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Training Disadvantaged groups and Youth of Gondar on Techniques

and Skills in Urban Horticulture to improvised life style.

Principal investigator: Ermias Misganaw (M.Sc,Plant Pathology)


Co-investigators: Prof.S.Eswara Reddy (Ph.D,Horticulture)
Aleminew Tagele (M.Sc, Horticulture)
Derajew Asres (M.Sc, Horticulture)
Solomon Fantaw (M.Sc, Horticulture)
Abebaw

Dagnew (M.Sc, Economics)

A Community service Proposal Submitted to:


Community Service Coordinator, College of Agriculture and Rural Transformation,
University of Gondar, Gondar.

February, 2016
Gondar, Ethiopia

COLLEGE: College of Agriculture and Rural Transformation


DEPARTMENT: Horticulture
RESEARCH THEME:

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ermias Misganaw (M.Sc,Plant Pathology)


Mobile: 0946693888 E-mail: ermiasamare2@gmail.com

CO-INVESTIGATORS: 1) Prof.S.Eswara Reddy(Ph.D,Horticulture)


Mobile: 0945355468, E-mail: dr_ishver@yahoo.com
2) Aleminew Tagele (M.Sc, Horticulture)
Mobile: 0913222325, E-mail: aleminew98@yahoo.com
3) Derajew Asres (M.Sc, Horticulture)
Mobile: 0913619468 E-mail: derajew68asres@gmail.com
4)Solomon Fantaw (M.Sc, Horticulture)
Mobile: 0937402246 E-mail: fantawsoll @gmail.com
5)Abebaw

Dagnew (M.Sc, Agro-Economics)

Mobile: 0942859098 E-mail: adagnew @gmail.com

DURATION OF THE PROJECT:


Expected date of commencement: 12/03/2016
Expected date of completion: 30/12/2016

Contents
1.

Executive Summary......iv
Background and Justification...............................................................................................................1

2.

Analysis...................................................................................................................................................3

2.1

Development context.........................................................................................................................3

3.

The Project Design.................................................................................................................................4

4.

Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation System........................................................................5

4.1

Project implementation plan............................................................................................................5

4.1.1

Description of the location..............................................................................................................5

4.1.2

Training on fruit propagation and nursery management................................................................5

4.1.3

Training on quality vegetable and flower seed production.............................................................6

4.1.4

Construction of propagation shade.................................................................................................6

4.1.5

Materials required for the activity..................................................................................................6

4.2

Project monitoring and evaluation system......................................................................................6

5.

Risks of the Project................................................................................................................................6

6.

Benefits and beneficiaries......................................................................................................................6

7.

Description of facilities at sites of performance..................................................................................7

8.

Component stages of the project..........................................................................................................7

9.

Work plan...............................................................................................................................................8

10.
Cost of Research.8
10.1 Stationary.............................................................................................................................................8
10.2 Equipment and Consumables..............................................................................................................8
10.3 Personal Cost.......................................................................................................................................8
10.4 Budget summary..................................................................................................................................9
11.

References:.......................................................................................................................................10

ASSURANCE OF THE INVESTIGATORS..............................................................................................11

Executive summary
Disadvantaged groups are negatively labelled, which generate a sense of helplessness
and hopelessness which often surrounds people locked into certain deviant identities and
may be burden to families and society due to lack of equal opportunities. Sometimes,
even resulting in criminal activities because of frustration.
Horticulture is increasingly becoming a part of rehabilitation in the corrections industry.
It help to substantiate the idea that socially deviant individuals need to be lead back into
society in a positive way and offered the opportunity to reconnect with their community.
Horticulture is an important tool in vocational rehabilitation and is designed to consider
the vocational, intellectual, physical, psychological, social, and emotional state of
disadvantaged groups and youth to treat in a coordinated manner the whole individual.
Horticulture for disadvantaged groups and youth is a mode of treatment that involves
defined techniques and skill procedures that focuses on activities with specific criteria,
that can be measured and evaluated, by qualified horticultural professionals .
This project is initiated to capacitate disadvantaged groups and youth with latest
techniques and skills of planting material production as business in urban horticulture to
brighten up their livelihood without any social stigma. One hundred persons from
disadvantaged groups and youth in each gender (50 male and 50 female) will be selected
based on their potential for urban horticulture. The risks of the project are unavailability
of timely budget and lack of interest to the training by disadvantaged groups and youth of
both genders.
The program is focused on informal employment in horticulture, gender equality ,
employment promotion for disadvantaged groups and youth and enhancing life style
besides promoting urban horticulture. Up on the completion of the project, disadvantaged
groups and youth will have the necessary knowledge, skills and techniques of
propagating plants for urban horticulture, nursery management and quality vegetable and
flower seed production. The urban dwellers will be able to have access to the plants of
their choice to have better nutrition and environment.
The total cost of the project is expected to be 2,78,184.00 ETB.

