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Republic of the Philippines

Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology

Atate Campus, Palayan City
Midterm Exam in SEGS 2 (General Biology)
Name: _______________________
Year/ Section: _________________

Score: _____________
Date: ______________

TEST I MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the letter that bests answer the question or
completes the statement. Encircle only.
1. Most fossils are found in
a. granite
c. lava flows
b. black soil
d. sedimentary rock
2. George Cuvier realized that the history of life is recorded in fossils and believed that the
replacement of one species by another is caused by
a. massive numbers of mutation
b. the wrath of God
c. extinctions due to catastrophes, such as floods.
d. genetic inbreeding
3. Lamarck believed certain parts of the body get larger and more complex through the
generations because they
a. are used more extensively than the other parts.
b. contribute to greater reproductive success.
c. are predermined to do so.
d. are most similar to Gods perfection.
4. According to Lamarck, a giraffe has a long neck because
a. a Creator designed it that way.
b. catastrophes eliminated short-necked forms.
c. its ancestors stretched their neck to get food.
d. ancestral giraffes with slightly longer necks than others got more food and left more
surviving offspring.
5. The binomial system of classification names every kind of organism according to
a. genus: species
c. species: genus
b. order: class
d. class: order
6. According to Darwin, two different areas within a continent have different species because
they have different
a. evolutionary mechanisms
c. environments
b. ancestors
d. evolutionary times
7. Almost all living things use the same basic biochemical molecules, including DNA, ATP,
and many identical or nearly identical enzymes. This is being studied in
a. biogeography
b. comparative anatomy
c. comparative embryology
d. comparative biochemistry

8. One of the four postulates by Darwin states that, the differences among individuals are
mainly based on their
a. ancestral race
c. difference in habitat
b. genetic differences
d. difference in niche
9. Bacteria that are sphere-shaped or globular in shape are called
a. Coccus
c. Bacillus
b. Sprillum
d. Spirochetes
10. Bacteria that obtain carbon from CO2 and energy from inorganic compounds such as
hydrogen sulfide are the
a. autotrophic bacteria
c. heterotrophic
b. chemoheterotrophic bacteria
d. photoautotrphic bacteria
11. These are modified epidermal cells that functions in the exchange of gases between the
interior and exterior of a leaf.
a. guard cells
c. stoma
b. lenticels
d. pericycle
12. Which of the following is not a part of the primary tissues of plants?
a. cortex
c. vascular cylinder
b. epidermis
d. cambium
13. Leaves are attached to the stem at
a. nodes
c. auxillary meristems
b. internodes
d. apical meristems
14. What is the name of the kingdom which includes all unicellular eukaryotes?
a. Fungi
c. Protista
b. Monera
d. Plantae
15. The function of a rootcap is to
a. produce embryonic cells
c. absorp water
b. protect the root apical meristem from damage
d. absorp minerals
16. Most mastigophores move through the use of their
a. mitochondria
c. flagella
b. golgi bodies
d. cilia
17. Where do algae usually live?
a. in the air
c. deep within the soil
b. near the surface of bodies of water
d. near the ocean floor
18. All algae are similar, which means they ____________.
a. obtain food from the environment
c. have flagella and cilia
b. produce their own food
d. do not have membrane-bound organelles
19. Primary tissues of a plant
a. add to the length of roots and shoots
b. add to the diameter of existing of existing roots and shoots
c. are only in the embryo
d. are only in the seedling
20. Which of the following organisms has a gastrovascular cavity which serves for transport?
a. jellyfishes
c. liverflukes
b. planarian
d. grasshopper
21. Bacteria are classified under
a. Monera
c. Plantae

b. Animalia
d. Protista
22. The difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs is that autotrphs:
a. produce their own food
c. are less complex than heterotrophs
b. must live in warm climates
d. must obtain their food from the environment
23. Sugars are transported through a plant by its phloem of which the main type of cell is
a. fiber cells
c. tracheids
b. vessel elements
d. sieve tubes
24. Lichens are mainly composed of
a. an archaebacterium and a fungus c. and alga and a fungus
b. a fungus and a bryophyte
d. zooxanthellae and a yeast
25. Which of the following is NOT TRUE of organisms in the kingdom Monera?
a. they reproduce by mitosis
c. they are prokaryotes
b. most have cell walls
d. does not have a nuclear membrane
26. A terrestrial animal must be able to
a. actively pump salts out through its skin
b. excrete large amount of salts in its urine
c. excrete large amount of water in its urine
d. conserve water
27. Which of the following would be found in an animal cell but NOT in a bacterial cell?
a. endoplasmic reticulum
c. ribosomes
b. plasma membrane
d. cell wall
28. Phloem functions primarily in
a. transport of water
c. transport of products of photosynthesis
b. growth of the root
d. increasing the stem diameter
29. The male reproductive part of a flower is the
a. pistil
c. stamen
b. stigma
d. pollen
30. Which of the following does NOT reproduce cells by mitosis and cytokinesis?
a. cow
c. banana tree
b. mushroom
d. bacterium
31. Which of the following organisms does NOT belong to kingdom Protista?
a. diatoms
c. yeast
b. slime molds
d. dinoflagellates
32. Root hairs are extensions by which of the following type of cells?
a. cortex
c. epidermis
b. phloem
d. xylem
33. Which of the following is not an abiotic factor of an ecosystem?
a. temperature
c. air
b. soil
d. decomposers
34. These structures are used by amoeba in both locomotion and feeding.
a. flagella
c. cirri
b. cilia
d. pseudopods
35. Palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll tissues of a leaf are made of
a. dermal cells
c. scelerenchymal cells
b. collenchymal cells
d. parenchymal cells

