (x2 )
dx
dx
x4

x2

1
x

ln x2x
x4

2x ln x
x4

2 ln x
x3

482

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.3

12(ii) At stationary point,


dy

13

=0

dx
12 ln x

= x 2 (ln 1 ln x)
= x 2 (0 ln x)
= x 2 ln x
1st derivative

=0

x3

V = x 2 ln ( )

1 2 ln x = 0
2 ln x
= 1

dV

ln x

= e

dx

= x 2

dx
1

(ln x) +

= x 2 ( )

12(iii) d2 y
dx 2

(x 2 ) ln x

dx

+ (2x) ln x

= x
2x ln x
= x(1 + 2 ln x)

d
d
(1 2 ln x) (1 2 ln x) (x 3 )
dx
dx
=
x6
2
x 3 ( )
(1 2 ln x) 3x 2
x
=
x6
x3

2x 2

dV

x(1 + 2 ln x) = 0
x=0

or

ln x =

(rej 0 < x < 1) x

Sign Test
1

x
dy

x4

dx

6 ln x 5
x4

=0

dx

(1 2 ln x) 3x 2
x6
(1 2 ln x) 3
4
x
3 + 6 ln x

At turning point,

sign

1+

1
e

max

2nd derivative
d2 V

d2 y

|
2

dx x=e

=
=

dx2

6 ln e5
(e)
35

= x

e2

d
dx

(1 + 2 ln x) +

(x) (1 + 2 ln x)
(1 + 2 ln x)

= x ( )

+()

= 2

(1 + 2 ln x)

d
dx

= (2 + 1 + 2 ln x)
= (3 + 2 ln x)
d2 V

dx2 x= 1

= (3 + 2 ( ))
2

= 2
<0 >0
max
14

y
= 2x
ln y = ln 2x
ln y
= x ln 2
diff wrt x:
1 dy

( ) = ln 2

y dx
dy
dx

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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= (ln 2)y [shown]

483

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 17.3

15
y = (2 + x 2 )3 (1 x 3 )4
(1)
ln y = ln[(2 + x 2 )3 (1 x 3 )4 ]
= ln(2 + x 2 )3
+ ln(1 x 3 )4
= 3 ln(2 + x 2 ) +4 ln(1 x 3 )
differentiating wrt x,
1 dy
y

dx

=3
=3
=

dy
dx

1
2+x2
1
2+x2

d
dx

(2 + x 2 )

2x

+4

6x
2+x2
6x

=(

2+x2

+4

12x2
1x3

)y

1
1x3
1

1x3
12x2

d
dx

(1 x 3 )

(3x 2 )

1x3

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


dy
dx

=(

6x
2+x2

= 6x (

2+x2

12x2
1x3

(2 + x 2 )3 (1 x 3 )4

2x
1x3

(2 + x 2 )(1 x 3 )4

=6x[(1 x 3 ) 2x(2 + x 2 )] (2 + x 2 )(1 x 3 )3


= 6x[(1 x 3 ) 4x 2x 3 ]

(2 + x 2 )(1 x 3 )3

= 6x(1 4x 3x 3 )

(2 + x2 )2 (1 x3 )3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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484

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(a)

y=

Ex 17.3

1 5
x
10x ln x

(x+ ) (5+x)ex
1 5
x
10x ln x

(x+ ) (5+x)ex

ln y = ln [

1 5

+ ln(5 + x) + ln ex ln 10x ln(ln x)

= ln (x + )
x

= 5 ln (x + )

+ ln(5 + x) +x x ln 10

ln(ln x)

Diff wrt x,
1 dy

( ) = 5(

y dx

1 dy

( ) =

y dx
dy
dx

) (1

1
x
1
5(1 2 )
x
1
(x+ )
x

x+

) +
+

= y[

1
x2

5(1 2 )
x
1
x

(x+ )

1
5+x

1
5+x
1
5+x

ln 10

1
x ln x

+1 ln 10

+1 ln 10

( )

ln x x
1
x ln x

16(b) y = (cos5 x)(x2 +5)(ln x)


x+1
ln y = ln [

e
(cos5 x)(x2 +5)(ln x)
ex+1

]
+ ln(x 2 + 5) + ln(ln x)

= 5 ln cos x
diff wrt x,
1 dy

y dx

cos x

( ) = 5(

) ( sin x) + (

= 5 tan x
dy
dx

= y (5 tan x +

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+
2x
x2 +5

) (2x) + (

x2 +5
2x

x2 +5
1

x ln x

1
ln x
1

)( )

x ln x

(x + 1)
1
1

1)

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485

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(i)

Ex 17.3

y = ax x ln x

18(ii) y = x ln x
dy

Curve cross x axis:


y
=0
ax x ln x = 0
x(a ln x) = 0
x=0
or ln x = a
(rej x > 0)
x
= ea
17(ii)

dy
dx

= a [x
= a (x

d
dx
1

(ln x) +

d
dx

=x

d
dx
1

(ln x) +

d
dx

(x) ln x

+1 ln x

=1

+ ln x

At stationary point,
dy

=0

dx

1 + ln x = 0
(x) ln x]

+1 ln x)

=x

dx

1
e

e
1

y|x=1 = ln
e

= a (1 + ln x)
= a 1 ln x

1 1

M( , )
e e

At stationary point,
dy

=0

dx

d2 y

a 1 ln x = 0
ln x
=a1
x
= ea1

dx2
d2 y

1
x

dx2 x=1

y|x=ea1 = a(ea1 ) (ea1 ) ln(ea1 )


= a(ea1 ) (ea1 )(a 1)
= ea1 [a (a 1)]
= ea1 (a a + 1)
= ea1
(ea1 , ea1 )
d2 y
dx2
d2 y
dx2

=
|

1
1
e

( )

=e
>0
min without reflection
max at M
19

x x is (variable)variable
x n is (variable)constant Tom is wrong
ax is (constant)variable Doris is wrong

x=ea1

1
ea1

<0

Daves method can be derived as follows


let y = x^x
ln both sides,
ln y = ln x x
ln y = x ln x
Differentiating wrt x,

ea1 > 0

max.
18(i)

= | ln |

1 dy

= x ( )+1(ln x)

( )

=1

y dx
dy
dx
d
dx

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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( )

y dx
1 dy

(x x )

+ ln x

= y(1 + ln x)
= x x (1 + ln x)

486

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


20

Clearly,

Ex 17.3

ln 3x

= ln 3 + ln x
ln x
The derivative might be the same because
the derivative of the constant is ln 3 is 0.

21

No.
d
d
ln|ax| = a ln|x|
dx
dx
For a = 1,
LHS =

d
dx

(ln 3x)

=
=

d
dx
d
dx

(ln 3 + ln x)
(ln 3) +

=0
=
d
dx

(ln x)

d
dx
1

d
dx

ln|x|

RHS = 1
(ln x)

d
dx

d
dx

ln|x| =

ln|x|

1
x

1
x

LHS RHS

1
x
1
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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487

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 17
A2(b)

Rev Ex 17
A1(a)

d
dx

d
dx

(x) 2

= 3(1)

d
dx

(cos x)

A2(c)

d
dx

(tan 3x)

= 2x (3 sec 2 3x)

d
dx

d
dx

A2(d)

A2(e)

=3

d
d
dx

tan 3x

A3(i)

d
dx

d
dx

(3x 2 ) ln x

+6x

ln x

+6x ln x

ex [(2x + 1)
(2x + 1)2

ex (2x1)
(2x+1)2

ln (

=
d

(sin 8x)

d
dx

) =

d
dx

[ln(1 2x) ln(1 + x)]

dx
2

2x1

1
x+1

(cot x) = csc 2 x

sin2 x + cos 2 x
sin2 x
1
= 2
sin x

(x 2 + 2)

= csc 2 x [shown]

[(x + 1)ex ]
dx

1+x

2]

d cos x
(
)
dx sin x
d
d
sin x (cos x) cos x (sin x)
dx
dx
=
sin2 x
sin x ( sin x) cos x (cos x)
=
sin2 x

[sin(x 2 + 2)] = cos(x 2 + 2)

= (x + 1)

12x

Show:

(sin 8x)4
dx

d x
d
(e ) ex (2x + 1)
dx
dx
(2x + 1)2

(2x + 1) ex
ex 2
(2x + 1)2

LHS

= cos(x 2 + 2) 2x
= 2x cos(x 2 + 2)
A2(a)

(ln x)

(2x + 1)

(sin4 8x)

= 96 sin3 8x cos 8x
d

ex

= 3 4(sin 8x)3 (8 cos 8x)

dx

+2 tan 3x

= 3 4(sin 8x)3

A1(e)

+(2e2x ) sin x
+2 sin x)

dx

(3 sin 8x)
dx

=3

(e2x ) sin x

dx 2x+1

(2x) tan 3x

+2

= 6x sec 2 3x
A1(d)

d
dx
1

d
dx

(2x tan 3x)

= 2x

(sin x) +

= 3x

d
d
(sin 2x) sin 2x (x)
dx
dx
=
x2
x (2 cos 2x) sin 2x 1
=
x2
2x cos 2x
sin 2x
=
2
x

dx

(3x 2 ln x) = 3x 2
= 3x 2

A1(c)

d
dx

+2 sin x

sin 2x

d
dx

= e2x cos x
= e2x (cos x

2( sin x)

=3
dx

(e2x sin x) = e2x

(3x 2 cos x)

=3

A1(b)

d
dx

(ex )

= (x + 1) (ex )
= ex [(x + 1)

+1]

= ex (x 1

+1)

d
dx

+1

(x + 1) ex
ex

= xex

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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488

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 17
dy

A3(ii) t = 20 cot
dt

= 20 csc

d
d

dt

= 2(2 cos x)

dx

20

At turning points,

sin

dy

=0

dx
dt

=
4

=
=
=
=

A4(i)

1
20
1

4 sin x cos x sin x = 0


sin x (4 cos x 1) = 0

sin2 ( )
4

2
20 2
1 2

sin x = 0

( )

40

rad s

or

0 < x < 2:

( )

20 4
1

90 180 270 360

y = 1 2 cos 2 x + cos x

x = 0,
Curve meets x axis,
y
=0
1 2 cos 2 x + cos x
=0
2
2 cos x cos x 1
=0
(2 cos x + 1)(cos x 1) = 0
cos x =
=

1
2

or

Sign Test
x

dy
sign

cos x = 1

1
4
1.32
1st or 4th quad.
0 < x < 2:
S A

T C
x = , 2
1.32,4.97
cos x =

+
+

1.32
0

1.32+

4.97
0

4.97+

dx

0 < x < 2:

min at x =

2nd or 3rd quad. 1


0 < x < 2:

