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April, 2014

ADMA-OPCO
On-site Training Course

Production
Module - 12

Propane Refrigeration Unit


Gap Elimination Program

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Production

Module - 12

Propane Refrigeration Unit

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Table of Contents

1.

Purpose of Regrigeration .......................................................................................5

2.

Process Description ...............................................................................................6

3.

An Example from ADMA-OPCO Refrigeration System......................................6


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

GGII Gas Gathering Process..........................................................................7


Overview of the Propane Refrigeration System ............................................7
System Equipment .........................................................................................7
Instrumentation ............................................................................................12

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OBJECTIVE

Upon completion of this module, the developee will be able to:

Describe the propane refrigeration unit and identify its components.

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PROPANE REFRIGERATION
1.

Purpose of Regrigeration
Refrigeration may be used in a gas processing plant for one or more of the
following purposes:
1.

Chilling a wet, sweet gas to about -12C and separating off condensed
water and hydrocarbon liquid, so that the remaining gas will meet the dew
point temperature required by the gas sales contract (typically - 10C).

2.

Chilling the gas and lean oil stream entering oil absorbers, to improve
recovery of propane and other gas liquids.

3.

Chilling reflux oil to a de-ethanizer, or condensing de-ethanizer overhead


vapour to provide self-reflux. All of these operations are suitably served by
the compression refrigeration process using propane as the refrigerant.
A simple unit is shown in the sketch below:

Warm Gas In
E
LC

F
Cold Gas Out

A
B
C

:
:
:

Chiller
Knockout pot
Compressor

D
E
F

:
:
:

Condenser
Surge Drum
Throttling Valve

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2.

3.

Process Description
1.

Liquid propane is vaporised in a process chiller (A) by removing heat from


a process stream.

2.

The resultant cold propane vapour passes through a knockout pot (B) to
remove any liquid which could damage the compressor.

3.

The compressor (C) raises the propane vapour to a high enough pressure
that it can be completely condensed to a liquid in a water or air cooled
condenser.

4.

The compressed propane vapor condenses to a liquid in the condenser (D).

5.

The liquid propane flows into the surge drum (E).

6.

Liquid propane from the surge drum (E) passes through a throttling valve
(F) to maintain a level in the chiller shell. The cycle then repeats.

7.

The warm gas passes through the chiller where it contacts the cold propane.
The gas leaves the chiller after it has been cooled.

An Example from ADMA-OPCO Refrigeration System


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3.1 GGII Gas Gathering Process


The function of this process are :
1.

Receive the raw mixed gas stream from Riser platform.

2.

Treat this stream by compression, dehydration and liquid extraction

3.

Export the treated gas so that it arrives at Umm Shaif reception facility
with a minimum pressure of 900 psig.

The feed gas arrives at the first stage suction drum M-101 under pressure
control at approximately 211 psig from the common suction drum gas flow
to three parallel trains, each train being identical and dominated by one of
the three main tow stage gas compressors R-101 A/B/C.
The feed gas is discharged from the first stage of compression with a n
approximate pressure of 560 psig and temperature varying between 98C in
winter and 111C in summer. At this intermediate pressure, the feed gas is
treated for export in this propane refrigeration system.
3.2 Overview of the Propane Refrigeration System
The temperature of liquid propane at atmospheric pressure is 23C.
In the propane refrigerant loop, the propane vapour is collected and reconverted into the liquid phase to restore the supply of liquid in the
exchanger.

Vapour is boiled off in a low temperature chiller operating just above


atmospheric pressure.

This vapour is then compressed to a higher pressure at a higher


temperature.

The superheated vapour is recondensed into the liquid phase at the


same pressure by lowering temperature in a water-cooled exchanger.

