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I would like to thank NTPS for giving me the opportunity to do my Summer Internship at
their plant which helped me to gain knowledge about the industry and its working.
I sincerely thank to Mr Atul Soinje (Manager) and Mr Sapate for giving me a chance to do
my Summer Internship at Nashik Thermal Power Station.
I also express my gratitude to my mentor and guide Mrs Sarojani Gore (A.E.) for her valuable
guidance, important tips and instructions during the internship.
I cordially thank to all the staff members of NTPS who directly or indirectly helped me in my
At last , I thank to all those who contributed a lot in giving me important data related to the
plant and explaining its functioning in a lucid and accurate manner which helped me to gain
the necessary points within the time period of the internship.

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Overview of the Company


General Information

Office / Plant Address

Contact Details

Management Details

Product / Process


Expansion Plans



Brief Introduction

Coal Handling Plant (CHP)


General Working



Equipments Used


Operating Sequence





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General Problems



Boiler Operation and Maint.


Function , Type and Parameters





Main Process



Coal and Fuel Gas Cycle


Primary Air System



Secondary Air System



Steam and Condensate Cycle






FD Fans


Improving Boiler Efficiency



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Boiler Losses


Turbine Operation and Maint.



Basic Principle


Working Principle

Types of Turbine




Turbine Main Data


HP , IP and LP Extraction Scheme




220 KV Switchyard , Eklahare


Single Line Diagram


Results and Conclusion


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General Information :Nashik Thermal Power Plant is located at Eklahare village near Nashik in Maharashtra. The
power plant is one of the coal based power plant of Maharashtra State Power Generation
Company (MAHAGENCO).
Figure No 1

Location of the plant

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Nashik Thermal Power Station has an installed capacity of 910 MW (140*2 + 210*3). The
first unit of 140 MW was commissioned in 1970. The cost of unit including civil works was
Rs 56.5 crores. The second unit of 140 MW was also commissioned with the same cost under
the first stage. The second stage consist of 3 units of 210 MW each was commissioned in the
later years.
Table No 1

Installed capacity of the plant

The power station campus includes self contained township with all amenities. The entire
land consist of 632 hectares. The power station has got ISO certificate on April 2002.
Table No - 2

Area covered by the plant

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Along with NTPS , there are many other power plants which comes under Maharashtra State
Power Generation company (MAHAGENCO).
MAHAGENCO has an installed capacity of 11657MW. This comprises of Thermal (nearly
70% i.e. 8220 MW) and a gas based generating station at Uran , having an installed capacity
of 672 MW. The Hydro Electric Project in the State of Maharashtra were designed , erected
and commissioned through the Water Resource Department (WRD) of GoM. After
commissioning , the hydro projects were handled over on long term lease to MAHAGENCO
for operation and maintenance. Presently , there are 27 hydro projects having capacity of
2585 MW.
Table No 3

Installed capacity of MAHAGENCO

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NTPS , as it is a Thermal Power Plant , it requires coal and water to generate electricity.
NTPS gets water from river Godavari and has a railway line for the transportation of coal.
NTPS is on the Bhusawal Kalyan section of Central Railway. Coal based thermal power
plants consumes large quantities of coal. The NTPS consumed 4626000 tones of coal in
2006-07. Around 80% of domestic coal supplies in India are meant for coal based thermal
power plants and coal transportation forms 42% of the total freight earning of Indian
Table No 4

Fuel required by the plant per day

So , 10500 MT of coal and 55000 m3 of water is used by NTPS per day to produce 630 MW
of electricity. This data itself explain the reason why government is trying to use more
renewable sources now a days to generate electricity. Generation of electricity through coal
not only requires high amount of coal but is also responsible for emission of harmful gases
like CO2 , SO2 , NO2 etc in the environment which causes pollution and many lung diseases.
Hence , it is extremely important for us to generate more electricity from Solar and Wind
power plants to meet our requirement and save coal and environment for future generation.

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Office Address / Plant Address :Office of Chief Engineer

Nashik Thermal Power Station
Eklahare Siding
Nashik , Maharashtra

Contact Details :










Mr Atul Soinje (Manager)


Mrs Sarojini A. Gore (AE)




Management Details :-

Product / Process :NTPS is a thermal power plant which generates electricity using coal as the primary fuel.The
process consist of crushing of coal , heating the coal , making steam and super heated steam
which is then feeded to turbines which is connected to generators and hence electrical energy
is produced.

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Turnover :NTPS produces 630 MW of electrical energy per day which requires 10500 MT of coal and
5500 m3 of water per day. Although the quantity of energy produced varies day to day
depending on the per day demand.