90 180 270 360


S A
1

x = , 2
T C
= 0,2 (no
x = , +
solution)
2 4
= ,
3

(cos x) sin x

= 2(2 cos x) ( sin x) sin x


= 4 sin x cos x
sin x

20 csc2
1
2

=
d

d
dx

x
dy
dx

1.32
sign +

max at x = 1.32
x
dy

dx

4.97
sign +

max at x = 4.97
A5(i)

y = xex3

A5(ii)

dy

=x

dx

(ex3 ) +

dx
x3

d
dx

(x) ex3

=xe
+1
x3
= (x + 1)e

dy

dx x=3

ex3

= 4e0
=4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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489

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A6(i)
A6(iii)

Rev Ex 17
A8(ii) n = 40:
18e0.2t = 40

= ln

20
9

20

t = 5 ln ( )

A6(ii) x 2 ex
ln(x 2 ex )
ln x 2 + ln ex
2 ln x + x
2 ln x

= 12
= ln 12
= ln 12
= ln 12
= x + ln 12

ln x
a=

0.2t = ln ( )

1
1
= + ln 12

20

e0.2t =

4
B1(a)

d
dx

(sin 4x 3 cos 2x)


d

(sin 4x)

dx

= cos 4x

d
dx

= x + ln 12

= cos 4x 4

= ax +b

= 4 cos 4x

d
dx

(cos 2x)

(4x) 3( sin 2x)

d
dx

(2x)

3( sin 2x) 2
+6 sin 2x

b = ln 12
2

B1(b)

1.24

dx 1+cos 4x

Draw
1

[(1 + cos 4x)1 ]

dx

= (1 + cos 4x)2

y = x + ln 12

A7(i)

cos (

= (1+cos

1+sin
1sin
(1sin )+(1+sin )

= cos [

= cos (
=

1sin2
2
cos2

B1(c)

d
dx

2
cos

(x cos 2 3x)
d

=x

= 2 sec [shown]

4x)2

dx

(cos 2 3x)

= x 2 cos 3x

d
dx

[cos (
d
dx

=2

1
1+sin

1
1sin

)]

(2 sec )
d

dx cos

=2
=2
=2
= 2(

B1(d)

d
cos (1)
dx

d
1 (cos )
dx
cos2

1( sin )
cos2

sin
cos2
1

sin

cos

cos

)(

B1(e)

+1

(x) cos 2 3x
cos 2 3x

(x 2 3 tan2 4x)
d
dx

(x 2 )3

d
dx

(tan2 4x)
d

(tan 4x)

3 2 tan 4x

= 2x
= 2x

3 2 tan 4x (4 sec 2 4x)


24 tan 4x sec 2 4x

dx

[2 cos(1 x 2 )]

=2

n = 18e0.2t

d
dx

[cos(1 x 2 )]

= 2[ sin(1 x 2 )]

d
dx

(1 x 2 )

= 2[ sin(1 x 2 )] (2x)

n|t=10 = 18e2
133
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

(cos 3x)

d
dx

= 2x

dx

= 2 sec tan
A8(i)

d
dx

cos 0

d
dx

= x 2 cos 3x (3 sin 3x) + cos 2 3x


= x 2 cos 3x (3 sin 3x) + cos 2 3x
= cos 2 3x
6x sin 6x

k=2
A7(ii)

(1 + cos 4x)

(4 sin 4x)

4x)2

4 sin 4x

= (1+cos

d
dx

= 4x sin(1 x 2 )
sleightofmath.com

490

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B2(a)

x2

dx ln 2x

Rev Ex 17
B3(i)

d 2
d
(x ) x 2 (ln 2x)
dx
dx
=
(ln 2x)2
d
ln 2x 2x
x 2 (ln 2 + ln x)
dx
=
(ln 2x)2
1
ln 2x 2x
x2
x
=
(ln 2x)2
ln 2x

2x ln 2x
(ln 2x)2

y = sin 3x + cos 3 x
dy

dy

dx

2(x2 1)

3
2

= 3(0) 3 ( ) ( )

3 3

= ( )
8

d
dx

[ln(2x + 1)] +

dx
2

=e

=
=
=
d
dx

dt

= 0.3,

dx
4

dt

= 0.3,

=?

(e2x ) ln(5 4x)


ln(5 4x)

dt x=

=?

dy

dx

dx
dt

At x = ,
6

dy

dt x=
6

+ ln(5 4x)]

dy

dx
1 1
+ ( e2x )
2
1

54x
4

dt x=

ln(2x + 1)
dx

[ln(5 4x)] +

dy

dt

4x5

dx

dy

= e2x [

B3(ii)

[e ln(5 4x)]

1
x
2

ln(2x + 1)

1
x
2

(x 2 1)

+2x

2x+1

= e2x

dx

d
dx

+2x ln(2x + 1)

2x+1

B2(e)

= (x 2 1)

B2(d)

[(x 2 1) ln(2x + 1)]

B2(c)

= 3 cos 3 sin cos 2

dx x=

(cos x)

2 4
9

= (x 2 1)

d
dx

+3 cos 2 x ( sin x)
3 sin x cos 2 x

= 3 cos 3x
= 3 cos 3x

B2(b)
d

+3 cos 2 x

= 3 cos 3x

dx

= ( ) (0.3)
8

0.338

[ln(x + x 2 + 1)]
1
x+x2 +1
1
x+x2 +1
1
x+x2 +1
1
x+x2 +1
1
x+x2 +1
1
x2 +1

(x +x 2 + 1)

dx

[1

(1

(1

1
2x2 +1
1
2x2 +1
x
x2 +1

x2 +1
x2 +1

d
dx

(x 2 + 1)]

2x)

+x

[x 3 ln(cos 2 x)]
d
dx

[2x 3 ln(cos x)]

= 2x 3
= 2x 3
= 2x 3

[ln(cos x )]

dx
1

cos x
1

(cos x)

( sin x)

cos x
3 sin x

= 2x (

d
dx

cos x

= 2x 3 tan x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

d
dx

(2x 3 ) ln(cos x)

+2(3x 2 ) ln(cos x)
+6x 2 ln(cos x)
+6x 2 ln(cos x)
+6x 2 ln(cos x)

sleightofmath.com

491

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B4

Rev Ex 17

y = sin x cos 3 x

Sign Test
x

dy
dx

= sin x

d
dx

(cos 3 x)
d

= sin x 3 cos x

dx

d
dx

dy

(sin x) cos 3 x

(cos x) + cos x

= sin x 3 cos 2 x ( sin x)

+ cos 4 x

= 3(1 cos 2 x) cos 2 x

+ cos 4 x

= 3 cos 2 x + 3 cos 4 x

+ cos 4 x

sign

(0,0) is not max or min

cos x
x
dy

( ,
6

dy

dx
5

=0

4 cos 4 x 3 cos 2 x
=0
2 (4
2
cos x cos x 3) = 0

16

5+

) is max
5

x
dy

sign +

dx
33

= 4 cos 4 x 3 cos 2 x
At turning point,
dx

+ cos 4 x

= 3 sin2 x cos 2 x

dx

sign +

33
16

) is min

cos x = 0 or cos x =
2

0 < x < :
=

6
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th quadrant
1
0 < x < :
90 180 270 360
x = , , + , 2
1
5

x= ,
6 6
x=
2

y|x= = sin cos 3


2

(0)3

= (1)
=0

( , 0)
2

y|x= = sin (cos )


6

1 3
2 2
1 33

= ( )
= (
=

2
3

16
33

( ,
6

16

y|x=5 = sin

= (
2

=
(

5
6

16
33
16

(cos

3
)
2

5 3
6

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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492

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 17

B5(a) y = 2e4x + 8e4x


1st derivative
dy

4x )

dx

B5(b) y = x ln x 2x
dy

= 2(4e

+ 8(4e

= 8e4x

32e4x

dx

4x )

=0

dx
4x

4x

8e 32e
e4x 4e4x
e4x
e8x
8x

= ln 22
8
2

= ln 2
8
1

B6

= ln 2
4

1
4

4( ln 2)

+ 8e

= 2e

=1
= ln x 1

+ ln x

=0

Curve
y = (2x + c) ln x
dy

ln 2

dx

ln 2

+ 8e

= 2(2)

+8eln2

=4

+8 ( )

= (2x + c)
= (2x + c)

=2+

d
dx
1

(ln x) +

( ln 2 , 8)

dx x=1

2nd derivative

dx2

= 8(4e4x ) 32(4e4x )

Line
2y = 5 3x

= 32e4x

+128e4x
1
4

4( ln 2)

1
x= ln 2
4

ln x

+2 ln x

mnorm = dy

d2 y

(2x + c) ln x

Normal gradient at A(1,0)

dx2

+2

d
dx

=8

d2 y

(x) ln x 2

ln x 1 = 0
ln x
=1
x
=e
y|x=e = (e) ln(e) 2(e)
= e 2e
= e
(e, e)

8
1

1
4

d
dx

+(1) ln x

dx

4( ln 2)

=x( )

dy

= ln 4

y|x=1 ln 2 = 2e

(ln x)

At stationary point,

=0
=0
= 4e4x
=4
= ln 4

d
dx
1
x

At turning point,
dy

=x

= 32e

+128 e

= x+
2

mline =

1
4

4( ln 2)

1
c
2+ +2 ln 1
1

+128 ( )

>0
1

min at ( ln 2 , 8)
4

B7(i)

1
2+c

1
2+c

= 32(2)

+128eln2

1
2+c+0

Normal at A(1,0) line:


mnorm
= mline

= 32eln 2

3
2

2+c

3
4
3

m = 24e8
7

m|t=7 = 24e8
10.0g

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493

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


1

B7(ii) m

= m|t=0
t

2
1

24e8 = (24)

Rev Ex 17
B8(ii) x|t=0 = 26 30e0
= 4

B8(iii) sub x = 25,


26 30e0.2t = 25

= 12

= ln

1
2

= 8 ln

1
2

5.55h
B7(iii)

dm

0.2t

= ln

= 5 ln

= 24 ( e )

dt

= 3e
|

dt t=8

B8(iv)

dx

1
30

= 6e0.2t

dx

dt t=5

= 6e1
2.21 per minute

x = 26 30e0.2t

0.2t
e
0
x
26

x|t=9 = 26 30e1.8
21.0

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

1
30

= 30(0.2e0.2t )

= 3e1
= g h1

B8(i)

30

17.0
dt

dm

e0.2t

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494

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 18.1
4(a)

