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Learning the Language of Quran

INTRODUCTION
Study Material for online Course | 2016

Campus4Islam
www.campus4quran.com

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1. Arabic Language
Arabic is the language of millions of people living in the Middle East and
North and North-East Africa. It is also read by more than one billion Muslims
throughout the world and understood and studied by their religious scholars as it
is the language of their sacred book, the Quran. It was first developed by people
living in the north-west and central region of the Arabian Peninsula. Ancient
Arabic literature which gas come down to us consists mainly of poetry and short
compositions that originated in the sixth and seventh centuries. The Quran was
revealed in this language and is the matchless embodiment of all the beauties of
that language. After the Quran there has been little change in Arabic grammar;
Arabic literature still looks to it as the measure of its excellence. Spoken Arabic
today differs from country to country, but written Arabic is the same throughout
the Arab world.
Arabic is Semitic language. Only a part of its alphabet has real equivalents
in Indo-European languages. Others are represented in Roman characters with
the help of some diacritical marks. In forming words, the letters undergo some
changes and are combined with others according to certain rules. For students
who are exposed to Arabic for the first time, the letters and their pronunciations,
their equivalents in English, and some rules governing their combination are
given it pages following the introduction. However, the must consult books which
have been written for the purpose, and spend some time reading and writing
Arabic before proceeding with this book.

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2. Signs & Letters


All the twenty eight letters of Arabic are consonants there are no vowel
letters. The function of the vowels is performed by some signs which are called
fathah,kasrah, and dammah. In English they are represented by a, I, and u
respectively. When fathah is followed by the letter alif ( ) , or kasrah is followed
by y ( ) , or dammah is followed by waw ( ) , the vowels are elongated, and are
represented with a line above these letters like a, i and u.
Fatah
Short :

()

e.g.

= da,

= ra

Long :

)(

e.g.

= da

= ra

Short :

)(

e.g.

= di

= ri

Long :

)(

e.g.

= di

= ri

Short :

)(

e.g.

= du

= ru

Long :

)(

e.g.

= du

= ru

Kasrah

ammah

Sukn
A consonant that does not carry any of these three signs is often marked by
sukn or stop, which is the variously represented through a small circle ( ),
or a small dal (

For example:
= dars

= zin

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Diphthongs
There are two diphthongs in Arabic: one, fathah followed by the letter y,
and the other followed by the letter ww.
=

ay,

e.g.

= aw,

e.g.

ray,

= dhaw,

way

= law

Tanwin or nunation
Nouns when indefinite usually take at their last letter two fatahs(), two
kasrahs (

), or two ammahs (

) and are pronounced as an, in and un.

Because of this nun sound in theme these signs are called tanwn or
nunation.
For example:
=
=

wardat-an

dar-in

dar-an

ard-un

The last alif in is not a letter; it is only the bearer of the tanwn of fatah
Shaddah
When shaddah sign ( ) is put on a letter, that letter is read twice.
For example:
=

radda

dhamma

duwwina

durr-in

rabb-un

awaddu

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Arabic letters (Abjads) are as follows:

Name (How it is read)

Abjad

S.No

alif
b
t
th
jm
h
kh
dl
dhal
r
z
sn
shn
sd
dd
t
z
ayn
ghayn
f
qf
kf
lm
mm
nn
h
ww
y
hamza

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