1. Background and Justification


Agriculture in Ethiopia contributes about 41 percent of GDPwhich remained very high(Hagos, et al.,
2009), 83 percent of employment and 90 percent of exports (EEA, 2012). Urban horticulture includes
all horticultural crops grown for human consumption as well as ornamental use within and in the
immediate surroundings of cities (Philippe and Hubert.2006). Its products include a large variety of
fruits, vegetables, flowers, ornamentals, aromatics (Philippe and Hubert.2006). The main function of
Urban horticulture is supplying fresh food to urban dwellers, but emerging functions that become more
important are income generation, job opportunity, living environment (open space greening), and food
security. (Philippe and Hubert. 2006; UN-Habitat, 2001). It also contributes to strengthening social
sustainability and increasing ecological sustainability by transforming wastes, conserving natural
resources, preventing soil erosion, and reducing pollution in urban environment
Cultivation and consumption of vegetables and fruits is extremely sub-optimal in Ethiopia, calling for
strengthened efforts to promote production and consumption of fruits (Tsegaye et al., 2009). The
proportion of households who did not produce/cultivate fruits was highest in Addis Ababa (100%),
followed in Dire Dawa (95.3%), Afar (92.9%), Tigray (92.2%), Harari (83.3%) and Oromiya (81.8%).
The opportunities for growing horticulture crops in urban areas has no bounds.
The major limiting factors for the poor performance of urban horticulture are the supply of improved
varieties/cultivars. Seedlings are mainly supplied from a few centralized government or NGO
supported nurseries, which supply mostly subsidized seedlings to government/donor funded
development programs (Kahsay, 2008). For vegetables such as head cabbage, carrot, onion, beet root,
lettuce, cauliflower, spinach, and Swiss chard, packed seeds are imported by agricultural product
importers largely from European countries (Bezabih, et al, 2014) making these high cost seeds difficult
to access .
Though Gondar has a potential for the growing of horticultural crops, but is limited. Different
constraints for this low production being short supply of reliable planting material available for the
growers, poor management of nurseries and poor access to quality vegetable and flower seeds . This
problem can be addressed by providing practical training on the preparation of fruits seedlings,
management of nurseries and production of quality vegetable and flower seed
Disadvantaged groups and youth are with a feeling of helplessness and hopelessness with lack of
opportunities for suitable remunerative vocation, becoming burden to families and society , at some
times resulting in criminal activities because of frustration and lack of equal opportunities (Sagarin,
1

1990). Horticulture has been used in employment providing systems both as work and pleasure for
mind. Introducing horticulture as a vocation help these disadvantaged groups and youth to obtain job
preparedness and job skills, redefine themselves as valuable human resource and help them to
reconnect with families and society. Horticulture is an important tool in vocational rehabilitation (Relf,
1990) designed to consider the vocational, intellectual, physical, psychological, social, and emotional
state and to treat in a coordinated manner the whole individual (Townsley, 1978.). Horticulture for
disadvantaged groups and youth is a mode of treatment that involves defined techniques and skill
procedures that focuses on activities with specific criteria, that can be measured and evaluated, by
qualified horticultural professionals .
Horticultural programs for disadvantaged groups and youth can provide important job training and
instil regular work habits and behaviours before these youths reach adulthood and participants can
learn to tolerate frustration and manage impulsive and negative behavioural responses, which can lead
to further deviant behaviour (Flagler, 1995 ) Participants can be and are taught to plan, work
appropriately and succeed . Horticulture is increasingly becoming a part of rehabilitation in healthy
society. It helps to substantiate the idea that socially deviant individuals need to be lead back into
society in a positive way and offered the opportunity to reconnect with their community. Horticultural
programs as part of employment introduce the disadvantaged individual to a way of meeting his needs
in a healthy manner offering the individual a sense of belonging, derived from working with a group,
and direction, drawn from group leaders. Within the rehabilitation industry these programs also
introduce the most important component, the opportunity to obtain the skills to accomplish goals, and
an opportunity to participate in society in a new positive way (Rice and Remy, 1994).
Hence, this proposal is initiated with the following objectives.
General objective:
To train the disadvantaged groups and youth of Gondar in urban horticulture production to
heighten up their livelihood.
Specific objectives:
To capacitate the local disadvantaged groups and youth with skills and techniques on promoting

urban horticulture as business.