Ex 18.1

(6x + 3) dx
x2

= 6 ( ) +3(x) +c
1(i)

d
dx

1(ii)

(x 2 + 5x) = 2x + 5

(2x + 5) dx= x 2 + 5 + c

= 3x 2
4(b)

+3x +c

(3 x) dx
1

2(i)

dx 1+2x

)=

= (3 x 2 ) dx

d
d
(1+2x) x x (1+2x)
dx
dx
(1+2x)2

(1+2x)1

x2

= 3x ( 3 ) +c

x2

(1+2x)2
1+2x
2x
(1+2x)2

= 3x xx +c
3
4(c)

= (1+2x)2 [shown]
2(ii)

x3

= 2(

1+2x
2x

=
3(a)

= (3x 2 + 6x) dx
3

4(d)

x4

3(b)
3(c)

(x 1)(x + 2) dx

= 2 ( ) +c
=

+c

4(e)

(5) dx = 5x + c

x3
3

= x +c
3(d)

( x2 ) dx= x 2 dx
= (
=

3(e)

1 x2
2

=
3(f)

2
x

2
1

dx = 2 x

+2xx +c

(2x x) dx

= (4x 2 4x 2 + x) dx
5

x3

x2

x2

= 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 ) + ( ) +c
3

) +c

= x3
3

+c
5(a)
dx

2x2 +3
x2

x2

x 2 x +

+c

dx = (2 + 3x 2 ) dx

= 2x

= 2 ( ) +c

= 2x

1
x2
1
2

= 4x

x2

= (4x 2 4xx + x) dx

) +c

dx

4x2
1

4(f)

+c

2x3 dx = 2 x
= (

x1

x2

= ( ) +3 ( 3 ) +c

3
2

x2

+c

2x +c

x(x + 3) dx

3
3
2

x2

= (x + 3x 2 ) dx

x dx = x dx
=

= (x + 3x) dx

1
2

x2

+3x 2 +c

= (x 2 + x 2) dx

2x 3 dx = 2 x 3 dx
4
1 4
x
2

= x3

) +c

+c

1+2x

x2

= 3 ( ) +6 ( ) +c

(1+2x)2 dx = 2 (1+2x)2 dx
x

3x(x + 2) dx

+3 (

3
x

x1
1

) +c
+c

+c

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495

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(b)

x2 +1
2x2

dx = (

Ex 18.1

2
1 x1

2
1

2 1
1

2x

= x + (
= x
5(c)

x+1
x

8(a)

+ x 2 ) dx

+c

x2

y = 2 ( ) +3 (
2

= x2

2
3

x2

x2

2
3
2

=
=

6(b)

(3x+1)5
(3)(5)
(3x+1)5
15

+c

+c

8(b)

dy

(1x)4

) +c

(1 x)3 dx = (1)(4) +c
=

y = x2 + 1

+c

dx

(1x)4

x1

Curve at (1,5):
5 = (1)2 + 3 + c
c=1

+c

+2x

(3x + 1)4 dx

3
x2

= 2x + 3x 2

) +c

dx = (x + x 2 ) dx

= x

= 2x +

dx

= ( 3 ) + ( 1 ) +c

6(a)

dy

(x 2 1)
dy
dx

= k(x 2 1)
= kx 2 k

+c
x3

6(c)

(2x + 5)3 dx =

(2x+5)2

=
dy
dx

+c

(2)(2)
1 (2x+5)2

= [

y = k ( ) kx +c

2
1

4(2x+5)2

= kx 3
3

] +c
dy

+c

dx
dy

x3
3

=x

=9

k(2) k = 9
3k
=9
k
=3
c|k=3 = 1

x2

y = 3( ) ( ) + c
3

= 9 when x = 2,

dx x=2
2

= 3x 2 x

2
1 2
x
2

kx +c

+c

y = 3 when x = 2,
y|x=2
=3

Curve at (2,4),
1

(4) = (2)3 (2)2 + c

3
2

4 =82+c
c = 2

k(2)3 k(2) + c = 3
k+c

=3
2

=3 k
3

y = x2 x2 2
2

y = (3)x 3 3x +1
3

= x 3 3x + 1
y|x=3 = (3)3 3(3) + 1
= 19

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496

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9

dV
dt

Ex 18.1
12(i)

= 6(2t 1)2 + 1

V = 6 [ (2)(3) ] + t + c

=x

= (2t 1)3 + t + c
V|t=1
(2 1)3 + 1 + c
1+1+c
c

=4
=4
=4
=2

(given)

=
=
=

V = (2t 1) + t + 2
dx
dt

(xx + 1)

=x

(2t1)3

10(a)

d
dx

d
dx

x + 1 + dx (x) x + 1
1

2x+1

+1

x + 1

+x + 1

2x+1
x

+2(x+1)
2x+1

+2x+2
2x+1

3x+2

[shown]

2x+2

12(ii) 3x+2 dx = 2 3x+2 dx


2x+1

= 3t 2 + 2

x+1

= 2xx + 1 + c
t3

x = 3 ( ) + 2t + c

13(a) 6x 1 dx

=t

+ 2t + c

1
2

= (6x 1) dx
Initial radius is 1:
x|t=0
=1
03 + 0 + c = 1
c
=1

=
=

x = t 3 + 2t + 1
10(b)

dA
dt

t2

6x + 5
1

+c

=
= 11
= 11
= 11
= 3

(2x7)1
(2)(1)
(2x7)1
2

+c
+c

= (2x 7)1 +c

13(c)

1
2x7

1
32x

+c
1

dx = (3 2x)2 dx
1

(32x)2
1
2

(2)( )

+c

= 3 2x +c

A = 2t 3 t 2 + t 3
dx

=2

+t +c

Area is 11 when t = 2:
A|t=2
2(2)3 (2)2 + (2) + c
16 4 + 2 + c
c

11(i)

(6x1)6x1

=2

t2

+c

= 2 (2x 7)2 dx

A= 6( ) 2( ) + t + c
= 2t 3

3
2

(6)( )

13(b) 2 dx
(2x7)2

= 6t 2 2t + 1
t3

(6x1)2

d
(6x + 5)
26x + 5 dx
1
=
6
=

26x+5
3
6x+5

11(ii) 1 dx = 1 3 dx
3 6x+5
6x+5
1

= 6x + 5 + c
3
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497

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14

dy

Ex 18.1
15

= x 2 (x k)

dx

dx

= x 3 kx 2
x4

dy

x(2x 2 3)
dy
dx

= kx(2x 2 3)
= 2kx 3 3kx

x3

y = ( ) k( ) +c
=

4
1 4
x
4

3
k 3
x
3

= kx
k

3
8

x2

2
3k 2
x
2

(2, 2) lies on curve,


1

x4

y = 2k ( ) 3k ( ) + c

+c

(2) = (2)4 (2)3 + c

(1,3) lies on curve,

=4

3 = k(1)4

= k6

k
3

+c

(1)

3k

2
1

(1)2 +c

3= k

+c

+c

c =k+3

(1)

(4,2) lies on curve,


1

3
64

(2) = (4)4 (4)3 +c

(2,9) lies on curve,

= 64

9 = k(2)4

= 62

3
64
3

+c

+c

= 62

= 56

56
3

3
56
3

3k

(2)2 + c

9 = 8k 6k + c
9 = 2k + c

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


64

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


9 = 2k + (k + 3)
6 = 3k
k =2

+ ( k 6)
3

k= 56
c|k=2 = (2) + 3 = 5

=3

y = (2)x 4 (2)x 2 + 5

c|k=3 = (3) 6 = 2

= x 3x + 5
y=

1 4
x
4

x +2

16

dy
dx

= x(2 3x)

= 2x 3x 2
x2

x3

y = 2( ) 3( ) + c
2

= x2

x3

+c

Curve at (1,2),
(2) = (1)2 (1)3 + c
c=2
y = x2 x3 + 2
Curve at (2, p),
p = (2)2 (2)3 + 2 = 14

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498

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17

d2 y
dx2
dy
dx

Ex 18.1
18(ii) With c1 = 1 & c2 = 5,

= 6x 16

d2 y

x2

= 6 ( ) 16x + a

dx2
dy

= 3x 16x + a

dx

2
2

= 6x 4

= 3x 2 4x + 1

y = x 3 2x 2 + x + 6
x3

x2

y = 3 ( ) 16 ( ) + ax + b

At max value,

= x 3 8x 2 + ax + b

dy

=0

dx

3x 2 4x + 1 = 0
(3x 1)(x 1) = 0

(0,3) lies on curve,


3 = 03 8(0)2 + a(0) + b
3=b

x=

1
3

or x = 1(min)

y|x=1 = 5

(1,0) lies on curve,


0 = (1)3 8(1)2 a + 3
0 = 1 8 a + 3
a = 6

d2 y

dx2 x=1

4
27

= 2 < 0

max at x =

y = x 3 8x 2 6x + 3
19(i)
18(i)

d2 y
dx2
dy
dx

2x

dx x+1

= 6x 4

)=
=

x2

= 6 ( ) 4x + c1
2
2

= 3x 4x + c1
x3

x2

y = 3 ( ) 4 ( ) + c1 x + c2
=

= x 3 2x 2 + c1 x + c2

dy

dx x=1
2

x+1(2)

2x

1
2x+1

x+1
2x+1

x
x+1

x+1
2(x+1)
x
(x+1)x+1
2x+2

3
(x+1)2

x+2

At min (1,5),

x+1dx2x 2xdxx+1
x+1

[shown]

(x+1)2

=0

3(1) 4(1) + c1 = 0
c1
=1
(1,5) lies on curve,
(5) = (1)3 2(1)2 + c1 (1) + c2
5 = 1 + c1 + c2
5 = 1 + (1) + c2
c1 = 1
c2 = 5

19(ii)

x+2
3
4(x+1)2

x+2

(x+1)2
2x

dx =
4

= (
=

dx

) +c

4 x+1
x
2x+1

+c

20(a) x2 +2x dx
x2 +2x+1
=

y = x 3 2x 2 + x + 5

(x2 +2x+1) 1
x2 +2x+1

= (1

dx

) dx

x2 +2x+1
1

= (1 (x+1)2 ) dx
= [1 (x + 1)2 ] dx
(x+1)1

= x (1)(1) +c
= x+

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1
x+1

+c

499

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 18.1

20(b) 3x2 4x dx
9x2 12x+4
=

22

1
(9x2 12x+4)
3
9x2 12x+4

= [

= [

dx

dx

y=

] dx
(3x2)2

= [ (3x 2)2 ] dx
=
=

(3x1)1

(3)(1)