36. Secondary tissues of a plant

a. add to the length of roots and shoots
b. add to the diameter of existing of existing roots and shoots
c. are only in the embryo
d. are only in the seedling
37. Members of a biologic species are potentially able to
a. compete
c. introgress
b. express all the same genes
d. interbreed
38. Very similar species of fish release their eggs and sperm into the same water, but the sperm
of one species cannot penetrate the eggs of another species. This is an example of prezygotic
isolation by
a. ecological isolation
c. mechanical isolation
b. temporal isolation
d. gametic isolation
39. Adaptive radiation has occurred often on islands, because the island population are
a. dimorphic
c. asexual and flightless
b. small in number and isolated
d. without predators
40. Biologists who study the sequence of organisms in the fossil record are
a. taxonomists
c. museologists
b. paleobiologists
d. systematics
41. Rocks and fossils are dated by measuring relative amounts of isotopes, a method known as
a. radioactive dating
c. filtration
b. calorimetry
d. radioactive decay
42. When bacteria are rod-shaped, they are called
a. cocci
c. vibrios
b. spirilla
d. bacilli
43. Which of the following statements is true of amoebas?
a. they form pseudopods
c. they move by means of cilia
b. none has an outer shell
d. they do not have food vacoules
44. Which of the following statements is not true of amoebas?
a. they are predatory ciliates
b. they use pseudopodia for capturing prey
c. they are preyed upon by Didinium
d. they use contractile vacuoles for removing excess water
45. The protozoans that cause malaria in humans are
a. radiolarians
c. dinoflagellates
b. trichosomes
d. sporozoans
46. Which of the following is true of Euglena?
a. they are negatively phototactic
c. they have rigid cell wall
b. they locomote by means of flagellum
d. they do not have chloroplasts
47. Which of the following ways of acquiring nutrients is not characteristic of fungi?
a. heterotrophic
c. saprophytic
b. autotrophic
d. parasitic
48. Most fungi develop a multicellular mass of filaments that spreads through the organic
matter they are using as food. This mass is called
a. mycelium
c. sporangium
b. hypha
d. ascoscarp

48. Which of the plants has a netted leaf venation?

a. coconut
c. banana
b. guava
d. grasses
49. Which of the following s not a characteristic of plants?
a. eukaryotic
c. multicellular
b. cell walls contain chitin
d. contain chlorophyll
50. The stomata of the leaf can open and close in response to pressure within
a. root cells
c. guard cells
b. cell walls
d. xylem
51. Water is carried upward from the roots to every part of the plant body by
a. cell walls
c. cuticle
b. phloem
d. xylem
52. Which of the following is a basic requirement of plants?
II-Carbon dioxide
a. I only
c. I an II only
b. II and III only
d. I, II and III
53. Leaves are attached to the stem at
a. nodes
c. auxillary meristems
b. internodes
d. apical meristems
54. All of the following are the functions of roots EXCEPT;
a. conduction
c. absorption
b. anchorage
d. reproduction
55. This is the most critical stage/phase of the cell cycle.
a. interphase
c. G1 phase
b. G2 phase
d. S phase
56. In this kind of arrangement, a single leaf is produced at a node.
a. spiral or alternate
c. opposite
b. whorled
d. none of these
57. All are characteristics of woody stems EXCEPT;
a. tough and not green
c. covered by corky bark
b. buds mostly naked
d. considerable growth in diameter
58. Viral genes are made of
a. RNA only
c. either DNA or RNA
b. DNA only
d. either proteins or nucleic acids
59. An isolated virus cannot considered living, since it
a. separates into two inert parts
c. is coated with air-tight, chemically inert shield
b. cannot metabolize
d. rapidly loses its genome
60. A bacteriophage is a
a. virus that parasitizes a bacterium
c. tiny bacterium
b. bacterium with a lysed membrane
d. unusually large bacterium
61. Root hairs are formed from the extensions of the
a. ground tissues
c. cuticle
b. periderm
d. epidermis
62. Which of the following is composed of dead cells?
a. ground tissues
c. cuticle
b. periderm
d. epidermis