To train the local disadvantaged groups and youth on the skills and techniques in nursery

management and production of horticulture plants suitable for urban horticulture.


To create awareness among disadvantaged groups and youth (both genders) of Gondar about the
need of becoming job provider than job seeker with the establishment of horticulture nurseries to
meet the demands of planting materials by urban dwellers.

To strengthen urban horticulture in Gondar by awareness creation and coordinating stake holders
to improve nutritional status, and greening the environment by choosing the planting material
produced by disadvantaged groups and youth of Gondar.
2. Analysis

2.1 Development context


The University of Gondar, since 2015 is administering the youth center at Adebabay Eyesus, located
in one of the poorest areas in Gondar ,where youths are suffering with several harsh problems. The
service activities that can enhance the well being and livelihood of disadvantaged groups and youth
based on the urban horticulture is the need of the hour. It is a well known fact that horticulture crops
are an important source of income generation through gainful employment and to brighten up the
livelihood of

disadvantaged groups and youth. The production as well as the consumption of

horticulture crops in Gondar is very low. This may be due to lack of access to horticultural products.
Making fruits and vegetables available at family levels is bound to increase the utilization of
horticultural products as well as sale amongst urban dwellers. Since commercial horticultural crop
production using scientific technologies is a recent phenomenon, the skills and techniques of
propagation of plants suitable for urban localities and their nursery management as well as the
production of quality propagation material in adequate quantity is far below the demand. This can be
achieved through imparting the skills and techniques of plant propagation, nursery management as
well as seed multiplication. This makes the local disadvantaged groups and youth confident and
successful in urban horticulture .They will become job providers than job seekers .The availability of
quality plant and seed material in adequate with competitive price for different urban households
will increase. Therefore, training should be given to local disadvantaged groups and youth to become
successful leaders in urban horticulture business in a fair and objective way.
2.2 Situation analysis
Horticulture crops production and productivity is generally low due to the absence of the quality and
reliable planting materials for these crops. It is possible that disadvantaged groups and youth could
produce these planting materials if they are equipped with the skills. Capacitating disadvantaged
groups and youth in this direction will make them save higher cost incurred besides a benefitting from
the sale of produced planting materials.

Different stakeholders will participate in capacitating disadvantaged groups and youth in the
production of fruit seedlings, vegetable and flower seeds. Among these, urban dwellers ,family
farmers, Woreda Agriculture Office, Administrative Office, Cooperatives and NGOs are be the prime
ones. All the stakeholders would participate for the fair success of the project.
2.3 Alternative strategy selection
Fruit plant seedlings can be brought from the nearby producing areas. The cost of buying these
seedlings, however, is very high and urban dwellers cannot afford it. This will make Gondarians
reluctant to use them. Most of the seeds of vegetables are imported and are costly. However, some
farmers in other areas are producing quality vegetable seeds. If the disadvantaged groups and youth of
North Gondar are equipped with the necessary skills and techniques of vegetable seeds and
ornamentals production, they will have good business and can also earn profits from the sale of seeds
and plants.
3. The Project Design
Project description
Goal
Increased
production
and
productivity of horticulture plants for
urban area
Purpose
Well skilled disadvantaged groups
and youth on the propagation of
fruits , flower and vegetable seed
production

Performance indicator

Means of verification

Well skilled disadvantaged


groups and youth for fruits
vegetables and ornamentals in
the area

Impact
assessment
reports, progress reports
and interviews

Assumptions

Disadvantaged groups and Review


of
progress Required budget,
youth
having their own reports, field visits, group equipments, and
nursery well managed using discussions
and transport available
the given training and well interviews
timely
managed and produced
vegetable and flower seed
farms

Component objectives:
Capacitate the skill and techniques of
the local disadvantaged groups and
youth on propagating fruit trees and
nursery management
capacitate disadvantaged groups and
youth with the techniques of quality
vegetable
and flower seed
production

Practical application of the Review


of
progress Required budget,
skill and techniques of fruit reports, field visits, group equipments, and
seedling preparation
discussions
and
transport available
interviews
timely
Practical application of the
skill and techniques of
vegetable and flower seed
production

Outputs:
100 well skilled disadvantaged
groups and youth, besides 8 experts
on the propagation of fruit trees,
nursery management and quality
vegetable and flower seed production

100well (50
from each
gender)skilled disadvantaged
groups and youth
applying
the skill and technique of fruit
tree
propagation,
nursery