3
1

dy

+c

4
x3
4
3

) +c

2 3

4
3

= a2 (2x

3 4
x4
12

+ c1 x + c2

= 1
+ c1 = 1
=

2
5

12

4 =
4 =
4 =
c2 =

4
3

+ x ) +c
4

( ) + c1 x + c2

5
3

(1,4) lies on curve,

= 3a2 ( x 2 + x ) +c
3
2

+ c1

1 x4

2
x2

c1

+ c1

3
1 3
x
3

= 3a2 (x 2 + x 3 ) dx
= 3a2 (

x2

dx x=1
13

20(c) 3a2 (x + 3x) dx


1

x3

tangent at (1,4) is y = 5 x,

+c

9(3x1)

3
x2
3
2

=x

] dx

4
3

= 1 x2

=x

9x2 12x+4

dx2
dy

4
3

4
3

d2 y

y=

12
5
12
21

+ c1 (1) + c2

+ c1 + c2
5

+ ( ) + c2
3

c1 =

5
3

4
x2
2

x4
12

21

21(i)
5

d 1

(2t + 1)2 ]

dt 5

3
2

1 5

= (2t + 1)
5 2

d
dt

3 2

d
dt

(2t + 1)

1 3

= (2t + 1)2 2

(2t + 1)2 2

5 2

= (2t + 1)

1 3

(2t + 1) (2t + 1)2

1 5

[ (2t + 1)2

3 2

3
2

(2t + 1)2

= (2t + 1)2t + 1

2t + 1

= 2t + 1[(2t + 1)

1]

= 2t2t + 1
21(ii) t(2t + 1) dt
1
= 2t2t + 1 dt
2
5

1 1

= [ (2t + 1)2
=

2 5
1
10

(2t + 1)

5
2

3
1

(2t + 1)2 ] +c
(2t + 1)2
6

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

+c

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500

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


23(i)

dy
dx

Ex 18.1
24(i)

= kx + c

d2 y
dx2

x2

dy

dx

y = k ( ) + cx + a

x2

= ( ) 18x + a

= x 2 + cx + a
At stationary pt (2, 3):
|

2k + c
c

18x + a

x3

x2

y = ( ) 18 ( ) + ax + b
2 3

= x3
6

=0

dx x=2

2
2
x
2

dy

= x 18

=0
= 2k

(1)

9x + ax + b

Origin (0,0) lies on curve,

0 = (0)3 9(0)2 + a(0) + b

(2, 3) lies on curve,

0=b

(3) = (2)2 + c(2) + a


2

3
3
3

= 2k
+ 2c + a
= 2k
2(2k) + a
= 2k + a

(1,16) lies on curve,

16 = 9 + a + b

(2)

16 = 9 + a

b=0

(0,1) lies on curve,

25 = + a

(1) = (0)2 + c(0) + a

(1)

=1

Gradient at (1,16) is 9,
dy

Put a = 1 into (2):


3 = 4k + 1
2k
=4
k
=2

=9

18 + a

=9

dx x=1

= 27

(2)

sub (2) into (1):

Put k = 2 into (1):


c = 2(2) = 4

25 = + (27 )
6

25 = 27
3

y =

2 2
x
2
2

+ (4)x + 1

= x 4x + 1

dx

a = 27 = 24

= 2x 4

Tangent
Point:
Gradient:
Tangent:

= 6

24(ii) Put = 6 into (2):

23(ii) With k = 2, c = 4:
dy

=2

y == x 3 9x 2 + 24x
(0,1)
dy

= 4

y y1

dx x=0

dy

dx x=0

(x x1 )

y (1)= 4(x 0)
y
= 4x + 1

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501

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 18.1

24(iii) At a = 24, b = 0, = 6,
y = x 3 9x 2 + 24x
dy

26 (a) For f(x) = 1


g(x) = 2

= 3x 2 18x + 24

dx
d2 y
dx2

f(x)g(x) dx = (1)(2) dx
= 2x + c

= 6x 18

At turning pts,
dy

[ f(x) dx][ g(x) dx]


= [(1) dx][(2) dx]
= x(2x) + c
= 2x 2 + c
f(x)g(x) dx [ f(x) dx][ g(x) dx]

=0

dx

3x 2 18x + 24 = 0
x 2 6x + 8
=0
(x 2)(x 4) = 0
x=2
or x = 4
y|x=2 = 20
y|x=4 = 16
(2,20)
(4,16)

26 (b) f(x) dx = 1 dx
g(x)
2
1

= x+c
2

f(x) dx

d2 y
dx2
d2 y

|
|

x=2

dx2 x=4

= 6 < 0

max at (2,20)

=6>0

min at (4,16)

g(x) dx [wrong notation ?]


f(x)dx
g(x)dx

Both are correct


The arbitrary constant can factor in the difference
in constant values.
(x + 1) dx
(x + 1) dx

=
=
=
=

x2
2

2
2

x+a
2x+b
2

f(x)
g(x)

dx

f(x) dx
g(x) dx

+ c1

x2 +2x+1
x2

2 dx

(1)(2)

1 dx

= +d

+x+c

(x+1)2

+ c1
1

+ x + + c1
2

1
c = + c1
2

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502

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 18.2
1(e)

Ex 18.2
1(a)

9 1

2 3x dx = 3 3 x dx

x2

=[1]
2

x2

dx = 4 x 2 dx

= 3[ ]

1 9

2 3

= 2 [x 2 ]

= [x 2 ]53

= 2[x]4

3 2
(5 32 )
2

= 24
1(b)

9 1
1 x 2 dx

= 2[9

4]

= 2(3

2)

=2

x2

=[3]
2

1(f)

3 9

4 3

1 xx dx = 1 x 2 dx

= [x 2 ]
3

x2

=[5]

2
9
= [xx]1
3
2
= (99 11)
3
2
= [9(3) 1]
3

2
5
2

2(a)

1 x3

= [2]
3

2(b)

1(3x 2 2x + 5) dx
0

x3

+5) dx

x2

= [3 ( )2 ( ) +5x]01

+5x]01

= [x

1 1 3

= [(0)3 (0)2 +5(0)]


[(1)3 (1)2 + 5(1)]

1 1

= (

3 3

3 x 2

(4 + 4)

= 1(3x 2 2x

[x 1 ]32
3

18

4x]11

= 8

= [ ]

= (4 4)

3 1 2

= [4(1)2 4(1)] [4(1)2 4(1)]

dx = 2 x 2 dx
3x2
3
= [

= [4x 2

13 )

2
3
= [(23 )3 1]
4
3
= (22
1)
4
1
=2

1 x1

x2

= [8 ( ) 4x]

1(8x 4) dx

3 1

5
2

= (83

62

= 12

3 2 8
= [x 3 ]
4
1

1(d)

1)

12 ]

= (25

8 1 1
1 2 x 3 dx

1
5
2

= [4

= 17
1(c)

=7

)
2

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503

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(c)

Ex 18.2

4(a)

1 (6x 3x) dx
1

= 1 (6x

3x 2 ) dx
4

x2

x2
2

3
2

= (1 + x 2 ) dx

= [3x 2

2x ]

= [3x 2

2xx]1

1
4

= [x

= 32

=3

4(b)

x4

= [ x4 x2 ]

= [(
1

(2)2
2

t2

2
2

t2]

(2)2 ]

[ (1) (1)2 ]
+2

2
1
2

4(c)

= 1 (x 2 x 2) dx

2t) dt

= 2

2t) dt

2 ( )]

= 4

1 (x + 1)(x 2) dx

=[

t
1
[ (2)
1

=0

(2)3

t1

= [

x2

dt

=0

=[

(1)]

4
3

t2
2 1
1 (t2
2
(t 2

= [ (2)4 (2)2 ] [ (0)4 (0)2 ]

x3

x 1
1
] [(1)
(4)

2 12t3

1
=

x2

2 ( )]

1 1
1 4

0 x(x 2 2) dx

=[

=3

= 0 (x 3 2x) dx

3(b)

= [(4)

x1

= [x

= [3(1)2 2(4)4] [3(1)2 2(1)1]

= 31
3(a)

x +1
dx
x2
1
4
1
= (1 + 2 ) dx
x
1
4

= [6 ( ) 3 ( 3 )]
2

4 2

2x]

x
1

2(2)] [

2x 1

(1)3
3

(1)2
2

2(1)]

x2

x2

= [2 ( 3 )

13
6

dx

= 1 (2x 2 x 2 )

= (3 )

= 1

=[ x
3

3
2

= [ xx
3
4

dx
4

( 1 )]
2
1
2

1
4

2x ]

2x]

= [ (4)(4) 2(4)]
3

20
3

[ (1)(1) 2(1)]
3

2
3

=7
3

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504

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(d)

1
32x2

x2

x1
1

= [

1.5 )

dx

x 2
1

2x

= [ (9) +

)]
1

4 9

4
(9)

[ (1) +

4
(1)

6(a)

2 1 1
1 1 2
x ]
2
1
1 2

2x

2x 1
1

2(2)

2(1)

] [2(1)4 2(1)

4
1

1
2

1 x(x a)(x + a) dx
0

= x(x 2 a2 ) dx
= (x 3

3
2

1
2

=[
=[

1
2

x4

x4
(0)4

1
4

=0

a2

4x ]

2
3

[ (1)(1) 4(1)]
3
10

6(b)

0
a2 x2

=[

x2

a2 ( )]

= [ (4)(4) 4(4)]

a2 x) dx

= [ xx 4x]
3

a2 (0)2
2

] [

(1)4
4

a2

a2 (1)2
2

0 x(a x) dx

5(b)

)]

= 2

1 x1

x4

3
2

) dx

= 28

4
2
1 (x ) dx
x
4
1
1
= (x 2 2x 2 ) dx
1
3
1 4
x2
x2

2x2
1 2
2

= [2x 4

x 1

=[ x

+ x

2x

=0

=[

= [2x 4

= 27

=1

5(a)

) dx

= [2(2)4 2(2)

1 9

+ 4x 2 ]
+

2
1 (8x 3

= [8 ( ) 2x + (

) 2(

[3x 1

1 (8x 3
=

dx

9
1 (3x 2

= [3 (
=

5(c)

3 2x
dx
x2

=
=

Ex 18.2

= (ax x) dx

1 (x 2 x2 ) dx
= (x 2

4x 2 ) dx

x3
=[
3
x3
=[
3

x2

= [a ( 3 )

4(

x 1
)]
1 1

+ 4x 1 ]
1

[ (1)3 + (1)]

=4

3
1

=
3

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

x2
2

x2

0
4

2 0
x2

2 0

(4)2

= [ a(4)(4)