63. These are highly specialized structures intended for reproduction.

a. flowers
c. roots
b. leaves
d. stems
64. Roots originate from a portion of the embryo axis located below the cotyledonary node
a. hypocotyl
c. epicotyl
b. apical meristem
d. lateral meristem
65. Roots that arise from stems, leaves and other parts of the plant body are called
a. primary roots
b. adventitious roots
b. secondary roots
d. lateral roots
66. Which of the following is not comprised of sac fungi?
a. truffles
c. mushrooms
b. morels
d. yeasts
67. A covalent bond develops when
a. ions collide with each other
b. electrons are transferred from one atom to another
c. electrons are shared between two atoms
d. neutrons of two atoms are attracted to each other
68. Which of the following processes are mismatched?
a. anabolism-cellular respiration
c. passive transport-diffusion and osmosis
b. catabolism-digestion of food
d. endocytosis- phagocytosis and pinocytosis
69. The passage of materials into and out of cells by active transport requires
a. concentration gradient only
c. vacuole or vesicle formatin
b. carrier and cellular energy
d. carrier and concentration gradient
70. Which of the following biochemical reaction is a catabolic reaction?
a. the construction of a protein from amino acids
b. ADP + phosphate + energy ATP + H2O
c. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
d. 6CO2 + 12H2O + energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
71. How many membranes comprise the nuclear envelope?
a. none
c. two
b. one
d. three
72. Which of the following cellular organelles breaks down complex macromolecules, such as
polysacharrides and proteins?
a. golgi complex
c. rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. lysosome
d. chromoplasts
73. The plastids that give fruits and flowers their orange and yellow colors are the
a. leucoplasts
c. proplasts
b. chloroplasts
d. chromoplasts
74. The term osmosis refers to the diffusion of
a. water
c. positive electric charge
b. energy
d. glucose
75. When the fluid outside a cell has a greater concentration of a given molecule than the fluid
inside the cell, the external fluid is
a. isotonic
c. hypotonic
b. hypertonic
d. ultrasonic

76. The special structures that carry materials across the cell membrane are
a. proteins
c. phosphates
b. fatty acids
d. phospholipids
77. When a cell expends energy to move a solute across its membrane against a concentration
gradient, this process is called ___________.
a. facilitated diffusion
c. active transport
b. passive transport
d. simple diffusion
78. The process by which a cell secretes macromolecules by fusing a transport vesicle to the
plasma membrane is called ____________.
a. pinocytosis
c. phagocytosis
b. endocytosis
d. exocytosis
79. The function of cellular respiration is to
a. make ATP
c. get rid of glucose
b. make NADH
d. get rid of carbon dioxide
80. Each chemical reaction in cellular respiration requires
a. a molecule of ATP
c. a molecule of NAD+
b. a molecule of FAD
d. a specific enzyme
81. Which of the following processes makes direct use of oxygen?
a. glycolysis
c. krebs cycle
b. fermentation
d. electron transport
82. How many molecules of oxygen gas (O 2) are used during the glycolysis of one glucose
a. 0;
b. 1;
d. 38
83. Which of the following organism is NOT an autotroph?
a. moss
c. mushroom
b. grass
d. fern
84. One of the earliest experiments on photosynthesis was done in 1772 by Joseph Priestly. He
demonstrated that
a. sunlight is the energy source
b. water is required.
c. plants and animals restore the air for each other.
d. chlorophyll captures light energy.
85. In a plant cell, the light reactions of photosynthesis take place in the
a. cytosol
c. leucoplasts
b. endoplasmic reticulum
d. chloroplasts
86. How many carbon atoms are in a citric acid molecule?
a. 2;
c. 4;
b. 3;
d. 6
87. Which one of the following processes releases a carbon dioxide molecule?
a. glycolysis
c. alcohol fermentation
b. lactic acid fermentation
d. hydrolysis of glycogen
88. Species most vulnerable to extinction from human activities are those with
a. low carrying capacities
c. large niches
b. high population growth rates
d. many natural predators

89. A flower with stamen, carpels, sepals, and petals is said to be

a. tetraform
c. perfect
b. complete
d. monoecious
90. A flower with both stamens and pistils is said to be
a. sexual
c. dioecious
b. perfect
d. diform
91. Pollination occurs when a pollen grain
a. matures and has three nuclei
c. releases its sperm nuclei
b. lands on a stigma
d. fertilization of sperm, egg and polar nuclei
92. A fruit develops from the walls of the
a. style
c. cotyledons
b. ovary
d. suspensor
93. The main effect of auxin is to stimulate cell
a. division
c. differentiation
b. elongation
d. turgor
94. The outer covering of a seed from the integuments of the ovule is the
a. seed coat
c. seed cap
b. seed capsule
d. seed cover
95. AIDS is caused by which of the following pathogens?
a. bacteria
c. fungi
b. allergens
d. virus
96. Plants store glucose as
a. monosacharrides
c. starch
b. cellulose
d. glycogen
97. Animals store glucose as
a. monosacharrides
c. starch
b. cellulose
d. glycogen
98. Mitosis is the process by which eukaryotic cells
a. grow
c. become specialized in structure and
b. multiply
d. expose the genes for protein synthesis
99. At what stage does cytokinesis typically begin?
a. anaphase
c. metaphase
b. prophase
d. interphase
100. The spindle fibers formed during mitosis connect to the
a. nucleoli
c. kinetochores
b. sugar-phosphate strands
d. nuclear membrane