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Learning the Language of Quran

UNIT TWO (2)

Study Material for online Course | 2016

Learning the Language of Quran UNIT TWO (2) Study Material for online Course | 2016 ©Campus4Islam

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LESSON TWO Feminine Gender, Dual and Plural

1. Feminine Gender )ثَّنَؤُملا(

a)

The usual feminine ending, as said in the first lesson, is ة ,

  • a. e.g. ةَ ٌ يْرَق a village, ةٌَرَقَب a cow, ُةَمِطاَف

  • b. However, two feminine nouns have long ت at the end.

  • c. ٌتْخُأSister, ٌتْنِب daughter

b) The second feminine ending is known as alif maqsurah )ةَروُصْقَم فِلأ( short alif which is
b)
The second feminine ending is known as alif maqsurah )ةَروُصْقَم فِلأ( short
alif which is ى pronounced as a, e.g. ىَليَل ،ىَمْلَس (names of women), ىَرْغُص
(smaller, f.), ىَرْبُك (greater, f.)
c)
The third feminine ending is called alif mamdudah, )ةَدوُدْمَم فِلأ( long alif
which is hamzah preceded by alif, e.g. ءاَمْسأ (name of a woman), ءاَيْمَع
(blind woman), ءاَنْسَح (beautiful woman)

d)

There are, however, feminine nouns that do not have any of these endings. They may be classified in the following categories:

  • 1. Names of women, e.g.

دنِه ،ُبَنتْيَز ،ُمَيْرَم

  • 2. Females, e.g.

سوُرَع bride

ٌّمُأ mother

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  • 3. Parts of the body that are double, e.g.

ٌنْيَع

eye

ٌدَي

hand

ٌعاَرِذ

arm

ٌلْجِر

foot, leg

  • 4. Names of towns and countries, e.g.

ُرْصِم Egypt

ُماَّشلا

Syria

  • 5. Some everyday words, e.g.

ٌراَد

house,

ٌراَن

fire

ٌءاَمَس sky

ٌسْمَش

sun

ٌضْرَأ

earth

ٌسْفن

soul

All the nouns that do not fall in these categories are masculine. You may also say
All the nouns that do not fall in these categories are masculine. You may
also say that all nouns are masculine except those that belong to these
categories.

2. Number

Arabic has three numbers: singular )دِحاَولا(, dual )ىَّنَثُملا(, and plural )عْمَجلا(

(a) The dual ىَّنَثُملا

To form the dual, add نا to the singular, masculine as well as feminine, e.g.

Singular

Dual

ٌرِجاَت

merchant

ناَرِجاَت

ُمِلْسُملا

Muslim

ناَمِلْسُملا

ٌنْيَع

eye

ِناَنْيَع

ةَّطِقلا

cat

ناَتَّطِقلا

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(b) The plural ُعْمَجْلا Plurals are two kinds:

Regular plural

مِلاَسلا عْ ُ مَجلا,

irregular plural

رَّسَكُملا عمجلا

Regular Plurals Regular plurals of masculine and feminine are formed in different ways. In the case of masculine, add َنو to the singular. For example:

Singular plural ٌمِداَخ servant نوُمِداَخ ٌبِتاَك` writer نوُبِتاَك ُرِجاّتلا merchant نوُرِجاَّتلا حاَّلَفلا farmer نوُحاَّلَفلا In the
Singular
plural
ٌمِداَخ
servant
نوُمِداَخ
ٌبِتاَك`
writer
نوُبِتاَك
ُرِجاّتلا
merchant
نوُرِجاَّتلا
حاَّلَفلا
farmer
نوُحاَّلَفلا
In the case of feminine, drop, first, the ending ة, and then add ٌتا.
For example:
Singular
plural
ٌةَبِلاَط
girl student
Muslim woman
cow
ٌتاَبِلاَط
ٌةَمِلْسُم
ٌتاَمِلْسُم
ٌةَرَقَب
ٌتاَرَقَب

Irregular plural

Most masculine and feminine nouns are not pluralized according to the above rules; their plurals are conventional. However, there are some definite patterns on which they are pluralized. Following are some of them. For others, see appendix 1

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Singular

Plural

1.

ٌرِجاَت

ٌراَّجُت

ٌبِتاَك

writer

ٌباَّتُك

ٌلُجَر

  • 2. ٌلاَجِر

ٌلَبَج

mountain

ٌلاَبِج

  • 3. ٌراَجْشأ

ٌرَجَش

ٌرْهَن

river

ٌراَهْنَأ

  • 4. ٌنوُيُع

ٌنْيَع

ٌرْيَط

bird

ٌروُيُط

Some nuns gave both regular and irregular plurals. For example: ٌمِلاَع has َنوُمِلاع and ءاَمَلُع, ٌمِداَخ
Some nuns gave both regular and irregular plurals. For example:
ٌمِلاَع has َنوُمِلاع and ءاَمَلُع, ٌمِداَخ has نومِداَخ and ٌماَّدُخ etc.
3. Agreement of Subject and Predicate in Number
  • a. Usually the predicate agrees with the subject in number, e.g.