= [ (2)3 + (2)]
3
2

= [ axx
3

1
4
= [ x3 + ]
3
x1
4

= [ ax 2

= 0 (ax 2 x) dx

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16
3
16
3

a8

(0)2

] [ a(0)(0)

a8

505

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(c)

2 2t2 +a

Ex 18.2
8

dt

t2
2

= (2 + at 2 ) dt

= [2t

t1

)]

1 1
1 ]2
at 1
a2
a

= [2(2) (2)] [2(1) (1)]


=4
a

=[

x2

3x

2)

1
12
1
12

x2

x3

[2x 2 ]1a

= [3x 2
2(1)

= [3(1)

2a2 2

=2

2a2 2

= 2

2a

9(i)

x 3 ]12
2

(1)3 ]

(2x 3)3

(2(1) 3)3 +

=0

=0

dy
2

[3(2)

(2)3 ]

dx

+2

=x

d
dx

=x[

=
=
=

1
12

4(2x3) 0
7

4(2(1)3)

(2(0) 3)3 +

4(2(0)3)

5
6

y = x1 + 2x 2

=0

1
7 (2x3)1
[
]]
2 (2)(1)
0

=1

dx

= [6 ( ) 3 ( )]

7(b)

1
2 (6x

[4 ( )]

2(a)

= 1

a
1 4x dx

= +2
7(a)

1 1

2 + a

dx

1 (2x3)3
[ [ (2)(3) ]
2

=[

= [2t ]
t 1
a

2(2x3)2

= 0 [ (2x 3)2 (2x 3)2 ] dx

= [2t + a (

1 (2x3)4 7

1 + 2x 2
1

21+2x2

(4x)]

2x2

d
dx

+1

(x) 1 + 2x 2
1 + 2x 2

+1 + 2x 2

1+2x2
2x2

+(1+2x2 )
1+2x2

1+4x2
1+2x2

[shown]

2 3(2 + x)2 dx

= 64

k
3 2(2

= 64

= [x1 + 2x 2 ]0

= 64

= (2)1 + 2(2)2 (0)1 + 2(0)2

+ x)2 dx

3 2(x 2 + 4x
[
[
[

x3

3
(k)3
3

[
1
3
1
3

x2

+ 4 ( ) + 4x]

3
x3

+ 4) dx

+ 2x

+ 4x]

+ 2(k)2 + 4(k)]
(2)3
3

+ 2(2) + 4(2)]

k 3 + 2k 2 + 4k +

k 3 + 2k 2 + 4k

56

3
3

k 3 + 6k 2 + 12k 56
(k 2)(
+
+ )
2
(k 2)(k +
+ )
2
(k 2)(k +
+ 28)
2
(k 2)(k + 8k + 28)
k=2
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

9(ii)

2 1+4x2

1+2x2

dx
2

=6

64
3

=6

64
3

10(i)

64

Prove: (x 4)(x 2 + 4x + 16) = x 3 64


LHS = x 3 +4x 2 +16x
4x 2 16x 64
= x 2 64 [proven]

3
64
3

=0
=0

=0

sleightofmath.com

506

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 18.2

10(ii) 3 x3 64 dx
1 x4
=

12(ii) C| = 24 000 [10 + 4 (354 )]


x=3
5

3 (x4)(x2 +4x+16)
dx
1
x4
3

= 1(x 2 + 4x
=[
=[
=[

x3

$316 000

+ 16) dx

x2

+ 4 ( ) + 16x]

3
x3

+ 2x 2

3
(3)3
3

12(iii) C| = 24 000 [10 + 4 (554 )]


x=5

+ 16x]

$384 000
13

dV
dt

= 20 000 (t 6)

= 20 000t 120 000

+ 2(3) + 16(3)]
[

= 75

(1)3
3

+14

Net change in Value

+ 2(1)2 + 16(1)]

= 0 [20 000t 120 000] dt

1
3

= 89
3

11(i)

2
0 x dx

x2

t2

= [20 000 ( ) 120 000t]

= [160 000 480 000 (0)]

=[ ]

= $320 000

2 0

= [x 2 ]20

Total loss = $320 000

2
1

= (22 02 )

14(i)

2
1

Given: 0 f(x) dx = 3 f(x) dx = 12

= (4)
2

11(ii)

|x| dx
2
2

= 2|x| dx

+ 0 |x| dx

= [ ]
2

] [

(2)2
2

= [x]83
=83
= 29

] +2

=2
=4

+2

C = 8000 (30 +

+2(12)
+24

14(iii) 8 2f(x) dx
3
=

12(i)

+12

+2

2 2

=[

= 12
= 24

= 3 1 dx +2 3 f(x) dx

+ 0 x dx

(0)2

14(ii) 8[1 + 2f(x)] dx


3

= 2(x) dx
x2

0 f(x) dx = 0 f(x) dx + 3 f(x) dx

=2

x 1
3 0 t 4 dt)

8
2 3 f(x) dx

= 2(12)
= 25

x 1

+1
+1
+1

= 24 000 (10 + 0 t 4 dt)


x

t4

= 24 000 [10 + [ 5 ] ]
4

0
5
4

= 24 000 [10 + [t ] ]
5

4 5

= 24 000 [10 + x 4 ]
5

C|x=1 = 24 000 [10 + (1)]


5

= $259 200

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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507

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 18.2

3 [f(x) mx] dx
8

3 f(x) dx m 3 x dx
x2

=0

m [ ]

12

=0

2 3
m 2 8
[x ]3
2
1
2

12

=0

2
1

12

m(55)

=0

12

=0

55
2

2
55
2

= 2 0 x 2 dx

Given:

= 2m
16(ii) 1(x 2 ) dx = 1 x 2 dx
0
0
(c)
= m

= 12

m
15(i)

= 2 1 x 2 dx

m[(8) (3)2 ] = 0

12

1
16(ii) 1 x 2 dx = 0 x 2 dx
+ 0 x 2 dx
1
1
(b)
0
0
= 1 x 2 dx
+ 1 x 2 dx
(equal area under curve)

=0

=
4
3 f(x) dx
4
1 f(x) dx

24
55

17

a f(x) dx 0
Not True

=a
In theory

=b

f(x) dx algebraic area geometric area

3 f(x) dx = 3 f(x) dx 1 f(x) dx


=ab

For example

15(ii) 3 2f(x) dx = 2 3 f(x) dx


1
1

= 2 3 f(x) dx

= ()

= 2(a b)
= 2b 2a

16(i)

Algebraic area = P Q
Geometric area = P + Q

Clearly
f(x) can be negative between a and b
16(ii) 1 x 2 dx = 0 x 2 dx (equal area under curve)
0
1
(a)
1
0 x 2 dx

=
=

0
1 x 2 dx
1
0 x 2 dx

18

symmetry in y axis

In order to compute
b

f(x) dx
a

f(x) must be continuous [no gaps] for a x b


x 0 [gap]

= m

1
dx cannot be computed
2
1 x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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508

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 18.3
2(e)

Ex 18.3
1(a)

1(b)

1(c)

2(a)

06 (3 cos x 2) dx

(sin x + 2) dx
= ( cos x) + 2x + c
= cos x + 2x + c

= [3(sin x) 2x]06

(1 3 cos x) dx
= x 3(sin x) + c
= x 3 sin x + c

= [3 sin ( ) 2 ( )] [3 sin(0) 2(0)]

2x]06

= [3 sin x

= [3 ( )

(5 sec x + 3) dx
= 5 tan x + 3x + c

3(a)

cos 2x dx = 2 sin 2x +c

3(b)

sin 3x dx = 3 cos 3x +c

3(c)

2 cos 4x dx = 2 cos 4x dx

0 cos x dx = [sin x]06

2
1

= 2 ( sin 4x) +c

= sin 4x +c
2

0 sec x dx = [tan x]0

3(d)

= tan ( ) tan(0)

3 sin 2 x dx = 3 sin 2 x dx

=1
= 1

= 3 ( 1 cos x) +c

= 6 cos x
2

2(c)

0)

= sin ( ) sin(0)

2(b)

(0

+c

02 sin x dx = [ cos x]02

3(e)

4 sec 2 5x dx = 4 sec 2 5x dx
1

= 4 ( tan 5x) +c

= [cos x]02

= tan 5x +c
5

= [cos ( ) cos(0)]
2

= (0

1)

4(a)

=1

2 cos (2 + 1) dx
x

= 2 cos ( + 1) dx
2

2(d)

02 (1 2 sin x) dx
= [x
= [x +

2( cos x)]02

2 cos x]02

=(
=

(0

+c

= 4 sin ( + 1)
2

4(b)

+ 0)

= [( ) + 2 cos ( )] [(0) + 2 cos(0)]


2

= 2 [ 1 sin ( + 1)] +c

+ 2)

3 sin(2 x) dx
= 3 sin(2 x) dx
= 3 [

1
1

cos(2 x)] +c
+c

= 3 cos(2 x)
4(c)

4 sec 2 (8x 4 ) dx

= 4 sec 2 (8x ) dx
4

= 4 [ tan (8x )] +c
8

= tan (8x )
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

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+c
509

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(a)

Ex 18.3

(sec 2 x 4 sin x) dx
= tan x
4( cos x) +c
= tan x + 4 cos x +c

9(a)

12

cos (2x + 3 ) dx
1

= [ sin (2x + )]
5(b)

5(c)

(3 cos x 2 sin x) dx
= 3 sin x 2( cos x)
= 3 sin x + 2 cos x
(4 cos x
= 4 sin x

+c
+c

12

= [sin (2x + )]

12

12

= [sin (2 ( ) + ) sin (2 ( ) + )]

+ 3 sec 2 x) dx
+ 3 tan x +c

= (sin

sin )

= [0

0 (1 + tan2 x) dx = 0 sec 2 x dx

=
2

= tan tan 0
4

9(b)

2 sin( x) dx
2

= 1 0

= 2 sin( x) dx
2

=1

= 2 [

04 [sec 2 x + 1] dx
= [tan x +

=1

= 2[cos(0)

cos ( )]

= 2(1

0)

=2

[ sin(2x + 1)] dx

9(c)

= sin(2x + 1) dx

=[

= [ cos(2x + 1)] +c

+c

= cos(2x + 1)
2

=[

=[

cos (2x + 4 ) dx = 2 sin (2x + 4 ) + c

0 [x cos ( 3 6 x)] dx
x2

8(c)

x)]
2

= + 1 [shown]

8(b)

cos( x)]

= 2[cos( ()) cos ( ( ))]

= 2[cos(

x]04

= [tan + ] [tan 0 + 0]