Review
of
progress Required budget,
reports, field visits, group equipments, and
discussions
and transport available
interviews
timely

management
and
quality
vegetable and flower seed
production at the end of the
project

Activities:

Provision of training to disadvantaged


groups and youth

Participation of all the 100 Review


of
progress Required budget,
disadvantaged groups and reports, field visits, group equipments, and
youth 8 experts
discussions
and transport available
interviews
timely

4. Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation System


4.1

Project implementation plan

4.1.1

Description of the location

Training on the horticultural crops propagation , nursery management , vegetable and flower seed
production and will be imparted to the disadvantaged groups and youth of Gondar , North Gondar
Administrative Zone, Ethiopia.

Fig 1: Map of North Gondar Zone


4.1.2

Training on fruit propagation and nursery management

Based on their interest and potential for participating in fruit plants for urban horticulture, fifty male
and fifty female disadvantaged groups and youth will be selected. In addition, one psychologist, one
agricultural economist, two woreda experts will also participate in the training. Practical hands on
training for ten days will be imparted on the selection and preparation of seed, preparation of
rootstock seedlings, grafting techniques, and management of seedlings after grafting in the nursery.
5

4.1.3

Training on quality vegetable and flower seed production

Based on their interest and potential for participating in fruit plants for urban horticulture ,one hundred
male and female disadvantaged groups and youth will be selected. In addition, one psychologist, one
agricultural economist and two woreda experts will also participate in the training. Practical hands on
training for ten days will be imparted on the establishment and management of vegetable and flower
fields for seed production purpose.
4.1.4

Construction of propagation shade

For fruit and ornamental plant propagation, a well constructed nursery shade is important. Hence, a
10 M x 10 M nursery shade using black net and iron poles will be constructed at Adebabay Eyesus or
CART . Rootstock seedlings will be prepared for grafting and budding. Ornamental plants multiplied.
4.1.5

Materials required for the activity

Black shade net for the preparation of shade house, fruit , vegetable and flower seeds, ornamental

plants , secateurs, grafting shear, grafting knife, polyethylene tube, plastic tape, alcohol and poly
film
4.2

Project monitoring and evaluation system

During the implementation period, quarterly report will be given to the concerned body. Field visit and
interviews will be prepared to evaluate and monitor the progress of each activity.
5. Risks of the Project

Unavailability of timely budget: This can lead to a total failure of the project. To reduce the risk,

the concerned body will be frequently contacted.


Purchase process may be too long to start the activity timely.
Willingness of disadvantaged groups and youth to accept urban horticulture as business.
6. Benefits and beneficiaries

Disadvantaged group and youth of both genders will have the adequate basic knowledge coupled with
skills and techniques of propagating fruit plants and nursery management as well as vegetable , flower
seed and ornamentals production. This enables them to produce required number of choice fruit
seedlings, quality vegetable and flower seeds and ornamentals for selling to the dwellers of Gondar as
a means of urban horticulture and in the market to run the business remuneratively.
Upon the completion of the project urban dwellers particularly of Gondar, farmers, private investors,
GOs, NGOs and policy makers will benefit from the result.
6

Stakeholders

Interest

Disadvantaged group and Participate training

Potential Project Impact

Relative priorities of

(+ - ?)
+

interests (1-5)
5

youth
Agriculture Offices

Cooperate in training and +

Cooperatives

participate staff of it
Cooperate in the buying and +

NGOs

selling of planting materials


Cooperate in the training

7. Description of facilities at sites of performance


In the site, land, water is available and labor is cheap and abundant.
8. Component stages of the project
Phase I.
Duration: March 2016- May 2016
Description: provision of training on fruit propagation, nursery establishment and
management, seedling preparation, ornamental plant propagation, compost preparation
Phase II:
Duration: June 2016- July2016
Description: provision of training on vegetable seed production, flower and ornamental crops
management, seed and seedling preparation.
Phase II1:
Duration: August 2016-December2016
Description: Monitoring and evaluation, report writing and submission

9. Work plan
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
No.
1

Activity
Date
Selection of target disadvantaged groups and March 2016
7

youth
2
3
4
5
6

Preparation of training materials


Provision of training
Monitoring and evaluation
Report writing
Report submission

April 2016- May 2016


March 2016-July 2016
August 2016-September 2016
October 2016-November 2016
December 2016