Expansion Plans :MAHAGENCO is planning to deploy 660 MW super-critical unit at the same location just
like the current plant. This project will be stationed adjacent to the existing stage-1 plant
( 2*140 MW ) site at village Eklahare. Land required for the proposed project is about 36.6
hectares. The coal source will be from Mahanadi coal block. The total cost of the project is
around Rs 4390 crores , 20% contribution will be from State Government and the remaining
fund will be contributed by several lending institution.
MAHAGENCO is also implementing capacity additions programmes of about 9320 MW.
Project execution works of 3230 MW are in full swing and 6090 MW projects are in
advanced stages of planning.
Table No 5

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Expansion plans of MAHAGENCO

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MAHAGENCO is aware of next green power scenario of power generation from non
conventional energy resources and have clear vision for Green Power for the consumers of
Maharashtra. Accordingly to fulfill Renewable Power obligation of distribution companies in
Maharashtra, MAHAGENCO has commisioned 130 MWp Solar Power Projects till date.
MAHAGENCO aspires to increase its solar portfolio from current 130 MWp to 450 MWp by
end of the year 2015-16.
MAHAGENCO is implementing R&M work of 210 MW unit at Koradi. Feasibility study for
implementation of R&M work at Chandrapur, Koradi, Bhusawal, Parli & Nashik is also
being carried out.

Competitors :The biggest competitor of MAHAGENCO is National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC).
At present , NTPC is the largest electricity generating corporation and MAHAGENCO is at
second place. As far as the future expansion projects of NTPC and MAHAGENCO are
concerned , if everything goes as planned , then in future MAHAGENCO will become the
largest electricity generating company.
Now , for NTPS , there is no such competitor in Nashik as NTPS is the only thermal power
plant in Nashik city of Maharashtra. Although , Rattan India Thermal Power Project is soon
going to establish and can be considered as NTPSs competitor. There are other solar, wind
and hydro power plant in Nashik that can be considered as NTPSs competitors.
Figure No - 2

View of the plant

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NTPS consist of different sections namely Coal Handling Plant (CHP) , Out Door Plant
(ODP) , Boiler Maintenance (BM) , Instrumentation and Control (I&C) , Turbine
Maintenance (TM) , Electrical Maintenance (EM) and Operation. Different sections are
responsible for proper working and maintenance of machines of their respective department.
Figure No 3

Flow chart for thermal power station

Above is the layout of Nashik Thermal Power Station showing the complete procedure that is
followed for the generation of electricity. Now, the working of each section of the plant is
explained in the following sections.

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In thermal power plant coal is a principal fuel, hence design & layout of coal handling plant
is important. Coal is a non renewable solid fuel formed by a series of geochemical process
from the plant remains accumulated together with other sediments.
For calculating usefulness of coal as a fuel it is analysed by two types:Proximate Analysis :- Determines moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon
Ultimate Analysis:- Determines carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen within
Main constituents of coal are :Figure No 4

Constituents of coal

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Table No 6

Consumption of coal

General Working of CHP :Complete working of Coal Handling Plant is shown below :Figure No - 5

Working of CHP

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Equipments Used in CHP :

Conveyer Belts :- Conveyor belts are of cotton, synthetic fibres, steel wires &
rubber piles placed in alternate manner.
- Normally belts available in 4 to 6 ply ratings.
- Width of belts used in power plant are from 900 to 1600 mm.
- Selection of belts depends on its durability, strength,
toughness, elasticity, lightness & pliability.
Figure No - 6

Conveyer belts

Idlers :Idlers are used to avoid sag of belt due to its self weight. They are provided at
certain distance along the length of belt. Due to idlers belt take shape like arc of circle
thus preventing objectionable sharp bends and carries maximum coal load.
Idlers are of 5 types as follow : Carrying Trough Idler
Return Simple Idler
Carrying Self Aligning Idler
Return Self Aligning Idler
Impact Idler

Carrying Trough Idler Consists three roller fitted in frame.

Frame brackets are at the angle of 20-35 degree.
Return Idler
Support belt from return side.

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Consists one roller for belt upto 1050 mm and two rollers for belt
width 1200-1600 mm.
Carrying Self Aligning Idler : Idler frame is mounted on a fulcrum which is free to oscillate in a
pivot on a fixed frame.
This aligning idler frame system is used to bring belt in centre when it
goes out.
Return Self Idler : This consist same system as carrying self aligning frame and used to
bring belts in centre position from return side.
Impact Idler : Impact idlers are used to absorb impact loading of coal coming from
height on belt.
These increase life of belt.
Figure No - 7

Carrying trough idler

Figure No - 8

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Impact idler

Pulleys : Pulleys are of heavy cast iron having machine crowned faces.
Diameter of pulleys are large enough to reduce the belt stresses.
Pulley width is more than 150 mm.
Different pulleys are used in conveyer system i.e.