8(a)

1)

= [tan x]04

x2

0
1

+ sin ( x)]

2
(1)2
2

+ sin ( (1))]
[

6 sin(3x + 2) dx
= 6 sin(3x + 2) dx

=[

= 6 [ cos(3x + 2)] +c

=[

= 2 cos(3x + 2)

sin ( x)]

+c

1
1

6 1

+ ( )]

=(

+ sin ( )]

+ )

(0)2
2

+ sin ( (0))]

[0

+ sin ( )]

[0

+ ( )]

6 3
2

33

= + (3 33)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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510

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(d)

Ex 18.3

dx

= [ cos 5t]
5

12(a)

0 sin 5t dt

sin(x 2 + 2x)

= cos(x 2 + 2x)

d
dx

(x 2 + 2x)

= cos(x 2 + 2x) (2x + 2)

1
= [cos 5t]0
5

= (2x + 2) cos(x 2 + 2x)

= (cos 5 cos 0)
5

12(b) (x + 1) cos(x 2 + 2x) dx

= (1

1)

= (2x + 2) cos(x 2 + 2x) dx


2

= sin(x 2 + 2x) + c

10(i)

d
dx

(x cos x)

=x

d
dx

(cos x) +

d
dx

(x) cos x

= x ( sin x) +1 cos x
= cos x
x sin x

13
Both are correct
The arbitrary constant can factor in the differences in
constant value
sin x cos x dx
1

10(ii) d
(x cos x) = cos x x sin x
dx
d
x sin x
= cos x x cos x
dx

x sin x dx = (cos x dx x cos x) dx


= sin x
11

x cos x +c

(sin x cos x)2 dx


= (sin2 x 2 sin x cos x + cos 2 x) dx
= (sin2 x + cos 2 x 2 sin x cos x) dx
= (1
sin 2x)
dx
1

=x

( cos 2x)

=x

+ cos 2x

=x

+ (1 2 sin2 x) +c1

=x

+ sin2 x

+c1

=x

sin2 x

+ + c1

=x

sin2 x

+c

1
2
1
2
1
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= sin 2x dx
2

cos 2x

= (

+ a)

4
1

= cos 2x + a
1

4
cos2 x

= [1 2 sin2 x] + a or = [2 cos 2 x 1] + a
=
=

4
sin2 x
2
sin2 x
2

+ a

+ c1

2
cos2 x
2

+ + a
+ c2

+c1
+c1

1
2

sleightofmath.com

511

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 18.4
2(c)

Ex 18.4
1(a)
1(b)

2x

dx =

3x

2e

1 2x
e
2

1(c)

dx

1
2 ( e3x )
3
2 3x
e
+c
3

= 2[e

= 2(

2(d)

1)

1 e1x dx = [1 e1x ]

2
1
x
2

= 2 (2e ) +c
1

= 4e2x

= [e1 e0 ]

4e2x+1 dx = 4 e2x+1 dx
1
4 ( e2x+1 )
2
2x+1

= [

+c

1x )

1
e

2(e)
+c

ln 5

5
(ex + 1) dx = [ex + x]ln
0

= [e(ln 5) + (ln 5)] [e(0) + (0)]


= 5 + ln 5 1
= 4 + ln 5

= 3(e1x ) +c
= 3e1x +c
2

2(f)

0 ex dx = [ex ]20

1]

=1

+c

3e1x dx = 3 e1x dx
1

[e1x ]12

= [e1(2) e1(1) ]

+c

= 2e

= e e
= e2 1
2(b)

2e dx = 2 e dx

= 2 ( 1 e2x ) +c

2(a)

(0)

= 2(1 )

1
x
2

= 3(

e2

= 2(e1 1)

1(f)

1
(2)
2

e2x dx= 2 e2x +c

1 2
[2e2x ]
0

1(e)

1
x
2

x
1e 2 ]

= 2 [e2x ]

+c

= e2x +c
1(d)

dx= 2 e

=[

+c
3x

2 1x
0 e 2 dx

ln 2

ln 2 3x

5e3x dx = 5 0

ln 2

= 5 [ e3x ]

1
1
1
0 e2x dx = [2 e2x ]
0

dx

5 3x ln 2
[e ]0
3
5

1 2x 1
[e ]0
2
1
= [e2 e0 ]

= [e3(ln 2) e3(0) ]

= [e2 1]

= [8

3
5

= [eln 2
3

2
1

1]
1]

= 11
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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512

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3

dy

Ex 18.4
5(c)

= e2x

dx

y=

1 2x
e
2

1 2

2x

dx = 2

= 2[

+c

ln|2 x|]

1 2x
e
2

= 2 ln 2

5(d)

+2

1 2
e
2

3
2+3x

dx = 3 0

1
2+3x

dx
1

= 3 [ ln|2 + 3x|]
3

4(a)

= 2(0 ln 2)

e2

=2

y=

= 2(ln 1 ln 2)

+c =2

dx

= 2[ln|2 x|]10

y = 2 when x = 1,
y|x=1 = 2
1 2
e
2

1
2x

x dx = 2 x dx

= [ln|2 +

= 2 ln|x| + c

= ln 5 ln 2
5

= ln

4(b)

x+1 dx = ln|x + 1| + c

4(c)

2x1 dx = 2 ln |2x 1| + c

4(d)

2x+1 dx = 3 2x+1 dx

3x|]10

6(a)

dy
dx

1
2x+1

y = ln|2x + 1| + c
2

= 3 ln|2x + 1| +c
2

= ln|2x + 1|
2

4(e)

12x dx = 2 12x dx
=2

1
2

43x dx = 3 ln|4 3x|

+c
+c

= ln|4 3x| +c
5(a)

1
2
1

y = ln|2x + 1| +
6(b)

dy
dx

44
1 x dx

ln|1| + c = 0.5

ln|1 2x| +c

= ln|1 2x|
4(f)

y = 0 when x = 0,
y|x=0 = 0.5

+c

1
32x
1

y = ln|3 2x| + c
2

41
4 1 dx
x

= 4[ln|x|]14

y = 2 when x = 1,
y|x=1
=2

= 4(ln 4 ln 1)

ln|1| + c = 2

= 4 ln 22

1
2

= 8 ln 2

=2
1

y = 2 ln|3 2x|
5(b)

1 2
0 2x+1 dx

1 1
2 0
dx
2x+1
1

= 2 [ ln|2x + 1|]
2

= [ln|2x +

1|]10

= ln 3 ln 1
= ln 3

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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513

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(a)

Ex 18.4

9(i)

x
x
0 (e3 + e 3 ) dx
1

= (e3x + 2 + e3x ) dx
4

1
3

3 4

4
(0)
3

[ e
4

3 4

= ( e3
3

7(b)

ex

B
32x

A=1

=B

9(ii)

3 4(0)
e 3 ]
4

B = 2

1
1x

2
32x

(1x)(32x) dx
= (

3 4
e 3)
4
3

1
1x

2
32x

) dx

= ln|1 x| + ln|3 2x| + c

= ln |

10

1 ex +e2x

(1x)(32x) =

= (e e ) + 2
4

=A

1
1
( )(
2

+0

4
3

+ 2(0)

+2

4
(1)
3

+ 2(1) e

A
1x

=[ e
4

1
( )(1)

x= :

e3x ]

4
(1)
3

e3x ]

= [ e3x + 2x

x = 1:

Cover-up rule:

= [ 4 e3x + 2x +

1
(1x)(32x)

dy
dx

32x
1x

|+c

= (x1)(x2)

A
x1

B
x2

dx
Cover-up rule:

= (e2x + e3x ) dx
0
1

= [ e2x

+ e3x ]

2
1

1 3
e )
3

1 0
e )
3

x = 1:

1
( )(1)

x = 2:

1
(1)( )

=A

=B

A = 1
B=1

= [ e2(1) + e3(1) ] [ e2(0) + e3(0) ]


=

8(i)

1
( e2
2

dx

1
x1

1
x2

= e2 + e3

y = ln|x 1| + ln|x 2| + c

2x1
(x+1)(x+2)

y = 2 at x = 3,
y|x=3
=2
ln 2 + ln 1 + c = 2
c
= 2 + ln 2

A
x+1

B
x+2

Cover-up rule:
x = 1:
x = 2:

3
=A
( )(1)
5
=B
(1)( )

2x1

(x+1)(x+2) =
8(ii)

dy

3
x+1

A = 3
y = ln|x 1| + ln|x 2| + 2 + ln 2

B=5

= ln |
+

5
x+2

2x4
x1

|+2

2x1
dx
(x+1)(x+2)
2

3
5
) dx
+
x+1 x+2
1
= [3 ln|x + 1| + 5 ln|x + 2|]12
= [3 ln 3 + 5 ln 4]
[3 ln 2 + 5 ln 3]
2
= 3 ln 3 + 5 ln 2
+3 ln 2 5 ln 3
= 13 ln 2 8 ln 3
= (

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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514

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

1
(x2)(x1)2

x2

Ex 18.4
B

1
12(ii) 5
dx
3 (x+3)(x2)2

x1

+ (x1)2

5 1

= 3

Cover-up rule:
1
( )(1)2

x = 2:

=A

25 x+3

1 5 1
[
25 3 x+3

x2
1
x2

+ (x2)2 ] dx
+ 5(x 2)2 ] dx

A=1
=
1
(1)( )2

x = 1:

=C

C = 1

Substitution:

1
(2)(1)2

x = 0:

+ (1)2

= 1

1
(x2)(x1)2

=
=

11(ii)

1
x2
1
x2

x1
1

x1

1
(x1)2
1
(x1)2

5
1
3 (x2)(x1)2 dx

13(i)

1
1
1
] dx
= [

x 1 (x 1)2
3 x2
=

5 1
3 [x2

1
x1

(x 2)

2 ]

= [ln|x 2| ln|x 1| [

1
(x+3)(x2)2

(x1)1

x+3

x2

1
25
1
25

1
( )(5)2

x = 2:

1
(5)( )2

10

[ln ln 6 +
4

10

[ln ( ) +

10

10

[2 ln +

y = ecos x
= ecos x

d
dx

(cos x)

= sin x ecos x dx

C
(x2)2

=A

1
25

x+3
1

= (ecos x )

+( cos x) +c

= ecos x

cos x

2 e3x

ex1

2 ex

dx = 0

ex1

1
25

x2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

C
4

+
1

x2

+c

dx

C=

25 x+3

+ sin x dx

= 0 e dx

A=

=C

2 2

[ln ( ) +

14(b)