10.0 Cost of the Research


10.1 Stationary
S.No

Item

Unit

Number

1
2
3
4

Pen
Note book
Flip chart
Marker
Sub total

No.
No.
No.
packet

110
110
6
4

Unite Price
in Birr
5
12
100
100

Total
Price
550.00
1320.00
600.00
400.00
2870.00

10.2 Equipment and Consumables


S.No

Item

Unit

Quantity

1
2
3
4
5

Different vegetable and flower seed


Different ornamental planting materials
Grafting Shear
Grafting Knife
Shade net
Sub Total

lamp sum
lamp sum
No.
No.
lamp sum

5
5

Unit Price
(Birr)

Total Price

750
100

1,500.00
1,500.00
3,750.00
500.00
30,000.00
35,250.00

10.3 Personal Cost


Total
Days

15

Unit Price
(Birr)
100

Per diem for disadvantaged and youth

100

92

20

Per diem for psychologists


Per diem for agro-economist
Per diem for trainee experts
Per diem for trainer during training time
Per diem for trainer for planting material
collection, purchase from Bahir Dar and A.A

1
1
2
5

112
112
112
112

4
4
10
20

Total Cost
(Birr)
1500.00
184,000.
00
448.00
448.00
2240.00
11200.00

218

10

4360.00

Per diem for Technical Assistant


Tea, coffee and soft drink
Transportation

2
110
Trips

112
30
2X2

10
2
400

2240.00
6600.00
1600.00

S.No

Item

Quantity

Mobile card

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Sub Total

2,14,860.00

10.4 Budget summary


S.No
1
2
3

Description
Stationary
Equipments and consumables
Personal Cost
Contingency 10%
Total

Sub total
2870.00
35,250.00
2,14,860.00
25,289.00
2,78,184.00

11. References:
Bazabih, E., Amsalu, A., Tesfaye, B. and Milkessa T. 2014. Scoping Study on Vegetables Seed
Systems and Policy in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: The World Vegetable Center.
EEA (Ethiopian Economic Association), 2012. Annual Report on Ethiopian Economy. Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia.
9

Flagler, J. 1995. Corrections and the green industry. p. 283-291. In: Flagler, J. And R. P. Poincelot
(eds.) People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities.Hawthorn Press, NY.
Hagos, F., Makombe, G., Namara, R. E., Awulachew, S. B. 2009. Importance of irrigated
agriculture to the Ethiopian economy: Capturing the direct net benefits of irrigation. Colombo,
Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute. 37p. (IWMI Research Report 128)
Kahsay B., Yigzaw, D., Yisehak, B., Worku, T., Hoekstra, D. and Azage T. 2008.
Smallholder-based fruit seedling supply system for sustainable fruit production
in Ethiopia: Lessons from the IPMS experience. Improving Productivity and Market Success
(IPMS) of Ethiopia Farmers Project, ILRI
Philippe and Hubert. 2006.Urban Horticulture. International Development Research Centre. N.Y
Relf, P. D. 1990. The use of horticulture in vocational rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation
47(3):53-56.
Rice, J. S. and L. L. Remy. 1994. Cultivating self development in urban jail inmates. p. 229-257. In:
Francis, M. P. Lindsey, J.S. Rice (eds.) The Healing Dimensions of People-Plant Relations:
A Research Symposium. Center for Design Research, Dept. of Env. Design. UC Davis, CA.
Sagarin, E. 1990. Deviance without deviants: The temporal quality of patterned quality of patterned
behavior. In: Bryant, C. (ed.) Deviant Behavior: Readings in Sociology of Norm
iolations. Hemisphere Publishing Company, NY, NY
Townsley, W. W. 1978. Horticultural therapy programs in landscaping and grounds maintenance for
problem youth. Nat. Council for Therapy and Rehab. Hort. Newsletter 5 (4): 1-4.
Tsegaye D., Ahmed A. and Dilnesaw Z. 2009. Availability and consumption of fruits and
vegetables in nine regions of Ethiopia with special emphasis to vitamin A
deficiency. Ethiop .J. Health Dev. 2009;23(3):216-222
ASSURANCE OF THE INVESTIGATORS
The undersigned participants in this study agree to accept responsibility for the scientific, ethical and
technical conduct of the research project and for provision of required progress reports as per terms
and conditions of the RCSCP in effect at the time of grant if grant is awarded as the result of this
application
10

NAME OF INVESTIGATOR(S)
Ermias Misganaw
S.Eswara Reddy
Aleminew Tagele

SIGNATURE
_________________
_________________
____________________

DATE
_________
___________
__________

Derajew Asres

____________________

___________

Solomon Fantaw

____________________

____________

Abeba Dagnew

____________________

___________

11