Head pulley
Tail pulley
Snub pulley
Take up bend and main pulley
Figure No - 9


Coal Feeders : Electromagnetic Feeders :These are placed just below coal hooper.

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Trays are vibrated by use of AC and DC both.

Vibrating Screens :These are double deck type.
Upper deck trash screen allowing large screen allowing large size coal to
Lower deck sizing screen bypassing crusher @25 mm size coal.
Mechanically vibrated by an eccentric drive.
Figure No - 10

Coal feeders

Coal Crushers : Primary Crushers :These are double rolled crushers.

Designed to crush coal from 600 to 200 mm.
Figure No 11

Primary crusher
Secondary Crushers :These are either ring or hammer type.
Size of coal output is 25mm.
Figure No 12

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Secondary crusher
Trippers : Shuttle Conveyor : They are placed overhead coal bunkers.
These are power propelled and travels on rails.
These are provided with chute on one side of conveyor to unload coal in
Magnetic Separator :These are provided to get rid of foreign materials i.e. tramp iron.
These are of three types
Suspended magnets
Rotating magnets
Magnetic materials

Operating Sequence of CHP :There are three types

Direct to bunker
Direct to stack
Stacking to bunkering.

Protections in CHP :-

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Pull Chord Switch.

Belt sway switch.
Zero speed switch.
If one of the belt trips for any reason, all earlier belts will trip on auto along with
associated vibrating feeders provided at input points.

General Problems Faced in CHP :

Design problems :Low grade coal

Rainy season problems :Chute choke up, Slurry formation in coal stack yard .
Misc. problems :Snapping of belt, Derailing of wagon, Oversized / Muddy coal.


Boiler Function, Type & Parameters : Generate steam at specific temperature and pressure
Tangentially fired, balanced draught, natural circulation, radiant reheat type, dry
bottom with direct fired pulverised coal with bowl mills
Main steam flow @ sh outlet--700 t/hr
Main steam temp. @ sh outlet--540 c
Main steam pressure @ sh outlet--137 kg/cm

Boiler Function :-

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Generate steam at specific temperature and pressure

Combustion = fire -fuel ( oil / coal) + oxygen air
Coal cycle air cycle water cycle steam generation -flue gas path ash evacuation

Boiler Main Process : Sending dam water (700 t/hr) to the boiler through boiler drum to boiler tubes
Sending fuel (furnace oil and coal) to the boiler through dampers (3000 mt/day)
Sending required amount of primary (300t/hr) & secondary air (600 t/hr)to the boiler
Supply superheated steam (5400c) of adequate temperature and pressure to turbines
Extracting flue gases from the boiler and discharging them to atmosphere
Removing botom ash formed as a result of combustion process
Removing fly ash from electrostatic precipitator hoppers

Coal and Fuel Gas Cycle :Figure No 13

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Coal and fuel gas cycle

Primary Air System :Figure No 14

Primary air system

Secondary Air System :Figure No 15

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Secondary air system

Boiler Drum :Figure No 16

Boiler drum
Boiler drum is a pressure vessel which acts as a reservoir of boiler water
Function of Drum :

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1) Separate steam and water,

2) Mix feed water and distribute to furnace tube circuit
3) Add chemicals to improve water quality
4) Blow downs to maintain water quality
Material used is SA299 Carbon steel 135mm,
Construction :
Feed Nozzle, tube & Header, Turbo separators, Chemical dozing line, Blow down line,
Separating chamber, Screen dryers, Safety valve, Guage glass, Air vents, Temp & Pressure

Steam and Condensate Cycle :Figure No 17

Steam and condensate cycle

Air Cycle :

Primary air fans mixture cold & hot air supplies to lifting coal to furnace
Forced draft fans supplies hot air required for combustion

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Induced draft fans maintain continuity of combustion and maintain negative

pressure (-10 mmwc). Extract flue gases from furnace and discharge them to

ID Fans :Interlocks :
1. Any AH must be running
2. LOP running with adequate pressure (3)
3. Discharge damper closed
4. Suction vanes must be minimum

FD Fans : FD fans are Axial Impulse (Unit 3) / Axial reaction (Unit 4 & 5)
FD discharge goes to AH gets heated up then goes to wind box (left & right) enters into
boiler through dampers
Interlocks : One ID running , LOP (if) running, D/Damper closed, IGV minimum
Tripping interlock --ID fan trip , Bearing Temp high , Motor protections

PA Fans : Supplies Cold and Hot air for firing coal from coal mill to boiler
Interlock : No boiler trip, LOP running, D/damper closed, Suction vane minimum,
Triping : Motor/Fan bearing temp, Boiler trip, Motor protection, LOP trip.