25

(e3

1
1
3

x1

B=

3 cos 2x) dx

1
2

= 3e3x1 sin 2x
2

= 2e

e3x1 3 ( sin 2x) +c


1

(x+3)(x2)2 =

13(ii) sin x (ecos x + 1) dx

Substitution:
3(4)

x2 3

= e[x]20

x = 3:

x2

[[ln | | ] [ln | | 5]]

Cover-up rule:

x = 0:

x+3

]]

]]

14(a)
B

1
25

[ln |

= sin x ecos x dx + sin x dx

1
25

dx

= ln +
12(i)

1
25

[ln|x + 3| + ln|x 2| + 5 [

(x2)1

= ecos x ( sin x)
= sin x ecos x

= [ln | | + ] [ln | | + ]
4

1
25

dx

x2
1
|+
]
= [ln |
x1
x1 3

25

dy

+c

25

1
5

(x2)2
5

+ (x2)2 ]

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515

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

dy
dx

Ex 18.4
16(ii) sec x dx = ln(sec x + tan x) + c

2x2 +1

e2x

x
3

17

= 2x 2 +x 2 e4x
5

x2

x2

2
1
2

x
1
x
4
1

4
1
x
4

y = 2( 5 ) + ( 1 ) (
4 5

= x2
5

+2x

+c

4
5

(0)2 + 2(0)2 + 4e4(0) + c = 2

4e0 + c
c
y=

4 2
x x
5

=2
= 2
+ 2x + 4e

1
4

x2 +a
x+a

18

x2
2

+a
a2 )
a + a2

a+a2
x+a

) dx

ax +(a + a2 ) ln|x + a| + c

Recognize that the derivative of


ln(x) is also
d

+a

dx

= (x a +

=2

+a

a
+0x
+ax)
ax
(ax

) +c

+4e

y = 2 when x = 0,
y|x=0

x
x2
(x 2

dx

ln(x) =

1
x
1

x dx
1

(x)

= (1)
16(i)

d
dx

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

ln(sec x + tan x)
1
sec x+tan x
1
sec x+tan x
1
sec x+tan x
1
sec x+tan x
1
sec x+tan x
1
sec x+tan x
1
sec x+tan x

d
dx

dx

[(cos x)1 ]

[(cos x)2

d
dx

possibility that the integral of can be either ln x +


x

+ sec 2 x]

c or ln(x) + c

(cos x) + sec 2 x]

19

[(cos x)2 ( sin x) + sec 2 x]


(
(

sin x

+ sec 2 x)

cos2 x
1
cos x

The modulus sign is included to account for the

(sec x + tan x)

sin x
cos x

+ sec 2 x)

(sec x tan x + sec 2 x)

d
dx

(ex ) = 2xex

eax+b dx =
but ef(x)

eax+b
a
ef(x)
f (x)

+c

+c

The student factored out the variable (2x)


outside the integral which makes it wrong.

sec x(tan x+sec x)


sec x+tan x

= sec x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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516

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 18
A3(i)

Rev Ex 18

x3

3 ( ) + c

4
x4

x3

+c

A1(b) 2x2 x dx
x

=
1

= (2x x 2 ) dx
x2

1
2

= 2( )
= x2

+c

A2(a) (2 + ex )2 dx
= (e2x + 4ex + 4) dx
1

= e2x +4ex + 4x + c
2

A2(b) e3x 2 dx = (e2x 2ex ) dx


ex

A2(c)

sin2 x

1 2x
1
e 2 ( ex )
2
1
1 2x
e +2ex +c
2

+c
A3(ii)

1
2

1cos x
4

dx

0 (cos x 3 sin x) dx

= 2
4

1+cos
2

sin
2

= [sin + 3 cos ] [sin 0 + 3 cos 0]


2
2

= [(

2
2

[0 + 3]

+ 3 ( )]

= [(

= 22 3

dx

1+cos x 2
]
[
sin x

= [sin x + 3 cos x]0

=[

1
1cos x

= [sin x 3( cos x)]04

A2(d)

1
1 cos x

3 sin (2x 3 ) dx

1+0
1

= [ cos (2x )]

1
3
[cos (2x )]
2
3
4
1

= [1

= (1

= (
=

= [cos (2 ( ) ) cos (2 ( ) )]
2
1

= (cos
2
1 1

= (

2 2

2
2

2
2

1+cos

) (

cos x

[shown]

cos x cos 2 x
sin2 x

sin2 x cos 2 x
sin2 x

sin2 x + cos 2 x + cos x


sin2 x
1 + cos x
=
sin2 x
1 + cos x
=
1 cos 2 x
1 + cos x
=
(1 + cos x)(1 cos x)

2x + c

sin x

x2

1+cos x

sin x

= (x 3 3x 2 ) dx
x4

d
d
(1 + cos x) (1 + cos x) (sin x)
dx
dx
=
sin2 x
sin x ( sin x)
(1 + cos x) cos x
=
sin2 x

A1(a) x 2 (x 3) dx

d
dx

sin
4
2
2
2
2

1+

2+2
2

2
2

)]

)]

)]

1)

2
2

= 2

cos )
6

3
)
2

= (3 1)
4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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517

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A4(i)

1
(x3)(2x+1)

A
x3

Rev Ex 18
A6(a) a(3 2x) dx
1

B
2x+1

1
( )(7)

=A

( )( )

1
7

x= :

7
2

(x3)(2x+1) =
=

A=

=B

x3
1

7(x3)

B=

2
7

2
7

2x+1

2
7(2x+1)

k
6 2 (1
2

[x

] dx

7(x3)
7(2x+1)
7
1
2
) dx

(
7 4 x3
2x+1

(k
k3

1
= [ln|x 3|
ln|2x + 1|]74
7
1
= [(ln 4 ln 15) (ln 1 ln 9)]
7
1
4
= (ln
+ ln 9)
7
1

15
12

A5(a)

d
dx

3
3

[ln(cos x)] =

1
cos x

d
dx

(cos x)

1
( sin x)
cos x
= tan x [shown]
=

= 100

x 2 ) dx

= 100

k
x3

3 2
k3
3

) (2 )

52

100
6
100
6

=0

k 3k 52
=0
2
(k 4)(k +
+ )
2
(k 4)(k +
+ 13)
2
(k 4)(k + 4k + 13)
=0
(k 4)[(k + 2)2 4 + 13] = 0
(k 4)[(k + 2)2 + 9]
=0
k
=4

A7(i)

dy
dx

= 3x 2 + k

At turning pt (2,6):

dy

0 tan x dx = 0 tan x dx
=

A6(b) k 6(1 x 2 ) dx
2

= ln

x2

= [4 ( )]

[3x x 2 ]1a
= 2[x 2 ]12
(3a a2 ) (3 1) = 2(1 4)
3a a2 2
= 6
2
3a a + 4
=0
2
a 3a 4
=0
(a + 1)(a 4)
=0
a = 1 or a = 4

1
A4(ii) 7
dx
4 (x3)(2x+1)

= 4 [

[3x 2 ( )]

Cover-up rule:
x = 3:

x2

= 2 4x dx

dx x=2
2

[ln(cos x)]03

=0

3(2) + k = 0
k
= 12

= [ln (cos ) ln(cos 0)]


3
1
= [ln ln 1]
2

= ln 2
A5(b)

d
dx

[ln(ex + 1)] =

=
ln 2 ex

ex +1

(ex + 1)

ex +1 dx
1
= x ex
e +1
ex
ex +1

[shown]

2
dx = [ln(ex + 1)]ln
0

= ln(eln 2 + 1) ln(e0 + 1)
= ln(2 + 1) ln(1 + 1)
= ln 3 ln 2
3

= ln
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

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518

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A7(ii)

dy
dx

Rev Ex 18
B1(c) 1 (4x+1)4 7 dx
0 2(4x+1)2

= 3x 2 12

1 1
2

y = 3 ( ) 12x + a
3

=[

Curve at (2,6):
6 = (2)3 12(2) + a
a = 10

=[
=

y = x 12x 10

(4x+1)3

(4)(3)

(4x+1)3
(4(1)+1)3

15

5
4

[
=

632

15

= 41

9
10

1
2

1sin2 x

1sin x

dx

(1+sin x)(1sin x)
1sin x

dx

= (1 + sin x) dx

x2
2

= [x cos x]

5
2

(1)3

2
8

(1)2 + (1)2 ]
5

= [() (1)] (

2]
5

= ( cos ) ( cos )

4
1 2
x ]
2
1

= [ (4) (4) + (4)


3

12

B2(c) cos2 x dx
1sin x

8 5

11

= ln 8

5
x2
5
2

= 3 ln 2

= [4 ( ) 4 ( ) + ( )]

8(4(0)+1)

= 3 ln

= 3[ln 2 ln 4]

= 1 (4x 2 4xx + x) dx

24

B2(b) 3 3 dx = [3 ln|x 5|]13


1 x5

B1(b) 4(2x x)2 dx


1

8(4(1)+1)

(4(0)+1)3

= 2 ln 5

=8

4
[ x3
3

= 2(ln 5 ln 1)

= 2[ln|2x + 1|]20

3 4
1
= [(2x + 1)2 ]
3
0

x3

= 4 [ ln|2x + 1|]

3 4

3
1 3
[92 12 ]
3
1
= (27 1)
3
26
=
3

8(4x+1) 0
7

B2(a) 2 4 dx = 4 2 1 dx
0 2x+1
0 2x+1

0 2x + 1 dx = 0 (2x + 1) dx
(2x + 1)2
=[
]
3
(2) ( )
2 0

60
7

(4)(1) 0

323

1
2

24

(4x+1)1

24

=4

At point where curve meets y axis (x = 0),


y|x=0 = (10)3 12(10) 10
= 10
(0, 10)

=[

= x 3 12x + a

B1(a)

= 0 [ (4x + 1)2 (4x + 1)2 ] dx

x3

5
6

+1+

3
2

3
)
2

7
30

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A-math tuition 9133 9982

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519

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B2(d)

Rev Ex 18

B4(a)

2 csc 2 x dx

8x+13
(1+2x)(2+x)2

1+2x

2+x

+ (2+x)2

= 2[ cot x]2

[not in syllabus]

Cover-up rule:

B3(i)

9
( )(1.5)2

= 2 [( cot ) ( cot )]
2
4

= 2 (cot cot )
4
2
= 2(1
0)
=2

x= :

y = x 2 2x 1

Substitution:

dy
dx

= x2

d
dx

=
=
=
=
=

22x1

x2

x = 0:

+2x 2x 1

x2

13
(1)(4)

= 2

8x+13

(1+2x)(2+x)2 =
=

+2x(2x1)
2x1

x2

+4x2 2x
2x1

2x1
2x1

1+2x

+ +

1+2x
4

1+2x

= 1 [4

[shown]