The liquid is then flashed back across a pressure reducing valve to the
original pressure in the chiller, the liquid temperature falls below
freezing.
3.3 System Equipment
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The first stage propane separator M-121X


The first stage Separator (vaporiser) M-121X holds liquid propane at 22.5
psig and 18C. The propane liquid flow through the chiller T-103X.
The heat absorbed by the propane produces saturated vapour which is draw
into the suction of propane compressor.
Pressure relief valve PZV-114 is set at 295 psig. It is located on the
separator vapour outlet to the flare.
The propane vapour condensers T-120X
From propane compressor discharge, superheated propane vapour at 52C
enters the shell-side and flow through the condensers in series against tubeside cooling water at 21C winter time or (32C summer). As the propane
vapour is cooled, its temperature falls to 43C and starts to condense into
liquid phase PZV-148 is set at 147 psig is located on the outlet of each sea
water return line.
PZV-130 shell-side is set at 341 psig.
The liquid propane accumulator M-120X
It is the reservoir for propane that is condensed in T-120X.
Due to loss of pressure head in piping of condensers T-120X, the
accumulator pressure is less than compressor discharge pressure. It is at
154 psig and 43C.
Pressure relief valve PZV-117 on the vessel vapour outlet line is set at 325
psig.

The second stage propane separator M-122


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It can be considered economiser vaporiser, where propane is flashed at


15.5C and 94 psig.
From it liquid propane flows to the prime gas chillers T-106X the vapour
generated by flash and by heat exchanger in cillers T-106X is passed to the
second stage suction of the propane compressor for re-compression and reentry into the propane refrigeration loop.
PIC-118 operated in split range so that, if the pressure continues to rise,
PCV-118-2 open to the vapour line to M-121X.
N.B :
The pressure inside M-122 X is controlled by the set point on PIC-118
which controls the vapour flow via PCV-118 into the second stage of the
compressors.

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3.4 Instrumentation
The major instrumentation associated with the Propane Refrigeration System includes:

TAG NO.

SERVICE

SET POINT / ACTION

1st Stage Separator M-121X


LICA-114

Level controller/alarm

Controls liquid propane from


M-122, via LCV-114, and initiates
high level alarm LA-114 at 65
inches

LZA-115

Extra high level alarm/trip

Set at 86.5 inches initiates propane


compressor SD-3 shutdown

XV-150

Emergency depressurisation valve

Manually selected by hand switch


HS-153, provided that a total GG-II
SD-1 shutdown has been initiated

Vapour Condensers
T-120X A/B/C.1/2
PDS-465
A.1/2
PDS-465
B.1/2

Seawater cooling differential pressure


switches on T-120 A/B/C respectively

Set at 7 psig; no differential (i.e.


little or no flow) gives start inhibit

PDS-465
C.1/2
Accumulator M-120X
LA-148

High level alarm

Set at 101 inches

LA-118

Low level alarm

Set at 31.5 inches

XV-152

Emergency depressurisation valve

Manually selected by hand switch


HS-153, provided that a total GG-II
SD-1 shutdown has been initiated

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TAG NO.

SERVICE

SET POINT / ACTION

Separator M-122X
LICA-116

Level controller/alarm

Controls liquid propane from


M-120X, via LCV-116, and initiates
high level alarm LA-116 at 115
inches

LZA-117

Extra high level alarm/trip

Set at 169 inches, initiates propane


compressor SD-3 shutdown

PIC-118

M-122X outlet pressure controller (in


effect controls temperature of M-122X
and consequently the temperature in the
primary gas chillers)

Controls vapour flow, via PCV-118.1


to 2nd stage of propane compressors.
Further pressure rise, PCV-118.2
opens vapour line to M-121X

Emergency depressurisation valve

Manually selected by hand switch


HS-153, provided that a total GG-II
SD-1 shutdown has been initiated

XV-151

Propane Compressor R-120X A/B/C


XZS-119
A/B/C

Manual trip switch

Initiate compressor shutdown by


hand, in emergency

PIC-135
A/B/C

Propane compressor suction pressure


controller (in effect controls
temperature of M-121X and
consequently the temperature in the
secondary gas chillers)

Controls vapour flow to the


compressor in conjunction with
XS-220 A/B/C, XC-140 A/B/C and
XV-177 A/B/C

XS-220
A/B/C

High signal selector

Selects the higher signal from PIC135 or XC-140 to control


XV-177

XC-140
A/B/C

Motor current load controller (prevents


motor overload)

Overrides PIC-135 signal, via


XS-220, to control flow on XV-177

XV-177
A/B/C

Suction pressure control valve

(See above)

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