When boiler trip, PA fan must trip to avoid ingress of coal into furnace in tripping

Improving Boiler Efficiency : Economiser - Absorbs heat from flue gas and add this sensible heat to Feed Water before
water enters to Boiler.

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Air pre heater - Flue gases passes through Heater tubes and Cold air passes through air
heater heated up and Hot air used for combustion. Flue gas temp at outlet of Economiser is
@3200C if discharge to atmosphere-lot of wastage of heat.

Boiler Losses :Table No 7

Losses in boiler


Basic Principle of Steam Turbine :-

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Steam turbine converts heat energy into mechanical energy.

Drop in passage of steam through some passage resulting in increase in velocity and

change in direction of motion which gives rise to change in momentum.

This is the driving force of prime mover.

Working Principle : When steam is allowed to expand through a narrow orifice, it

Absorbs the kinetic energy at the cost of enthalpy (heat energy).
This kinetic energy of steam is changed into mechanical energy
When steam moves over the turbine blades.
Motive force to the turbine is not produced due to static pressure of the steam or from any
impact of the steam jet. The blades are so designed that the steam will glide on and off the
blade without any tendency to strike it. When steam moves over the Rotor blades its
direction is continuously changing and centrifugal pressure is exerted on the blade, normal to
the blade surface at all the points. The total motive force acting on the blades is thus the
resultant of all the centrifugal force plus the change of momentum. This causes the rotational
motion of the blades.

Types of Turbine :According to the principle of action of the steam, turbine can be classified as :
a) Impulse Turbine

b) Reaction Turbine

Impulse Turbine :
The steam is expanded in the fixed nozzles.
Thus the velocity of steam is increased at the cost of reduction in pressure. This high
velocity steam moves over the rotor blade and imparts its kinetic energy to the rotor blade.
No pressure drop takes place when steam glides over the blade.
Reaction Turbine :
In this type pressure drops both in fixed as well as moving blades.

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In other words steam expands on both, fixed and moving blades. Fixed blades work as
nozzles where as steam expansion on moving blade produces reaction.
The expansion on moving and fixed blade is the result of the design of blade profile.

Turbine :210 MW Turbine at Nashik is three cylinders ( HP,IP ,LP ) , Tandem compound with nozzle
governing , condencing & regenerative feed heating type.
The HPT comprises of 12 stages , the first stage being governing stage. The IPT comprises of
11 stages. The LPT has 4+4 stages .Steam enters at middle & flows in opposite paths having
four stages.
Turbine rotors are supported on five bearings .The common bearing of HP & IP rotor is a
combined journal & radial thrust bearing. Rest four bearings are journal bearings.

Turbine Main Data :Rated output

----------------------------------------------- 210MW

Rated speed

---------------------------------------------- 3000 rpm

Steam pr. before ESV

---------------------------------------------- 130 kg/cm2

Live steam temp.

--------------------------------------------- 535 Centi.

Steam pr. at I.V.

---------------------------------------------- 23.20 kg/cm2

Steam flow required

-------------------------------------------- 80 T/hr.

Circulating water to condenser


27000 m3/hr

220 KV Switchyard , Eklahare :Figure No 18

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220 KV switchyard

Figure No 19

View of a switchyard

220 KV and 132 KV Nashik Area Single Line Diagram :Figure No 20

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Single line diagram of Nashik area


Considering the data given in this report and the following data

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For generating 1 KWH (1 unit) :

0.65 Kg coal is burnt.

990 gm of CO2 is produced.
7.6 gm of SOx is produced.
3.5 gm of NOx is produced.
0.061 gm of soot is produced.

It can be concluded that generating electricity through thermal power plants is very expensive
and is also non eco-friendly. In spite of that majority of electricity generation in India is
through thermal power plants and this scenario needs to be changed as soon as possible to
save the environment and coal for the future generation. Although, MAHAGENCO has
included many projects of solar and wind power plants in their future plans but still they are
not capable to meet the requirement of the whole state. So, along with MAHAGENCO, other
cooperations must also take initiative to generate electricity through renewable sources. This
is the only way to save the environment.

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