2
2+x
2
2+x

+ (2+x)2
1

+ (2+x)2

8x+13
dx
(1+2x)(2+x)2

= 1 [

5x2 2x
x(5x2)

=C

C=1

+2x2x 1

2x1

3
(3)( )2

x = 2:

=A

A=4

2x 1 + dx x 2 2x 1

=x

1+2x

+ (2+x)2 ] dx

2+x
1

+ (2 + x)2 ] dx

2+x

= [4 ln|1 + 2x| 2 ln|2 + x| +


2

B3(ii) 5 x(5x2) = [x 2 2x 1]5


1
1

= [2 ln|1 + 2x| 2 ln|2 + x|


= [2 ln |
= [2 ln |

1+2x
2+x

1+2(2)
2+(2)

12

= 2 ln +

sleightofmath.com

2+x 1

2+x 1

= [2 ln ]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

]
(1)(1)

2x1

= (5)2 2(5) 1 (1)2 2(1) 1


= 75
1
= 74

(2+x)1

1
2+(2)

[2 ln |

1+2(1)
2+(1)

1
2+(1)

[2 ln 1 ]
3

520

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 18

B4(b) Partial fractions


1

B5(ii)

x2 +3x+2

= (x+2)(x+1) =

x+2

04 cos 3 2x dx

x+1

= [(cos 2x)(cos 2 2x)] dx


Cover-up rule:

1
( )(1)

x = 2:

=A

= [(cos 2x)(1 sin2 2x)] dx

A = 1

1
(1)( )

x = 1:

=B

B=1
1

x2 +3x+2

1
x+2

x2 +3x+2 dx =

x+1

x+1

= ln |

dx

x+2

x+1

+c

x+2

dx

1
6

0)

= 3(sin 2x) cos 2x

dx

B6(a)

d
dx

[ln(ln x)] =

1
x ln x

(2x)

= ln (

cos 2x

= ln (

ln x
1

d
dx
1

(ln x)

x ln x

ln 4

ln 2
ln 22

ln 2
2 ln 2

ln 2

= ln 2

1 4
= 6 sin2 2x cos 2x dx
6 0

1
= [sin3 2x]04
6
1

= (sin3 sin3 0)

dx

(x n ln x)

= xn
= xn
=x

0)

= [ln(ln x)]42
= ln (

04 sin2 2x cos 2x dx

1
(1
6
1
= (1)
6
1
=

1
ln x
1

= ln(ln 4) ln(ln 2)

= 3(sin 2x) cos 2x 2

= 6 sin2 2x

(sin 2x)

=
d

3]

= 3(sin 2x)2

= (1

dx

[(sin 2x)

(sin3 2x)
d

= [sin 2x]0

= ln|x + 1| ln|x + 2| +c

1
(x+2)(x+1) dx
1
1

dx

= (sin sin 0)

= [ sin 2x]

Integral

B5(i)

= 04 cos 2x dx 04 sin2 2x cos 2x dx

d
dx
1

x
n1

(ln x) +
+nx

dx
n1

+n x

(x n ) ln x

ln x

n1

ln x

B6(b) n = 1:

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521

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


d
dx

Rev Ex 18
B7(a) 1 dN
N

(x ln x) = 1 + ln x

ln x

d
dx

ln|N| + a = kt
ln|N| = kt a
N = ekta
= bekt

(x ln x) 1

ln x dx
= [

d
dx

(x ln x) 1] dx

B7(b) N|t=0 = A
be0 = A
b=A
N = ekt [shown]

= x ln x x + c
n = 2:
d
dx

(x 2 ln x) = x + 2x ln x

2x ln x =

dx
1 d

x ln x = (

= kt

x 2 ln x x

2 dx

x 2 ln x x)

x ln x dx
1 d

= [

2 dx
1
d

(x 2 ln x) x] dx

= [ (x 2 ln x) x] dx
2
dx
1

x2

= (x 2 ln x ) + c
n = 3:
d
dx

x 3 ln x = x 2 + 3x 2 ln x

3x 2 ln x =

dx
1 d

x 2 ln x

= [

x 3 ln x x 2

3 dx

(x 3 ln x) x 2 ]

x 2 ln x dx
1 d

= [

3 dx
1
d

(x 3 ln x) x 2 ] dx

= [ (x 3 ln x) x 2 ] dx
3
dx
1

= (x 3 ln x

x3

)+c

n = m + 1:
d
dx

(x m+1 ln x)

= x m + (m + 1)x m ln x

(m + 1)x m ln x =
x m ln x

d
dx
1

(x m+1 ln x) x m
[

m+1 dx

(x m+1 ln x) x m ]

x m ln x dx
=
=
=

m+1 dx
1
d

m+1
1
m+1

(x m+1 ln x) x m ] dx

[dx (x m+1 ln x) x m ] dx
(x m+1 ln x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

xm+1
m+1

)+c

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522

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 19.1
5

Ex 19.1
1

4
0 x(4
4

= sin(x ) dx

x) dx

0
x2

x3

= [4 ( ) ( )]
2

x3

= [2x 2

3
2

6
[2(0)2

(0)3
3

= [(0) (1 ex )] dx

= cos 2

1
= [sin 2x]04
2
1

= (sin sin 0)
2
1

Shaded area
=

= (1

0)

2
1

4
1 [(y

= [[

3) + 2] dy

(y3)3
3

] + 2y]
1

= unit
Shaded area

((0)3)

= [[

= e2x dx
=

0
1 2x 1
[ e ]
2
0

=8

= 2

1 2x 1
[e ]0
2
1
= (e2 e0 )
=

[
=5

+ (3)]

+ (0)]
+

= (2 )

y
y
= [2 ( ) ( )]
2
3 0

2
1
= [y 2 y 3 ]
3
0

((0)1)

= ( 1)2 + 1

= [2y y 2 ] dy
2

((3)1)

0
2

= [(x 1)2 + 1] dx

=[

= [y(2 y) (0)] dy

+ x]

] + 2(0)]

Shaded area

Shaded area

=[

((0)3)

= (e2 1) unit 2

(x1)3

] + 2(0)] [[

= 9 unit

2
1

= ( 3)2 + 2

= 1

= [x ex ]20
= [(2 e2 ) (0 e0 )]
= [2 e2 + 1]
= (e2 3) unit 2

= (1 ex ) dx

= cos 2x dx

2
0

Shaded area

= [ sin 2x]

= sin( )

Shaded area

= 10 unit 2
2

3 0
(4)3
[2(4)2
]
3
2

= 10

= [ cos(x )]0
= [cos(x )]0
= cos 0 cos()
=1
(1)
2
= 2 unit

= (4 )

= (4x x 2 ) dx

Shaded area
=

Shaded area

=1
1
3

= [(2)2 (2)3 ] [(0)2 (0)3 ]


1
3
1

= 1 unit 2
3

= 6 unit

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523

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(i)

Ex 19.1

11(a) Area

At A, y = sin (2x + ) cuts x-axis (y = 0):


3

=0

sin (2x + ) = 0

2x +

9(ii)

=[

Shaded Area

= 03 sin (2x + ) dx
1

2
1

= [ cos (2x + )]
= [cos (2x + )]

+ (5)] [
1

Shaded area

a
0
a

3
2

3
2

x2

) dx

3
x2

x2

+ 3 (2
2

) dx
) dx

3 2
x 3
2

+4 +

3
2

2 (2 +
2

3
2

= 10 2 (2 + 3 )

ea

+ 3 (2

+ [2x + ]

=2+3

unit

= 10 4 6

10(ii) Shaded area = 0.5

e
a

3
2

= [2x + ]

= e(0) e(a)

ea
a

3 1

a
1
= [ ex ]
1
0
= [ex ]a0
= [ex ]0a

ea

=2

= 3 (2

+ (2)]

4
1

= ex dx

1 (2 x2 ) dx

= ex (0) dx

(2)4

1
1
= (1 )
2
2
3
2
= unit

=1

= (cos cos )

10(i)

(5)4

= sin (2 + )
11(b)

+ x]

= 155 unit 2

2 5

x4

= 161

= 3 + 1

+ 1] (0) dx

x + 1 dx

=[

=0
=

5
2 [x 3
4
3

= 0.5
=

Note:
Deal with the upper limits first then the lower
limits.

=2
= ln 2
0.693

Daniel & Samuel


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524

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12

Ex 19.1
14(i)

= 2 + 1

y = x2 x 6
= (x 3)(x + 2)

Line PQ
Point:

20

2
3
2

= x+

=[

+ [

+[

3
4

3
1

=[
8

+ ] (0)dx

=[

2 x2

3 2

+ [ [ ] + x]

= [( + 1) (0)]

4
2
+ 1 [ x
3

+area of B

+ 1] (0) dx

+ x]

2) dx
= 2(x 2 x 6) dx

x3

= 2 6

= 3 (x 2 x 6) dx

Shaded area
= area of A
1
0 [x 2

= 2(x 3)(x +

y 2 = (x 1)
y

= 2[(0) (x 3)(x +
2)] dx

y y1 = m(x x1 )

PQ:

14

14(ii) Area

P(1,2), Q(4,0)

Gradient: mPQ =

x2
3

(2)3
3

x2
2

6x]
(2)2
2

6(2)] [

22

3
5

(3)3
3

(3)2
2

6(3)]

27
2

= 20 unit
6

x3

+ x]
3

16

32

3
8

( + )

15(i)

Curve:
y = x2

(1)

Line:
x + y= 6
y
=6x

(2)

9
3

= 4 unit
3

13

Shaded area

= ( + 1)( 2)

= 0 (x + 1)(x 2) dx

= (x + 1)(x 2) dx
1
2

= (x 2 x 2) dx
1
1

sub (1) into (2):


x2 = 6 x
x2 + x 6 = 0
(x + 3)(x 2) = 0
x = 3
or
(rej x > 0)

x=2
y|x=2 = (2)2
=4
A(2,4)

= (x 2 x 2) dx
2

=[
=[
=

x3

(1)3
3

x2
2

2x]
(1)2
2

2(1)] [

6
1

(2)3
3

(2)2
2

2(2)]

10
3

= 4 unit
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

525

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 19.1

15(ii) Shaded region

16(ii) Method 2 (wrt x-axis)


Line
x=4y
y=4x

= [(6 x) x 2 ] dx

= 2

0
2

= [6 x x 2 ] dx
2

x2 x3
= [6x ]
2
3 0

=7

(2)2

(2)3
3

] [6(0)

(0)2
2

(0