ِناَحِلاَص ناَ ِ دَلَولا ِناَتَعِملا ِناَنْيَعلا

the two boys are noble. the two eyes are bright

َنوُنلاْسَك نوُ َ حاَّلَفلا the famers are lazy

ُتادِهَتْجُم تاَ ُ بِلاَّطلا

the girl students are intelligent

  • b. However, when the subject is noun-rational plural the predicate is often feminine singular, though it can also be feminine plural. For example: ٌتاَعِساَو / ٌةَعِساَو تاَ ُ رُجُحلا the apartments are spacious ٌتاَعِماَل / ةَ ٌعِماَل ُنوُيُعلا the eyes are bright

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4. Interrogative Sentences

The common way to make an interrogative sentence is to put

ْلَه

or

hamzah )أ( in the beginning

Indicative Interrogative

ٌقِداَص دِ ٌلاَخ

؟ٌقِداَص دِ ٌلاَخ لَ

ْ ه

؟ٌقِداَص دِ ٌلاَخَأ

Is Khalid true?

ٌةَدْرِق هذه

؟ٌةَدْرِق هِِذَه ْلَه

؟ٌةَدْرِق هِِذَهأ

Is this a she monkey?

But before a noun with definite article use only ْلَه. ٌريِبَك دَ ُ لَبلا ؟ٌريِبَك دَ
But before a noun with definite article use only ْلَه.
ٌريِبَك دَ ُ لَبلا
؟ٌريِبَك دَ ُ لَبلا لَ
ِ ه
Is
the city big?
ٌةَليِمَج طِ َّ قلا
؟ٌةَليِمَج ةَّ ُ طِقلا ِلَه
Is the cat beautiful?
Note: To facilitate reading, the sukun on the lam of ْلَه is changed into kasrah, and

lam is joined with the next letter.

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Summary of the Grammar

  • 1. Feminine endings are three: ة as in ةَراَّيَس, short alif, as, in ىَمْلَس, and long alif as in ءاَمْسأ.

  • 2. A class of feminine nouns are neither natural feminine, not have a feminine ending; they feminine by convention.

  • 3. Duals of both the genders are made by adding ِنا to the singular.

  • 4. Plurals are either regular or irregular: the former is made by adding َنو to the masculine and ٌتا to the feminine; the letter follows some patterns.

  • 5. The predicate usually agrees in number and gender with its subject. However, in the case of non-rational plural subjects, the predicate may be a feminine singular or plural.

  • 6. To make interrogative, add ْلَه or hamzah )أ( in the beginning of the indicative.

P a g e | 6 Summary of the Grammar 1. Feminine endings are three: ة

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To Memorise

Table of I’rab

Singular

Masculine

ٍمِلْسُم

ًامِلْسُم

ٌمِلْسُم

Feminine

ٍةَمِلْسُم

ًةَمِلْسُم

ٌةَمِلْسُم

Dual

Masculine

ِنْيَمِلْسُم

ِنْيَمِلْسُم

ِناَمِلْسُم

Feminine

ِنْيَتَمِلْسُم

ِنْيَتَمِلْسُم

ِناَتَمِلْسُم

Plural

Masculine

َنيِمِلْسُم

َنيِمِلْسُم

َنوُمِلْسُم

Feminine

ٍتاَمِلْسُم

ٍتاَمِلْسُم

ٌتاَمِلْسُم

Table of Light I’rab

Sl No. ٌّ ر ج ٌّ ب ص ن َ ْ َ ٌّ عْف ر َ
Sl No.
ٌّ
ر ج
ٌّ
ب
ص ن
َ
ْ
َ
ٌّ عْف ر
َ
ِ
ِ
ِ
1
Feminine Proper Noun
َ
َ
ة ش ئا ع
َ ش ئا ع
َ
َ
َ
ة
َ ش ئاع
ة
َ
َ
َ
ِ
ِ
ِ
2
Non-Arabic Proper Noun
َ
مي ها ر ْ بإ
َ
مي ها ر ْ بإ
َ
مي
ها ر ب إ
ِ
َ
َ
َ
َ
َ ْ
3
Proper Noun Ending with ة
َ حلَْ
َ
ة
ط
َ حلَْ
ة
ط
َ حلَْ
ة
ط
َ
َ
َ
َ
4
Proper Noun in the Pattern of ٌّ م
ر
ع
َ م ع
ر
َ
ر م ع
َ
ر م ع
ُ َ
ُ
َ
َ
َ
َ
َ
5
Proper Noun Ending with نا
َ
نا
َ
م
ث ع
ْ
َ
نا
َ
م
ث ع
َ
َ
ْ
َ
نا
م
ث ع
َ
ْ

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